WorldWideScience

Sample records for research water resource

  1. Water Resources Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document  Search Welcome to the University of Hawai'i at Manoa Water Resources Research Center At WRRC we concentrate on addressing the unique water and wastewater management problems and issues elsewhere by researching water-related issues distinctive to these areas. We are Hawaii's link in a network

  2. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  3. Water Resources Research Institute | Mississippi State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome The Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute provides a statewide center of expertise in water and associated land-use and serves as a repository of knowledge for use in education private interests in the conservation, development, and use of water resources; to provide training

  4. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  5. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.

  6. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  7. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  8. New Editors Appointed for Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Praveen Kumar (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), the newly appointed editor in chief of Water Resources Research (WRR), heads the new team of editors for the journal. The other editors are Tom Torgersen (University of Connecticut, Groton), who continues his editorship; Tissa Illangasekare (Colorado School of Mines, Golden); Graham Sander (Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK); and John Selker (Oregon State University, Corvallis). Hoshin Gupta (University of Arizona, Tucson) will join WRR at the end of 2009. The new editors will begin receiving submissions immediately. The incoming editorial board thanks outgoing editors Marc Parlange, Brian Berkowitz, Amilcare Porporato, and Scott Tyler, all of whom will assist during the transition.

  9. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many factors affecting water resources decision making, it is ubiquitous in that it permeates the planning, policy-making .... estimated that in many farming systems, more than 70% of the rain ..... Using correlation techniques, the relationship ...

  10. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  11. A vision for Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Water Resources Research (WRR) plays a leading role in advancing hydrologic science. As AGU's hydrology journal, WRR has nurtured and published major breakthroughs in hydrologic process understanding and prediction capabilities, accomplished through innovative measurement campaigns, novel data analysis techniques, and elegant computational methods. Developing synergies between process-oriented and applications-oriented science is becoming more important as large changes in coupled human-natural systems impose new stresses on hydrologic systems and create new needs for hydrologic process understanding and prediction. In this presentation I will summarize some major opportunities for WRR, such as the growth of interdisciplinary science and the need for greater international cooperation through sharing of data and model source codes. I will discuss these opportunities in the context of major external trends, especially (1) changes in the perceived value of science to address societal problems, (2) the explosive global growth in science over the past decade, and (3) the transition to a more diffuse publishing landscape. This presentation is intended to foster discussion on ways that WRR can enhance the quality and impact of hydrologic science.

  12. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has played an important role in water resource management and a consensus on research objectives would increase the efficiency of these practices. In this paper we aimed to elicit the views of attendees of the 3rd Orange River Basin Symposium regarding water-related research, by using both quantitative and ...

  13. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... productivity of water when used for agricultural, municipal, and commercial purposes; and (8) The economic, legal, engineering, social, recreational, biological, geographic, ecological, and other aspects of water... interpreting the results of scientific and engineering research on water-resources problems. (10) Providing...

  14. Evaluation of the state water-resources research institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources research institutes, as authorized by the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-242), are located in each state and in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico , and the Virgin Islands. Public Law 98-242 mandated an onsite evaluation of each of these institutes to determine whether ' . . .the quality and relevance of its water resources research and its effectiveness as an institution for planning, conducting, and arranging for research warrant its continued support in the national interest. ' The results of these evaluations, which were conducted between September 1985 and June 1987, are summarized. The evaluation teams found that all 54 institutes are meeting the basic objectives of the authorizing legislation in that they: (1) use the grant funds to support research that addresses water problems of state and regional concern; (2) provide opportunities for training of water scientists through student involvement on research projects; and (3) promote the application of research results through preparation of technical reports and contributions to the technical literature. The differences among institutes relate primarily to degrees of effectiveness, and most often are determined by the financial, political, and geographical contexts in which the institutes function and by the quality of their leadership. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: ECO2 – sharing benefits from water resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available benefits from water resources Socio-economic development de- pends on the reliable supply of water for industrial, mining, agricultural, potable and recreational purposes. These activities also generate waste products that are often discharged...

  16. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  17. Toward the second 50 years of Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first issue in 1965, 49 volumes and 464 issues of Water Resources Research (WRR) have been published, including more than 13,800 contributions that received more than 380,000 citations. WRR has always maintained a forward-looking vision, providing an interdisciplinary platform to nurture the initiation and development of numerous sub-disciplines and research themes in hydrology, water resources, and earth sciences and over the last 50 years. This vision, supported in no small measure by a dedicated community of researchers who submitted their best research to WRR, have helped the journal maintain its international leadership in this field. As we enter the second 50 years of WRR, new trends in scientific publishing, open access publication and web-based discussion forums, pose challenges (and opportunities) for sustaining WRR's leadership role. In this presentation, we will present the vision of the present editorial board for the future of WRR, and discuss several steps we are undertaking to adapt the journal to modern trends in communicating scientific research. This includes the introduction of new article types, such as the forthcoming "Debates on Water Resources", targeted special sections, and efforts to improve the timeliness of the review process. We humbly stand on the shoulders of the thirty-four dedicated previous editors of WRR, and remain open to receiving suggestions from the AGU hydrologic community.

  18. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... clear strengths in water resource management in southern Africa were identified, we found that ... and cross-sector collaboration in integrated water resource .... the 2 views that topped the list were the 'implementation and.

  19. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information on the 34 new projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1987 and on 3 projects completed during the year. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water related problems and problem-solution approach (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, and (4) approach. The 34 projects include 12 in the area of groundwater quality problems, 12 in the science and technology of water quality management, 1 in climate variability and the hydrologic cycle, 4 in institutional change in water resources management, and 5 in surface water management. For the three completed projects, the report furnishes the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investor(s); starting data; data of receipt of final report; and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report contains tables showing: (1) proposals received according to area of research interest, (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest, (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization, and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  1. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  3. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  4. Research on evaluating water resource resilience based on projection pursuit classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Xu; Wu, Qiuchen

    2016-03-01

    Water is a fundamental natural resource while agriculture water guarantees the grain output, which shows that the utilization and management of water resource have a significant practical meaning. Regional agricultural water resource system features with unpredictable, self-organization, and non-linear which lays a certain difficulty on the evaluation of regional agriculture water resource resilience. The current research on water resource resilience remains to focus on qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis is still in the primary stage, thus, according to the above issues, projection pursuit classification model is brought forward. With the help of artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFSA), it optimizes the projection index function, seeks for the optimal projection direction, and improves AFSA with the application of self-adaptive artificial fish step and crowding factor. Taking Hongxinglong Administration of Heilongjiang as the research base and on the basis of improving AFSA, it established the evaluation of projection pursuit classification model to agriculture water resource system resilience besides the proceeding analysis of projection pursuit classification model on accelerating genetic algorithm. The research shows that the water resource resilience of Hongxinglong is the best than Raohe Farm, and the last 597 Farm. And the further analysis shows that the key driving factors influencing agricultural water resource resilience are precipitation and agriculture water consumption. The research result reveals the restoring situation of the local water resource system, providing foundation for agriculture water resource management.

  5. Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus - opportunities for water resources research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Wallington, Kevin; Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Marston, Landon

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the food, energy, and water (FEW) nexus lay a shared foundation for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders to understand and manage linked production, utilization, and security of FEW systems. The FEW nexus paradigm provides the water community specific channels to move forward in interdisciplinary research where integrated water resources management (IWRM) has fallen short. Here, we help water researchers identify, articulate, utilize, and extend our disciplinary strengths within the broader FEW communities, while informing scientists in the food and energy domains about our unique skillset. This paper explores the relevance of existing and ongoing scholarship within the water community, as well as current research needs, for understanding FEW processes and systems and implementing FEW solutions through innovations in technologies, infrastructures, and policies. Following the historical efforts in IWRM, hydrologists, water resources engineers, economists, and policy analysts are provided opportunities for interdisciplinary studies among themselves and in collaboration with energy and food communities, united by a common path to achieve sustainability development goals.

  6. Notification: Evaluation of Benefits and Use of Office of Research and Development's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0021, August 1, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the benefits and use of the Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research.

  7. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  8. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  9. Summary of the water resource governance research framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Communication Research Programme focuses on the complexity of communicating science findings to decision makers and other key stakeholders in support of the constitutional requirements of cooperative governance, equity and transparency...

  10. Water resources management in southern Europe: clues for a research and innovation based regional hypercluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G; Brito, A G; Nogueira, R; Ureña, M; Fernández, D; Luque, F J; Alcácer, C

    2013-04-15

    European countries are facing increasing pressures on their water resources despite stringent regulations and systematic efforts on environmental protection. In this context, research and innovation play a strategic role reinforcing the efficiency of water policies. The present study provides a multilevel assessment of research and innovation practices in the field of water resource management in southern European countries and regions (more specifically; Cyprus, Albania, Poitou-Charentes in France, Andalusia in Spain and the North of Portugal). The analysis was based on a strategic framework aimed at gaining an insight of the current constraints, as well as of the existing and future technological solutions for a better water resource management. The triple helix model proved to be a useful analytical framework for assessing the efforts of different groups towards a common goal. The analysis proved the existence of a significant evolution in the use of technological tools to assist decision-making processes in integrated river basin management in all regions. Nevertheless, the absence of formal channels for knowledge and data exchange between researchers and water resource managers complicates the formers involvement in the decision-making process regarding water allocation. Both researchers and consultants emphasize the low availability of data, together with the need to advance on water resource economics as relevant constraints in the field. The SWOT analysis showed similar concerns among the participating regions and provided a battery of effective projects that resulted in the preparation of a Joint Action Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ge; Segura, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  12. How well has biophysical research served the needs of water resource management? Lessons from the Sabie-Sand catchment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, E

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available frameworks proposed for integrated water resource management. The fundamental changes in the approach to water resource management warrant a critical evaluation of the information generated by past research and of the relevance of this activity and associated...

  13. Water Resource Sustainability Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Sustainability Issues on Tropical Islands December 1 - 3, 2015 | Hilton Hawaiian Village | Honolulu, Hawaii Presented By Water Resources Research Center (WRRC), Hawaii and American Samoa Water and Environmental Research Institute (WERI), Guam Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute

  14. Land and water resources for environmental research on Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Kitchings, J.T.; Elwood, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Resources for environmental research on the Oak Ridge Reservation are analogous to the highly complex, physical and engineering facilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consequently, land and water resources have been committed to comprehensive research for the purpose of providing relevant, scientific insights on environmental problems associated with ERDA's programs. Diverse aquatic, terrestrial, and agricultural ecosystems are designated for short- and long-term research related to environmental impacts or benefits of different energy technologies. Examples of ecosystems employed in this research include hardwood and pine forests, grasslands and pastures, free-flowing streams and impounded reservoirs, field plots, contaminated environmental natural areas, an array of animal habitats, and calibrated watersheds. Some of the characteristic biota of habitat ecosystems are described in the document. Documentation and planning for use of these lands, waters, and biotic resources also respond to the broad issue of appropriate usage of Federal lands.

  15. Land and water resources for environmental research on Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Kitchings, J.T.; Elwood, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Resources for environmental research on the Oak Ridge Reservation are analogous to the highly complex, physical and engineering facilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consequently, land and water resources have been committed to comprehensive research for the purpose of providing relevant, scientific insights on environmental problems associated with ERDA's programs. Diverse aquatic, terrestrial, and agricultural ecosystems are designated for short- and long-term research related to environmental impacts or benefits of different energy technologies. Examples of ecosystems employed in this research include hardwood and pine forests, grasslands and pastures, free-flowing streams and impounded reservoirs, field plots, contaminated environmental natural areas, an array of animal habitats, and calibrated watersheds. Some of the characteristic biota of habitat ecosystems are described in the document. Documentation and planning for use of these lands, waters, and biotic resources also respond to the broad issue of appropriate usage of Federal lands

  16. Visiting students work with professors to research water resources management issues

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students visiting from universities across the continent, as well as one from Virginia Tech, are working with professors at Virginia Tech on individual research projects in a 10-week summer program that addresses issues related to sustainable management of water resources.

  17. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  18. A trans-disciplinary review of deep learning research for water resources scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning (DL), a new-generation artificial neural network research, has made profound strides in recent years. This review paper is intended to provide water resources scientists with a simple technical overview, trans-disciplinary progress update, and potentially inspirations about DL. Effective architectures, more accessible data, advances in regularization, and new computing power enabled the success of DL. A trans-disciplinary review reveals that DL is rapidly transforming myriad sci...

  19. Radioisotope techniques in water resources research and management with special reference to India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear techniques using radioisotopes finding applications in research and management of water resources are described briefly with special reference to and representative illustrations of their applications in hydrologic studies in India. As environmental isotopes including the man-made ones i.e. those released in nuclear explosions are intimately tied with the moisture and water in circulation pattern in nature, measurement of their variation provides diagnostic information about the hydrologic parameters of three phases, namely, atmospheric, surface and subsurface, of the hydrologic cycle. Artificial radioisotopes are used for measurement of water flow, sediment transport and seepage. Sealed radioisotope sources are employed in snow gauging, suspended sediment gauging and hydrologic logging. Areas for further research are suggested and need for emphasis on their use in India is indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  1. Integrating Research and Extension for the Nsf-Reu Program in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Migliaccio, K.; Gao, B.; Shukla, S.; Ehsani, R.; McLamore, E.

    2011-12-01

    Providing positive and meaningful research experiences to students in their undergraduate years is critical for motivating them to pursue advanced degrees or research careers in science and engineering. Such experiences not only offer training for the students in problem solving and critical thinking via hands-on projects, but also offer excellent mentoring and recruiting opportunities for the faculty advisors. The goal of the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department (ABE) at the University of Florida (UF) is to provide eight undergraduate students a unique opportunity to conduct research in water resources using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating research and extension. The students are selected from diverse cultural and educational backgrounds. The eight-week REU Program utilizes the extensive infrastructure of UF - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) through the Research and Education Centers (RECs). Two students are paired to participate in their own project under the direct supervision of one of the four research mentors. Four of the eight students are located at the main campus, in Gainesville, Fl, and four remaining students are located off-campus, at the RECs, where some of the ABE faculty are located. The students achieve an enriching cohort experience through social networking, daily blogs, and weekly video conferences to share their research and other REU experiences. The students are co-located during the Orientation week and also during the 5-day Florida Waters Tour. Weekly group meetings and guest lectures are conducted via synchronously through video conferencing. The integration of research and extension is naturally achieved through the projects at the RECs, the guest lectures, Extension workshops, and visits to the Water Management Districts in Florida. In the last two years of the Program, we have received over 80 applicants, from four-year and advanced

  2. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  3. Research on monitoring system of water resources in irrigation region based on multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T H; Wang, D S

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation agriculture is the basis of agriculture and rural economic development in China. Realizing the water resource information of irrigated area will make full use of existing water resource and increase benefit of irrigation agriculture greatly. However, the water resource information system of many irrigated areas in our country is not still very sound at present, it lead to the wasting of a lot of water resources. This paper has analyzed the existing water resource monitoring system of irrigated areas, introduced the Multi-Agent theories, and set up a water resource monitoring system of irrigated area based on multi-Agent. This system is composed of monitoring multi-Agent federal, telemetry multi-Agent federal, and the Communication Network GSM between them. It can make full use of good intelligence and communication coordination in the multi-Agent federation interior, improve the dynamic monitoring and controlling timeliness of water resource of irrigated area greatly, provide information service for the sustainable development of irrigated area, and lay a foundation for realizing high information of water resource of irrigated area.

  4. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  5. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  6. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  7. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  8. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available were made by combining the results of hydrological experiments, conducted to assess the effects of afforestation with alien trees on water resources, with an ecological understanding of the spread and establishment of invasive trees. The forecasts were...

  9. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  10. Toward best practice framing of uncertainty in scientific publications: A review of Water Resources Research abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Helgeson, Casey; Elsawah, Sondoss; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Kummu, Matti

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, among other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g., uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim—what we call here "framing" the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. (1) It proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. (2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. (3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. (4) We make provocative recommendations to achieve a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ˜5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (˜25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (˜40%)—or uncertainty is completely ignored (˜8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers.

  11. Fourth Tennessee water resources symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, M.J.; Presley, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The annual Tennessee Water Resources Symposium was initiated in 1988 as a means to bring together people with common interests in the state's important water-related resources at a technical, professional level. Initially the symposium was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology and called the Hydrology Symposium, but the Tennessee Section of the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) has taken on the primary coordination role for the symposium over the last two years and the symposium name was changed in 1990 to water resources to emphasize a more inter-disciplinary theme. This year's symposium carries on the successful tradition of the last three years. Our goal is to promote communication and cooperation among Tennessee's water resources professionals: scientists, engineers, and researchers from federal, state, academic, and private institutions and organizations who have interests and responsibilities for the state's water resources. For these conference proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  12. Groundwater assessment in water resources management at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: sabrinamoura@usp.br, E-mail: joyce.marques@usp.br, E-mail: luciremo@uol.com.br, E-mail: thamistellato@gmail.com, E-mail: tatianebscs@live.com, E-mail: mainarag@usp.br, E-mail: douglas.sbatista@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To comply with the guidelines for environmental control and legal requirements, the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/ CNEN - Brazil/ SP) performs the Environmental Monitoring Program for Chemical Stable Compounds (PMA-Q) since 2007, in attendance to the Term for the Adjustment of Conduct (TAC) signed between IPEN and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). The PMA-Q program includes the assessment of the IPEN's wastewater released in water body, and the groundwater assessment, which is carried out in nine monitoring wells. In groundwater is analyzed, by ion chromatography, species regulated by CONAMA 396/08 [01] fluoride, chloride, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, sulfate, sodium, potassium, ammonium, magnesium and calcium, besides other parameters. Furthermore, based on legal requirements, each year the program is reviewed and improvement actions are planned and implemented. Therefore, the integrated monitoring of groundwater should provide information on the quality and dynamics of the aquifer compared to seasonal variations and anthropogenic effects. Thus, this study intends to evaluate the chemical features of the institute groundwater, evaluating the database of the monitoring program from 2011 to 2014, for the ions chloride, nitrate-N, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and bicarbonate, using these information diagrams will be developed for the characterization of the wells. This assessment will be essential to support the control actions of environmental pollution and the management of water resources. Making possible the establishment of groundwater Quality Reference Figures (QRF), according to the CONAMA 396/08 [01] rating, in order to demonstrate that the activities developed at IPEN are not affecting on the aquifer features. (author)

  13. Investigations and research in Nevada by the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzer, Terry; Moosburner, Otto; Nichols, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, is charged with (1) maintaining a hydrologic network in Nevada that provides information on the status of the State 's water resources and (2) engaging in technical water-resources investigations that have a high degree of transferability. To meet these broad objectives, 26 projects were active during fiscal year 1982, in cooperation with 36 Federal, State, and local agencies. Total funds were $3,319,455, of which State and local cooperative funding amounted to $741,500 and Federal funding (comprised of Geological Survey Federal and cooperative program plus funds from six other Federal agencies) amounted to $2,577,955 for the fiscal year. Projects other than continuing programs for collection of hydrologic data included the following topics of study: geothermal resources, areal ground-water resources and ground-water modeling, waste disposal , paleohydrology, acid mine drainage, the unsaturated zone, stream and reservoir sedimentation, river-quality modeling, flood hazards, and remote sensing in hydrology. In total, 26 reports and symposium abstracts were published or in press during fiscal year 1982. (USGS)

  14. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Resource-directed management of water quality series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available of the NWA (36:1998), the most important management functions are protection, management and equitable allocation. The fundamental principle guiding the NWA (36:1998) of South Africa is that water is a national resource, owned by the people of South Africa...

  16. Applications of continuous water quality monitoring techniques for more efficient water quality research and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Broers, H.P.; Geer, F. van

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and taking account of dynamics in water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. In conventional regional surface water and upper groundwater quality monitoring, measurement frequencies are too low to capture the short-term dynamic behavior of solute

  17. Rangeland and water resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Session B3 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland and water resources. ... The theme of optimsing integrated catchment management will be treated ... land system, catchment, basin), with a focus on law, policy and implementation.

  18. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  19. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  20. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  1. Advances in water resources research in the Upper Blue Nile basin and the way forward: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Tekleab, Sirak; Ayana, Essayas K.; Gebrehiwot, Solomon G.; Worqlul, Abeyou W.; Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Yimam, Yohannes T.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Daggupati, Prasad; Karlberg, Louise; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2018-05-01

    The Upper Blue Nile basin is considered as the lifeline for ∼250 million people and contributes ∼50 Gm3/year of water to the Nile River. Poor land management practices in the Ethiopian highlands have caused a significant amount of soil erosion, thereby threatening the productivity of the Ethiopian agricultural system, degrading the health of the aquatic ecosystem, and shortening the life of downstream reservoirs. The Upper Blue Nile basin, because of limited research and availability of data, has been considered as the "great unknown." In the recent past, however, more research has been published. Nonetheless, there is no state-of-the-art review that presents research achievements, gaps and future directions. Hence, this paper aims to bridge this gap by reviewing the advances in water resources research in the basin while highlighting research needs and future directions. We report that there have been several research projects that try to understand the biogeochemical processes by collecting information on runoff, groundwater recharge, sediment transport, and tracers. Different types of hydrological models have been applied. Most of the earlier research used simple conceptual and statistical approaches for trend analysis and water balance estimations, mainly using rainfall and evapotranspiration data. More recent research has been using advanced semi-physically/physically based distributed hydrological models using high-resolution temporal and spatial data for diverse applications. We identified several research gaps and provided recommendations to address them. While we have witnessed advances in water resources research in the basin, we also foresee opportunities for further advancement. Incorporating the research findings into policy and practice will significantly benefit the development and transformation agenda of the Ethiopian government.

  2. Other Resources for Researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The AfricaPortal is an online resource of policy research on African issues. ... Over 3000 Open Access books, journals and digital documents relating to African ... guides. http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html Harvard Style.

  3. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  4. Water resources management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Maia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resources manageWith the mission of providing reliable data for water supply activities in medium and large firefighting operations, the Firefighting Water Supply Tactical Group (GTSAI represents an important sector of the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Departmentment plan strategic support. Acting proactively, the Tactical Group prepared a Water Resources Management Plan, aiming to set up water resources for each jurisdiction of firefighters in the City of Rio de Janeiro, in order to assist the Fire Department in its missions. This goal was reached, and in association with LAGEOP (Geoprocessing Laboratory, UFRJ, the Tactical Group started using GIS techniques. The plan provides for the register of existing operational structures within each group (troops, vehicles and special equipment, along with knowledge about the nature and operating conditions of fire hydrants, as well as a detailed survey of areas considered to be "critical". The survey helps to support actions related to environmental disasters involved in the aforementioned critical areas (hospital, churches, schools, and chemical industries, among others. The Caju neighborhood, in Rio de Janeiro, was defined as initial application area, and was the first jurisdiction to have the system implemented, followed by Copacabana, Leblon, Lagoa, and Catete districts.

  5. Review - Water resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, David K [Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  6. Review - Water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, David K.

    1970-01-01

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  7. Fiscal Year 1987 program report: Rhode Island Water Resource Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, P.C.

    1988-07-01

    The 1987 program objective was to conduct studies and research of value to the New England region as well as to assist in the solution of problems in the State of Rhode Island. Current and anticipated state and regional-water problems are contamination of surface and groundwater by natural radioactivity such as radon, by chemicals from industrial and agricultural activities, septic tank and leach field, improperly managed landfills and the lack of public awareness and public participation in water-quality protection and management. It was found in the 1987 program that an epithermal neutron-activation analysis was best suitable for measuring uranium and thorium of which radon is the decayed product. Lower U and Th were found in calc-alkalic and mafic volcanic rocks while higher concentrations were found in the alkalic and peraluminous rocks. A computer model using finite-element method to simulate fluid flows through fractured porous media was developed for predicting the extent of ground-water contamination in the State

  8. Climate change and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younos, Tamim; Grady, Caitlin A.

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

  9. Climate change and water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younos, Tamim [The Cabell Brand Center for Global Poverty and Resource Sustainability Studies, Salem, VA (United States); Grady, Caitlin A. (ed.) [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Ecological Sciences and Engineering Program

    2013-07-01

    This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

  10. Water resources for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water scarcity is a matter of urgent, national, regional and international concern. For those people, usually women, who are responsible for the daily task of obtaining sufficient water for household use, water shortages are a perpetual worry. It is a situation which affects many individual families and communities throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The isotope studies conducted thus far have proved that the majority of regional groundwater systems in northern Africa and the Sahel zone are paleowaters, replenished thousands of years ago, without the possibility of significant replenishment under present climatic conditions. Therefore, removal from such underground reservoirs will eventually deplete the resource. Mapping these paleowaters, and estimating their reservoir sizes, is a priority. (IAEA)

  11. Interdisciplinary research and education in the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems: a framework for evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloeschl, G.; Carr, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Greater understanding of how interdisciplinary research and education evolves is critical for identifying and implementing appropriate programme management strategies. We propose a program evaluation framework that is based on social learning processes (individual learning, interdisciplinary research practices, and interaction between researchers with different backgrounds); social capital outcomes (ability to interact, interpersonal connectivity, and shared understanding); and knowledge and human capital outcomes (new knowledge that integrates multiple research fields). The framework is tested on established case study doctoral program: the Vienna Doctoral Program on Water Resource Systems. Data are collected via mixed qualitative/quantitative methods that include semi-structured interviews, publication co-author analysis, analysis of research proposals, categorisation of the interdisciplinarity of publications and graduate analysis. Through the evaluation and analysis, several interesting findings about how interdisciplinary research evolves and can be supported are identified. Firstly, different aspects of individual learning seem to contribute to a researcher's ability to interact with researchers from other research fields and work collaboratively. These include learning new material from different research fields, learning how to learn new material and learning how to integrate different material. Secondly, shared interdisciplinary research practices can be identified that may be common to other programs and support interaction and shared understanding between different researchers. They include clarification and questioning, harnessing differences and setting defensible research boundaries. Thirdly, intensive interaction between researchers from different backgrounds support connectivity between the researchers, further enabling cross-disciplinary collaborative work. The case study data suggest that social learning processes and social capital outcomes

  12. The status quo of research on South Africa’s water resource management institutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ) to achieve the National Water Act’s dual goal of ‘water use for development’ and ‘protection of the resource’. This predicament stems from the presence of various management styles, with managers and government officials operating in a democratic yet...., 2003; Gueze, 2007; Du Toit and Pollard, 2008; 2010) and popular articles on leadership (Dent’s CMA Leadership Newsletters, 2004a-u; 2006a-d; 2007a-b; 2008a-c; 2009a-e; 2010; 2011). In the section below, we summarise the methodology...

  13. Where's the water : with an ambitious program underway to map Alberta's water resources, researchers hope to ensure there's enough to meet increasing industrial, agricultural, and municipal demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at Natural Resources Canada's Earth Sciences Sector are currently studying the impact of climate change on water resources and groundwater in relation to energy development in Alberta, as well as to assess whether there is sufficient supply to aid in the production of oil sands. The project includes mapping of major regional aquifers to improve an understanding of groundwater resources. The aim of the project is to characterize formations, and understand natural controls of quality, availability and sustainability for long-term use. The project aims to characterize the physical makeup of rocks that form the aquifer, as well as to develop hydrological models of how water moves through systems. The University of Calgary is leading a project to analyze the chemical, isotopic state and composition of shallow groundwater in order to establish a baseline of its chemical makeup. The aim of the project is to provide an overview of groundwater as compared to produced water that occurs as a result of coalbed methane (CBM) drilling activities. Methane produced from CBM has a different isotopic signature than naturally occurring methane in groundwater. Researchers at the university are analyzing water from more than 75 production wells, as well as an additional 300 monitoring wells. It is hoped that all of the groundwater projects will help to improve Alberta's water preservation record. The intense energy production in the province means that no other location contributes as significantly as Alberta to global warming. It was concluded that improvements in energy technologies and environmental protection in the province will benefit people around the world. 4 figs

  14. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available series of high level research programmes for ecosystem governance. These are illustrated in the fi gure below. The size of the individual circles indicates the priority attributed to the specifi c research theme by the symposium participants... Governance Socio-econ Define Economy of scale Context application Generic strategies/methods Link to democracy 3 Science Communication, learning & knowledge sharing 4 Integration of formal & traditional systems Hydrological boundaries Value...

  15. Cornell University remote sensing program. [selected research projects in land and water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.; Belcher, D. J.; Mcnair, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The major activities of the program staff from December 1, 1973 to May 31, 1974 are reported and include: (1) communication and instruction; (2) data and facilities; (3) research completed; (4) research in progress; (5) selected correspondence; (6) grant sponsored travel; and (7) seminars and newsletters. Detailed information and maps are given for the following selected projects: (1) ERTS mapping of waterways in the Tug Hill region of New York State; (2) photo-archeological investigation of Great Gully, New York; and (3) evaluation of selected highway impacts using aerial photography.

  16. Water resources in the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William J.

    1966-01-01

    Aerial photography is playing an important role in the evaluation of the water resources of the almost-inaccessible 1,400 square miles of Everglades in southern Florida. Color, infrared, and panchromatic photographs show salient features that permit evaluation of the overall water resources picture. The fresh water-salt water interface, drainage patterns, ecologic changes resulting from flood and drought, quantities of flow, and other hydrologic features are easily observed or measured from the photographs. Such data permit areal extension of very limited point observations of water resources data, and will assist in providing the necessary guidelines for decisions in water management in the Everglades.

  17. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  18. Water resources research program. Pollution of coastal waters off Chicago by sinking plumes from the Indiana Harbor Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; McCown, D.L.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Saunders, K.D.

    1977-12-01

    On March 2, 1977, during sinking-plume conditions, a portion of the water of the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) was injected with samarium and rhodamine-dye tags and a section of the IHC's surface was covered with simulated oily waste tagged with dysprosium. Water samples were taken downcurrent, over a 54-hr period, from a vessel and from the raw-water streams from the intakes at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant (SWFP). Bottom currents and water temperatures were measured almost continuously at four Lake Michigan stations located between the IHC and the SWFP. Unequivocal evidence is presented for transport of the tagged IHC water and oily waste to the SWFP's intakes. Organic contaminants from the IHC were present in trace concentrations in the SWFP's raw water. A model for the transport and mixing of the entire IHC effluent, for the environmental conditions during the experiment, indicates a minimum dilution of 4 in the plume offshore of the SWFP and, for the assumed plume trajectory, values of 5 x 10 2 and 10 5 at the shore and crib intakes, respectively. A similar model applied to the experimental situation of tagged effluent showed reasonable agreement with measurements. Analysis of historical data indicates that the worst-case pollution event that might be experienced at the SWFP, assuming constant pollutant loading in the IHC, would be due to 24 hr of northwest wind followed by a 3.0-in. (7.6 cm), 24-hr rainfall that coincides with 3.0 x 10 6 m of total wind movement from the southerly quadrants

  19. Multi-scale research of time and space differences about ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahong; Lei, Xiaohui; Fu, Qiang; Li, Tianxiao; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Lei; Liao, Weihong

    2018-03-01

    A multi-scale assessment framework for assessing and comparing the water resource sustainability based on the ecological footprint (EF) is introduced. The study aims to manage the water resource from different views in Heilongjiang Province. First of all, from the scale of each city, the water ecological carrying capacity (ECC) was calculated from 2000 to 2011, and map the spatial distribution of the recent 3 years which show that, the water ecological carrying capacity (ECC) is uneven and has a downward trend year by year. Then, from the perspective of the five secondary partition basins in Heilongjiang Province, the paper calculated the ecological carrying capacity (ECC), the ecological footprint (EF) and ecological surplus and deficit (S&D) situation of water resources from 2000 to 2011, which show that the ecological deficit situation is more prominent in Nenjiang and Suifenhe basins which are in an unsustainable development state. Finally, from the perspective of the province, the paper calculated the ecological carrying capacity (ECC), the ecological footprint (EF) and ecological S&D of water resources from 2000 to 2011 in Heilongjiang Province, which show that the ecological footprint (EF) is in the rising trend, and the correlation coefficient between the ecological carrying capacity (ECC) and the precipitation is 0.8. There are 5 years of unsustainable development state in Heilongjiang. The proposed multi-scale assessment of WEF aims to evaluate the complex relationship between water resource supply and consumption in different spatial scales and time series. It also provides more reasonable assessment result which can be used by managers and regulators.

  20. Research on the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, D., VI; Xu, J.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancang-Mekong River is an important international river, cascaded hydropower stations development in which attracts the attention of downstream countries. In this paper, we proposed a coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation to relieve the conflict of upstream and downstream countries. Firstly, analyze the benefits and risks caused by the cascaded hydropower stations development and the evolution process of water resources use conflict between upstream and downstream countries. Secondly, evaluate the benefits and risks of flood control, water supply, navigation and power generation based on the energy theory of cascaded hydropower stations development in Lancang-Mekong River. Thirdly, multi-agent cooperation motivation and cooperation conditions between upstream and downstream countries in Lancang-Mekong River is given. Finally, the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River is presented. This coordination framework for water resources utilization can increase comprehensive benefits in Lancang-Mekong River.

  1. Research on the water resources regulation ability model of dams in the Huai He River Basin considering ecological and management factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Y.; Liu, H. C.; Li, L. H.; Yu, G. G.; Liu, J.

    2016-08-01

    Research that assesses the scheduling ability of dams gamers a great deal of attention due to the global water resource crisis. These studies can provide useful and practical suggestions for scheduling the water resources of dams to solve problems, such as addressing ecological water needs and so on. Recent studies have primarily evaluated the schedule ability of dams according to their quantifiable attributes, such as water quantity, flow velocity, etc. However, the ecological and management status can directly determine the possibility and efficiency of a dam's water resource scheduling. This paper presents an evaluation model to assess the scheduling capacity of dams that takes into consideration ecological and management factors. In the experiment stage, this paper takes the Sha Ying river of the Huai He River Basin as an example to evaluate the scheduling ability of its dams. The results indicate that the proposed evaluation model can provide more precise and practical suggestions.

  2. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  3. - Oklahoma Water Resources Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Ag Business Community & Rural Development Crops Family & Consumer Sciences Gardening Family & Consumer Sciences Food & Ag Products Center Horticulture & Landscape Architecture & Landscape Architecture Natural Resource Ecology & Management Plant & Soil Sciences

  4. Balancing Water Resources Development and Environmental Sustainability in Africa : A Review of Recent Research Findings and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent’s water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the

  5. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  6. Balancing water resources development and environmental sustainability in Africa: a review of recent research findings and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent's water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased water use and a rush of international funding to finance development activities. Balancing development with environmental sustainability requires (i) understanding the boundary conditions imposed by the continent's climate and hydrology today and into the future, (ii) estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of water use needed to meet development goals, and (iii) understanding the environmental water requirements of affected ecosystems, their current status and potential consequences of increased water use. This article reviews recent advancements in each of these topics and highlights innovative approaches and tools available to support sustainable development. While much remains to be learned, scientific understanding and technology should not be viewed as impediments to sustainable development on the continent.

  7. Water : a commodity or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, G.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, natural gas demand has increased significantly, as it is seen as an environmentally friendly, convenient and cost effective fuel. As a result, Alberta should experience the development of a sustainable resource in the form of natural gas from coal, provided adequate management of associated water is in place. The environmental impact and volume of water produced with natural gas from coal can be significant. Water is scarce and demand is growing. Gas producers are faced with the challenge of high water production and disposal costs, and often choose the deep disposal option as the most economical solution. However, environmentalists and agriculture groups who view water as a valuable resource, warrant the costs associated with the treatment of produced water. The author proposed a conceptual solution to this dilemma concerning produced water. It was suggested that producers of water should be connected with consumers, while allowing free market supply and demand dynamics to price out the inefficient use of the resource. The author also discussed the related regulatory, environmental, technological, economic, and commercial issues. It was concluded that water is both a resource and a commodity. Alberta should implement measures to promote water conservation, pollute less, and manage supply and demand. figs

  8. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Modelling complex biophysical processes associated with diseases. Case study: the ecology of vibriocholerae in the Mozambican channel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available will be undertaken. Non-linear dynamics and chaos theory will be applied to enhance our understanding of the link between the microbial ecology, remote sensing and meteorological data. Focus on CSIR Research in Water Resources Contact details: CSIR Natural...

  9. Finding Structure in Diversity: A Stepwise Small-N/Medium-N Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach for Water Resources Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing particularly on recent debates on, and development of, comparative methods in the field of comparative politics, the paper argues that stepwise small-N/medium-N qualitative comparative analysis (QCA is a particularly suitable methodological approach for water resources studies because it can make use of the rich but fragmented water resources studies literature for accumulation of knowledge and development of theory. It is suggested that taking an explicit critical realist ontological and epistemological stance allows expansion of the scope of stepwise small-N/medium-N QCA beyond what is claimed for it in Ragin’s 'configurational comparative methods (CCM' perspective for analysing the complexity of causality as 'multiple conjunctural causation'. In addition to explanation of certain sets of 'outcomes' as in CCM’s combinatorial, set-theoretic approach, embedding stepwise small-N/medium-N QCA in a critical realist ontology allows the method to contribute to development of theory on (qualitative differences between the structures in society that shape water resources use, management and governance.

  10. California Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    of disposing of waterborne wastes, includ- trol, navigation, salinity control, water supply, tidelands ing reclamation and reuse where appropriate...studies for Wilson and Wildwood Creeks streams in the South Coastal Basins have been com- Keys Canyon pleted: Moose Canyon Agua Hedionda Creek Otay...resulted from the De- cember 1966 flood. channel and conduit sections pass the reduced flows through Palm Springs and part of the Agua Caliente As a

  11. Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process.

  12. Cybernetics in water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, N.

    2005-01-01

    The term Water Resources is used to refer to the management and use of water primarily for the benefit of people. Hence, successful management of water resources requires a solid understanding of Hydrology. Cybernetics in Water Resources Management is an endeavor to analyze and enhance the beneficial exploitation of diverse scientific approaches and communication methods; to control the complexity of water management; and to highlight the importance of making right decisions at the right time, avoiding the devastating effects of drought and floods. Recent developments in computer technology and advancement of mathematics have created a new field of system analysis i.e. Mathematical Modeling. Based on mathematical models, several computer based Water Resources System (WRS) Models were developed across the world, to solve the water resources management problems, but these were not adaptable and were limited to computation by a well defined algorithm, with information input at various stages and the management tasks were also formalized in that well structured algorithm. The recent advancements in information technology has revolutionized every field of the contemporary world and thus, the WRS has also to be diversified by broadening the knowledge base of the system. The updation of this knowledge should be a continuous process acquired through the latest techniques of networking from all its concerned sources together with the expertise of the specialists and the analysis of the practical experiences. The system should then be made capable of making inferences and shall have the tendency to apply the rules based on the latest information and inferences in a given stage of problem solving. Rigid programs cannot adapt to changing conditions and new knowledge. Thus, there is a need for an evolutionary development based on mutual independence of computational procedure and knowledge with capability to adapt itself to the increasing complexity of problem. The subject

  13. The Connotation and Extension of Agricultural Water Resources Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bu-chun; MEI Xu-rong; LI Yu-zhong; YANG You-lu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to define agricultural water resources security and its connotation and extension. The definitions of water security, water resources security, and water environment security were summarized, and their relationship was differentiated and analyzed. Based on these, the elements of the conception of agricultural water resources security were hashed and the conception was defined. Agricultural water resources security is the provision of water resource that ensures protection of agriculture against threat, hazards, destruction, and loss. Moreover, the connotation and extension of agricultural water resources security were ascertained. In detail, the connotation of the definition has natural attributes, socioeconomic attributes, and cultural attributes. The extensions of agricultural water resources security include both broad and narrow ones, as well as, food security, agroenvironmental security, agroeconomic security, rural society security, etc. The definition will serve as the frame of reference for developing the researches, limiting the frame of the theory, and founding a appraising system for agricultural water resources security.

  14. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  15. Quantitative Analysis on the Influence Factors of the Sustainable Water Resource Management Performance in Irrigation Areas: An Empirical Research from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation and influence factors analysis are vital to the sustainable water resources management (SWRM in irrigation areas. Based on the objectives and the implementation framework of modern integrated water resources management (IWRM, this research systematically developed an index system of the performances and their influence factors ones of the SWRM in irrigation areas. Using the method of multivariate regression combined with correlation analysis, this study estimated quantitatively the effect of multiple factors on the water resources management performances of irrigation areas in the Ganzhou District of Zhangye, Gansu, China. The results are presented below. The overall performance is mainly affected by management enabling environment and management institution with the regression coefficients of 0.0117 and 0.0235, respectively. The performance of ecological sustainability is mainly influenced by local economic development level and enable environment with the regression coefficients of 0.08642 and −0.0118, respectively. The performance of water use equity is mainly influenced by information publicity, administrators’ education level and ordinary water users’ participation level with the correlation coefficients of 0.637, 0.553 and 0.433, respectively. The performance of water use economic efficiency is mainly influenced by the management institutions and instruments with the regression coefficients of −0.07844 and 0.01808, respectively. In order to improve the overall performance of SWRM in irrigation areas, it is necessary to strengthen the public participation, improve the manager’ ability and provide sufficient financial support on management organization.

  16. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, the vulnerability of the water cycle to radionuclide contamination has been an issue of great concern. The impact of the event throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water supplies, soilwater and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, on the methods of monitoring, and on concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight the possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book is a unique source of information about present radiological standards and monitoring requirements. It also includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. There are 19 papers all indexed separately. These are divided into sections -introduction, present radiological standards relating to drinking water, radiological monitoring requirements, the consequences of a nuclear event on water resources and water resource management strategy. The discussion at the end of each section is recorded. (author)

  17. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate potential risk to drinking water supplies, soil water and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, methods of monitoring, and concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. (author)

  18. Provincial resource development research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  19. California Institute for Water Resources - California Institute for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Skip to Content Menu California Institute for Water Resources Share Print Site Map Resources Publications Keep in Touch QUICK LINKS Our Blog: The Confluence Drought & Water Information University of California California Institute for Water Resources California Institute for Water Resources

  20. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  1. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: antimicrobial properties of copper and its effects on micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available understanding of the mechanisms involved in copper toxicity in bacteria to better understand the potential applications of copper in treating drinking water. Further research is needed to determine why the growth continues after initial inactivation and whether...

  2. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  3. Discussion on water resources value accounting and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biying; Huang, Xiaorong; Ma, Kai; Gao, Linyun; Wang, Yanqiu

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of the compilation of natural resources balance sheet has been proposed since 2013. Several elements of water resources balance sheet have been discussed positively in China, including basic concept, framework and accounting methods, which focused on calculating the amount of water resources with statistical methods but lacked the analysis of the interrelationship between physical volume and magnitude of value. Based on the study of physical accounting of water resources balance sheet, the connotation of water resources value is analyzed in combination with research on the value of water resources in the world. What's more, the theoretical framework, form of measurement and research methods of water resources value accounting are further explored. Taking Chengdu, China as an example, the index system of water resources balance sheet in Chengdu which includes both physical and valuable volume is established to account the depletion of water resources, environmental damage and ecological water occupation caused by economic and social water use. Moreover, the water resources balance sheet in this region which reflects the negative impact of the economy on the environment is established. It provides a reference for advancing water resources management, improving government and social investment, realizing scientific and rational allocation of water resources.

  4. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  5. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  6. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  7. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  8. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  9. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  10. Water resources and water pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are widely used in the investigation of the dynamics of the water cycle. This paper focusses on their contributions to the development of strategies for the sustainability of environmental resources. Emphasis has been placed on the role of environmental isotopes and radiotracers in evaluating models of complex environmental systems. Specific reference is made to 1) the construction of a marine radioactivity database for Asia and the Pacific, 2) the sustainability of groundwater in regions challenged by climate change, and 3) the applications of radiotracers to off-shore transport of sediments and contaminants

  11. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  12. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  13. Sustainable Development of Africa's Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Narenda P. Sharma

    1996-01-01

    This study, African water resources: challenges and opportunities for sustainable management propose a long-term strategy for water resource management, emphasizing the socially sustainable development imperatives for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The message of this strategy is one of optimism - the groundwork already exists for the sustainable management of Africa's water resources. The stra...

  14. Activities as a research resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities play a guiding central role in occupational therapy, articulating to its utilization, the understanding and assessment of its capabilities in numerous and different interventions arising from this field. In this study, we aim to present the use of activities as a research methodology resource. Considering the pathways studied in a master’s research followed by a PhD work, some applications of this resource are reported as a powerful strategy of investigation for the occupational therapy researcher. It is about structuring, systematizing, and analyzing the activities proposed in professional practice by the theoretical and methodological rigor used in the research works. It emphasizes how the use of these activities can be considered important data, records, instruments and sources for different research methods, especially for qualitative analyses. Workshop activities were offered in the above mentioned studies; they were used as communication instruments and expressions of personal and collective experiences, supplying data to understand the actions of subjects and collectives. Furthermore, this strategy was applied as spaces of experimentation, learning and expression, where each participant was conceived as an active being of the process, in a way that the proposal could result in democratic experiences that reflected greater interest and participation, and a more complex presentation of the research data. It is worth mentioning that other methodological procedures, which substantiated the analyses and interpretation of the data collected, were also used. It was possible to conclude that activities, mainly as a qualitative research resource, constituted materialities in different languages and expressions that enriched the analyses arising from micro-realities, producing a repertoire of information that supported the interpretations required for the investigative processes.

  15. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    and management of the resource which poses challenges due its nature as a ‘sedentary species’ colonizing the Barents Sea continental shelf shared by Norway and Russia and approaching the fishery protection zone around Svalbard. Conversely, little research has looked into the implications of the invasion partly...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty...

  16. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, conducts three major types of activities in Kentucky in order to provide hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best management of Kentucky 's and the Nation 's water resources. These activities are: (1) Data collection and dissemination; (2) Water-resources appraisals (interpretive studies); and (3) Research. Activities described in some detail following: (1) collection of surface - and groundwater data; (2) operation of stations to collect data on water quality, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation; (3) flood investigations; (4) water use; (5) small area flood hydrology; (6) feasibility of disposal of radioactive disposal in deep crystalline rocks; (7) development of a groundwater model for the Louisville area; (8) travel times for streams in the Kentucky River Basin; (9) the impact of sinkholes and streams on groundwater flow in a carbonate aquifer system; (10) sedimentation and erosion rates at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Burial site; and (11) evaluation of techniques for evaluating the cumulative impacts of mining as applied to coal fields in Kentucky. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Climate disturbance and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tien-Duc

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide multiplication of extreme climatic events (heat waves, dryness, floods, storms..) and their impact on the precious water resources raises the question of climate change: is it a reality, are the consequences already visible, should we urgently take care of it, and if so who actually takes care of it and how? This books makes a comprehensive overview of our knowledge about these questions, in a relevant and pedagogical way. Solutions to contain the climate boom risk exist and are based on the shared solidarity and responsibility. They require a strong involvement of the entire international community and their implementation has to run counter to the traditional opposition between developed and developing countries. However, the present day economic crisis is often used as a pretext for not doing anything. (J.S.)

  18. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  19. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Inter-SEDE: a new tool for interrogating transboundary basins

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available the potential for benefit-sharing (as opposed to the volumetric allocation of trans-boundary waters). Three case studies were included: the Jordan River; the Kagera River, extending to the Nile as a whole; and the Mekong River...

  20. Economic Requirements of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Khiabani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of water resources status and water consumption in Iran reveal an imbalance between supply and demand. This is compounded by the current unrealistic water price that signals the inefficiency of the water market in Iran. In economics parlance, the most important factors responsible for the low efficiency of water market are inaccurate valuation and failure to define the ownership rights of water. Low prices, low sensitivity of water demand to prices, and the lack of proper inputs as substitutes for water resources have collectively contributed to excessive pressures on the available water resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. A brief glance reveals that water resources in Iran are merely priced based on cost accounting. This is while study has shown that developed countries adopt approaches to water pricing that not only consider the final cost of water but also take into account such other parameters that are affected by intrinsic value of water including its bequest and existence values. The present paper draws upon the concepts of value, expenses, and pricing of water in an attempt to explore the marketing and pricing of water resources as the two major tools economists employ in the management of these resources. It is the objective of the study to arrive at an accurate definition of ownership rights of water resources to improve upon the present water marketing. In doing so, the more important components of modern pricing strategies adopted by developed nations will also be investigated. Results indicate that the present cost accounting method used in pricing water in Iran will in the long-run lead to the wastage of water resources and that it should, therefore, be given up in favor modern and more realistic policies to avoid such waste of resources.

  1. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  2. NWS Water Resource Services Branch Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    the NWS homepage NWS Water Resources Program OS Home News Organization Search Search Home About Us Water Resources Policy Flood Loss Data AHPS Program Office (OHD) AHPS Software Development Hydrology Lab AHPS Toolbox Flood Safety Service Hydrology Program Turn Around Don't Drown! High Water Mark Signs

  3. Armenia : Towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the challenges in the water sector faced by Armenia today, and outline options for management and allocation of its water resources in the future, considering the need for a stable, transparent apublic sector management framework and sustainable resource use for long-term private investment and job creation, and for appropriate balances among water...

  4. Isotope Hydrology: Understanding and Managing Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Development is intricately linked to water whether concerning issues of health, food and agriculture, sanitation, the environment, industry, or energy. The IAEA, through its Water Resources Programme provides its Member States with science-based information and technical skills to improve understanding and management of their water resources

  5. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the nation. ... Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19) ...

  6. Applying the WEAP Model to Water Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    efficiency, treatment and reuse of water. The WEAP model was applied to the Ordos catchment where it was used for the first time in China. The changes in water resource utilization in Ordos basin were assessed with the model. It was found that the WEAP model is a useful tool for water resource assessment......Water resources assessment is a tool to provide decision makers with an appropriate basis to make informed judgments regarding the objectives and targets to be addressed during the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process. The study shows how water resources assessment can be applied in SEA...... in assessing the effects on water resources using a case study on a Coal Industry Development Plan in an arid region in North Western China. In the case the WEAP model (Water Evaluation And Planning System) were used to simulate various scenarios using a diversity of technological instruments like irrigation...

  7. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  8. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  9. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  10. Concept and Connotation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Water Ecological Civilization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhilong; Song, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Water ecological civilization construction is based on the water resources carrying capacity, guided by the sustainable development concept, adhered to the human-water harmony thoughts. This paper has comprehensive analyzed the concept and characteristics of the carrying capacity of water resources in the water ecological civilization construction, and discussed the research methods and evaluation index system of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction, finally pointed out that the problems and solutions of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction and put forward the future research prospect.

  11. Water management - management actions applied to water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovski, Ljupcho; Tanchev, Ljubomir

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented a general description of water resource systems, a systematisation of the management tasks and the approaches for solution, including a review of methods used for solution of water management tasks and the fundamental postulates in the management. The management of water resources is a synonym for the management actions applied to water resource systems. It is a general term that unites planning and exploitation of the systems. The modern planning assumes separating the water racecourse part from the hydro technical part of the project. The water resource study is concerned with the solution for the resource problem. This means the parameters of the system are determined in parallel with the definition of the water utilisation regime. The hydro-technical part of the project is the design of structures necessary for the water resource solution. (Original)

  12. Resources | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through IDRC's resource library, we share our results, provide support to ... Our Research Support team provides the resources and tools researchers need to ... It also includes information on how to structure and design your policy brief to ...

  13. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of .... approach of water resources development the most attractive and benefitial .... project plus a share of the "joint cost" which are the ... Pricing and Repayments American Water Re- sources ...

  14. GEO/SQL in water resource manegement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Vidmar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of water resource management concepts shouis the problem of collecting, combining, and using alphanumerical and graphical spatial data. The solution of this problem lies in the use of geographic information systems - GIS. This paper describes the usefulness of GIS programming tool Geo/SQL in water resources management.

  15. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  16. A century of lessons about water resources in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Hornbeck; James N. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2001-01-01

    Water resources in forests of the northeastern United States have been a contentious issue throughout the 20th century. The Weeks Law of 1911 recognized the needs to protect water yield and quality, and stimulated long-term interest in the relationships between forests and water. Research has provided a clear understanding of the roles of forests in hydrologic and...

  17. Working group report on water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss climate change implications for water resources are presented. The existing water resources and climatological databases necessary to develop models and functional relationships lack integration and coordination. The density and spatial distribution of the existing sampling networks for obtaining necessary climatological data is inadequate, especially in areas of complex terrain, notably higher elevations in the Rocky Mountains. Little information and knowledge is available on potential socio-economic responses that can be anticipated from either increases in climate variability or major change. Recommended research initiatives include the following. Basic functional relationships between climatic events, climatic variability and change, and both surface and groundwater hydrologic processes need to be investigated and improved. Basin-scale and regional-scale climatic models need to be developed, tested, and interfaced with existing global climate models. Public sector attitudes to water management issues and opportunities need to be investigated, and integrated scientific, socio-economic, multidisciplinary, regional databases on climatic change and variability and associated processes need to be developed

  18. Teale Department of Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  19. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  20. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: conservation planning for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish to Tsitsikamma water management area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish- to-Tsitsikamma water management area Project Aims To put in practice and refine, through a pilot study in the Eastern Cape Province, the policy and planning tools developed for systematic conservation... engagement in developing the technical approach to river prioritization and selection, as well as the reviewing of results to facilitate buy-in and ownership of the product. Project Description The Fish to Tsitsikamma Water Management Area is one...

  1. Water Power Research | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Power Research Water Power Research NREL conducts water power research; develops design tools ; and evaluates, validates, and supports the demonstration of innovative water power technologies. Photo of a buoy designed around the oscillating water column principle wherein the turbine captures the

  2. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  3. Fuzzy pricing for urban water resources: model construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ranhang; Chen, Shouyu

    2008-08-01

    A rational water price system plays a crucial role in the optimal allocation of water resources. In this paper, a fuzzy pricing model for urban water resources is presented, which consists of a multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model and a water resources price (WRP) computation model. Various factors affecting WRP are comprehensively evaluated with multiple levels and objectives in the multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model, while the price vectors of water resources are constructed in the WRP computation model according to the definition of the bearing water price index, and then WRP is calculated. With the incorporation of an operator's knowledge, it considers iterative weights and subjective preference of operators for weight-assessment. The weights determined are more rational and the evaluation results are more realistic. Particularly, dual water supply is considered in the study. Different prices being fixed for water resources with different qualities conforms to the law of water resources value (WRV) itself. A high-quality groundwater price computation model is also proposed to provide optimal water allocation and to meet higher living standards. The developed model is applied in Jinan for evaluating its validity. The method presented in this paper offers some new directions in the research of WRP.

  4. Department of Water Resources a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... The study involves evaluation of basin area, slopes, shape of the basin as morphological ... properties of water on earth and their ... reservoirs and increased use of ground ... Figure 1: Map of Nigeria and Oyun River Basin.

  5. Water resources of Sedgwick County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data from streams, impoundments, and wells are interpreted to: (1) document water resources characteristics; (2) describe causes and extent of changes in water resources characteristics; and (3) evaluate water resources as sources of supply. During 1985, about 134,200 acre-ft of water (84% groundwater) were used for public (42%), irrigation, (40%), industrial (14%), and domestic (4%) supplies. Streamflow and groundwater levels are related directly to precipitation, and major rivers are sustained by groundwater inflow. Significant groundwater level declines have occurred only in the Wichita well field. The Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers have sodium chloride type water; the Little Arkansas River, calcium bicarbonate type water. Water quality characteristics of water in small streams and wells depend primarily on local geology. The Wellington Formation commonly yields calcium sulfate type water; Ninnescah Shale and unconsolidated deposits generally yield calcium bicarbonate type water. Sodium chloride and calcium sulfate type water in the area often have dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L. Water contamination by treated sewage effluent was detected inparts of the Arkansas River, Little Arkansas River, and Cowskin Creek. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen contamination was detected in 11 of 101 wells; oilfield brine was detected in the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway, Prairie Creek, Whitewater Creek, and 16 of 101 wells; and agricultural pesticides were detected in 8 of 14 impoundments and 5 of 19 wells. Generally, the water is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  6. Analyses on Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Xiao, T.; Wang, C.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Chengdu is located in the Sichuan basin, and it is the most famous inland city in China. With suitable temperatures and rainfall, Chengdu is the most livable cities in China. With the development of urban economy and society, the population has now risen to 16 million, and it will up to 22 million in 2030. This will cause the city water resources demand, and the carrying capacity of water resources become more and more serious. In order to improve the contradiction between urban waterlogging and water shortage, sponge city planning was proposed by Chengdu government, and this is of great practical significance for promoting the healthy development of the city. Base on the reanalysis data from NCEP during 2007-2016, the characters of Water Vapor Resources was analyzed, and the main contents of this research are summarized as follows: The water vapor resource in Chengdu plain is more than that in Southeast China and less in Northwest China. The annual average water vapor resource is approximately 160 mm -320 mm, and the water vapor resource in summer can reach 3 times in winter. But the annual average precipitation in Chengdu is about 800 mm -1200 mm and it is far greater than the water vapor resource, this is because of the transport of water vapor. Using the formula of water vapor flux, the water vapor in Chengdu is comes from the west and the south, and the value is around 50kg/(ms). Base on the calculation of boundary vapor budget, the water vapor transport under 500hPa accounted for 97% of the total. Consider the water vapor transport, transformation and urban humidification effect, the Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu is 2500mm, and it can be used by artificial precipitation enhancement. Therefore, coordinated development of weather modification and sponge city construction, the shortage of water resources in Chengdu plain can be solved. Key words: Chengdu; Sponge city; Water vapor resource; Precipitation; Artificial precipitation enhancement Acknowledgements

  7. Conflicts Over Water as a Resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooksey, James

    2008-01-01

    .... A specific element that operational planners must consider when assessing political and military objectives of belligerents, and how those objectives may shape military operations, is water as a natural resource...

  8. Water advisory demand evaluation and resource toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Paluszczyszyn, D.; Illya, S.; Goodyer, E.; Kubrycht, T.; Ambler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cities are living organisms, 24h / 7day, with demands on resources and outputs. Water is a key resource whose management has not kept pace with modern urban life. Demand for clean water and loads on waste water no longer fit diurnal patterns; and they are impacted by events that are outside the normal range of parameters that are taken account of in water management. This feasibility study will determine how the application of computational intelligence can be used to analyse a mix of dat...

  9. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  10. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  11. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Office:

  12. Forest Ecosystem services: Water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; James Vose; Travis Warziniack; Bill Holman

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), awareness has steadily grown regarding the importance of maintaining natural capital. Forest vegetation is a valuable source of natural capital, and the regulation of water quantity and quality is among the most important forest ecosystem services in many regions around the world. Changes in...

  13. Resolving and Prevention of Shared Water Resources Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning from experiences from other parts of the world, it was recommended to incorporate game theory technique in water resources conflicts and cooperation in the African river basins for equitable and fair utilization and management of shared water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 51- ...

  14. Sustainable use of water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    and acidity were observed. PRD reduced irrigation water volume (-9.0% of RDI) while a higher dry matter accumulation in the fruits was recorded both in 2007 and 2008. The income for each cubic meter of irrigation water was 10.6 € in RDI and 14.8 € in PRD, respectively. The gross margin obtained with each kg......A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy, within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to test the feasibility of partial root-zone drying (PRD) management on processing tomato and to compare PRD irrigation strategy with regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) management. In 2007......, there was no difference between RDI and PRD for the total and marketable yield. In 2008, PRD increased the marketable yield by 14.8% while the total yield was similar to RDI. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was higher with PRD (+14%) compared to RDI. PRD didn’t improve fruit quality, although in 2007 a better °Brix, colour...

  15. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  16. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  17. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of the multiple-purpose development and calls for giving ... An appraisal of water resource must consider surface as well as ground water supplies in terms of location, .... as such a very satisfactory method of cost allocation that would be equally applicable to all projects and.

  18. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  19. Application and Prospect of Big Data in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Danchi; Xu, Xinyi

    2017-04-01

    Because of developed information technology and affordable data storage, we h ave entered the era of data explosion. The term "Big Data" and technology relate s to it has been created and commonly applied in many fields. However, academic studies just got attention on Big Data application in water resources recently. As a result, water resource Big Data technology has not been fully developed. This paper introduces the concept of Big Data and its key technologies, including the Hadoop system and MapReduce. In addition, this paper focuses on the significance of applying the big data in water resources and summarizing prior researches by others. Most studies in this field only set up theoretical frame, but we define the "Water Big Data" and explain its tridimensional properties which are time dimension, spatial dimension and intelligent dimension. Based on HBase, the classification system of Water Big Data is introduced: hydrology data, ecology data and socio-economic data. Then after analyzing the challenges in water resources management, a series of solutions using Big Data technologies such as data mining and web crawler, are proposed. Finally, the prospect of applying big data in water resources is discussed, it can be predicted that as Big Data technology keeps developing, "3D" (Data Driven Decision) will be utilized more in water resources management in the future.

  20. Water resources in the next millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  1. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  2. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  3. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.; Bhat, A.; Cleaver, F.; Meinzen-Dick, R.; Molle, F.; Neef, A.; Subramanian, S.; Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    EDITORIAL PREAMBLE: The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany) in 2004/2005 in the

  4. Research resources for Drosophila: the expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kathleen A; Kaufman, Thomas C; Gelbart, William M

    2005-03-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been the subject of research into central questions about biological mechanisms for almost a century. The experimental tools and resources that are available or under development for D. melanogaster and its related species, particularly those for genomic analysis, are truly outstanding. Here we review three types of resource that have been developed for D. melanogaster research: databases and other sources of information, biological materials and experimental services. These resources are there to be exploited and we hope that this guide will encourage new uses for D. melanogaster information, materials and services, both by those new to flies and by experienced D. melanogaster researchers.

  5. Climate impact on BC Hydro's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Rodenhuis, D.

    2008-01-01

    BC Hydro like many other hydro utilities has used the historical record of weather and runoff as the standard description the variability and uncertainty of the key weather drivers for its operation and planning studies. It has been conveniently assumed that this historical record is or has been statistically stationary and therefore is assumed to represent the future characteristics of climatic drivers on our system. This assumption is obviously no longer justifiable. To address the characterisation of future weather, BC Hydro has a multi-year a directed research program with the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the water resources that BC Hydro manages for hydropower generation and other uses. The objective of this program is to derive climate change adjusted meteorologic and hydrologic sequences suitable for use in system operations and planning studies. These climate-adjusted sequences then can be used to test system sensitivity to climate change scenarios relative to the baseline of the historical record. This paper describes BC Hydro's research program and the results achieved so far. (author)

  6. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  7. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  8. Isotope techniques in water resources development 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Water resources are scarce in many parts of the world. Often, the only water resource is groundwater. Overuse usually invites a rapid decline in groundwater resources which are recharged insufficiently, or not at all, by prevailing climatic conditions. These and other problems currently encountered in hydrology and associated environmental fields have prompted an increasing demand for the utilization of isotope methods. Such methods have been recognized as being indispensable for solving problems such as the identification of pollution sources, characterization of palaeowater resources, evaluation of recharge and evaporative discharge under arid and semi-arid conditions, reconstruction of past climates, study of the interrelationships between surface and groundwater, dating of groundwater and validation of contaminant transport models. Moreover, in combination with other hydrogeological and geochemical methods, isotope techniques can provide useful hydrological information, such as data on the origin, replenishment and dynamics of groundwater. It was against this background that the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, organized this symposium on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, which took place in Vienna from 11 to 15 March 1991. The main themes of the symposium were the use of isotope techniques in solving practical problems of water resources assessment and development, particularly with respect to groundwater protection, and in studying environmental problems related to water, including palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatological problems. A substantial part of the oral presentations was concerned with the present state and trends in groundwater dating, and with some methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the papers of 37 oral and the extended synopses of 47 poster

  9. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  10. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  11. Adjusting water resources management to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebsame, W E

    1988-01-01

    The nature of climate impacts and adjustment in water supply and flood management is discussed, and a case study of water manager response to climate fluctuation in California's Sacramento Basin is presented. The case illuminates the effect on climate impact and response of traditional management approaches, the dynamic qualities of maturing water systems, socially imposed constraints, and climate extremes. A dual pattern of crisis-response and gradual adjustment emerges, and specific mechanisms for effecting adjustment of water management systems are identified. The case study, and broader trends in US water development, suggest that oversized structural capacity, the traditional adjustment to climate variability in water resources, may prove less feasible in the future as projects become smaller and new facilities are delayed by economic and environmental concerns.

  12. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  13. Research Resources Survey: Radiology Junior Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Votaw, John R

    2015-07-01

    To assess resources available to junior faculty in US academic radiology departments for research mentorship and funding opportunities and to determine if certain resources are more common in successful programs. An anonymous survey covering scientific environment and research mentorship and was sent to vice-chairs of research of radiology departments. Results were evaluated to identify practices of research programs with respect to mentorship, resources, and opportunities. Academy of Radiology Research's 2012 National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and awards list was used to determine if environment and practices correlate with funding. There was a 51% response rate. A greater fraction of clinical faculty gets promoted from assistant to associate professor than research faculty. Research faculty overall submits more funding applications. Most programs support start-up costs and K-awards. Over half of the departments have a vice-chair for faculty development, and most have formal mentorship programs. Faculty members are expected to teach, engage in service, publish, and apply for and get research funding within 3 years of hire. Top-tier programs as judged by NIH awards have a combination of MDs who devote >50% effort to research and PhD faculty. Key factors holding back both clinical and research junior faculty development were motivation, resources, and time, although programs reported high availability of resources and support at the department level. Better marketing of resources for junior faculty, effort devoted to mentoring clinical faculty in research, and explicit milestones/expectations for achievement could enhance junior faculty success, promote interest in the clinician–scientist career path for radiologists, and lead to greater research success.

  14. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  15. Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources for sustainable growth in Nigeria. Lekan Oyebande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 21-30. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... governing management measures capable of meeting the needs of riparian states and ensuring sustainability within the basin is highlighted. Keywords: biodiversity loss; East Africa; eutrophication; heavy metal pollution; international treaties; Nile Basin; shared water resources. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, ...

  17. Department of Water Resources and Environm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... tolerable gauge network density of 1 gauge per 3000km. 2 ... for Nigeria. In the Sahelian region of West. Africa ... number of functional stations in the area is far less than this ..... Water Resources Development, 9(4):. 411 – 424.

  18. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  19. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The Water Resources Council Staff (hereinafter the Staff) serves the Council and the Chairman in the performance of...

  20. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/well-studies/full-reports-pdf/task0324.pdf WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  1. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  2. Resource management and nonmarket valuation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Survey based nonmarket valuation research is often regarded as economics research. However, resource economists need to be aware of and acknowledge the manifold information sources that they employ in order to enhance the policy credibility of their studies. Communication between resource economists and practitioners of allied disciplines including chemistry, civil engineering, sociology, and anthropology are often neglected. Recent resource allocation policy debates have given rise to an extensive discussion of methodological issues that narrow the scope of the subject. The present paper provides a format for the presentation of nonmarket valuation research results that emphasizes the manifold links between economics studies that employ different methodologies to estimate nonmarket resource values. A more robust emphasis on the interlocking features of the different approaches for estimating nonmarket benefits should foster appreciation of the transdisciplinary aspects of the subject.

  3. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  4. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  5. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  6. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, H.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  7. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  8. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  9. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  10. Climate change and integrated water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: In the Bangladesh Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP), Millennium Development Goals and other donor driven initiatives, two vital areas linked with poverty and ecosystem survival seem to be either missing or are being neglected: (a) transboundary water use and (b) coastal area poverty and critical ecosystems vulnerable due to climate change. Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) goals and PRSP are integrated, it is necessary that the countrys WSSD goals and PRSP should also be in harmony. All should give the recognition of Ganges Brahmaputra and Meghna as international basins and the approach should be taken for regional sustainable and integrated water resource management involving all co-riparian countries. The principle of low flow in the international rivers during all seasons should be ensured. All stakeholders should have a say and work towards regional cooperation in the water sector as a top priority. The energy sector should be integrated with water. The Indian River Linking project involving international rivers should be seriously discussed at all levels including the parliament so that voice of Bangladesh is concerted and information shared by all concerned. One of the most critical challenges Bangladesh faces is the management of water resources during periods of water excesses and acute scarcity. It is particularly difficult when only 7% of the catchments areas of the very international rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna are in Bangladesh while 97% is outside Bangladesh where unfortunately, Bangladesh has no control on upstream diversion and water use. The UN Conference on Environment and Development in its Agenda 21 emphasizes the importance of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The core point of IWRM is that is development of all aspects of entire basin in a basin wide approach, that all relevant agencies of the government and water users must be involved in the planning process and

  11. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  12. Sustainable water resources management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Total river discharge in Pakistan in summer season vary from 3 thousand to 34 thousand cusses (100 thousand Cusses to 1,200 thousand Cusses) and can cause tremendous loss to human lives, crops and property, this causes the loss of most of the flood water in the lower Indus plains to the sea. Due to limited capacity of storage at Tarbela and Mangla Dams on river Indus and Jhelum, with virtually no control on Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, devastating problems are faced between July and October in the event of excessive rainfall in the catchments. Due to enormous amounts of sediments brought in by the feeding rivers, the three major reservoirs -Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma will lose their storage capacity, by 25 % by the end of the year 2010, which will further aggravate the water-availability situation in Pakistan. The quality of water is also deteriorating due to urbanization and industrialization and agricultural developments. On the Environmental Front the main problems are water-logging and salinity, salt-imbalance, and increasing pollution of water-bodies. World's largest and most integrated system of irrigation was installed almost a hundred years ago and now its efficiency has been reduced to such an extent that more than 50 per cent of the irrigation-water is lost in transit and during application. On the other side, there are still not fully exploited water resources for example groundwater, the alluvial plains of Pakistan are blessed with extensive unconfined aquifer, with a potential of over 50 MAF, which is being exploited to an extent of about 38 MAF by over 562,000 private and 10,000 public tube-wells. In case of Balochistan, out of a total available potential of about 0.9 MAF of groundwater, over 0.5 MAF are already being utilized, but there by leaving a balance of about 0.4 MAF that can still be utilized. Future water resources management strategies should includes starting a mass-awareness campaign on a marshal scale in rural and urban areas to apply water

  13. Analysis of the nexus between population, water resources and Global Food Security highlights significance of governance and research investments and policy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusa, Isa A M; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark R

    2018-05-10

    Analyses of sensitivity of Global Food Security (GFS) score to a key set of supply or demand factors often suggest population and water supply as being the most critical and on which policies tend to focus. To explore other policy options, we characterised the nexus between GFS and a set of supply or demand factors including defining including population, agricultural and industrial water-use, agricultural publications (as a surrogate for investment in agricultural research and development [R&D]), and corruption perception index (CPI), to reveal opportunities for attaining enduring GFS. We found that despite being the primary driver of demand for food, population showed no significant correlation with GFS scores. Similarly agricultural water-use was poorly correlated with GFS scores, except in countries where evaporation exceeds precipitation and irrigation is significant. However, GFS had a strong positive association with industrial water-use as a surrogate for overall industrialisation. Recent expansions in cultivated land area failed to yield concomitant improvements in GFS score since such expansions have been mostly into marginal lands with low productivity and also barely compensated for lands retired from cropping in several developed economies. However, GFS was positively associated with agricultural R&D investments, as it was with the CPI scores. The apparent and relative strengths of these drivers on GFS outcome amongst countries were in the order: industrial water-use ≈ publication rate ≈ corruption perception > agricultural water-use > population. We concluded by suggesting that to enshrine enduring food security, policies should prioritise (1) increased R&D investments that address farmer needs, and (2) governance mechanisms that promote accountability in both research and production value chains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO 2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO 2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233 U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233 U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233 U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233 U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233 U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author) [fr

  15. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  16. Condition, use, and management of water resources among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that water supply in Harshin district is 100% surface water ... Besides, 76% of the respondents were not satisfied with the quality of drinking water. ... Key words: Water resources, pastoralists, rainwater, water-harvesting, gender ...

  17. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  18. Water Resources Development in Minnesota 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Mississippi River Comprehensive Elk River, Mississippi River ..................... 43 Master Plan .............................. 20 Epr Roau, Mississippi...Mississippi River has in- water resource projects, and receiving more than 600 million creased steadily since the advent of the 9-foot channel in 1935 ...and increased from about Minneapolis, Completed Project - 11 0,(XX) tons in 1935 to a peak of 3,177,355 tons in 1975. Traffic Commercial Navigation

  19. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  20. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  1. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  2. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  3. Report on follow-up for joint research of valuable resources recovery techniques from brackish water; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report describes follow-up for research and development on the recovery of valuable resources, such as magnesium, bromine and boron, contained in the brackish water for manufacture of common salt in the coastal region of Mexico. For the field survey, salt garden, irrigation plant and manufacturing plant of dinning salt were inspected. The optimum site was examined by assuming desalination plant and solar pond. The groundwater in coastal regions is progressively salified. Since the coastal region is a tourist resort with an round-trip area of whales, environmental protection is indispensable. For the joint research with invited researchers, the solar pond system and fresh water generation were studied. As a result, it was found that the solar pond system is an excellent method for keeping thermal energy in a low cost at the salt garden with abundant solar energy, and that the desalination system combined with distilling is the most suitable method. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  5. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures) and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation), are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  6. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation, are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  7. Review of Ghana's water resources: the quality and management with particular focus on freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeleliere, E.; Cobbina, S. J.; Duwiejuah, A. B.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater resources are continually decreasing in quality and quantity. Approximately, 1% of this freshwater is accessible in lakes, river channels and underground for domestic use. The study reviewed literature on water resources with focus on freshwater, the quality of our freshwater in terms of physical, chemical and biological variables, the main mechanisms of management, and the challenges associated with these mechanisms as well as blending integrated water management with the indigenous or traditional management of water resources for sustainable development and peaceful co-existence. Also the review offered potent recommendations for policy makers to consider sustainable management of freshwater resources. A total of 95 articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. The search took place from June to September 2017, and research articles from 1998 to 2018 were reviewed. Basically Ghana is made up of three discharge or outlet systems, namely the Coastal River Systems which is the least and Volta constituting the largest and with the South-Western been the intermediate. Also, freshwater resources usage can be put into two main categories, namely ex situ (withdrawal use) and in situ or in-stream use, and could also be referred to as the consumptive and non-consumptive use, respectively. With the exception of localised pollution engineered by illegal mining and other nuisance perpetuated by indigenes, the quality of water (surface and groundwater) in Ghana is generally better. The review outlined high microbial contamination of water as almost all surface waters are contaminated with either E. coli, faecal coliforms or total coliforms or all. However, these contaminations were more prevalent in surface water than groundwater.

  8. Water resources of the Pittsburgh area, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noecker, Max; Greenman, D.W.; Beamer, N.H.

    1954-01-01

    The per capita use of water in the Pittsburgh area in 1951 was 2, 000 gallons per day fgpd) or twice the per capita use in Pennsylvania as a whole. An average of about 3, 040 million gallons of water was withdrawn from the streams and from the ground each day. Of this amount, nearly 190 million gallons per day (mgd), or 6 percent, was for domestic public water supply. Industry, including public utilities generating steam for electric energy, used approximately 2, 900 mgd, of which about 42 mgd was purchased from public supply sources. In spite of this tremendous demand for water, a sufficient quantity was available to satisfy the needs of the area without serious difficulty. Acid mine drainage presents the greatest single pollution problem in the Pittsburgh area at the present time (1953) because no practical means has been found for its control. The waters of several of the rivers are strongly acid for this reason. Of the three major rivers in the area, Monongahela River waters have the greatest acid concentration and Allegheny River waters the least. Untreated domestic and industrial wastes are additional sources of stream pollution in the area. Much of the water is hard and corrosive, and occasionally has objectionable color, odor, and taste. The treatment used by public water-supply systems using river water is adequate at all times for removal of water-borne causes of disease. Attention is being concentrated on improving the quality of present supplies rather than developing new supplies from upstream tributaries. Present supplies are being improved by providing treatment facilities for disposal of wastes,, by reduction of acid mine drainage discharged into the streams, and by providing storage to augment low flows. The underground water resources are vitally important to the area. The use of ground water in the Pittsburgh area has doubled in the past two decades and in 1951 more ground water was used in Allegheny County than in any other county in

  9. Evaluation of Water Resource Security Based on an MIV-BP Model in a Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of water resource security deserves particular attention in water resource planning and management. A typical karst area in Guizhou Province, China, was used as the research area in this paper. First, based on data from Guizhou Province for the past 10 years, the mean impact value–back propagation (MIV-BP model was used to analyze the factors influencing water resource security in the karst area. Second, 18 indices involving five aspects, water environment subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem, ecological subsystem, and human subsystem, were selected to establish an evaluation index of water resource security. Finally, a BP artificial neural network model was constructed to evaluate the water resource security of Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2014. The results show that water resource security in Guizhou, which was at a moderate warning level from 2005 to 2009 and a critical safety level from 2010 to 2014, has generally improved. Groundwater supply ratio, industrial water utilization rate, water use efficiency, per capita grain production, and water yield modulus were the obstacles to water resource security. Driving factors were comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste, qualifying rate of industrial wastewater, above moderate rocky desertification area ratio, water requirement per unit gross domestic product (GDP, and degree of development and utilization of groundwater. Our results provide useful suggestions on the management of water resource security in Guizhou Province and a valuable reference for water resource research.

  10. Water: A critical resource in the thermoelectric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, Thomas J. III.; McNemar, Andrea; Skone, Timothy J.; Stiegel, Gary J. Jr.; Nemeth, Michael; Schimmoller, Brian; Murphy, James T.; Manfredo, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Water availability represents a growing concern for meeting future power generation needs. In the United States, projected population growth rates, energy consumption patterns, and demand from competing water use sectors will increase pressure on power generators to reduce water use. Water availability and use also exhibit strong regional variations, complicating the nature of public policy and technological response. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is engaged in a research and development (R and D) program to reduce freshwater withdrawal (total quantity of water utilized) and consumption (portion of withdrawal not returned to the source) from existing and future thermoelectric power generating facilities. The Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is currently developing technologies in 5 categories of water management projects to reduce water use while minimizing the impacts of plant operations on water quality. This paper outlines the freshwater withdrawal and consumption rates for various thermoelectric power generating types and then estimates the potential benefits of IEP program technologies at both the national and regional levels in the year 2030. NETL is working to protect and conserve water resources while leveraging domestic fossil fuel resources, such as coal, to increase national energy security. (author)

  11. Selected techniques in water resources investigations, 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnier, Glennon N.; Chase, Edith B.

    1966-01-01

    Increasing world activity in water-resources development has created an interest in techniques for conducting investigations in the field. In the United States, the Geological Survey has the responsibility for extensive and intensive hydrologic studies, and the Survey places considerable emphasis on discovering better ways to carry out its responsibility. For many years, the dominant interest in field techniques has been "in house," but the emerging world interest has led to a need for published accounts of this progress. In 1963 the Geological Survey published "Selected Techniques in Water Resources Investigations" (Water-Supply Paper 1669-Z) as part of the series "Contributions to the Hydrology of the United States."The report was so favorably received that successive volumes are planned, of which this is the first. The present report contains 25 papers that represent new ideas being tested or applied in the hydrologic field program of the Geological Survey. These ideas range from a proposed system for monitoring fluvial sediment to how to construct stream-gaging wells from steel oil drums. The original papers have been revised and edited by the compilers, but the ideas presented are those of the authors. The general description of the bubble gage on page 2 has been given by the compilers as supplementary information.

  12. Verbal protocols as methodological resources: research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Baldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reflecting on the use of verbal protocols as a methodological resource in qualitative research, more specifically on the aspect regarded as the main limitation of a study about lexical inferencing in L2 (BALDO; VELASQUES, 2010: its subjective trait. The article begins with a brief literature review on protocols, followed by a description of the study in which they were employed as methodological resources. Based on that, protocol subjectivity is illustrated through samples of unparalleled data classification, carried out independently by two researchers. In the final section, the path followed to minimize the problem is presented, intending to contribute to improve efficiency in the use of verbal protocols in future research.

  13. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  14. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  15. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  16. Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... to better integrate information on climate change and climate variability into water resources policy, planning and management. ... University of the Free State.

  17. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2 SOUTH WEST REGIONAL CENTRE FOR NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES CAPACITY BUILDING NETWORK,. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF ... that an integrated approach to water resource development and management offers the best ...

  18. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests a linkage between internationally shared water resources and conflict potential. Anthony R. Turton, Marian J. Patrick and Frederic Julien examine transboundary water resource management in southern Africa, showing that empirical...

  19. Water resource management model for a river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jelisejevienė, Emilija

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  20. From Premise to Practice: a Critical Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management and Adaptive Management Approaches in the Water Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Wietske Medema; Brian S. McIntosh; Paul J. Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of natural resource use processes and dynamics is now well accepted and described in theories ranging across the sciences from ecology to economics. Based upon these theories, management frameworks have been developed within the research community to cope with complexity and improve natural resource management outcomes. Two notable frameworks, Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and Adaptive Management (AM) have been developed within the domain of water resource managem...

  1. Resources sustainable management of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation executive interinstitutional of the state of knowledge of the Raigon aquifer in the mark of the Project RLA/8/031 (sustainable Administration of Resources of groundwaters), elaborate of an I diagnose and definition of the necessities with a view to the formulation of the plan of activities of the project to develop. In the development of this work shop they were the following topics: Geology and hidrogeology, numeric modelation of the Aquifer and letter of vulnerability of the Aquifer Raigon. soils, quality and water demand, juridical and institutionals aspects

  2. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the water resources of Genesee County, Mich., whose principal city is Flint. The sources of water available to the county are the Flint and Shiawassee Rivers and their tributaries, inland lakes, ground water, and Lake Huron. The withdrawal use of water in the county in 1958 amounted to about 45 mgd. Of this amount, 36 mgd was withdrawn from the Flint River by the Flint public water-supply system. The rest was supplied by wells. At present (1959) the Shiawassee River and its tributaries and the inland lakes are not used for water supply. Flint River water is used for domestic, industrial, and waste-dilution requirements in Flint. About 60 percent of the water supplied by the Flint public water system is used by Flint industry. At least 30 mgd of river water is needed for waste dilution in the Flint River during warm weather.Water from Holloway Reservoir, which has a storage capacity of 5,760 million gallons, is used to supplement low flows in the Flint River to meet water-supply and waste-dilution requirements. About 650 million gallons in Kearsley Reservoir, on a Flint River tributary, is held in reserve for emergency use. Based on records for the lowest flows during the period 1930-52, the Flint River system, with the two reservoirs in operation, is capable of supplying about 60 mgd at Flint, less evaporation and seepage losses. The 1958 water demands exceeded this amount. Development of additional storage in the Flint River basin is unlikely because of lack of suitable storage sites. Plans are underway to supply Flint and most of Genesee County with water from Lake Huron.The principal tributaries of the Flint River in and near Flint could furnish small supplies of water. Butternut Creek, with the largest flow of those studied, has an estimated firm yield of 0.054 mgd per sq mi for 95 percent of the time. The Shiawassee River at Byron is capable of supplying at least 29 mgd for 95 percent of the time.Floods are a serious problem in Flint

  3. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  4. Analysis of the Water Resources Potential and Useful Life of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Length R ... Keywords: Shiroro dam reservoir, water resources potential, useful life, hydropower, ... Water balance analysis is a highly effective tool that .... from operation each time the reservoir capacity ..... validity of this research work. iii.

  5. The nexus between integrated natural resources management and integrated water resources management in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomlow, Stephen; Love, David; Walker, Sue

    The low productivity of smallholder farming systems and enterprises in the drier areas of the developing world can be attributed mainly to the limited resources of farming households and the application of inappropriate skills and practices that can lead to the degradation of the natural resource base. This lack of development, particularly in southern Africa, is of growing concern from both an agricultural and environmental perspective. To address this lack of progress, two development paradigms that improve land and water productivity have evolved, somewhat independently, from different scientific constituencies. One championed by the International Agricultural Research constituency is Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), whilst the second championed predominantly by Environmental and Civil Engineering constituencies is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As a result of similar objectives of working towards the millennium development goals of improved food security and environmental sustainability, there exists a nexus between the constituencies of the two paradigms, particularly in terms of appreciating the lessons learned. In this paper lessons are drawn from past INRM research that may have particular relevance to IWRM scientists as they re-direct their focus from blue water issues to green water issues, and vice-versa. Case studies are drawn from the management of water quality for irrigation, green water productivity and a convergence of INRM and IWRM in the management of gold panning in southern Zimbabwe. One point that is abundantly clear from both constituencies is that ‘one-size-fits-all’ or silver bullet solutions that are generally applicable for the enhancement of blue water management/formal irrigation simply do not exist for the smallholder rainfed systems.

  6. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  7. Passive Solar Driven Water Treatment of Contaminated Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mubasher

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology Freshwater, being vital for mankind survival, has become a very serious concern for the public especially living in countries with limited water, energy and economic resources. Freshwater generation is an energy-intensive task particularly when fossil based fuels are required as energy source. However, environmental concerns and high energy costs have called for the alternative and renewable sources of energy like wind, hy...

  8. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Arthur M [United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished.

  9. Water resources of King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  10. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  11. Applications of NST in water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    2006-01-01

    At first instance, Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) appears to have no relation to water resource management. Its dark side, the sole purpose of which is weaponry, has for a long time overshadowed its bright side, which has plenty of peaceful applications in the main socio-economic development sectors: power generation, agriculture, health and medicine, industry, manufacturing and environment. Historically, the medical sector is one of the early beneficiaries of the applications of NST. The same is true for Malaysia when the first x-ray machine was installed in 1897 at Taiping Hospital, Perak. In the environment sector, the use of little or no chemical in nuclear processes contributes to a cleaner environment. Nuclear power plants for example do not emit polluting gases and do not harm to the ozone layer. At the end of 2004, there are more than 440 nuclear power reactors operating in more than 30 countries fulfilling 17% of the world electricity demand, and it is growing. While nuclear power is yet to arrive in Malaysia the uses of NST in other areas are increasing. The application of radiotracer techniques in water resource management, in the environment, as well as in industry is an example. (Author)

  12. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  13. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  14. NASA Remote Sensing Technologies for Improved Integrated Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and international community to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Key objectives of this talk will highlight NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs with their objective to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management in national and international applications. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations).

  15. Research Staff | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Staff Research Staff Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the water power research team and staff at NREL. Name Position Email Phone Anstedt, Sheri Professional III-Writer /Editor/Web Content Sheri.Anstedt@nrel.gov 303-275-3255 Baker, Donald Research Technician V-Electrical

  16. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  17. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  18. Mouse Model Resources for Vision Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyeon Won

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing defects in comparable human disorders and for testing therapeutic strategies. Mutant mice also provide reproducible, experimental systems for elucidating pathways of normal development and function. Two programs, the Eye Mutant Resource and the Translational Vision Research Models, focused on providing such models to the vision research community are described herein. Over 100 mutant lines from the Eye Mutant Resource and 60 mutant lines from the Translational Vision Research Models have been developed. The ocular diseases of the mutant lines include a wide range of phenotypes, including cataracts, retinal dysplasia and degeneration, and abnormal blood vessel formation. The mutations in disease genes have been mapped and in some cases identified by direct sequencing. Here, we report 3 novel alleles of Crxtvrm65, Rp1tvrm64, and Rpe65tvrm148 as successful examples of the TVRM program, that closely resemble previously reported knockout models.

  19. Hyphenated hydrology: Interdisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Kathryn L.; Jawitz, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-twentieth century. Modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation from exclusively physical or engineering science viewpoints toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution were foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists. However, their narrative descriptions have lacked substantial quantification. This study addressed that gap by measuring the prevalence of and analyzing the relationships between the terms most frequently used by hydrologists to define and describe their research. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerged. Our word frequency and term cooccurrence network results revealed the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines as well as the deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. The conversation among water resource scientists surrounding the hydrologic subdisciplines of catchment-hydrology, hydro-meteorology, socio-hydrology, hydro-climatology, and eco-hydrology gained statistically significant momentum in the analyzed time period, while that of hydro-geology and contaminant-hydrology experienced periods of increase followed by significant decline. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines can potentially modify hydrology, prompting new insights and inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions that may have otherwise become obsolete.

  20. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  1. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    eight divisions that are further divided into 38 districts.2 This report provides an overview of the Corps water resource activities , including...rules associated with authorization and appropriation earmarks, individual Members often brought attention to similar activities for congressional...Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy

  2. The Pluralistic Water Research Concept: A New Human-Water System Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Evers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use and management of water systems is influenced by a number of factors, such as economic growth, global change (e.g., urbanization, hydrological-climatic changes, politics, history and culture. Despite noteworthy efforts to develop integrative approaches to analyze water-related problems, human-water research remains a major challenge for scholars and decision makers due to the increasing complexity of human and water systems interactions. Although existing concepts try to integrate the social and water dimensions, they usually have a disciplinary starting point and perspective, which can represent an obstacle to true integration in human-water research. Hence, a pluralistic approach is required to better understand the interactions between human and water systems. This paper discusses prominent human-water concepts (Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM, socio-hydrology, and political ecology/hydrosocial approach and presents a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR. This is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach which aims to coherently and comprehensively integrate human-water dimensions. The different concepts are illustrated in a synopsis, and diverse framing of research questions are exemplified. The PWR concept integrates physical and social sciences, which enables a comprehensive analysis of human-water interactions and relations. This can lead to a better understanding of water-related issues and potentially sustainable trajectories.

  3. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  4. A General Water Resources Regulation Software System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEI, X.

    2017-12-01

    To avoid iterative development of core modules in water resource normal regulation and emergency regulation and improve the capability of maintenance and optimization upgrading of regulation models and business logics, a general water resources regulation software framework was developed based on the collection and analysis of common demands for water resources regulation and emergency management. It can provide a customizable, secondary developed and extensible software framework for the three-level platform "MWR-Basin-Province". Meanwhile, this general software system can realize business collaboration and information sharing of water resources regulation schemes among the three-level platforms, so as to improve the decision-making ability of national water resources regulation. There are four main modules involved in the general software system: 1) A complete set of general water resources regulation modules allows secondary developer to custom-develop water resources regulation decision-making systems; 2) A complete set of model base and model computing software released in the form of Cloud services; 3) A complete set of tools to build the concept map and model system of basin water resources regulation, as well as a model management system to calibrate and configure model parameters; 4) A database which satisfies business functions and functional requirements of general water resources regulation software can finally provide technical support for building basin or regional water resources regulation models.

  5. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  6. A transdisciplinary account of water research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tobias; Maynard, Carly; Carr, Gemma; Bruns, Antje; Mueller, Eva Nora; Lane, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Water research is introduced from the combined perspectives of natural and social science and cases of citizen and stakeholder coproduction of knowledge. Using the overarching notion of transdisciplinarity, we examine how interdisciplinary and participatory water research has taken place and could be developed further. It becomes apparent that water knowledge is produced widely within society, across certified disciplinary experts and noncertified expert stakeholders and citizens. However, understanding and management interventions may remain partial, or even conflicting, as much research across and between traditional disciplines has failed to integrate disciplinary paradigms due to philosophical, methodological, and communication barriers. We argue for more agonistic relationships that challenge both certified and noncertified knowledge productively. These should include examination of how water research itself embeds and is embedded in social context and performs political work. While case studies of the cultural and political economy of water knowledge exist, we need more empirical evidence on how exactly culture, politics, and economics have shaped this knowledge and how and at what junctures this could have turned out differently. We may thus channel the coproductionist critique productively to bring perspectives, alternative knowledges, and implications into water politics where they were not previously considered; in an attempt to counter potential lock-in to particular water policies and technologies that may be inequitable, unsustainable, or unacceptable. While engaging explicitly with politics, transdisciplinary water research should remain attentive to closing down moments in the research process, such as framings, path-dependencies, vested interests, researchers' positionalities, power, and scale. WIREs Water 2016, 3:369-389. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1132 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  8. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: improved methods for aquifer vulnerability assessments and protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessments and Protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils Groundwater resources are increas- ingly threatened by pollution. The AVAP project was initiated to develop improved... characteristics. Both intrinsic and specific vulnerability are taken into account. The approach used to determine the vulnerability of the in- termediate zone involved the descrip- tion and quantification of the factors that influence vulnerability (unsatu...

  9. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  10. Analytical Frameworks for Addressing Physical, Social, and Institutional Changes in Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    stability Presence of geologic hazards, e.g. landslides , site stability, distance to faults, and reservoir-induced seismicity BP9 Reservoir surface... Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council; National Academies Press. NRC–Panel on Adaptive Management for Resource Stewardship. 2004...Peer Review for Water Resources Project Planning, Water Science and Technology Board, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies

  11. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  12. 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on environment-compatible type water resource effective-utilization system; 1998 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of securing water stably and preventing water pollution in the Philippines, R and D were carried out on a wastewater treatment and water reclamation and reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain and low in cost through the research cooperation between the Philippine Industrial Technology Development Institute and Japan. According to the survey result of statistical data concerning water pollution load structure by industrial wastewater classified by the industry in the Philippines, enumerated are the food manufacturing industry, paper pulp manufacturing industry, and the textile dyeing industry as those greatly affecting water pollution in BOD exhaust and wastewater, etc. Consequently, with Ram Food Product Co. of vegetable processing and Solid Mill Co., of textile dyeing as plants to be studied, a wastewater treatment test was performed in a laboratory scale. From the result of the test, the pilot plant was basically designed to have 'anaerobic + aerobic treatment + tertiary treatment' for the treatment process, with an one-tank type UASB method used as the anaerobic treatment, with a sand filtration + activated charcoal treatment as the tertiary treatment, and with the cost effectiveness for water reuse set to be examined. (NEDO)

  13. Water resource monitoring systems and the role of satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial water resource monitoring systems (SWRMS can provide valuable information in support of water management, but current operational systems are few and provide only a subset of the information required. Necessary innovations include the explicit description of water redistribution and water use from river and groundwater systems, achieving greater spatial detail (particularly in key features such as irrigated areas and wetlands, and improving accuracy as assessed against hydrometric observations, as well as assimilating those observations. The Australian water resources assessment (AWRA system aims to achieve this by coupling landscape models with models describing surface water and groundwater dynamics and water use. A review of operational and research applications demonstrates that satellite observations can improve accuracy and spatial detail in hydrological model estimation. All operational systems use dynamic forcing, land cover classifications and a priori parameterisation of vegetation dynamics that are partially or wholly derived from remote sensing. Satellite observations are used to varying degrees in model evaluation and data assimilation. The utility of satellite observations through data assimilation can vary as a function of dominant hydrological processes. Opportunities for improvement are identified, including the development of more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution precipitation products, and the use of a greater range of remote sensing products in a priori model parameter estimation, model evaluation and data assimilation. Operational challenges include the continuity of research satellite missions and data services, and the need to find computationally-efficient data assimilation techniques. The successful use of observations critically depends on the availability of detailed information on observational error and understanding of the relationship between remotely-sensed and model variables, as

  14. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimbe, Simbiso; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country’s water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management. Researchers have reported a lack of awareness of the reforms, particularly among the black communities, who were considered not just as one of the target of the reforms, but the beneficiaries. This paper analyses why this has been the case. The paper makes a case for differentiating communication from information dissemination. Information refers to a set of data packaged for delivery to a receiver while communication involves a dialogue. This paper critiques communication strategies used to communicate water reforms in Zimbabwe, applying recent developments in communication theories. The argument in the paper is that there was a failure to communicate although there was some success in dissemination information about the reforms. If the situation is to be reversed then methods that involve audience analysis may have to be used. Such methods tend to be expensive and time consuming--however, there is no substitute to this if integrated water resources management is to be institutionalised among the various stakeholders.

  15. Thailand Environment Monitor : Integrated Water Resources Management - A Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Water is everyone's business. Beside a necessity for living, water has implications on public health and, most importantly, can cause social conflicts. This is because water is limited, is difficult to control, and can easily be polluted. The Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) process is considered worldwide as a means to reduce social conflicts from competing water needs as well ...

  16. Missouri StreamStats—A water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains and operates more than 8,200 continuous streamgages nationwide. Types of data that may be collected, computed, and stored for streamgages include streamgage height (water-surface elevation), streamflow, and water quality. The streamflow data allow scientists and engineers to calculate streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood (also known as the 100-year flood), the mean flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are used by managers to make informed water resource management decisions, at each streamgage location. Researchers, regulators, and managers also commonly need physical characteristics (basin characteristics) that describe the unique properties of a basin. Common uses for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics include hydraulic design, water-supply management, water-use appropriations, and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. The USGS periodically publishes reports that update the values of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics at selected gaged locations (locations with streamgages), but these studies usually only update a subset of streamgages, making data retrieval difficult. Additionally, streamflow statistics and basin characteristics are most often needed at ungaged locations (locations without streamgages) for which published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics do not exist. Missouri StreamStats is a web-based geographic information system that was created by the USGS in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to provide users with access to an assortment of tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain the most recent published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamgage locations and to automatically calculate selected basin characteristics and estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged

  17. Geothermal energy. A national proposal for geothermal resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.C. (ed.)

    1972-01-01

    Discussions are given for each of the following topics: (1) importance to the Nation of geothermal resources, (2) budget recommendations, (3) overview of geothermal resources, (4) resource exploration, (5) resource assessment, (6) resource development and production, (7) utilization technology and economics, (8) environmental effects, (9) institutional considerations, and (10) summary of research needs.

  18. Scenario-based Water Resources Management Using the Water Value Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard

    2013-04-01

    The Saskatchewan River is the key water resource for the 3 prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Western Canada, and thus it is necessary to pursue long-term regional and watershed-based planning for the river basin. The water resources system is complex because it includes multiple components, representing various demand sectors, including the environment, which impose conflicting objectives, and multiple jurisdictions. The biophysical complexity is exacerbated by the socioeconomic dimensions associated for example with impacts of land and water management, value systems including environmental flows, and policy and governance dimensions.. We focus on the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which is already fully allocated in southern Alberta and is subject to increasing demand due to rapid economic development and a growing population. Multiple sectors and water uses include agricultural, municipal, industrial, mining, hydropower, and environmental flow requirements. The significant spatial variability in the level of development and future needs for water places different values on water across the basin. Water resources planning and decision making must take these complexities into consideration, yet also deal with a new dimension—climate change and its possible future impacts on water resources systems. There is a pressing need to deal with water in terms of its value, rather than a mere commodity subject to traditional quantitative optimization. In this research, a value-based water resources system (VWRS) model is proposed to couple the hydrological and the societal aspects of water resources in one integrated modeling tool for the SSRB. The objective of this work is to develop the VWRS model as a negotiation, planning, and management tool that allows for the assessment of the availability, as well as the allocation scenarios, of water resources for competing users under varying conditions. The proposed

  19. Research of the Landscape Structure of the Water Balance of the Trialeti Range Northern Slope according to the Natural Recreation Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beritashvili, B.; Meskhia, R.; Savishvili, N.; Kartvelishvili, L.; Mikautadze, D.; Chikhladze, N.

    2006-01-01

    The work deals with the landscape-differentiated analysis of the water balance elements of the rivers on the Northern slope of the Trialeti Range using the 1961-2000 years observation data. Regularities of their variation are given according to the altitude. (author)

  20. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  1. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  2. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  3. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future wat...

  4. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  5. optimization of water resources allocation in semi-arid region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eng Obi Ibeje

    This study is aimed at achieving optimal water resources allocation .... (2005) points out, in his discussions of non- cooperative games model ... the linear and dynamic programming model which many ... e.g. Institute of Water and Hydropower.

  6. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  7. JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

    2008-04-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition

  8. Decentralised water systems: emotional influences on resource decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi

    2012-09-01

    The study of emotion has gathered momentum in the field of environmental science, specifically in the context of community resource decision-making. Of particular interest in this review is the potential influence of emotion, risk and threat perception on individuals' decisions to acceptance and adopt decentralised water systems, such as rainwater tanks and greywater systems. The role of message framing is also considered in detail, as well as the influences that different types of framing can have on decision making. These factors are considered as possible predictors for analysing community acceptance of decentralised water in urban environments. Concepts believed to be influenced by emotion, such as trust and framing, are also discussed as potentially meaningful contributors to an overall model of community acceptance of decentralised water. Recommendations are made for how emotion-based concepts, such as risk and threat, can be targeted to facilitate widespread adoption of decentralised systems and how researchers can explore different types of emotions that influence decision making in distinct ways. This review is an important theoretical step in advancing the psycho-social understanding of acceptance and adoption of on-site water sources. Avenues for future research are recommended, including the need for greater theoretical development to encourage future social science research on decentralised systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES IN NORTHERN KUTA DISTRICT OF BADUNG BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sunarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problem in the development of Bali tourism is declining carrying capacity supporting tourism resources, especially water. In the past, rural areas have never experienced a lack of water, by which presently facing a water crisis. This condition corresponds to the higher intensity of exploitation of water resources as a result of tourism development. The rapid development of business on accommodation facilities in North Kuta District is potential to accupy rice paddy and water resources. If this development is not properly controlled can cause negative impacts not only on the existence of the fields, but also for the potential of water resources. Tourism is significantly depend on adequacy of water resources to be able to function properly, thus in case of a water crisis in the tourist areas of Bali in particular, then sooner or later will create the economic crisis and the crisis of tourism. The research was located in North Kuta District aimed to know the impacts of the development of the tourism on water resources potential. In order to understand the impact on water resources used geography disciplines approach, and applying survey research methods. Tourism development is determined by the interpretation of Quickbird imagery in a different location. Carrying capacity of water resources is determined by using the guidelines of Per Men LH. No. 17 year 2009. Impact of tourism development on water resources was determined using comparative analysis of surface water and groundwater, both an quantity and quality. There were two patterns of land use change in North Kuta District, namely from the rice fields to tourist accommodation and from the dryland/orchard land, to tourist accommodation. Changes from rice field for about 16 years (1992-2008 in North Kuta District was 1,218.44 Ha. Carrying capacity of water resources was considered deficit at all village in North Kuta District. Development of tourism, especially tourism accommodation

  10. Mining influence on underground water resources in arid and semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A. K.; Hou, Y.; Hu, X. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Coordinated mining of coal and water resources in arid and semiarid regions has traditionally become a focus issue. The research takes Energy and Chemical Base in Northern Shaanxi as an example, and conducts statistical analysis on coal yield and drainage volume from several large-scale mines in the mining area. Meanwhile, research determines average water volume per ton coal, and calculates four typical years’ drainage volume in different mining intensity. Then during mining drainage, with the combination of precipitation observation data in recent two decades and water level data from observation well, the calculation of groundwater table, precipitation infiltration recharge, and evaporation capacity are performed. Moreover, the research analyzes the transforming relationship between surface water, mine water, and groundwater. The result shows that the main reason for reduction of water resources quantity and transforming relationship between surface water, groundwater, and mine water is massive mine drainage, which is caused by large-scale coal mining in the research area.

  11. The Wealth of Water: The Value of an Essential Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, Melanie K.; Baum, Karina J.

    2011-01-01

    Many students take water availability for granted and yet, by 2025, two-thirds of the world will not have access to clean drinking water. This case study is designed to encourage students to think about water as a limited natural resource and is used to highlight how the exploitation of water can have far-reaching social, political, and economic…

  12. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...... the system and allowed overdraft in dry years in return for increased recharge in wet years. Further, cost-effective recovery of an overdrafted groundwater aquifer was demonstrated. The third implementation assessed interactions of water resources and water quality management. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...... problem with a single surface water reservoir state variable. A comparison of different management scenarios was used to evaluate how the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will impact optimal water resources management. Scenarios with unregulated groundwater pumping at realistic pumping costs verified...

  13. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  14. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current state and future challenges. ... These studies illustrate how the exponential growth in computer power and the concomitant development of highly sophisticated tools have changed the manner in which our water resources have been appraised, allowing us to ...

  15. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  16. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming communities in Ghana. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Concentrations of these potentially toxic substances were below WHO acceptable limits for surface and groundwaters, indicating these water resources appear safe for drinking ...

  17. Groundwater resource-directed measures software | Dennis | Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability, equity and efficiency are identified as central guiding principles in the protection, use, development, conservation, management and control of water resources. These principles recognise the basic human needs of present and future generations, the need to protect water resources, the need to share some ...

  18. Networked environments for stakeholder participation in water resources and flood management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almoradie, A.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholders’ awareness and participation is important in the planning and management of water resources and floods. Stakeholders’ spatial distribution and diverse stakeholders’ interest (even opposed) are some of the hindrances in stakeholder participation. This research developed and implemented

  19. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  20. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Introduction: Water is a necessity of life. Accordingly, every person is deeply interested in the subject of water supply. He knows that he must have water to drink. He depends indirectly on water for all his food and clothing. He may want water in which to wash. Civilized man has learned also that water serves admirably for a large and ever enlarging list of uses that depend on its easy convertibility from a liquid to a solid or gaseous state and its adaptability as a chemical solvent, a medium for transfer of matter or energy, and a regulator of temperature. 

  1. Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

    Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water...... of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change....... resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led...

  2. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  3. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ewen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  4. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany in 2004/2005 in the context of a national-level discussion on the role of social science in global (environmental change research. In April 2005 a roundtable workshop with this title was held at ZEF, sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/German Research Foundation and supported by the NKGCF (Nationales Komitee für Global Change Forschung/German National Committee on Global Change Research, aiming to design a research programme in the German context. In 2006 it was decided to design a publication project on a broader, European and international basis. The Irrigation and Water Engineering Group at Wageningen University, the Netherlands joined as a co-organiser and co-sponsor. The collection of papers published in this issue of Water Alternatives is one of the products of the publication project. As part of the initiative a session on Water, Politics and Development was organised at the Stockholm World Water Week in August 2007, where most of the papers in this collection were presented and discussed. Through this publication, the Water, Politics and Development initiative links up with other initiatives simultaneously ongoing, for instance the 'Water governance – challenging the consensus' project of the Bradford Centre for International Development at Bradford University, UK. At this point in time, the initiative has formulated its thrust as 'framing a political sociology of water resources management'. This, no doubt, is an ambitious project, methodologically, theoretically as well as practically. Through the compilation of this collection we have started to explore whether and how such an endeavour might make sense. The participants in the initiative think it does, are quite

  5. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  7. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Celeste; Lyons, Renée F; Warner, Grace; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Martens, Patricia J; Labonté, Ronald; Brown, Richard E

    2010-10-20

    Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally) with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT) research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use?In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR) theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. COR theory contributes to understanding the role of resources in research use, resistance to

  8. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobfoll Stevan E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to

  9. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  10. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  11. Hyphenated hydrology: Multidisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, K. 4553; Jawitz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-20th century. While hydrology may have evolved from the singular viewpoint of a more rigid physical or engineering science, modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution have been foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists, though their narrative descriptions were not substantially quantified. This study addresses that gap by directly measuring and inspecting the words that hydrologists use to define and describe their research endeavors. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerges. Word frequency and term concurrence reveal the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines and a deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines are increasingly modifying hydrology, prompting new insights as well as inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions.

  12. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  13. Future for nuclear data research. Human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    A comment is given on the problem of human resources to support the future nuclear data activity which will be indispensable for advanced utilization of nuclear energy and radiations. Emphasis is put in the importance of the functional organization among the nuclear data center (JAEA), industries and universities for provision of human resources. (author)

  14. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  15. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and also play significant roles in supporting agricultural development but resources are inadequately provided. The main objective of the study was to assess the use of library resources on research activities of scientists in three ...

  16. Research progress of socio-economic water cycle in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China has made great progress in the study of socio-economic water cycle. She has completed national water resources appraisement and medium to long-term water supply planning. She has been engaging in study on water-deficient regions in North China and Northwest China for about half a century. For solving water shortage problem in northern China, she has put forward the famous South-to-North Water Transferring Projects, which has been set as one of the four biggest national projects in the Tenth Five-Year-Plan period although there are still debates. For promoting water use efficiency, China has been reforming her water management system, including water right system and water price system. There has already been a case of water right purchase. China has also done a lot of research on the interaction between human activity, water and ecosystem. For meeting the need of sustainability and coordinating water resources development and environmental protection, the study of ecological water requirement became very hot in recent years. There are three focuses of socio-economic water cycle study now in China: water transfer projects from the south to the north, water resources management and ecological water requirement.

  17. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members

  18. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  19. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  20. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  1. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  2. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  3. Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

  4. Empowering stakeholders through simulation in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.N.; Keyes, A.M.; Fisher, S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past two years, researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have had the unique opportunity to facilitate and observe the development of drought planning activities associated with the National Drought Study (NDS) and its Drought Preparedness Studies (DPS) sites as sponsored by the Institute of Water Resources of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Each of the DPS sites is unique, with different study objectives and institutional constraints. However, one uniform requirement of the study is to develop tactical and strategic drought plans that can be successfully implemented within the study region. At the onset of the study, it was recognized that successful implementation is directly related to the active involvement of affected parties and agencies (denoted as stakeholders) and the degree to which they support the plan's conclusions. Their involvement is also necessary because the problems addressed by the DPS's require the experience and knowledge of a variety of water resource interests in order to arrive at effective alternatives. Their support of the plan conclusions enables regional implementation. Several techniques were used to encourage stakeholder participation in the planning process. Individuals representing the stakeholders had a wide range of professional backgrounds. This paper concentrates on one specific approach found useful in encouraging comprehensive and meaningful participation by a wide range of stakeholders; the development of object-oriented simulation models for the water resource systems under study. Simulation models were to develop tactical and strategic drought plans and to ensure the acceptance of the plans by building consensus among the stakeholders. The remainder of this paper describes: how simulation models became a part of the National Drought Study, procedures used to develop the DPS models, and how the model empowered stakeholders

  5. GIS and Game Theory for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, N.; Guney, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  6. Forest resource economics and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters relating to forest economics. Included are the following chapters: Forecasting demand and supply of forest resources, products, and services; Wood fiber production; Forestry sector environmental effects

  7. Research Award: Climate Change and Water

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    include improving integrated water resource management, supporting water and sanitation in per‐ ... program (the remaining 50% of the time) through a variety of tasks which may include ... Strong verbal and written communication skills; and.

  8. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimbe, S.; Manzungu, E.

    2003-01-01

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country's water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management.

  9. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of the total drinking water needs. Dry season vegetable farmers also prepare their nur- sery beds close to streams and use surface water for irri- gation. The proximity of nurseries to streams results in clearing of stream bank vegetation to accommodate nur- series. Pollution of stream water and depletion of their resources ...

  10. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  11. Development of water resources management in Iraq and its obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq witnessed recently a considerable development in the field of water resources management to go along with developed countries. Latest technology has been introduced in hydrology monitoring. Many stations for water measuring and monitoring have been constructed beside many irrigation and drainage canals in order to reach an optimum irrigation system. A special emphasis has been put on the role of nuclear techniques in enhancing the water resources management development. These techniques will provide the perfect opportunity for investing water and drained quantities and determining pollution resources to insure the sustainability of the agricultural sector without threatening the development processes. This development encounters the lack of knowledge of technology applied in the field of the use of peaceful atomic energy and nuclear technologies, which are essential in sustaining the momentum in the management of water resources, despite the entry of the latest developed devices and technologies in measurements and monitoring. (author)

  12. Human Resources for Health Research in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Resources for Health Research in Africa ... the management of research systems for optimal use of results;; packaging research for policymakers; ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  13. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  14. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  15. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ivanov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the current state of affairs with water resources in Moldova, the challenges it faces for its national human and economic development, having in mind that the water resources are quite limited in Moldova, which encounters pollution, degradation influenced by climate change and unwise human activity to their biodiversity and ecosystems, availability and accessibility. It also attempts to highlight the relationship between climate change and water resources in Moldova, which has adverse effects on both environment and people’s health, and raise significant hurdles to the international, regional and sectoral development.

  16. Sustainable development of water resources in Pakistan and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Bashir, M.A

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation water represents an essential input for sustaining agricultural growth in Pakistan's arid to semi arid climate. While the surface water availability for irrigation has been more or less stagnant for the last three decades, the ground water utilization also appears to have touched the peak in most of the sweet aquifers. In the present state of inaction for the water resources development, the overall water availability is in fact declining due to progressive sedimentation of the existing storages and gradual lowering of water table in fresh ground water areas. The paper discusses major water resources concerns that threaten the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. The paper identifies overall water scarcity, high degree of temporal variability in river flows, lack of balancing storages and declining capacity of existing storages due to natural sedimentation as the serious concerns. Over exploitation of ground water and water quality concerns also seems to be emerging threats for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture in this country. The salt-water intrusion and increase in soil and ground water salinity are indicators of over exploitation of ground water for irrigation. The continuous use of poor quality ground water for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the area of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the marginal and saline ground water can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduce the crop yields. The paper presents various management options for development and efficient utilization of water resources for environment friendly sustainable development of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. These include construction of additional storage, modernization of irrigation system and effective conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources. The better soil and water management practices, saline agriculture, use of biotechnology and genetic engineering can further increase

  17. Integrated water resources management and infrastructure planning for water security in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Magole, Lapologang; Makurira, Hodson; Meck, Maideyi; Mkandawire, Theresa; Mul, Marloes; Ngongondo, Cosmo

    2017-08-01

    This volume has brought together papers that are peer reviewed emanating from the WaterNet/WARFSA/GWP-SA 16th Symposium. The papers cover the following themes: Hydrology, Water and Environment, Water and Land, Water and Society, Water Supply and Sanitation and Water Resources Management.

  18. Climate proofing water and sanitation services and applying integrated water resource management in slums

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis assesses how climate change impacts water resources and communities and reviews how the resource can be managed in an integrated manner for small water and sanitation providers. This thesis was based upon a 10 month Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) between Cranfield University and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP). The aim of the project was to assess the opportunities and vulnerabilities presented by climate change and how Integrated Water Resource ...

  19. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ? economic growth & development ? human & environmental needs ? meeting international obligations ? energy needs (strategic water users) ? ensuring availability and allocation (all other users) ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Background ? SA 30th driest country... and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  20. Isotope methods in water resources assessment and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araguas-Araguas, L.

    1996-01-01

    Availability of water and protection of water resources have become top environmental issues in many countries. Governments are forced to issue strict guidelines to protect the environment and create agencies to pursue these aspects as well as enforce such regulations. The supply of good-quality water from rivers and lakes is becoming a costly and complex problem for many institutes responsible for water supply. Because of the high pollution levels in surface waters, ground water is the main source of drinking water in many countries. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people world-wide depend on it for drinking water. Since ground water cannot be directly measured, and despite its importance for drinking purposes there is not enough public concern about its protection. In other cases, it is found that the exploited ground water is not a renewable resource. In many countries in arid and semi-arid regions, fossil ground water is being tapped for extensive agricultural development, but such extraction depletes the reserves, in the same way as an oil reservoir. The availability of correct information, before decisions are taken will lead to improved management of water resources, distributing the available resources for different uses according to their quality, and ultimately, to manage the resource. Nuclear science has developed a series of methodologies based on the use of naturally-occurring isotopes and artificial tracers to study the processes involved in the occurrence and circulation of water. The discipline called 'Isotope Hydrology' provides a deep insight into many parts of the water cycle; from the evaporation over the ocean or the continents, to the formation of surface runoff and ground water and in the discharge of aquifer systems into the ocean. Isotope hydrology, as a scientific and applied discipline in earth sciences, was created during the late 1950s and early 1960s, beyond the classical hydrological science. In these early stages, new methodologies

  1. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  2. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  3. Research cooperation report for fiscal 1997 on the environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1997 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku itaku gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This effort exerted in cooperation with the Philippines aims to solve problems related to water resources such as stable supply and pollution of water through developing a waste water treatment/water reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain, and low in price. The ultimate goal includes (1) the construction of a waste water treatment/water reuse system comprising an anaerobic reaction tank and activated charcoal absorption tower, easy to operate and maintain, and low in price, (2) the employment of goods procurable in the Philippines, the goods including carriers for use in the anaerobic reaction tank, microbes for use in both aerobic and anaerobic reaction tanks, and activated charcoal for use in waste water reutilization, and (3) the establishment of optimum operating conditions for the waste water treatment/water reuse system by use of a pilot plant and the transfer of operating and managing techniques to the Filipino counterpart. In this fiscal year, investigations are conducted to disclose the actualities of waste water treatment and water consumption by primary industries in the vicinity of Laguna de Bay, and the waste water to be the object of study and the place of pilot plant installation have been selected. Also conducted are investigations into the carrier, microbe, activated charcoal, etc., for use in the anaerobic reaction tank. (NEDO)

  4. 588 Department of Water Resources and Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of ... Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) .... discharges of industrial contaminants into.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During project study and design, major environmental impacts of water ... should be identified and made available for decision makers and the public. ... remotely sensed data can be analysed in GIS environment to generate data and map the ...

  6. Responding to National Water Resources Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    using GIS-based processes, risk-informed maps, and state-of-the- art science and technology. Seek sustainable water supplies as a basic safety net...comprehensive data and information collection, more rigorous and robust analysis using GIS-based processes, risk-informed maps, and state-of-the- art ... science and technology. Provide technical assistance for comprehensive and systems-oriented water planning at state, regional and even local

  7. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    models were used to model and predict the relationship between water resources mobilization WRM and response variables in the ... to the fast growing demand of urban and rural populations ... Meteorological Organization (WMO). They fall.

  8. Key challenges facing water resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource Managers The Dichotomy of Water Source of destruction, dispute and poverty • Drought and desertification • Flooding and erosion • Salinization • Malnutrition and starvation • Contamination • Epidemics and diseases • Dispute...

  9. Water in Africa: the paradoxes of a highly- coveted resource

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    available good quality, ... natural resource management and food security in Africa .... quality. Access to water is essential since it allows for the achievement of several goals: (i) to improve ... human health, (ii) to promote agricultural production.

  10. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  11. Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

  12. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... also be a valuable resource for graduate students in development studies and for ... In that position, he was responsible for a portfolio of more than 75 projects in 12 ... He holds a doctorate in city and regional planning from the University of ...

  13. Research Article (Human Resources for Health) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-14

    Jun 14, 2007 ... ... of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 4. ... six year Emergency Human Resource Programme aimed ... therefore to elucidate the extent of major surgical work ... back for review seven days after discharge. ... and 24 hour maternal condition, post-operative fever, wound.

  14. Strengthening Research Capacity to Enhance Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to Enhance Natural Resources Management and Improve Rural Livelihoods ... and contribute to the food and income security of the rural poor by enhancing the ... of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  15. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar Leal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996 water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010. This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never before experienced by our species, such as loss of biodiversity, global climate change, and changes in biogeochemical fluxes (Steffen et al. 2015. These crises, in addition to water crises, threaten our quality of life and even our ability to survive.

  16. Climate change: Implications for water and ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.; Sanderson, M.

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held to discuss the implications of climate change on water and ecological resources. The meeting consisted of a number of plenary sessions, luncheon speeches, an open forum, and five workshops. Presentations concerned regional and global issues, climate modelling, international aspects of climate change, water resources supply and demand, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries, agriculture and forests, and conservation strategies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 32 presentations from the conference

  17. Issues of governance in water resource management and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.; Schweitzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes governance arrangements in regional spatial planning and water resources management at the regional level from a normative point of view. It discusses the need to integrate spatial planning and resources management in order to deliver socially sustainable integral territorial

  18. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Cezar Leal; Carlos Christian Della Giustina; Cristiane Gomes Barreto; Vivian da Silva Braz

    2017-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996) water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010). This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never be...

  19. Water resources of Windward Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, K.J.; Hirashima, George Tokusuke; Lubke, E.R.

    1969-01-01

    Windward Oahu lies in a large cavity--an erosional remnant of the Koolau volcanic dome at its greatest stage of growth. Outcrops include volcanic rocks associated with caldera collapse and the main fissure zone which is marked by a dike complex that extends along the main axis of the dome. The fissure zone intersects and underlies the Koolau Range north of Waiahole Valley. South of Waiahole Valley, the crest of the Koolau Range is in the marginal dike zone, an area of scattered dikes. The crest of the range forms the western boundary of windward Oahu. Dikes, mostly vertical and parallel or subparallel to the fissure zone, control movement and discharge of ground water because they are less permeable than the rocks they intrude. Dikes impound or partly impound ground water by preventing or retarding its movement toward discharge points. The top of this water, called high-level water in Hawaii, is at an altitude of about 1,000 feet in the north end of windward Oahu and 400 feet near the south end in Waimanalo Valley. It underlies most of the area and extends near or to the surface in poorly permeable rocks in low-lying areas. Permeability is high in less weathered mountain areas and is highest farthest away from the dike complex. Ground-water storage fluctuates to some degree owing to limited changes in the level of the ground-water reservoir--maximum storage is about 60,000 million gallons. The fluctuations control the rate at which ground water discharges. Even at its lowest recorded level, the reservoir contains a major part of the storage capacity because most of the area is perennially saturated to or near the surface. Tunnels have reduced storage by about 26,000 million gallons--only a fraction of the total storage--by breaching dike controls. Much of the reduction in storage can be restored if the .breached dike controls are replaced by flow-regulating bulkheads. Perennial streams intersect high-level water and collectively form its principal discharge. The

  20. MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN PURSUIT OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN WATER RESOURCE GOVERNANCE IN BUHERA, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Chifamba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Women have the primary role for the management of household water supply, sanitation and health. Water is necessary for drinking, but also for food production and preparation, personal hygiene, care of the sick, cleaning, washing and waste disposal. Because of their dependence on water resources, women have accumulated considerable knowledge about water resources, including location, quality and storage methods. However, efforts geared towards improving the management of the finite water resources and extending access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, have often overlooked the central role that women play in water management. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The research noted that despite increased gender awareness and the availability of much more information on women's and men's roles in water management, gender is not yet mainstreamed into this sector. The study revealed that prospects for effective gender mainstreaming in water resource management will hinge on how the main agenda can address the transformation of gender relations and treat water as a human right so as to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in Buhera. A gender equity approach within the water sector, should strive for a more balanced division between women and men in access to information, sharing of contribution, the degree of decision making, access to resources and benefits and the control over water resources. Addressing women's concerns and mainstreaming gender in water governance through a livelihood approach is critical because this generates an understanding of people's livelihood strategies and their decision making mechanisms and processes. Significant support and capacity development are required to enhance the participation in decision making processes for the success of water management initiatives.

  1. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  2. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  3. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  4. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  5. Ecological Risk Assessment in Water Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US EPA published guidelines for the application of ecological risk assessment (ERA) in the USA in 1998 (US EPA 1998). The process diagram derived by Murray and Claassen (1999) in an evaluation of the US EPA framework is discussed in the context of the South African National Water Act. The evaluation discusses ...

  6. Earth, Air, Fire, & Water: Resource Guide 6. The Arts and Learning, Interdisciplinary Resources for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald T., Ed.

    This resource guide is intended to aid practitioners in the design of new curriculum units or the enrichment of existing units by suggesting activities and resources in the topic areas of earth, air, fire, and water. Special projects and trips relating to these topic areas are proposed. A sample arts networking system used to integrate various…

  7. Household-level heterogeneity of water resources within common-pool resource systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCord, Paul; Dell'angelo, Jampel; Gower, Drew; Caylor, Kelly K.; Evans, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated the ability of common property systems to sustain institutional arrangements governing natural resources over long periods of time. Much of this work has focused on irrigation systems where upstream users agree to management arrangements that distribute water resources

  8. Isotope techniques in water resources development and management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 10th International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with UNESCO, WMO and International Association of Hydrological Sciences and was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, during 10-14 May 1999. The symposium provided an international forum for assessing the status and recent advances in isotope applications to water resources and an exchange of information on the following main themes: processes at the interface between the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigations in surface waters and groundwaters: their origin, dynamics, interrelations; problems and techniques for investigating sedimentation; water resources issues: pollution, source and transport of contaminants, salinization, water-rock interaction and processes in geothermal systems; isotope data interpretation and evaluation methodologies: modelling approaches. The proceedings contain the 46 papers presented and extended synopses of poster presentations; each of them was indexed individually

  9. Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörösmarty, C J; Green, P; Salisbury, J; Lammers, R B

    2000-07-14

    The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

  10. Social Media Resources for Participative Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Qaed, Fatema; Briggs, Jo; Cockton, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We present our experiences of novel value from online social media for Participative Design (PD) research. We describe how particular social media (e.g. Facebook, Pinterest, WhatsApp and Twitter) were used during a five-year project on learning space design by the researcher and interested teachers across all research phases (contextual review, user studies, PD action research). Social media were used to source and share comments, photographs and video documentation, supporting participation ...

  11. Decision making in water resource planning: Models and computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedra, K; Carlsen, A J [ed.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes some basic concepts of simulation-based decision support systems for water resources management and the role of symbolic, graphics-based user interfaces. Designed to allow direct and easy access to advanced methods of analysis and decision support for a broad and heterogeneous group of users, these systems combine data base management, system simulation, operations research techniques such as optimization, interactive data analysis, elements of advanced decision technology, and artificial intelligence, with a friendly and conversational, symbolic display oriented user interface. Important features of the interface are the use of several parallel or alternative styles of interaction and display, indlucing colour graphics and natural language. Combining quantitative numerical methods with qualitative and heuristic approaches, and giving the user direct and interactive control over the systems function, human knowledge, experience and judgement are integrated with formal approaches into a tightly coupled man-machine system through an intelligent and easily accessible user interface. 4 drawings, 42 references.

  12. Natural resources research and management issues: 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Vogt; James Absher; Alan Graefe; Bill Hammitt; Linda Kruger; Jerry Vaske

    2008-01-01

    This year (2007) at the Northeastern Recreation Research (NERR) Symposium, we took the opportunity to reflect on the past 15 to 20 years of recreation research and discuss the opportunities and challenges that might face us in the next decade. The session utilized a panel to entertain four primary questions focused on recreation research. Following a panel presentation...

  13. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  14. Thoughts on access to water in Peru within the new Water Resources Law framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ruiz Ostoic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty involved addressing issues related with water management in Peru is the article’s starting point. Therefore, the water issue approach is introduced explaining its administrative procedures, the rights involved and making a critical analysis of 2008 Water Resources Law. Finally, the need for an integrated management analysis of the water resource is highlighted by integrally understanding the General Water Law as well as the current Water Resources Law, and encouraging dialogue among social actors involved in order to avoid future conflicts.

  15. Madaket Harbor, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Water Resources Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    will continue to be, important increases in the recreational use of land and water. The harbor area is an important arena for commercial shellfishing...an important arena for commercial shell fishing. The past few years have seen a rather rapid increase in residential land use. Construction has...beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY

  16. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  17. Generation of SEEAW asset accounts based on water resources management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the XXI century is related with the sustainable use of water. This is due to the fact that water is an essential element for the life of all who inhabit our planet. In many cases, the lack of economic valuation of water resources causes an inefficient water use. In this regard, society expects of policymakers and stakeholders maximise the profit produced per unit of natural resources. Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to achieve this goal. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW) is displayed as a tool for water allocation which enables the building of water balances in a river basin. The main concern of the SEEAW is to provide a standard approach which allows the policymakers to compare results between different territories. But building water accounts is a complex task due to the difficulty of the collection of the required data. Due to the difficulty of gauging the components of the hydrological cycle, the use of simulation models has become an essential tool extensively employed in last decades. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a database that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL DSSS to fill in the SEEAW tables. This research is framed within the Water Accounting in a Multi-Catchment District (WAMCD) project, financed by the European Union. Its main goal is the development of water accounts in the Mediterranean Andalusian River Basin District, in Spain. This research pretends to contribute to the objectives of the "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources". It is noteworthy that, in Spain, a large part of these methodological decisions are included in the Spanish Guideline of Water Planning with normative status guaranteeing consistency and comparability of the results.

  18. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No. 14 of year 2002 and Water Supply Act No.12 of year 2009 among others. However the mechanisms processes and institutions through which all stakeholders articulate their priorities exercise their legal rights meet their obligations and mediate their differences is still missing. This study employed descriptive exploratory research design. Data collection was done by the use of both structured and semi structured interview to respondents who were both purpose and simple randomly selected observation and focus group discussion. Review of reports from Districts and Basin offices and internet to access relevant secondary information was done. Results show that WUAs LGAs and WSSAs lack relevant understanding capacities management and law enforcement as result water management generally remains non participatory inefficient and expensive and increased water user conflicts in Kisangata and Ilonga WUAs of Mkondoa sub catchment Morogoro region. The study propose participatory approaches best practices on water resource management at local level for embracement of Community- Based Water Resource Management as the only option of managing sub catchment water resources and reduce water related conflicts among water users. Awareness creation on policy and establishment of alternative economic activities like horticulture bee keeping and poultry is significant to give relief to land.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Effects of climate change on evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Oliver; Hambira, Wame L.

    2018-06-01

    In semi-arid developing countries, most poor people depend on contaminated surface or groundwater resources since they do not have access to safe and centrally supplied water. These water resources are threatened by several factors that include high evapotranspiration rates. In the Okavango Delta region in the north-western Botswana, communities facing insufficient centrally supplied water rely mainly on the surface water resources of the Delta. The Delta loses about 98% of its water through evapotranspiration. However, the 2% remaining water rescues the communities facing insufficient water from the main stream water supply. To understand the effects of climate change on evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources, this study analysed trends in the main climatic parameters needed as input variables in evapotranspiration models. The Mann Kendall test was used in the analysis. Trend analysis is crucial since it reveals the direction of trends in the climatic parameters, which is helpful in determining the effects of climate change on evapotranspiration. The main climatic parameters required as input variables in evapotranspiration models that were of interest in this study were wind speeds, solar radiation and relative humidity. Very little research has been conducted on these climatic parameters in the Okavango Delta region. The conducted trend analysis was more on wind speeds, which had relatively longer data records than the other two climatic parameters of interest. Generally, statistically significant increasing trends have been found, which suggests that climate change is likely to further increase evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources.

  1. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  2. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  3. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the feed forward multilayer perceptron models with back propagation are useful tools to define and prioritize the most effective response variable on water resources mobilization to intervene and solve water problems. The model evaluation shows that the correlation coefficients are more than 96% ...

  4. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  5. The pluralistic water research concept - a new human-water system research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda; Garcia-Santos, Glenda

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management has been and still is a main challenge for decision makers even though for the past number of decades integrative approaches and concepts (e.g. Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) have been developed to address problems on floods, droughts, water quality, water quantity, environment and ecology. Although somehow these approaches are aiming to address water related problems in an integrative approach and to some extent include or involve society in the planning and management, they still lack some of the vital components in including the social dimensions and their interaction with water. Understanding these dynamics in a holistic way and how they are shaped by time and space may tackle these shortcomings and provide more effective and sustainable management solutions with respect to a set of potential present social actions and values as well as possible futures. This paper aims to discuss challenges to coherently and comprehensively integrate the social dimensions of different human-water concepts like IWRM, socio-hydrology and waterscape. Against this background it will develop criteria for an integrative approach and present a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR) concept. PWR is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to acknowledge the social and water dimensions and their interaction and dynamics by considering more than one perspective of a water-related issue, hereby providing a set of multiple (future) developments. Our PWR concept will be illustrated by a case study application of the Canary island La Gomera. Furthermore an outlook on further possible developments of the PWR concept will be presented and discussed.

  6. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  7. Water Resources of Israel: Trackrecord of the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai S. Orlovsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a country in the Near East consisting for 95% of the arid regions in which 60% of the territory are covered by the Negev Desert. Therefore, the water resources are scant here and formed mostly by atmospheric precipitations. In the period from 1989 to 2005 the average precipitations were 6 billion cu. m, of which 60–70% were evaporated soon after rainfalls, at least 5% run down by rivers into the sea (mostly in winter and the remaining 25% of precipitations infiltrated into soil from where the greater part of water got into the sea with ground waters. In Israel there are two groups of water resources: surface and underground. Israel is not rich in surface waters. The natural reservoir of surface fresh water is the Kinneret Lake in the northeast of the country. It gets water from the Jordan River and its tributaries. The average annual amount of available water of this lake is around 370 million cu. m, which accounts for one-third of the country’s water needs and still higher share of the drinking water needs. The greater part of fresh waters (37% of water supply of Israel as of 2011 in this country is supplied from ground water sources. Owing to insufficiency of available natural resources, unevenness of precipitations by years and seasons and with the growth of the population and economic development the issues of provision with the quality drinking water of the population as well as agriculture and industry, rehabilitation of natural environment cause permanently growing concern. In view of the water shortage untiring efforts have been taken to improve the irrigation efficiency and to reduce water use by improving the efficacy of irrigation techniques and application of advanced system management approaches. Among the water saving technologies applied in Israel there are: drop irrigation, advanced filtration, up to date methods of water leak detection from networks, rainwater collection and processing systems. At the same time

  8. International symposium on isotope hydrology and integrated water resources management. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Scarcity of freshwater, degradation of its quality, and increasing demand has motivated ongoing concern in the international community for more effective utilization of freshwater resources. The IAEA's symposia on the use of isotope techniques in water resources development and management have become a recurrent event held every four years. They have provided an international forum for a comprehensive review of the present state-of-the-art and recent advances made in this specific field as well as a basis for delineation of further research and development needs. The year 2003 marks the 40th anniversary of the first IAEA water resources symposium. Increasing use of isotope techniques over the past four decades, in part due to efforts of IAEA, has enhanced availability and effective use of isotopes to address water resources management issues. The Symposium covers a multi-disciplinary spectrum of research and applications of isotope techniques. The participation of isotope specialists, hydrologists, hydrogeologists, geochemists, environmental scientists and water managers is welcomed. The Organizers further encourage the participation and contribution of graduate students in these fields. The major areas covered include: Water cycle processes in the atmosphere and hydrosphere, including surface water, groundwater, and watershed-based studies, age dating of young groundwaters, water, carbon and nutrient cycling processes at the land-ocean-atmosphere interface, recent advances in analytical techniques for isotope hydrology and field applications of isotopes in groundwater or surface water resources management. This book of synopses covers oral presentations and poster sessions.

  9. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  10. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  11. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  12. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  13. Essentials and Targets of Water Resources Management in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutuku, J. Mutinga

    2006-01-01

    Fresh water comprises of 3% of the global waters and the rest is saline and not suitable for consumption without subjecting it to expensive treatment. Water is associated with development since civilization started in areas where water was easily accessible. However, much of the 3% is locked up in the ice caps. Water scarcity in any community is associated with abject poverty. The ecosystem functions of water and it's interactions with other environmental resources are least appreciated which has contributed to over exploitation, misuse, contamination, impairment and degradation of water bodies and their catchments. Over-exploitation of ground water in some coastal areas has in turn led to of seawater into freshwater aquifers and therefore making the water from aquifers unaccessible due to salinity

  14. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  15. H. R. 2253 - the Ground Water Research, Development and Demonstration Act, and H. R. 791 - the National Ground Water Contamination Information Act of 1987. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, First Session, July 21, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Until a few years ago, many believed that ground water was naturally protected in some way from manmade sources of contamination; painfully, it has been learned that this is not the case. In 1984 alone, water in some 8000 wells across the country was reported to be unusable or degraded due to ground-water contamination. Threats to ground-water purity come from many sources: from hazardous wastes, septic tanks, road salts during the wintertime, pesticides and fertilizers, sanitary landfills, and oil and gas explorations. Unseen, these toxic chemicals have entered once safe and pure drinking-water supplies. Efforts to protect ground water have been hampered by lack of scientific information about how ground-water contaminants move in ground water, how they change, how long they last. Existing technologies for detecting, monitoring, and mitigating ground-water pollutants are limited and expensive. Little or no information, for example, is available on the potential health effects of many ground-water contaminants. In this hearing, witnesses from the Environmental Protection Agency, the US Geological Survey, and the private sector, familiar with ground-water research needs, testify to provide the subcommittee with information for effective ground-water research legislation.

  16. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  17. Payments for Ecosystem Services for watershed water resource allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Zang, Wenbin; Guo, Wenxian; Qian, Zhan; Liu, Laisheng; Zhao, Jinyong; Feng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Watershed water resource allocation focuses on concrete aspects of the sustainable management of Ecosystem Services (ES) that are related to water and examines the possibility of implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for water ES. PES can be executed to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives and demands. Considering the importance of calculating PES schemes at the social equity and cooperative game (CG) levels, to quantitatively solve multi-objective problems, a water resources allocation model and multi-objective optimization are provided. The model consists of three modules that address the following processes: ① social equity mechanisms used to study water consumer associations, ② an optimal decision-making process based on variable intervals and CG theory, and ③ the use of Shapley values of CGs for profit maximization. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for realizing sustainable development was examined. First, an optimization model with water allocation objective was developed based on sustainable water resources allocation framework that maximizes the net benefit of water use. Then, to meet water quality requirements, PES cost was estimated using trade-off curves among different pollution emission concentration permissions. Finally, to achieve equity and supply sufficient incentives for water resources protection, CG theory approaches were utilized to reallocate PES benefits. The potential of the developed model was examined by its application to a case study in the Yongding River watershed of China. Approximately 128 Mm3 of water flowed from the upper reach (Shanxi and Hebei Provinces) sections of the Yongding River to the lower reach (Beijing) in 2013. According to the calculated results, Beijing should pay USD6.31 M (¥39.03 M) for water-related ES to Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is an available tool that can be used for sustainable development with resolving PES

  18. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  19. A scientometric examination of the performance of water research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Regular assessment of the state of water research and development (R&D) in South Africa is a necessary ... require intelligent allocation of resources, which presupposes ..... search strategy identifying keywords in the titles (TTL) of .... POURIS A (2008) Energy & fuels research in South Africa: A compara-.

  20. Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased demands for water and land in Indonesia as a consequence of the population growth and economic development has reportedly have been accelerated from the year to year. The spatial and temporal variability of human induced hydrological changes in a river basin could affect quality and quantity of water. The challenge is that integrated water resources management (IWRM should cope with complex issues of water in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Even though the government of Indonesia has adopted new paradigm for water resources management by the enactment of Law No. 7/2004 on water resources, the implementation of IWRM may face the technical and managerial challenges. This paper briefly reviews the implementation of IWRM and related principles and provides an overview of potential water-related issues and progress towards implementation of IWRM in Indonesia. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem-solving ability.

  1. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  2. Evaluating water resources in California using a synoptic typing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Derek W.

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range is the key component of water resources in California, and hence has been extensively investigated by many researchers. This study focuses on establishing a link between hemispheric-scale forcing mechanisms and the spring snowpack through a synoptic pathway. Daily meteorological data from Fresno, CA for the snow accumulation season from November to March over the period from 1950 to 2011 is used in a synoptic typing procedure in order to classify days with similar meteorological conditions into groups representing individual synoptic types. Twelve synoptic types are classified and subsequently related to 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) values. One synoptic type proved to be particularly important for the magnitude of the spring snowpack explaining 50% to 70% of the variance in 1 April SWE at most snow courses. High frequencies of this synoptic type are found to be associated with the warm phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the negative phase of the Tropical Northern Hemisphere pattern. Moreover, univariate and multiple linear regression analyses show that this synoptic type is significantly related to indices of the Pacific Hadley-Walker circulation during the snow accumulation season and during the preceding fall. During the snow accumulation season the Northern Oscillation Index explains 43% of the variance while during the preceding fall the Southern Oscillation Index accounts for 23% of the variance in this synoptic type. Thus, a more complete understanding of tropical and extra-tropical interactions associated with the Pacific Hadley-Walker circulation may provide a basis for forecasting synoptic-scale conditions conducive to producing heavy snowfall and thereby California's water supply earlier in the water year.

  3. Water resources management and European integration of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the main elements important for understanding the obligations arising from the process of accession of the Republic of Serbia (RS to the European Union (EU as related to water resources management. The general framework is determined by the importance of water resources for contemporary international relations as well as the rules governing the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation. This paper provides an overview of the most important regulations of the RS and the EU in the field of water resources management, including its status in international treaties. Drawing upon the rules governing the harmonization process, the paper provides indicators of the achieved level of compliance of national legislation with key EU regulations in the field of water resources management. The provided analysis is based on the premise that the process of joining the EU is the main factor that determines the current position and policy of RS in the field of water resources management. In that context, management of water resources falls into the group of EU regulations which are, within the framework of Chapter 27, most difficult to transpose and apply in the internal legal system. Although the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation has been underway as regards a vast number of regulations, the process of reaching full compliance is likely to take a couple of years. Concurrently, it has been estimated that the full implementation of legislation harmonized with the EU legislation will take at least two decades, primarily due to the substantial financial resources to be invested in the development of water infrastructure. In terms of participation in the activities undertaken within the framework of international agreements in the field of water resources management and the state's membership in relevant international treaties, it is noted that in the last decade the RS has

  4. A review of inexact optimization modeling and its application to integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Yin; Tan, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Water is crucial in supporting people's daily life and the continual quest for socio-economic development. It is also a fundamental resource for ecosystems. Due to the associated complexities and uncertainties, as well as intensive competition over limited water resources between human beings and ecosystems, decision makers are facing increased pressure to respond effectively to various water-related issues and conflicts from an integrated point of view. This quandary requires a focused effort to resolve a wide range of issues related to water resources, as well as the associated economic and environmental implications. Effective systems analysis approaches under uncertainty that successfully address interactions, complexities, uncertainties, and changing conditions associated with water resources, human activities, and ecological conditions are desired, which requires a systematic investigation of the previous studies in relevant areas. Systems analysis and optimization modeling for integrated water resources management under uncertainty is thus comprehensively reviewed in this paper. A number of related methodologies and applications related to stochastic, fuzzy, and interval mathematical optimization modeling are examined. Then, their applications to integrated water resources management are presented. Perspectives of effective management schemes are investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced research efforts, which include issues of data availability and reliability, concerns over uncertainty, necessity of post-modeling analysis, and the usefulness of the development of simulation techniques.

  5. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  6. Report for fiscal 1998. Joint research of environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research is conducted in cooperation with Industrial Technology Development Institute of the Philippines, and aims to solve water related problems such as unstable water supply and water quality pollution though developing a waste water treatment and recycling system which is easy to operate and maintain, low in cost, and usable in the Philippines. Fiscal 1998 is the second year of the project. Statistics are studied about the load that each industrial branch imposes on water for its pollution, and it is found that food manufacturers, paper pulp mills, and fiber dyeing plants are heavily responsible for water pollution. A method consisting of single-tower UASB anaerobic treatment and activated sludge treatment is applied as a water treatment process to Ram Food Products Corporation, and its optimization is studied. A removal rate 60% is achieved after a 12-hour treatment period at a COD (chemical oxygen demand) rate of 8g/liter/day. A method consisting of coagulating sedimentation and activated sludge treatment is applied to the waste water from a Solid Mill Corporation dyeing plant, when it is found that the water after ultimate treatment is almost colorless and that COD is 76mg/liter and BOD (biological oxygen demand) 13mg/liter, and these suggest that the waste water is recyclable. Since it is low in COD removing rate, the application of anaerobic treatment to high-concentration water after washing is not appropriate. (NEDO)

  7. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria...

  8. RESOURCES OF CANADIAN ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOWNS, ROBERT B.

    ALTHOUGH IT EMPHASIZES ACADEMIC LIBRARIES, THIS STUDY ALSO INCLUDES THE NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL LIBRARIES, LARGE PUBLIC LIBRARIES, AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES THAT SERVE CANADIAN SCHOLARS, STUDENTS, AND RESEARCH WORKERS. WITH THE DATA OBTAINED FROM A QUESTIONNAIRE ON LIBRARY STATISTICS AND HOLDINGS, VISITS TO THE LIBRARIES, INTERVIEWS WITH LIBRARIANS…

  9. Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Britto, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    The increasing interaction between large cities and nature makes "urban water" an issue: water resources and water services - including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and in large cities, storm water control -, which had become separate issues thanks to the process of water transport and treatment technologies, are now increasingly interfering with each other. We cannot take nature for granted anymore, and we need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water industry technologies in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, in their socio-economic and political context, tracing it through three "ages" of water technology and services which developed under civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering perspectives: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm was developed on the assumption that water should be drawn from natural environments far from the cities; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitation engineering paradigm, water treatment was invented and allowed cities to take water from rivers closer to them and treat it, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; finally, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  10. Waters Without Borders: Scarcity and the Future of State Interactions over Shared Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    earth’s water is fresh water , stored in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, permanent snow, groundwater aquifers, and the atmosphere. 10 This... freshwater resources between and within countries. 13 There is significant media attention given to intra-state water sharing issues. One...intrusion into coastal ground freshwater sources, among other effects. Consequently, water scarcity brought about by climate change could drive

  11. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  12. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  13. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  14. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  15. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout their existence, humans use the water of rivers, lakes and underground sources not only for water supply but also for dumping of polluted waters and wastes into it. Significant development of urbanization, concentration of urban industrial enterprises, transport, increase in mining, expansion of drainage and irrigation reclamation, plowing of the river channels, creating a large number of landfills resulted in significant, and in some regions critical, depletion and contamination of the surface and ground waters. Because of this disastrous situation, the society is getting more and more concerned about the state of the environment. The public became increasingly interested in the state of the soil cover, air, water resources, and biotic diversity. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is situated in the heart of Europe, bordered by four Central European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania and two regions of Ukraine (Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is one of the richest regions of Ukraine in terms of water resources. The territory is permeated by the dense network of rivers. There are in total 9,429 rivers of 19,866 kmlength flowing in the region. Among them, the rivers Tysa, Borzhava, Latoryca, Uzh have the length of over 100 kmeach. 25 cities and urban settlements of the area are substantially provided with the centralized water intake of underground drinking water. The rural areas have virtually no centralized water supply; mainly, it is carried out due to domestic wells or water boreholes. Predicted resources of underground drinking waters in the region are equal to 1,109,300 m3/day. The use of fresh water in 2014 per capita amounted to 23,769 m3, 15% less than in 2009. The main pollutants of surface water bodies are the facilities of utility companies in the region. Analysis of studies of surface water quality in Transcarpathian region in 2014 shows that water quality meets the

  16. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  17. Issues of governance in water resource management and spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.; Schweitzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes governance arrangements in regional spatial planning and water resources management at the regional level from a normative point of view. It discusses the need to integrate spatial planning and resources management in order to deliver socially sustainable integral territorial management. To accomplish this, the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) was analysed as a case study, in order to demonstrate the challenges met by public administrators and planners regarding the ...

  18. Governance of water resources in Colombia: Between progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamudio Rodriguez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This work is an overview of water management in Colombia, emphasizing governance as a key element in this type of process. Therefore, from the collection and analysis of secondary data, identifies the evolution of water management in the country and, to that extent, aspects that reveal a crisis of governance in this area. In this sense, initially some relevant issues are raised in order to analyze the integrated water resource management and water governance. Later, it addresses factors that show that, despite significant progress in water management in the country, it is still to emerge a comprehensive approach that considers multiple criteria to provide governance on water resources. Thus, we propose that there is a crisis of governance on water expressed in terms of lack of experience and international context, lack of coordination and dispersion of water policy, ignorance of the various forms of local government, a wrong perception on the water abundance and richness of the country, and dissimulation or disinterest ignoring the many pressures that threaten water.

  19. Water, Energy, and Food Nexus: Modeling of Inter-Basin Resources Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIm, T. W.; Kang, D.; Wicaksono, A.; Jeong, G.; Jang, B. J.; Ahn, J.

    2016-12-01

    The water, energy, and food (WEF) nexus is an emerging issue in the concern of fulfilling the human requirements with a lack of available resources. The WEF nexus concept arises to develop a sustainable resources planning and management. In the concept, the three valuable resources (i.e. water, energy, and food) are inevitably interconnected thus it becomes a challenge for researchers to understand the complicated interdependency. A few studies have been committed for interpreting and implementing the WEF nexus using a computer based simulation model. Some of them mentioned that a trade-off is one alternative solution that can be taken to secure the available resources. Taking a concept of inter-basin water transfer, this study attempts to introduce an idea to develop a WEF nexus model for inter-basin resources trading simulation. Using the trading option among regions (e.g., cities, basins, or even countries), the model provides an opportunity to increase overall resources availability without draining local resources. The proposed model adopted the calculation process of an amount of water, energy, and food from a nation-wide model, with additional input and analysis process to simulate the resources trading between regions. The proposed model is applied for a hypothetic test area in South Korea for demonstration purposes. It is anticipated that the developed model can be a decision tool for efficient resources allocation for sustainable resources management. Acknowledgements This study was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government.

  20. Interventions and Interactions: Understanding Coupled Human-Water Dynamics for Improved Water Resources Management in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding coupled human-water dynamics offers valuable insights to address fundamental water resources challenges posed by environmental change. With hydropower reshaping human-water interactions in mountain river basins, there is a need for a socio-hydrology framework—which examines two-way feedback loops between human and water systems—to more effectively manage water resources. This paper explores the cross-scalar interactions and feedback loops between human and water systems in river basins affected by run-of-the-river hydropower and highlights the utility of a socio-hydrology perspectives to enhance water management in the face of environmental change. In the Himalayas, the rapid expansion of run-of-the-river hydropower—which diverts streamflow for energy generation—is reconfiguring the availability, location, and timing of water resources. This technological intervention in the river basin not only alters hydrologic dyanmics but also shapes social outcomes. Using hydropower development in the highlands of Uttarakhand, India as a case study, I first illustrate how run-of-the-river projects transform human-water dynamics by reshaping the social and physical landscape of a river basin. Second, I emphasize how examining cross-scalar feedbacks among structural dynamics, social outcomes, and values and norms in this coupled human-water system can inform water management. Third, I present hydrological and social literature, raised separately, to indicate collaborative research needs and knowledge gaps for coupled human-water systems affected by run-of-the-river hydropower. The results underscore the need to understand coupled human-water dynamics to improve water resources management in the face of environmental change.

  1. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  2. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  3. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  4. Chinese water policy for sustainable water resources: Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China has no option but to press on with the implementation of the National Water Initiative as stated by its government in ''Document No. 1". One might observe that it can be a bit heavy in political terms. Most hydrological means are pretty meaningless in reality. Though the nation is not sure if it can handle such a project ...

  5. StreamStats: A water resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Guthrie, John G.; Rea, Alan H.; Steeves, Peter A.; Stewart, David W.

    2008-01-01

    . Streamflow measurements are collected systematically over a period of years at partial-record stations to estimate peak-flow or low-flow statistics. Streamflow measurements usually are collected at miscellaneous-measurement stations for specific hydrologic studies with various objectives.StreamStats is a Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application that was created by the USGS, in cooperation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI)1, to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats functionality is based on ESRI’s ArcHydro Data Model and Tools, described on the Web at http://resources.arcgis.com/en/communities/hydro/01vn0000000s000000.htm. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information for USGS data-collection stations and user-selected ungaged sites. It also allows users to identify stream reaches that are upstream and downstream from user-selected sites, and to identify and obtain information for locations along the streams where activities that may affect streamflow conditions are occurring. This functionality can be accessed through a map-based user interface that appears in the user’s Web browser, or individual functions can be requested remotely as Web services by other Web or desktop computer applications. StreamStats can perform these analyses much faster than historically used manual techniques.StreamStats was designed so that each state would be implemented as a separate application, with a reliance on local partnerships to fund the individual applications, and a goal of eventual full national implementation. Idaho became the first state to implement StreamStats in 2003. By mid-2008, 14 states had applications available to the public, and 18 other states were in various stages of implementation.

  6. Risk, Robustness and Water Resources Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; Guillod, Benoit P.

    2018-03-01

    Risk-based water resources planning is based on the premise that water managers should invest up to the point where the marginal benefit of risk reduction equals the marginal cost of achieving that benefit. However, this cost-benefit approach may not guarantee robustness under uncertain future conditions, for instance under climatic changes. In this paper, we expand risk-based decision analysis to explore possible ways of enhancing robustness in engineered water resources systems under different risk attitudes. Risk is measured as the expected annual cost of water use restrictions, while robustness is interpreted in the decision-theoretic sense as the ability of a water resource system to maintain performance—expressed as a tolerable risk of water use restrictions—under a wide range of possible future conditions. Linking risk attitudes with robustness allows stakeholders to explicitly trade-off incremental increases in robustness with investment costs for a given level of risk. We illustrate the framework through a case study of London's water supply system using state-of-the -art regional climate simulations to inform the estimation of risk and robustness.

  7. Utilization of saline water and land: Reclaiming lost resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Mujtaba

    2001-01-01

    There is an abundance of saline water on the globe. Large tracts of land are arid and/or salt-affected, and a large number of plant species are known to be salt-tolerant. It would seem obvious that salt tolerant plants (halophytes) have a role in utilizing the two wasted resources, saline water and wastelands. We will briefly describe how these resources can be fruitfully utilized and how the IAEA has helped several countries to demonstrate the possibility of cultivating salt tolerant plant species on arid saline wastelands for economic and environmental benefit. After some brief introductory remarks we will discuss the results of the project

  8. How Solar Resource Data supports Research and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The presentation describes the methods of renewable resource data, how the research and development will benefits from Renewable Resource Atlas and how institutions will leverage the solar monitoring station data to support renewable energy project deployment in other locations throughout the Kingdom.

  9. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  10. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  11. Partnerships panel: natural, resource partnerships: literature synthesis and research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Selin; Nancy Myers

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of an annotated bibliography on natural resource partnerships. Resource areas and management functions addressed in the partnership literature are examined. Partnership research is summarized and broken into categories including: Partnership outcomes, assessing the potential for partnerships, characteristics of successful partnerships,...

  12. Water resources planning in a strategic context: Linking the water sector to the national economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter; Hurst, Christopher; Harshadeep, Nagaraja

    1993-07-01

    In many parts of the developing world investment in water resources takes a large proportion of the available public investment funds. As the conflicts for funds between the water and other sectors become more severe, the traditional ways of analyzing and planning water investments has to move away from project-by-project (or even a river basin-by-river basin) approaches to include the relationships of water investments to other sectors and to overall national development policies. Current approaches to water resources investments are too narrow. There is a need for ways to expand the strategic thinking of water sector managers. This paper develops a water resources planning methodology with the primary objective of giving insights into the linking of water sector investments and macroeconomic policies. The model optimizes the present value of investments for water resources development, while embedding a macroeconomic model into the framework to allow for an examination of the interactions between water investments, the growth in the agricultural sector, and the performance of the overall economy. A case study of Bangladesh is presented which shows how strategic thinking could lead to widely differing implications for water investments than would conventional water resources systems planning models.

  13. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  14. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  15. Western Water Resources: Coming Problems and the Policy Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Richard

    This quote from the book leads one to speculate as to what will happen to water policy in these times of increased concern for reducing federal spending, for more reliance on state and local governments as opposed to the federal government, and for more reliance on the private sector as opposed to any level of governmental control. Remembering that a wrenching debate preceded deregulation of oil and other energy prices, what are the opportunities for deregulation in the water resources field?Western Water Resources consists of the proceedings of a symposium held in Denver in September 1979 and Hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. As in any conference, there is, in addition to the organized substantive content of the papers, a mixture of the clever and the banal, peppered with some humor and chit-chat. Among the contributors are economists, including Charles Howe, Allen Kneese, Emery Castle, and Kenneth Boulding; legal scholars, such as George Radosevich and Frank Trelease; and political figures, such as Scott Matheson, Governor of Utah, Guy Martin, former Assistant Secretary for Land and Water Resources of the Department of the Interior, and Leo Eisel, former Director of the Water Resources Council. Some papers are followed by a discussion from commentors.

  16. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement 34, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to pesticides, hazardous…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement 32, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to pesticides, hazardous…

  19. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  20. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  1. Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  2. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego

    2017-10-01

    The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

  3. Turkish Science Teachers' Use of Educational Research and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Sözbilir, Mustafa; Sekerci, Ali Riza; Yildirim, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Research results demonstrate that there is a gap between educational research and practice. Turkey is not an exception in this case. This study aims to examine to what extent and how educational research and resources are being followed,understood and used in classroom practices by science teachers in Turkey. A sample of 968 science teachers…

  4. The Process of Creation and Consolidation Committees for Hydrographic Basin Management Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcos Lopes Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is among the most precious goods in Earth's environmental heritage, however, the economic activities have caused the contamination and degradation of surface and underground springs. Consequently, emerges the need to reconcile the development and the management of natural resources. Several national and international conferences have been taken place to spread this idea. In Brazil, this new model of water resources management is beginning to be implanted, culminating in the approval of The State Water Resources Policy and, later, in the National Water Resources Policy. This legislation takes the river basin as a regional unity of water planning and management. The objective of this work is to present the evolution of the process of organization and creation of river basin committees. Literature search as well as documentary analysis (minutes, decisions were used as research methodology. The experience of basin committees is considered an innovation for considering deliberative groups with effectively deliberative actions, incorporating guiding principles favoring shared management, taking as a support basis decentralization, integration and participation in the destiny of water resources in each region of the river basin. However, it is also necessary to intensify the involvement of users and other segments of society so that these groups can really work as "Water Parliament".

  5. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  6. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach in water governance in Lao PDR. Cases of hydropower and irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Water resources are essential for socio-economic development, enabling, for example, hydropower and irrigation. Water resources management and development are expected to become more complex and challenging and to involve new uncertainties as water development increases and accelerates in different water use sectors and is coupled with increasing population, urbanisation, and climate change. Hence, water resources need to be managed in more integrated and sustainable way, both in Lao PDR and in the whole Mekong Basin area. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has become a universal paradigm of enhancing and promoting sustainable and equal water resources management and use. However, integrating water functions is a very complex task as it involves many actors with different interests. This research analyses the application of the IWRM approach and the related principles of integration, decentralisation, and participation in the development and management of water resources in Laotian water regime at the water use sectors of hydropower and irrigation. A case study approach was used for the research and for the four appended articles in order to examine hydropower and irrigation sectors, institutional structures, and processes of institutional change - Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at constitutional, organisational, and operational levels. The constitutional level refers to water policy and law, organisational to water resource management, and operational to water use. The Management and Transition Framework (MTF) and one of its components, Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, have been used for the research to explore processes, institutions, and actors related to water governance reforms including the adoption of the IWRM paradigm, and to increase understanding of the strengths and weaknesses related to different institutional contexts and levels in Laotian water management. Through Action Situations, IAD and MTF have

  7. The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Michalski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Filarial worms cause a variety of tropical diseases in humans; however, they are difficult to study because they have complex life cycles that require arthropod intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts. Research efforts in industrialized countries are further complicated by the fact that some filarial nematodes that cause disease in humans are restricted in host specificity to humans alone. This potentially makes the commitment to research difficult, expensive, and restrictive. Over 40 years ago, the United States National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH-NIAID established a resource from which investigators could obtain various filarial parasite species and life cycle stages without having to expend the effort and funds necessary to maintain the entire life cycles in their own laboratories. This centralized resource (The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center, or FR3 translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal investigators by freeing up personnel costs on grants and allowing investigators to divert more funds to targeted research goals. Many investigators, especially those new to the field of tropical medicine, are unaware of the scope of materials and support provided by the FR3. This review is intended to provide a short history of the contract, brief descriptions of the fiilarial species and molecular resources provided, and an estimate of the impact the resource has had on the research community, and describes some new additions and potential benefits the resource center might have for the ever-changing research interests of investigators.

  8. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  9. Water Resources: the Central Component of the WEF Nexus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing population growth, consumption of natural resources, and deterioration of the environment coupled with climate change impacts (such as increased variability in precipitation) will challenge our abilities to provide water, energy and food (WEF) to the global populace. Less developed areas, such as the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, are particularly vulnerable to such resource issues due to immature governance and management structures and strategies. We introduce an integrated approach to resource security analysis, which traditionally has focused on the WEF components separately and apply the methods to a suite of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, we evaluate the inter-connected nature of WEF securities by considering physical, demographic, socioeconomic, health, and institutional parameters related to each of the resource securities and by analyzing the relationships among the metrics. For example, reported food deficits for countries are strongly correlated with reported levels of access to safe drinking water. Multivariate statistical analyses are applied to identify relationships among resources and to develop indices that robustly and comprehensively capture the WEF nexus. Our results indicate that water plays the central role in the WEF nexus, due to its extensive use for both food and energy production in these countries. This approach provides a framework for analyzing the WEF nexus in other regions of the world.

  10. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Normatov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  11. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  12. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  13. FY 2000 project on the research cooperation for the environmental response type water resource effective utilization system; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo taiogata mizu shigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of prevention of water pollution, stable water supply in the Philippines, etc., developmental study was made of a waste water treatment/water recycling system, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the operational study of Pilot Plant 1, for the waste water in the papermaking process of used paper recycling plant, development was studied of a waste water treatment/water recycling system. There occurred problems on minuteness, outflow, etc. of anaerobic granules, but those were caused by malfunction of SS removal equipment at plant side. The problems were solved by increasing flocculation/precipitation facilities. As to Pilot Plant 2 of which the R and D are planned to be started in April 2001, the food processing plant was surveyed for study, and SYSCORE was selected. Relating to the waste water treatment test of Pilot Plant 2, researchers of the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) of the Philippines conducted it under the guidance of the experimental data analysis. Besides, the paper carried out the training for technology spread/acceptance, technology spread seminar, support study in Japan, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Research cooperation project for fiscal 1999. Research cooperation on environment-compatible type water resource effective utilization system; 1999 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are made under this project to develop a wastewater treatment/regeneration system, easy to operate and maintain and low in cost, jointly with a Philippine research institute. Technologies are transferred to this institute concerning research and development, system designing, operation, maintenance, and management. The goal is to disseminate such technologies in the Philippines. As for fiscal 1999 endeavors, emphases are placed on the items described below. The Container Corporation which regenerates waste paper and the RAM Food Corporation which manufactures canned foods and pickles are selected as the sites for pilot plant research. Wastewater discharged by the two corporations is subjected to laboratory-scale wastewater treatment (combination of aerobic/anaerobic treatment and activated carbon adsorption), by which a pilot plant wastewater treatment process is determined and designing conditions are defined. As for activated carbon for advanced wastewater treatment, a fine grain sample, which is the lowest in price among activated coconut shell charcoals produced in the Philippines, is acquired, and tested for performance. A wastewater treatment pilot plant is complete at the Container Corporation, and has started operation. (NEDO)

  15. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current state and future challenges. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  16. Condition, use, and management of water resources among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... Issues related to use, management and control of water resources are as ... mainly on livestock production for their livelihood while 10% of the populations are .... materials such as cement, sand and stone, mix and construct, the ... is much neglected and the people are in high risk of waterborne diseases.

  17. Challenges and contradictions in Nigeria's water resources policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But considering the underdeveloped status of Nigeria, there are three critical sectors whose effective functionalities are synergistic for accomplishing the RBDAs ... Work should continue on the comprehensive Water Resources Bill through the process of consultation that promote inclusion, accountability, transparency, and ...

  18. Sewage disinfection towards protection of drinking water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolch, A

    2000-01-01

    Wastewater applied in agriculture for irrigation could replace the use of natural drinking-water resources. With respect to high concentrations of human pathogens wastewater has to be disinfected prior to use. This paper introduces disinfection methods with emphasis on UV irradiation.

  19. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  20. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    sanitary protection of water and related industries on the basis of the research the author came to the conclusion that the development of the Ukrainian legislation on health protection of water resources in the twentieth century has reflected all the deep transformation in our country: the proclamation of the Ukrainian People's Republic 1918 new attitude to water and other natural resources, as enshrined in the USSR the priority of social forms of ownership of water resources, based on which was built the system of government in this area with strict planning principle and the cost of administrative-command nature of power. After independence, the Ukrainian state was able to synthesize the design achievements of the historical development and lay the foundation of modern laws on sanitary protection of water resources in the context of globalization.

  1. 78 FR 16706 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  2. 75 FR 8106 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  3. 78 FR 67393 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate...

  4. 75 FR 82066 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  5. 76 FR 73674 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  6. From energy water use towards integration of multi-purpose water at the local scale. Modelling water resources and water uses for adapting to global changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulhe, P.; Hendrickx, F.; Samie, R.; SAUQUET, E.; Vidal, J.P.; Perrin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Water management within large catchments is a complex question related to local issues, with a high-impact potential for the EDF Group. That is why EDF R and D carried out a scientific study in the Garonne river basin upstream to Golfech, under the framework of a research program partly funded by the French Ministry of Ecology and in partnership with Irstea and the Adour-Garonne Water Agency. This project aims at assessing water availability under present-day conditions and under climate change scenarios in the 2030's, including a detailed analysis of pressure on water resources and actual management rules. Down-scaled IPCC AR4 precipitation and temperature scenarios for 2030 forecast a significant increase in summer temperatures (+ 4 deg. C), more limited in winter (+ 2 deg. C) and a less pronounced decrease in precipitation. This leads to a reduction of natural flows in summer as a result of increased potential evapotranspiration, a reduction in snow contribution and a shift towards earlier snow melt in the mountain basins. Regarding evolution of water uses, the results suggest a decrease of hydropower production, an increase in summer water releases to sustain low water and a lesser flexibility to meet needs of the electrical system. In parallel, a 20% increase in demand for irrigation is projected under 'business-as-usual' practices. This project highlights the challenges of water allocation policy-making that should be considered in a collective way. It opens the way towards a more operational consideration of a 'water resources' risk for both electrical production manager and producers. However, technical issues related to necessary tools for decision support remain. The extension of this type of study encompassing climate, water resources, water uses and socio-economic aspect is considered in other river basins. (authors)

  7. World water resources and water use: Modern assessment and outlook for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiklomanov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the world water resources, water use, and water availability has been made during 1991-1996. The assessment has been made in retrospective for the period 1921-1985, for 1995, and for the future (2000, 2010 and 2025)

  8. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  9. Vanishing Ponds and Regional Water Resources in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuei-An Liou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has a Subtropic to Tropical climate, but its precipitation varies widely in response to seasonal effects and weather events such as Typhoon and Meiyu systems. Precipitation must be held back in reservoirs to provide and regulate sufficient water supply. Balancing the irregular precipitation and increasing water demands generates tremendous pressure on water resources management for the water stored in the Shihmen Reservoir, which is the major unitary water supply system in the Greater Taoyuan Area. Such pressure will be significantly enlarged due to the huge 17 billion USD Taoyuan Aerotropolis Project. In earlier days many small artificial ponds (a common terminology in this article, including irrigation ponds, fishery ponds and others, were built to cope with water shortages in Taoyuan County. These small storage ponds provided a solution that resolved seasonal precipitation shortages. Unfortunately, these ponds have been vanishing one after another one due to regional industrialization and urbanization in recent decades and less than 40% of them still remain today. There is great urgency and importance to investigating the link between vanishing ponds and water resources management. Remote sensing technology was used in this study to monitor the environmental consequences in the Taoyuan area by conducting multi-temporal analysis on the changes in water bodies, i.e., ponds. SPOT satellite images taken in 1993, 2003, and 2010 were utilized to analyze and assess the importance of small-scale ponds as water conservation facilities. It was found that, during the seventeen years from 1993 - 2010, the number of irrigation ponds decreased by 35.94%. These ponds can reduce the burden on the major reservoir and increase the water recycling rate if they are properly conserved. They can also improve rainfall interception and surface detention capabilities, and provide another planning advantage for regional water management.

  10. The role of the municipality in water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carneiro de Noronha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes decentralization of the water resources management within the watershed, where the municipality problems are delimited. The analysis of the water management development in Brazil indicates that the legal framework is embedded in a process of decentralization. The Constitution of 1988 establishes that the superficial waters are goods of the Union and the States. Later, the National Water Resources Policy establishes the watershed as the territorial unit of management. However, the supervision and management of basins remain centralized and without providing an interconnection between water use and other environmental goods. Among the attributions of the municipality are the environmental enforcement, agricultural policy, definition of conservation units and management of the urban territory. The incorporation of these policies in an environmental zoning based in the water management allows better utilization of water availability and local participation in administrative decisions watershed through the municipality.

  11. Modeling U.S. water resources under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Strzepek, Kenneth; Schlosser, Adam; Jacoby, Henry; Gueneau, Arthur; Fant, Charles; Rausch, Sebastian; Reilly, John

    2014-04-01

    Water is at the center of a complex and dynamic system involving climatic, biological, hydrological, physical, and human interactions. We demonstrate a new modeling system that integrates climatic and hydrological determinants of water supply with economic and biological drivers of sectoral and regional water requirement while taking into account constraints of engineered water storage and transport systems. This modeling system is an extension of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model framework and is unique in its consistent treatment of factors affecting water resources and water requirements. Irrigation demand, for example, is driven by the same climatic conditions that drive evapotranspiration in natural systems and runoff, and future scenarios of water demand for power plant cooling are consistent with energy scenarios driving climate change. To illustrate the modeling system we select "wet" and "dry" patterns of precipitation for the United States from general circulation models used in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). Results suggest that population and economic growth alone would increase water stress in the United States through mid-century. Climate change generally increases water stress with the largest increases in the Southwest. By identifying areas of potential stress in the absence of specific adaptation responses, the modeling system can help direct attention to water planning that might then limit use or add storage in potentially stressed regions, while illustrating how avoiding climate change through mitigation could change likely outcomes.

  12. Efficient Use of Water Resources in the Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Colla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the steel sector water management aims at improving the sustainability of the production cycle, resulting in resource efficiency benefits and in reduced water demand and costs. To be reused, water needs to be cooled and desalinized to avoid salt concentration in water circulation systems. The presented work includes two case studies carried out in an integrated steelmaking plant, respectively, to evaluate the possible implementation of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis to reduce salt concentration in water streams and to investigate, through modelling and simulation, a process integration solution to improve water efficiency. Results showed that most salts are removed by reverse osmosis and that its coupling with ultrafiltration allows obtaining very high quality water; reuse of desalinated wastewater resulted in being more suitable and economically viable than its discharge. Moreover, modelling and simulation showed that the considered blowdown could be reused without significant changes in the receiving water network area. The industrial implementation of water recovery solutions can lead to a decrease of fresh water consumption, effluent discharge, and to improvement of product quality and equipment service life. The considered desalination technologies are transferable and easily implementable, and modelling and simulation are very useful in order to evaluate process modifications before real implementation.

  13. Water research for the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2013-01-01

    Let’s start with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Report 2012. Remember the target? Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Thanks to China and India the world has met the drinking water target in 2010,

  14. Investigation of Fungi in Drinking Water Resources as a Source of Contamination Tap Water in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: One of the most prominent concerns for the water consumers is pathogenic microorganism contamination. Wells and underground water resources are the main resources of drinking water in Sari city, Iran. The main objectives of the research project were to explore the distribution and frequency of mycoflora in wells and underground water resources of the city and their contamination effects on humans. Materials and methods: Three reservoirs and 18 wells or underground water resources were analyzed. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Each filter and 0.2 ml of suspension inoculated on SDA+CG media. For fungal growth, plates were incubated at 27’C for 7-10 days. The fungi were identified by standard mycological techniques. Results: Fungal colonies were isolated from all samples. From total of 160 fungal colonies isolated from wells water, 14 species of fungi were distinguished. Rhodotorula (54.4%, Monilinia (13.7%, Alternaria (6.9% were the most commonly isolated. Drechslera, Rhizopus, and Exserohilum (0.6% had the lowest frequency. There was no significant difference between fungal elements isolated from three major reservoirs (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study revealed that resources of drinking water from an area have to monitored and if its fungal CFU be greater than a certain value, medical and health preventive measures should be taken before the water is used by human. In this context, public and private awareness should also be provided through the media, broadcasting, teachers and scholars.

  15. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  16. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Paoloni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004. and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  17. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; Blanco, María del C.

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  18. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoloni, J.D.; Sequeira, M.E.; Esposito, M.E.; Fiorentino, C.E.; Blanco, M.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahia Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the Who (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  19. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure MIRRI: Strength through Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Stackebrandt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial resources have been recognized as essential raw materials for the advancement of health and later for biotechnology, agriculture, food technology and for research in the life sciences, as their enormous abundance and diversity offer an unparalleled source of unexplored solutions. Microbial domain biological resource centres (mBRC provide live cultures and associated data to foster and support the development of basic and applied science in countries worldwide and especially in Europe, where the density of highly advanced mBRCs is high. The not-for-profit and distributed project MIRRI (Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure aims to coordinate access to hitherto individually managed resources by developing a pan-European platform which takes the interoperability and accessibility of resources and data to a higher level. Providing a wealth of additional information and linking to datasets such as literature, environmental data, sequences and chemistry will enable researchers to select organisms suitable for their research and enable innovative solutions to be developed. The current independent policies and managed processes will be adapted by partner mBRCs to harmonize holdings, services, training, and accession policy and to share expertise. The infrastructure will improve access to enhanced quality microorganisms in an appropriate legal framework and to resource-associated data in a more interoperable way.

  20. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  1. Application of Isotope Techniques in the Assessment of Groundwater Resource in Water Resources Region 10, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Castañeda, Soledad S.; Abaño, Susan P.; Rongavilla, Luis S.; Castro, Joey

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has been the primary source of drinking water of about 50% of the people in the Philippines and the numbers continue to rise. However, data and information on groundwater resources are generally spasmodic or sparse in the country. A specific remedy to address this gap is the use of isotope hydrological techniques. A pilot project utilizing this technique was done in Water Resources Region X with the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of these approach in groundwater resources assessment. When optimized, the technique will be replicated in other areas of the country. Groundwater samples from springs deep wells hand pumps and dug wells and river water were collected within the study area from September 2012 to June 2014. Monthly integrated precipitation samples were also collected at different points within the study area from October 2012 to March 2015. Samples were analyzed for stable isotope (δ”2H and δ”1”8O) using Laser Water Isotope Analyzer and tritium for groundwater dating. Results showed that aquifers in the study area are recharged by infiltrated rain during the heavy rainfall moths (May to November for Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin, and December to April for Agusan Basin). Water in Agusan Basin is isotopically enriched compared with the water in Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin. There appears to be interaction between shallow unconfined aquifer and deep semi-confined aquifer in Cagayan de Oro City. Shallow aquifers appear to be recharged by local precipitation. Groundwater in the study area is of Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which is characteristic of dynamic water with short residence time. Tritium-helium aging puts the water at ages between 18 to 72 years. Recharged rates of 422 to 625 mm/year were calculated for Cagayan de Oro City.(author)

  2. Utilization of Web-Based Information Resources for Researchers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the postgraduate students and lectures of three universities in the state who are registered library users formed the population of the study. Two research ... The implication of the findings implies that university libraries that provide such resources effectively will help to promote academic scholarship and research.

  3. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  4. Otolaryngology Residency Program Research Resources and Scholarly Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villwock, Jennifer A; Hamill, Chelsea S; Nicholas, Brian D; Ryan, Jesse T

    2017-06-01

    Objective To delineate research resources available to otolaryngology residents and their impact on scholarly productivity. Study Design Survey of current otolaryngology program directors. Setting Otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods An anonymous web-based survey was sent to 98 allopathic otolaryngology training program directors. Fisher exact tests and nonparametric correlations were used to determine statistically significant differences among various strata of programs. Results Thirty-nine percent (n = 38) of queried programs responded. Fourteen (37%) programs had 11 to 15 full-time, academic faculty associated with the residency program. Twenty (53%) programs have a dedicated research coordinator. Basic science lab space and financial resources for statistical work were present at 22 programs (58%). Funding is uniformly provided for presentation of research at conferences; a minority of programs (13%) only funded podium presentations. Twenty-four (63%) have resident research requirements beyond the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate of preparing a "manuscript suitable for publication" prior to graduation. Twenty-five (67%) programs have residents with 2 to 3 active research projects at any given time. None of the investigated resources were significantly associated with increased scholarly output. There was no uniformity to research curricula. Conclusions Otolaryngology residency programs value research, evidenced by financial support provided and requirements beyond the ACGME minimum. Additional resources were not statistically related to an increase in resident research productivity, although they may contribute positively to the overall research experience during training. Potential future areas to examine include research curricula best practices, how to develop meaningful mentorship and resource allocation that inspires continued research interest, and intellectual stimulation.

  5. A scientometric examination of the water quality research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishy, P; Saroja, Renuka

    2018-03-16

    Water quality has emerged as a fast-developing research area. Regular assessment of research activity is necessary for the successful R&D promotion. Water quality research work carried out in different countries increased over the years, and the USA ranked first in productivity while India stands in the seventh position in quantity and occupies the ninth position in quality of the research output. India observes a steady growth in the water quality research. Four thousand six hundred sixteen articles from India assessed from the aspect of citations received distributions of source countries, institutes, journals, impact factor, words in the title, author keywords. The qualitative and quantitative analysis identifies the contributions of the major institutions involved in research. Much of the country's water quality research is carried out by universities, public research institutions and science councils, whereas the contribution from Ministry of water resources not so significant. A considerable portion of Indian research is communicated through foreign journals, and the most active one is Environmental Monitoring and Assessment journal. Twenty-one percent of work is reported in journals published from India and around 7% ages in open access journals. The study highlights that international collaborative research resulted in high-quality papers. The authors meticulously analyse the published research works to gain a deeper understanding of focus areas through word cluster analyses on title words and keywords. When many papers deal with 'contamination', 'assessment' and 'treatment', enough studies done on 'water quality index', 'toxicity', considerable work is carried out in environmental, agricultural, industrial and health problems related to water quality. This detailed scientometric study from 1,09,766 research works from SCI-E during 1986-2015 plots the trends and identifies research hotspots for the benefit to scientists in the subject area. This study

  6. Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario

  7. An Agent-based Modeling of Water-Food Nexus towards Sustainable Management of Urban Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, N.; Kanta, L.

    2017-12-01

    Growing population, urbanization, and climate change have put tremendous stress on water systems in many regions. A shortage in water system not only affects water users of a municipality but also that of food system. About 70% of global water is withdrawn for agriculture; livestock and dairy productions are also dependent on water availability. Although researchers and policy makers have identified and emphasized the water-food (WF) nexus in recent decade, most existing WF models offer strategies to reduce trade-offs and to generate benefits without considering feedback loops and adaptations between those systems. Feedback loops between water and food system can help understand long-term behavioral trends between water users of the integrated WF system which, in turn, can help manage water resources sustainably. An Agent-based modeling approach is applied here to develop a conceptual framework of WF systems. All water users in this system are modeled as agents, who are capable of making decisions and can adapt new behavior based on inputs from other agents in a shared environment through a set of logical and mathematical rules. Residential and commercial/industrial consumers are represented as municipal agents; crop, livestock, and dairy farmers are represented as food agents; and water management officials are represented as policy agent. During the period of water shortage, policy agent will propose/impose various water conservation measures, such as adapting water-efficient technologies, banning outdoor irrigation, implementing supplemental irrigation, using recycled water for livestock/dairy production, among others. Municipal and food agents may adapt conservation strategies and will update their demand accordingly. Emergent properties of the WF nexus will arise through dynamic interactions between various actors of water and food system. This model will be implemented to a case study for resource allocation and future policy development.

  8. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  9. Forest Influences on Climate and Water Resources at the Landscape to Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that climate controls the distribution, productivity and functioning of vegetation on earth, our knowledge about the role of forests in regulating regional climate and water resources is lacking. The studies on climate-forests feedbacks have received increasing attention from the climate change and ecohydrology research communities. The goal...

  10. Conflict management in natural resources : a study of land, water and forest conflicts in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their

  11. Simulation Games: The Future of Water Resources Education and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists rely on models of the water cycle to describe and predict problems of water scarcity in a changing climate, and to suggest adaptation strategies for securing future water needs. Yet these models are too often complicated for managers, the general public and for students to understand. Simpler modelling environments will help with finding solutions by engaging a broader segment of the population. Such environments will enable education at the earliest stages and collective action. I propose that simulation games can be an effective communication platform between scientists and 'non-experts' and that such games will shed light on problems of pollution and overuse of water resources. In the same way as pilots use flight simulators to become proficient at flying aircraft, simulation games—if underpinned by good science—can be used to educate the public, students and managers about how to best manage our water resources. I aim to motivate young scientists to think about using games to advance water education and management.

  12. The essential role of isotopes in studies of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In studies of surface water, isotope techniques are used to measure water runoff from rain and snow, flow rates of streams and rivers, leakage from lakes, reservoirs and canals and the dynamics of various bodies of water. Studies of groundwater resources (springs, wells) today are virtually unthinkable without isotope techniques. Basically, these techniques are simple and relatively quick. Among the many questions which may be asked of hydrologists about a given groundwater supply, often the most critical one concerns the safe yield so that the source will not run dry, or for a source to be 'mined', the total yield. Isotope techniques can be used to solve such problems as: identification of the origin of groundwater, determination of its age, flow velocity and direction, interrelations between surface waters and ground waters, possible connections between different aquifers, local porosity, transmissivity and dispersivity of an aquifer. The cost of such investigations is often small in comparison to the cost of classical hydrological techniques, and in addition they are able to provide information which sometimes cannot be obtained by other techniques. The IAEA provides assistance to countries in the application of isotope techniques in water resources studies and other hydrology field projects. The examples given of field studies are intended to give some idea of how these techniques are being applied to specific problems in various regions of the world. Most are discussed briefly, but in some cases a more detailed description has been given in order to demonstrate the application of environmental isotope techniques

  13. (Case Study: Underground Water Resources in Damghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Dashti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of recognition and optimal exploitation of underground water sources results from the fact that these resources contribute to 99% of total useable soft water of the world. In our country the agricultural sector is the main user of water among different economic sectors. Therefore, applying scientific and appropriate management measures and approaches for desired utilization of this production factor is critical. Taking into account of real value of water in water management of agricultural sector can lead to development of motivation required for saving its usage and also helps  its optimal allocation in production. Generally, water has two types of real prices. One is supplier (producer point of view and the second includes demander perspective. In this study, real price of water from producer and demander point of views was determined by the use of production function approach for wheat production at underground water sources (wells of Damghan. The required data were collected from 184 farmers of Damghan in agricultural year 2007-08. According to superior production function(Generalized Quadratic, economic value of water in wheat production is 403.2 Iranian rials and this is more than the usual value in the area

  14. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  15. Reallocation of Water Resources in the Arab Region: An Emerging Challenge in Water Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan Ambalam

    2014-01-01

    Water is an integral part of ecosystems. It is essential to earth’s living creatures and central to maintaining the earth’s ecosystems. In most part of the world, both water quantity andquality problems are becoming more acute, since the limited available water resource are being over-utilized and stressed beyond the sustainability point. The contemporary globalwater crises including inefficient use and lack of equitable distribution are mainly due to the crises of governance. Water governanc...

  16. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  17. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  18. Conflict management in natural resources : a study of land, water and forest conflicts in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/management practices. Five inter-connected conflict cases related to irrigation, Guthi -land, spring water source and forest-pasture land were examined and compared with elev...

  19. The Undergraduate Research Resources at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI), a former NASA tracking station located in western North Carolina, has been offering programs, campus, and instrument use for undergraduate research and learning experiences since 2000. Over these years, PARI has collaborated with universities and colleges in the Southeastern U.S. Sharing its campus with institutions of higher learning is a priority for PARI as part of its mission to "to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines."PARI is a 200 acre campus for environmental, earth, geological, physical, and astronomical sciences. For example, the PARI 26-m and 4.6-m radio telescopes are excellent for teaching electromagnetic theory, spectroscopy, atomic and molecular emission processes, and general physics and astronomy concepts. The PARI campus has lab and office space, data centers with high speed internet, distance learning capabilities, radio and optical telescopes, earth science sensors, housing and cafeteria.Also, the campus is in an excellent spot for environmental and biological sciences lab and classroom experiences for students. The campus has the capability to put power and Internet access almost anywhere on its 200 acre campus so experiments can be set up in a protected area of a national forest. For example, Earthscope operates a Plate Boundary Observatory sensor on campus to measure plate tectonic motion. And, Clemson University has an instrument measuring winds and temperatures in the Thermsophere. The use of thePARI campus is limited only by the creativity faculty to provide a rich educational environment for their students. An overview of PARI will be presented along with a summary of programs, and a summary of undergraduate research experiences over the past 15 years. Access to PARI and collaboration possibilities will be presented.

  20. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  1. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  2. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  3. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  4. Stress Testing Water Resource Systems at Regional and National Scales with Synthetic Drought Event Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. W.; Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Coxon, G.; Guillod, B. P.; Allen, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources systems can fail to deliver the services required by water users (and deprive the environment of flow requirements) in many different ways. In an attempt to make systems more resilient, they have also been made more complex, for example through a growing number of large-scale transfers, optimized storages and reuse plants. These systems may be vulnerable to complex variants of hydrological variability in space and time, and behavioural adaptations by water users. In previous research we have used non-parametric stochastic streamflow generators to test the vulnerability of water resource systems. Here we use a very large ensemble of regional climate model outputs from the weather@home crowd-sourced citizen science project, which has generated more than 30,000 years of synthetic weather for present and future climates in the UK and western Europe, using the HadAM3P regional climate model. These simulations have been constructed in order to preserve prolonged drought characteristics, through treatment of long-memory processes in ocean circulations and soil moisture. The weather simulations have been propagated through the newly developed DynaTOP national hydrological for Britain, in order to provide low flow simulations at points of water withdrawal for public water supply, energy and agricultural abstractors. We have used the WATHNET water resource simulation model, set up for the Thames Basin and for all of the large water resource zones in England, to simulate the frequency, severity and duration of water shortages in all of these synthetic weather conditions. In particular, we have sought to explore systemic vulnerabilities associated with inter-basin transfers and the trade-offs between different water users. This analytical capability is providing the basis for (i) implementation of the Duty of Resilience, which has been placed upon the water industry in the 2014 Water Act and (ii) testing reformed abstraction arrangements which the UK government

  5. The Strategy of Water Resources Conservation in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puatin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water resource conservation is a required activity to do in in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District because this area is potentially dried and has often experienced the lack of clean water even though the water resource conservation is vegetatively conducted. The resecarh is conducted from June to August 2014. The purpose of this research is to analyze the strategy of water resource conservation in Regunung Village by analyze the social-economy condition and physical condition. The method used to gain data is obeservation and direct measuring including vegetation analysis, the data analysis of the citra condition of the changing of the land; the crossed tabulation analysis and Marcov Chain for the projection of the cahinging of the land use; the technique of interview using questioners to know the participation of community; the secondary data analysis, FGD to determine the strategy of water resource conservation with SWOT analysis. The population of this research is the people of Regunung Village. Respondent is purposively determined by the number of respondent based on Slovin formula, while the FGD informant is purposively determined. The result of the research shows that the condition of Regunung Village is located at discharged area CAT Salatiga with the various level of elevation and the type of soil is latosol. The changing of the use of land happening since 1991 - 2014. The vegetation condition shows that the planting method used in Regunung Village is Agroforestry. The index of diversity for three in Regunung Village is at the low level (0,8. The result of the social-economy condition research shows that the majority people's income is less than Rp. 1.000.000,00 and the level of participation is on placation level. The Water Resource Conservation Strategy suggested is the diversification strategy.

  6. Natural Resources Management on Corps of Engineers Water Resources Development Projects: Practices, Challenges, and Perspectives on the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasual, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Natural resources management on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers water resources development projects was documented from the responses of management personnel to a detailed questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of projects...

  7. Seeking parsimony in hydrology and water resources technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-04-01

    systems to single numbers (a probability or an expected value), and statistics provides the empirical basis of summarizing data, making inference from them, and supporting decision making in water resource management. Unfortunately, the current state of the art in probability, statistics and their union, often called stochastics, is not fully satisfactory for the needs of modelling of hydrological and water resource systems. A first problem is that stochastic modelling has traditionally relied on classical statistics, which is based on the independent "coin-tossing" prototype, rather than on the study of real-world systems whose behaviour is very different from the classical prototype. A second problem is that the stochastic models (particularly the multivariate ones) are often not parsimonious themselves. Therefore, substantial advancement of stochastics is necessary in a new paradigm of parsimonious hydrological modelling. These ideas are illustrated using several examples, namely: (a) hydrological modelling of a karst system in Bosnia and Herzegovina using three different approaches ranging from parsimonious to detailed "physically-based"; (b) parsimonious modelling of a peculiar modified catchment in Greece; (c) a stochastic approach that can replace parameter-excessive ARMA-type models with a generalized algorithm that produces any shape of autocorrelation function (consistent with the accuracy provided by the data) using a couple of parameters; (d) a multivariate stochastic approach which replaces a huge number of parameters estimated from data with coefficients estimated by the principle of maximum entropy; and (e) a parsimonious approach for decision making in multi-reservoir systems using a handful of parameters instead of thousands of decision variables.

  8. Management of scarce water resources: a Middle Eastern experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Naser, H

    2009-01-01

    .... Research in these regions has long supported the necessity of delivering life sustaining access and availability to water while being inherently linked to several inter-related factors, including...

  9. Climate change and urbanization threaten water resources in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-08-14

    Aug 14, 2014 ... JAGP: Have you found that climate-related pressures are related to ... SAK: We found that urbanization and climate change have put extra stress on water ... JAGP: Will the research team continue to work together on water ...

  10. Water resources and the development of human civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents available water resources in the world and the relation between socio-economic and natural systems throughout history of mankind. Some of the monuments of culture from the Iron Gate (hydro power constructions) region of the Danube river are described which illustrate old bond between man and water. The Danube river waters are of prime importance for Danubian counties and a change in people's treatment and relation to water is necessary at both national and international level. This implies application of long-term environmentally compatible economic strategies in accordance with bio-culture, which, at the bottom line, should lead to the concept of sustainable development. There is an interest in Yugoslavia for international co-operation with Danubian countries and vice versa, as well as the concern for environmental in the Yugoslavian part of the Danube basin, problems and means for management of pollution sources in the area. (author)

  11. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward

  12. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  13. Isotope techniques in water resource investigations in arid and semi-arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Investigations in Arid and Semi-arid Regions was initiated with the aim od contributing to the assessment of groundwater resources in arid areas through the use of environmental isotope techniques, and thereby to help in better management of these valuable fresh groundwater resources. The main emphases identified were in three key areas: (i) the evaluation of water balance components such as recharge rate estimation and recharge and discharge cycles at different spatial scales, (ii) paleohydrology and hydroclimatic change and, (iii) anthropogenic impacts and the assessment of the vulnerability of arid zone ground waters to salinisation and pollution impacts. This publication presents individual projects carried out within the frameworks of the CRP. Each paper has been indexed separately

  14. Infrastructure resources for clinical research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexander V; Gubitz, Amelie K; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Bedlack, Richard; Berry, James; Conwit, Robin; Harris, Brent T; Horton, D Kevin; Kaufmann, Petra; Leitner, Melanie L; Miller, Robert; Shefner, Jeremy; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Clinical trial networks, shared clinical databases, and human biospecimen repositories are examples of infrastructure resources aimed at enhancing and expediting clinical and/or patient oriented research to uncover the etiology and pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to the paralysis of voluntary muscles. The current status of such infrastructure resources, as well as opportunities and impediments, were discussed at the second Tarrytown ALS meeting held in September 2011. The discussion focused on resources developed and maintained by ALS clinics and centers in North America and Europe, various clinical trial networks, U.S. government federal agencies including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and several voluntary disease organizations that support ALS research activities. Key recommendations included 1) the establishment of shared databases among individual ALS clinics to enhance the coordination of resources and data analyses; 2) the expansion of quality-controlled human biospecimen banks; and 3) the adoption of uniform data standards, such as the recently developed Common Data Elements (CDEs) for ALS clinical research. The value of clinical trial networks such as the Northeast ALS (NEALS) Consortium and the Western ALS (WALS) Consortium was recognized, and strategies to further enhance and complement these networks and their research resources were discussed.

  15. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2004-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

  16. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

  17. Managing water resources infrastructure in the face of different values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Erik

    Water resources infrastructure (WRI) plays a key role in water management. It can serve or negatively affect some seven to ten different and sometimes conflicting values. WRI management is therefore not a purely technical issue. Economic analyses can help to some extent, but only for values related to current human use. Multi-criteria analysis can cover all values, but in the end WRI management is not an analytical issue, but a governance issue. Different governance paradigms exist: markets, hierarchies and “third alternatives”, such as common pool resources management and network management. This article presents social learning as the most promising paradigm. Positive experiences with social learning have been described and guidance on putting social learning into practice exists. Nonetheless, there are no magic solutions for managing WRI in the face of different values.

  18. Fiscal Year 1988 program report: Rhode Island Water Resources Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.P.C.

    1989-07-01

    The State of Rhode Island is active in water resources planning, development, and management activities which include legislation, upgrading of wastewater treatment facilities, upgrading and implementing pretreatment programs, protecting watersheds and aquifers throughout the state. Current and anticipated state water problems are contamination and clean up of aquifers to protect the valuable groundwater resources; protection of watersheds by controlling non-point source pollution; development of pretreatment technologies; and deterioring groundwater quality from landfill leachate or drainage from septic tank leaching field. Seven projects were included covering the following subjects: (1) Radon and its nuclei parents in bedrocks; (2) Model for natural flushing of aquifer; (3) Microbial treatment of heavy metals; (4) Vegetative uptake of nitrate; (5) Microbial process in vegetative buffer strips; (6) Leachate characterization in landfills; and (7) Electrochemical treatment of heavy metals and cyanide

  19. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  20. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)