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Sample records for research water resource

  1. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  2. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  3. Water Resources Research and Interdisciplinary Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    1990-09-01

    Water Resource Research was born under the watchful eye of Walter Langbein, a modern-day Renaissance man whose interests spanned not only hydrology but all of the earth sciences, and not only the earth sciences but all of science. From its founding in1965 to the present day, the editors of WRR have always seen the journal as a medium of interdisciplinary interaction. On this 25th anniversary of WRR, I thought it might be worthwhile to look back on the interdisciplinary successes and failures of the past quarter decade, in our journal and in our science. There is no question that research in water resources is an interdisciplinary endeavor. At my university we have a graduate program in interdisciplinary hydrology on the books, and on those occasions when we gather together, there are students and faculty there from as many as seven different departments: geography, geology, soil science, forestry, civil engineering, mining engineering, and bioresource engineering. In addition, our campus hosts the Westwater Research Institute where physical scientists can get involved in interdisciplinary research with social scientists from regional and community planning, resource management, resource economics, commerce, and law. I suspect that many campuses have a similar breadth of water resources interests. It is this breadth that WRR is designed to serve.

  4. A vision for Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Bahr, Jean A.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Cai, Ximing; Hogue, Terri S.; Luce, Charles H.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Mackay, D. Scott; van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja); Rajaram, Harihar; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Troch, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Water Resources Research (WRR) continues to evolve as the team of international editors begins a new 4 year term of service. In this Editorial we summarize the importance of WRR in the hydrologic sciences, the challenges ahead, and the plans for the future of the journal.

  5. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands for sources of clean water—combined with changing land use practices, population growth, aging infrastructure, and climate change and variability—pose significant threats to our water resources. Failure to manage the Nation’s waters in an integrated, sustainable manner can jeopardize human and aquatic ecosystem health, which can impact our society and economy.Through innovative science and engineering, the SSWR Research Program is developing cost-effective, sustainable solutions to 21st century complex water issues and proactively developing solutions to emerging concerns. Our research is helping to ensure that clean, adequate, and equitable supplies of water are available to support human health and resilient aquatic ecosystems, now and into the future. To share information on EPA's water research program

  6. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzanian economy is highly dependent on water resources. Nearly half of. Tanzania's GDP comes from the agriculture and livestock sectors (Salami et al., 2010), which are highly dependent on water resources. However, these water resources are currently vulnerable to climate change and variability. In recent years ...

  7. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM...

  8. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    . The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...... be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation...

  9. A vision for Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Water Resources Research (WRR) plays a leading role in advancing hydrologic science. As AGU's hydrology journal, WRR has nurtured and published major breakthroughs in hydrologic process understanding and prediction capabilities, accomplished through innovative measurement campaigns, novel data analysis techniques, and elegant computational methods. Developing synergies between process-oriented and applications-oriented science is becoming more important as large changes in coupled human-natural systems impose new stresses on hydrologic systems and create new needs for hydrologic process understanding and prediction. In this presentation I will summarize some major opportunities for WRR, such as the growth of interdisciplinary science and the need for greater international cooperation through sharing of data and model source codes. I will discuss these opportunities in the context of major external trends, especially (1) changes in the perceived value of science to address societal problems, (2) the explosive global growth in science over the past decade, and (3) the transition to a more diffuse publishing landscape. This presentation is intended to foster discussion on ways that WRR can enhance the quality and impact of hydrologic science.

  10. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  11. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Research has played an important role in water resource management and a consensus on research objectives would ... clear strengths in water resource management in southern Africa were identified, we found that most perceived weaknesses ..... Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

  12. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has played an important role in water resource management and a consensus on research objectives would increase the efficiency of these practices. In this paper we aimed to elicit the views of attendees of the 3rd Orange River Basin Symposium regarding water-related research, by using both quantitative and ...

  13. Toward the second 50 years of Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first issue in 1965, 49 volumes and 464 issues of Water Resources Research (WRR) have been published, including more than 13,800 contributions that received more than 380,000 citations. WRR has always maintained a forward-looking vision, providing an interdisciplinary platform to nurture the initiation and development of numerous sub-disciplines and research themes in hydrology, water resources, and earth sciences and over the last 50 years. This vision, supported in no small measure by a dedicated community of researchers who submitted their best research to WRR, have helped the journal maintain its international leadership in this field. As we enter the second 50 years of WRR, new trends in scientific publishing, open access publication and web-based discussion forums, pose challenges (and opportunities) for sustaining WRR's leadership role. In this presentation, we will present the vision of the present editorial board for the future of WRR, and discuss several steps we are undertaking to adapt the journal to modern trends in communicating scientific research. This includes the introduction of new article types, such as the forthcoming "Debates on Water Resources", targeted special sections, and efforts to improve the timeliness of the review process. We humbly stand on the shoulders of the thirty-four dedicated previous editors of WRR, and remain open to receiving suggestions from the AGU hydrologic community.

  14. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information on the 34 new projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1987 and on 3 projects completed during the year. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water related problems and problem-solution approach (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, and (4) approach. The 34 projects include 12 in the area of groundwater quality problems, 12 in the science and technology of water quality management, 1 in climate variability and the hydrologic cycle, 4 in institutional change in water resources management, and 5 in surface water management. For the three completed projects, the report furnishes the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investor(s); starting data; data of receipt of final report; and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report contains tables showing: (1) proposals received according to area of research interest, (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest, (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization, and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization. (Author 's abstract)

  15. 75 FR 27575 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... encourages regional cooperation among institutes in research into areas of water management, development, and... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program... Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.), authorizes a water resources...

  16. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research in Water Resource Governance Systems focuses on areas of policy, governance, water resource planning and management and social-ecological systems. The objective is to ensure the equitable, efficient and sustainable deployment of water...

  17. Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie L. Houston; Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

    2002-01-01

    The use of water increasingly involves complex tradeoffs among biophysical, economic, ecological, and societal values. Knowledge about the value of water to different users and methods with which to evaluate biophysical, economic, ecological, and social tradeoffs associated with allocating limited water resources among competing uses is vital to devising appropriate...

  18. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  19. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands for sources of clean water—combined with changing land use practices, population growth, aging infrastructure, and climate change and variability—pose significant threats to our water resources. Failure to manage the Nation’s waters in an inte...

  20. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  1. The status quo of research on South Africa's water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African water resource management institutional landscape has seen some dramatic changes since the new dispensation came into power in 1994. Not only have legislation and policies changed, but there has also been a significant increase in the number of non-state actors in the policy development process.

  2. Research to Develop Science to Support Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D.

    2002-05-01

    Fresh water is essential to public health, economic prosperity, and the natural environment. People become afraid when they see threats to water supplies, salinized fields, and stressed habitats. While total water use in the United States is expected to stabilize into the new century, urbanization and industrialization concentrate demands in local areas, reduce our ability to rotate water supplies among users, discharge new wastes, add more stringent water quality requirements, cause a shift from consumptive use to large return flows, and make reliability more important. Water managers received many suggestions and are challenged by the need to respond to political mandates while continuing to provide adequate water on a sustained basis. The development of new tools is hindered because different disciplines address common problems with different approaches. Innovative scientists must work with daring administrators during an inter-generational shift in planning and research personnel. Consensus will be built by problem-solving teams rather than by promoting dams, zoning laws, or stricter environmental standards. One proposal is the "tops down" approach of creating a Water Research Board to coordinate government research. Another is to establish a Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI) as a "bottoms up" movement to build water research infrastructure. By joining the two approaches, the total community can be realistic in presenting a strategy that accounts for water needs, scientific understanding, and available manpower. In order to build research infrastructure, CUAHSI has held workshops that identified needs for new measurement technology to capture new information to use to make new discoveries, natural laboratories in which that technology would be deployed to "measure watersheds" holistically over time, and information technology that can distribute observations to dispersed users in near real time. Such infrastructure

  3. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... research into areas of water management, development, and conservation that have a regional or national....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research... Water Resources (NIWR) USGS Competitive Grant Program. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA...

  4. 78 FR 23288 - Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... research into areas of water management, development, and conservation that have a regional or national... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual... collection (IC) to renew approval of the paperwork requirements for ``National Institutes for Water Resources...

  5. Summary of the water resource governance research framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available . Luxembourg: Offi ce for Offi cial Publications of the European Communities. This Management Paradigms Research Programme consists of three phases. The overall objective is to determine whether or not the current sanctioned discourse of IWRM is the most... appropriate and effective approach to water management in southern Africa, where optimal and sustainable socio-economic growth is the regional political imperative. This objective will be tested in three focus areas, namely: Shared Water - leading...

  6. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: ECO2 – sharing benefits from water resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development depends on the reliable supply of water for industrial, mining, agricultural, potable and recreational purposes. These activities also generate waste products that are often discharged to surface water. South Africa’s...

  7. Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus - opportunities for water resources research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Wallington, Kevin; Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Marston, Landon

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the food, energy, and water (FEW) nexus lay a shared foundation for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders to understand and manage linked production, utilization, and security of FEW systems. The FEW nexus paradigm provides the water community specific channels to move forward in interdisciplinary research where integrated water resources management (IWRM) has fallen short. Here, we help water researchers identify, articulate, utilize, and extend our disciplinary strengths within the broader FEW communities, while informing scientists in the food and energy domains about our unique skillset. This paper explores the relevance of existing and ongoing scholarship within the water community, as well as current research needs, for understanding FEW processes and systems and implementing FEW solutions through innovations in technologies, infrastructures, and policies. Following the historical efforts in IWRM, hydrologists, water resources engineers, economists, and policy analysts are provided opportunities for interdisciplinary studies among themselves and in collaboration with energy and food communities, united by a common path to achieve sustainability development goals.

  8. Notification: Evaluation of Benefits and Use of Office of Research and Development's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0021, August 1, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the benefits and use of the Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research.

  9. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document represents a strategic guide to EPA’s research actions, alone and in part-nership with the broader federal, industry and scientific research community, to provide the science and engineering necessary for safe and sustainable water resources.

  10. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  11. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2016-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources (SSWR) research program is using an integrated systems approach to develop scientific and technological solutions to protect human health, and to protect and restore watersheds and aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  13. Water resources management in southern Europe: clues for a research and innovation based regional hypercluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G; Brito, A G; Nogueira, R; Ureña, M; Fernández, D; Luque, F J; Alcácer, C

    2013-04-15

    European countries are facing increasing pressures on their water resources despite stringent regulations and systematic efforts on environmental protection. In this context, research and innovation play a strategic role reinforcing the efficiency of water policies. The present study provides a multilevel assessment of research and innovation practices in the field of water resource management in southern European countries and regions (more specifically; Cyprus, Albania, Poitou-Charentes in France, Andalusia in Spain and the North of Portugal). The analysis was based on a strategic framework aimed at gaining an insight of the current constraints, as well as of the existing and future technological solutions for a better water resource management. The triple helix model proved to be a useful analytical framework for assessing the efforts of different groups towards a common goal. The analysis proved the existence of a significant evolution in the use of technological tools to assist decision-making processes in integrated river basin management in all regions. Nevertheless, the absence of formal channels for knowledge and data exchange between researchers and water resource managers complicates the formers involvement in the decision-making process regarding water allocation. Both researchers and consultants emphasize the low availability of data, together with the need to advance on water resource economics as relevant constraints in the field. The SWOT analysis showed similar concerns among the participating regions and provided a battery of effective projects that resulted in the preparation of a Joint Action Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  15. How well has biophysical research served the needs of water resource management? Lessons from the Sabie-Sand catchment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, E

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available frameworks proposed for integrated water resource management. The fundamental changes in the approach to water resource management warrant a critical evaluation of the information generated by past research and of the relevance of this activity and associated...

  16. Land and water resources for environmental research on Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Kitchings, J.T.; Elwood, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Resources for environmental research on the Oak Ridge Reservation are analogous to the highly complex, physical and engineering facilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consequently, land and water resources have been committed to comprehensive research for the purpose of providing relevant, scientific insights on environmental problems associated with ERDA's programs. Diverse aquatic, terrestrial, and agricultural ecosystems are designated for short- and long-term research related to environmental impacts or benefits of different energy technologies. Examples of ecosystems employed in this research include hardwood and pine forests, grasslands and pastures, free-flowing streams and impounded reservoirs, field plots, contaminated environmental natural areas, an array of animal habitats, and calibrated watersheds. Some of the characteristic biota of habitat ecosystems are described in the document. Documentation and planning for use of these lands, waters, and biotic resources also respond to the broad issue of appropriate usage of Federal lands.

  17. Visiting students work with professors to research water resources management issues

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students visiting from universities across the continent, as well as one from Virginia Tech, are working with professors at Virginia Tech on individual research projects in a 10-week summer program that addresses issues related to sustainable management of water resources.

  18. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  19. Radioisotope techniques in water resources research and management with special reference to India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear techniques using radioisotopes finding applications in research and management of water resources are described briefly with special reference to and representative illustrations of their applications in hydrologic studies in India. As environmental isotopes including the man-made ones i.e. those released in nuclear explosions are intimately tied with the moisture and water in circulation pattern in nature, measurement of their variation provides diagnostic information about the hydrologic parameters of three phases, namely, atmospheric, surface and subsurface, of the hydrologic cycle. Artificial radioisotopes are used for measurement of water flow, sediment transport and seepage. Sealed radioisotope sources are employed in snow gauging, suspended sediment gauging and hydrologic logging. Areas for further research are suggested and need for emphasis on their use in India is indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. The research and development of water resources management information system based on ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiqun; Gao, Xiaoli; Li, Yuzhi; Cui, Zhencai

    According to that there are large amount of data, complexity of data type and format in the water resources management, we built the water resources calculation model and established the water resources management information system based on the advanced ArcGIS and Visual Studio.NET development platform. The system can integrate the spatial data and attribute data organically, and manage them uniformly. It can analyze spatial data, inquire by map and data bidirectionally, provide various charts and report forms automatically, link multimedia information, manage database etc. . So it can provide spatial and static synthetical information services for study, management and decision of water resources, regional geology and eco-environment etc..

  1. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  2. Integrating Research and Extension for the Nsf-Reu Program in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Migliaccio, K.; Gao, B.; Shukla, S.; Ehsani, R.; McLamore, E.

    2011-12-01

    Providing positive and meaningful research experiences to students in their undergraduate years is critical for motivating them to pursue advanced degrees or research careers in science and engineering. Such experiences not only offer training for the students in problem solving and critical thinking via hands-on projects, but also offer excellent mentoring and recruiting opportunities for the faculty advisors. The goal of the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department (ABE) at the University of Florida (UF) is to provide eight undergraduate students a unique opportunity to conduct research in water resources using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating research and extension. The students are selected from diverse cultural and educational backgrounds. The eight-week REU Program utilizes the extensive infrastructure of UF - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) through the Research and Education Centers (RECs). Two students are paired to participate in their own project under the direct supervision of one of the four research mentors. Four of the eight students are located at the main campus, in Gainesville, Fl, and four remaining students are located off-campus, at the RECs, where some of the ABE faculty are located. The students achieve an enriching cohort experience through social networking, daily blogs, and weekly video conferences to share their research and other REU experiences. The students are co-located during the Orientation week and also during the 5-day Florida Waters Tour. Weekly group meetings and guest lectures are conducted via synchronously through video conferencing. The integration of research and extension is naturally achieved through the projects at the RECs, the guest lectures, Extension workshops, and visits to the Water Management Districts in Florida. In the last two years of the Program, we have received over 80 applicants, from four-year and advanced

  3. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Wang, D. S.

    2012-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture is the basis of agriculture and rural economic development in China. Realizing the water resource information of irrigated area will make full use of existing water resource and increase benefit of irrigation agriculture greatly. However, the water resource information system of many irrigated areas in our country is not still very sound at present, it lead to the wasting of a lot of water resources. This paper has analyzed the existing water resource monitoring system of irrigated areas, introduced the Multi-Agent theories, and set up a water resource monitoring system of irrigated area based on multi-Agent. This system is composed of monitoring multi-Agent federal, telemetry multi-Agent federal, and the Communication Network GSM between them. It can make full use of good intelligence and communication coordination in the multi-Agent federation interior, improve the dynamic monitoring and controlling timeliness of water resource of irrigated area greatly, provide information service for the sustainable development of irrigated area, and lay a foundation for realizing high information of water resource of irrigated area.

  4. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Resource-directed management of water quality series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available . This necessitates an integrated source-, resource- and remediation-focused approach to water quality management. To address one aspect of implementation, the CSIR developed the Resource Directed Management of Water Quality (RDMWQ) Series as part of a Department...

  5. Providing International Research Experiences in Water Resources Through a Distributed REU Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Sahrawat, K.; Mylavarapu, R.

    2012-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates offer training in problem solving and critical thinking via hands-on projects. The goal of the distributed Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department (ABE) at the University of Florida (UF) is to provide undergraduate students a unique opportunity to conduct research in water resources using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating research and extension, while the cohort is not co-located. The eight-week REU Program utilizes the extensive infrastructure of UF - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) through the Research and Education Centers (RECs). To provide international research and extension experience, two students were located at the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), in India. Prior to the beginning of the Program, the students worked closely with their research mentors at University of Florida and ICRISAT to develop a project plan for understanding the water quality issues in two watersheds. The students were co-located during the Orientation week at the University of Florida. During the Program, they achieved an enriching cohort experience through social networking, daily blogs, and weekly video conferences to share their research and other REU experiences. The group meetings and guest lectures are conducted via synchronously through video conferencing. The students who were distributed across Florida benefited from the research experiences of the students who were located in India, as their project progressed. They described their challenges and achievements during the group meetings and in the blogs. This model of providing integrated research and extension opportunities in hydrology where not all the REU participants are physically co-located, is unique and can be extended to other disciplines.

  6. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  7. Quantifying green water flows for improved Integrated Land and Water Resource Management under the National Water Act of South Africa: A review on hydrological research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmain, C.; Everson, C. S.; Gush, M. B.; Clulow, A. D.

    2009-09-01

    The contribution of hydrological research in South Africa in quantifying green water flows for improved Integrated Land and Water Resources Management is reviewed. Green water refers to water losses from land surfaces through transpiration (seen as a productive use) and evaporation from bare soil (seen as a non-productive use). In contrast, blue water flows refer to streamflow (surface water) and groundwater / aquifer recharge. Over the past 20 years, a number of methods have been used to quantify the green water and blue water flows. These include micrometeorological techniques (e.g. Bowen ratio energy balance, eddy covariance, surface renewal, scintillometry, lysimetry), field scale models (e.g. SWB, SWAP), catchment scale hydrological models (e.g. ACRU, SWAT) and more recently remote sensing based models (e.g. SEBAL, SEBS). The National Water Act of South Africa of 1998 requires that water resources are managed, protected and used (developed, conserved and controlled) in an equitable way which is beneficial to the public. The quantification of green water flows in catchments under different land uses has been pivotal in (a) regulating streamflow reduction activities (e.g. forestry) and the management of alien invasive plants, (b) protecting riparian and wetland areas through the provision of an ecological reserve, (c) assessing and improving the water use efficiency of irrigated pastures, fruit tree orchards and vineyards, (d) quantifying the potential impact of future land uses like bio-fuels (e.g. Jatropha) on water resources, (e) quantifying water losses from open water bodies, and (f) investigating "biological” mitigation measures to reduce the impact of polluted water resources as a result of various industries (e.g. mining). This paper therefore captures the evolution of measurement techniques applied across South Africa, the impact these results have had on water use and water use efficiency and the extent to which it supported the National Water Act of

  8. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  9. Scientific Allocation of Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Nathan

    Oriented for higher education students, researchers, practicing engineers and planners, this book surveys the state of the art of water resources engineering. A broad spectrum of issues is embraced in the treatment of water resources: quantity aspects as well as quality aspects within a systems approach. Using a rational mode for water resources…

  10. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  11. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  12. Toward best practice framing of uncertainty in scientific publications: A review of Water Resources Research abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Helgeson, Casey; Elsawah, Sondoss; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Kummu, Matti

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, among other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g., uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim—what we call here "framing" the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. (1) It proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. (2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. (3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. (4) We make provocative recommendations to achieve a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ˜5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (˜25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (˜40%)—or uncertainty is completely ignored (˜8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers.

  13. The status quo of research on South Africa’s water resource management institutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available water resource management over the past decade and a half has not only taken place within the legislative domain, but also at grassroots level. Prior to the start of the new dispensation, only a limited number of non-state actors, such as industry...-cutting themes. The implications of the investigation are discussed in the conclusion. BACKGROUND AND SCOPE Water resource management in South Africa is facilitated and implemented through a number of institutions that derive their mandate from water...

  14. Fourth Tennessee water resources symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, M.J.; Presley, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The annual Tennessee Water Resources Symposium was initiated in 1988 as a means to bring together people with common interests in the state's important water-related resources at a technical, professional level. Initially the symposium was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology and called the Hydrology Symposium, but the Tennessee Section of the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) has taken on the primary coordination role for the symposium over the last two years and the symposium name was changed in 1990 to water resources to emphasize a more inter-disciplinary theme. This year's symposium carries on the successful tradition of the last three years. Our goal is to promote communication and cooperation among Tennessee's water resources professionals: scientists, engineers, and researchers from federal, state, academic, and private institutions and organizations who have interests and responsibilities for the state's water resources. For these conference proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  15. The research of ecology-oriented reasonable deployment of water resources at Shuangtaizi estuary wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tieliang; Su, Fangli; Zhou, Linfei; Li, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Shuangtaizi estuary wetland, the largest natural conservation district in China, and one of the best preserved, largest ecological lands with the most complete vegetation types in the world, is located in Panjin city, Liaoning Province. In recent years, the degradation of Shuangtaizi estuary wetland is very serious. In order to rescue lives in the wetland and protect valuable natural resources, the information system of Shuangtaizi estuary wetland was built with `3S' technology, and the minimum, optimum, and maximum eco-environmental water requirements were calculated respectively. Furthermore, for restoring the ecological functions of wetland and preventing wetland degradation, the balance between supply and demand of water resource was analyzed, and an optimal allocation scheme of water resources was proposed based on three kinds of equilibrium.

  16. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  17. Applications of continuous water quality monitoring techniques for more efficient water quality research and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Broers, H.P.; Geer, F. van

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and taking account of dynamics in water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. In conventional regional surface water and upper groundwater quality monitoring, measurement frequencies are too low to capture the short-term dynamic behavior of solute

  18. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  19. Advances in water resources research in the Upper Blue Nile basin and the way forward: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Tekleab, Sirak; Ayana, Essayas K.; Gebrehiwot, Solomon G.; Worqlul, Abeyou W.; Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Yimam, Yohannes T.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Daggupati, Prasad; Karlberg, Louise; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2018-05-01

    The Upper Blue Nile basin is considered as the lifeline for ∼250 million people and contributes ∼50 Gm3/year of water to the Nile River. Poor land management practices in the Ethiopian highlands have caused a significant amount of soil erosion, thereby threatening the productivity of the Ethiopian agricultural system, degrading the health of the aquatic ecosystem, and shortening the life of downstream reservoirs. The Upper Blue Nile basin, because of limited research and availability of data, has been considered as the "great unknown." In the recent past, however, more research has been published. Nonetheless, there is no state-of-the-art review that presents research achievements, gaps and future directions. Hence, this paper aims to bridge this gap by reviewing the advances in water resources research in the basin while highlighting research needs and future directions. We report that there have been several research projects that try to understand the biogeochemical processes by collecting information on runoff, groundwater recharge, sediment transport, and tracers. Different types of hydrological models have been applied. Most of the earlier research used simple conceptual and statistical approaches for trend analysis and water balance estimations, mainly using rainfall and evapotranspiration data. More recent research has been using advanced semi-physically/physically based distributed hydrological models using high-resolution temporal and spatial data for diverse applications. We identified several research gaps and provided recommendations to address them. While we have witnessed advances in water resources research in the basin, we also foresee opportunities for further advancement. Incorporating the research findings into policy and practice will significantly benefit the development and transformation agenda of the Ethiopian government.

  20. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  1. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  2. Water resources management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Maia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resources manageWith the mission of providing reliable data for water supply activities in medium and large firefighting operations, the Firefighting Water Supply Tactical Group (GTSAI represents an important sector of the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Departmentment plan strategic support. Acting proactively, the Tactical Group prepared a Water Resources Management Plan, aiming to set up water resources for each jurisdiction of firefighters in the City of Rio de Janeiro, in order to assist the Fire Department in its missions. This goal was reached, and in association with LAGEOP (Geoprocessing Laboratory, UFRJ, the Tactical Group started using GIS techniques. The plan provides for the register of existing operational structures within each group (troops, vehicles and special equipment, along with knowledge about the nature and operating conditions of fire hydrants, as well as a detailed survey of areas considered to be "critical". The survey helps to support actions related to environmental disasters involved in the aforementioned critical areas (hospital, churches, schools, and chemical industries, among others. The Caju neighborhood, in Rio de Janeiro, was defined as initial application area, and was the first jurisdiction to have the system implemented, followed by Copacabana, Leblon, Lagoa, and Catete districts.

  3. Global Water Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gordon J.; Dooge, James C. I.; Rodda, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The world's water resources are coming under increasing stress, a stress that will become critical globally sometime during the next century. This is due to the rapidly rising population demanding more and more water and an increasing level of affluence. The book discusses the background to this issue and the measures to be taken over the next 20-30 years to overcome some of the difficulties that can be foreseen, and the means of avoiding others, such as the hazard of floods. It looks at the water resource and its assessment and management in an integrated fashion. It deals with the requirements of agriculture and of rural and urban societies and to a lesser extent with those of industry and power, against the background of the needs of the natural environment. It presents a number of ways and means of improving the management of national and international affairs involving fresh water. It highlights the importance of fresh water as a major issue for the environment and for development.

  4. Water resources for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water scarcity is a matter of urgent, national, regional and international concern. For those people, usually women, who are responsible for the daily task of obtaining sufficient water for household use, water shortages are a perpetual worry. It is a situation which affects many individual families and communities throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The isotope studies conducted thus far have proved that the majority of regional groundwater systems in northern Africa and the Sahel zone are paleowaters, replenished thousands of years ago, without the possibility of significant replenishment under present climatic conditions. Therefore, removal from such underground reservoirs will eventually deplete the resource. Mapping these paleowaters, and estimating their reservoir sizes, is a priority. (IAEA)

  5. Interdisciplinary research and education in the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems: a framework for evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloeschl, G.; Carr, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Greater understanding of how interdisciplinary research and education evolves is critical for identifying and implementing appropriate programme management strategies. We propose a program evaluation framework that is based on social learning processes (individual learning, interdisciplinary research practices, and interaction between researchers with different backgrounds); social capital outcomes (ability to interact, interpersonal connectivity, and shared understanding); and knowledge and human capital outcomes (new knowledge that integrates multiple research fields). The framework is tested on established case study doctoral program: the Vienna Doctoral Program on Water Resource Systems. Data are collected via mixed qualitative/quantitative methods that include semi-structured interviews, publication co-author analysis, analysis of research proposals, categorisation of the interdisciplinarity of publications and graduate analysis. Through the evaluation and analysis, several interesting findings about how interdisciplinary research evolves and can be supported are identified. Firstly, different aspects of individual learning seem to contribute to a researcher's ability to interact with researchers from other research fields and work collaboratively. These include learning new material from different research fields, learning how to learn new material and learning how to integrate different material. Secondly, shared interdisciplinary research practices can be identified that may be common to other programs and support interaction and shared understanding between different researchers. They include clarification and questioning, harnessing differences and setting defensible research boundaries. Thirdly, intensive interaction between researchers from different backgrounds support connectivity between the researchers, further enabling cross-disciplinary collaborative work. The case study data suggest that social learning processes and social capital outcomes

  6. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available from which a detailed understanding of biophysical processes can be developed; applied or predictive research from which an understanding of processes can be scaled up to predict generic outcomes; integrative research where a predictive understanding...

  7. Water Resources Systems Engineering - Cornell University

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Growing concerns about how “change” (climate, land-use, population, etc.) will strain our water resources is motivating the need for the next generation of professionals that can innovate the planning and management of these systems. Course topics build on the legacy of research in the water resources systems area and seek to provide a new generation of planners with an enhanced ability to discover and negotiate the highly uncertain tradeoffs we face in balancing the water resources demands o...

  8. Where's the water : with an ambitious program underway to map Alberta's water resources, researchers hope to ensure there's enough to meet increasing industrial, agricultural, and municipal demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at Natural Resources Canada's Earth Sciences Sector are currently studying the impact of climate change on water resources and groundwater in relation to energy development in Alberta, as well as to assess whether there is sufficient supply to aid in the production of oil sands. The project includes mapping of major regional aquifers to improve an understanding of groundwater resources. The aim of the project is to characterize formations, and understand natural controls of quality, availability and sustainability for long-term use. The project aims to characterize the physical makeup of rocks that form the aquifer, as well as to develop hydrological models of how water moves through systems. The University of Calgary is leading a project to analyze the chemical, isotopic state and composition of shallow groundwater in order to establish a baseline of its chemical makeup. The aim of the project is to provide an overview of groundwater as compared to produced water that occurs as a result of coalbed methane (CBM) drilling activities. Methane produced from CBM has a different isotopic signature than naturally occurring methane in groundwater. Researchers at the university are analyzing water from more than 75 production wells, as well as an additional 300 monitoring wells. It is hoped that all of the groundwater projects will help to improve Alberta's water preservation record. The intense energy production in the province means that no other location contributes as significantly as Alberta to global warming. It was concluded that improvements in energy technologies and environmental protection in the province will benefit people around the world. 4 figs

  9. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  10. Hydraulic fracturing and water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Olmstead, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The potential for impacts on water resources is often recognized as an important issue when shale gas development is discussed. Potential and significant impacts on groundwater and surface water resources might arise by wellbores traversing drinking-water aquifers, the use of significant water inputs, and the generation of large wastewater streams. Water withdrawals for energy development could reduce instream flows in rivers and streams, or reduce groundwater levels, diminishing ecosystem se...

  11. Water resources research program. Pollution of coastal waters off Chicago by sinking plumes from the Indiana Harbor Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; McCown, D.L.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Saunders, K.D.

    1977-12-01

    On March 2, 1977, during sinking-plume conditions, a portion of the water of the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) was injected with samarium and rhodamine-dye tags and a section of the IHC's surface was covered with simulated oily waste tagged with dysprosium. Water samples were taken downcurrent, over a 54-hr period, from a vessel and from the raw-water streams from the intakes at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant (SWFP). Bottom currents and water temperatures were measured almost continuously at four Lake Michigan stations located between the IHC and the SWFP. Unequivocal evidence is presented for transport of the tagged IHC water and oily waste to the SWFP's intakes. Organic contaminants from the IHC were present in trace concentrations in the SWFP's raw water. A model for the transport and mixing of the entire IHC effluent, for the environmental conditions during the experiment, indicates a minimum dilution of 4 in the plume offshore of the SWFP and, for the assumed plume trajectory, values of 5 x 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 5/ at the shore and crib intakes, respectively. A similar model applied to the experimental situation of tagged effluent showed reasonable agreement with measurements. Analysis of historical data indicates that the worst-case pollution event that might be experienced at the SWFP, assuming constant pollutant loading in the IHC, would be due to 24 hr of northwest wind followed by a 3.0-in. (7.6 cm), 24-hr rainfall that coincides with 3.0 x 10/sup 6/ m of total wind movement from the southerly quadrants.

  12. Water resources research program. Pollution of coastal waters off Chicago by sinking plumes from the Indiana Harbor Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; McCown, D.L.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Saunders, K.D.

    1977-12-01

    On March 2, 1977, during sinking-plume conditions, a portion of the water of the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) was injected with samarium and rhodamine-dye tags and a section of the IHC's surface was covered with simulated oily waste tagged with dysprosium. Water samples were taken downcurrent, over a 54-hr period, from a vessel and from the raw-water streams from the intakes at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant (SWFP). Bottom currents and water temperatures were measured almost continuously at four Lake Michigan stations located between the IHC and the SWFP. Unequivocal evidence is presented for transport of the tagged IHC water and oily waste to the SWFP's intakes. Organic contaminants from the IHC were present in trace concentrations in the SWFP's raw water. A model for the transport and mixing of the entire IHC effluent, for the environmental conditions during the experiment, indicates a minimum dilution of 4 in the plume offshore of the SWFP and, for the assumed plume trajectory, values of 5 x 10 2 and 10 5 at the shore and crib intakes, respectively. A similar model applied to the experimental situation of tagged effluent showed reasonable agreement with measurements. Analysis of historical data indicates that the worst-case pollution event that might be experienced at the SWFP, assuming constant pollutant loading in the IHC, would be due to 24 hr of northwest wind followed by a 3.0-in. (7.6 cm), 24-hr rainfall that coincides with 3.0 x 10 6 m of total wind movement from the southerly quadrants

  13. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  14. Multi-scale research of time and space differences about ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahong; Lei, Xiaohui; Fu, Qiang; Li, Tianxiao; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Lei; Liao, Weihong

    2018-03-01

    A multi-scale assessment framework for assessing and comparing the water resource sustainability based on the ecological footprint (EF) is introduced. The study aims to manage the water resource from different views in Heilongjiang Province. First of all, from the scale of each city, the water ecological carrying capacity (ECC) was calculated from 2000 to 2011, and map the spatial distribution of the recent 3 years which show that, the water ecological carrying capacity (ECC) is uneven and has a downward trend year by year. Then, from the perspective of the five secondary partition basins in Heilongjiang Province, the paper calculated the ecological carrying capacity (ECC), the ecological footprint (EF) and ecological surplus and deficit (S&D) situation of water resources from 2000 to 2011, which show that the ecological deficit situation is more prominent in Nenjiang and Suifenhe basins which are in an unsustainable development state. Finally, from the perspective of the province, the paper calculated the ecological carrying capacity (ECC), the ecological footprint (EF) and ecological S&D of water resources from 2000 to 2011 in Heilongjiang Province, which show that the ecological footprint (EF) is in the rising trend, and the correlation coefficient between the ecological carrying capacity (ECC) and the precipitation is 0.8. There are 5 years of unsustainable development state in Heilongjiang. The proposed multi-scale assessment of WEF aims to evaluate the complex relationship between water resource supply and consumption in different spatial scales and time series. It also provides more reasonable assessment result which can be used by managers and regulators.

  15. Research on the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, D., VI; Xu, J.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancang-Mekong River is an important international river, cascaded hydropower stations development in which attracts the attention of downstream countries. In this paper, we proposed a coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation to relieve the conflict of upstream and downstream countries. Firstly, analyze the benefits and risks caused by the cascaded hydropower stations development and the evolution process of water resources use conflict between upstream and downstream countries. Secondly, evaluate the benefits and risks of flood control, water supply, navigation and power generation based on the energy theory of cascaded hydropower stations development in Lancang-Mekong River. Thirdly, multi-agent cooperation motivation and cooperation conditions between upstream and downstream countries in Lancang-Mekong River is given. Finally, the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River is presented. This coordination framework for water resources utilization can increase comprehensive benefits in Lancang-Mekong River.

  16. Resource recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.

    2010-01-01

    New sanitation systems based on separation at source offer a large potential for resource recovery from wastewater, e.g. energy and nutrients from black water and irrigation water from grey water. This review focuses on the components in source separated black water. The treatment options for the

  17. Transborder Water Resources of Kirghizia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Alamanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography of water bodies and water resources of Kyrgyzstan was completely observed. Studied the dynamics of water management in different countries related to the restructuring of the water sector in the new conditions of socio-economic development. Analyzed official and expert opinion about positions on using of transboundary water resources in Central Asia. In the article given recommendation for solving problems of transboundary water sharing. Proposed actions and activities among which the main role should play international legal initiatives.

  18. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  19. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available in the study area to meet the additional demand of full SGD (beyond exploration) is seriously constrained. There is potential to develop non-potable (brackish or brack) groundwater resources for this purpose at a limited scale (Subsection 5.2.2.2). This...

  20. Other Resources for Researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Click on their drop down list on the right hand side of their website for your country to see what they can offer to you. Access to ... The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.

  1. Water : a commodity or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, G.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, natural gas demand has increased significantly, as it is seen as an environmentally friendly, convenient and cost effective fuel. As a result, Alberta should experience the development of a sustainable resource in the form of natural gas from coal, provided adequate management of associated water is in place. The environmental impact and volume of water produced with natural gas from coal can be significant. Water is scarce and demand is growing. Gas producers are faced with the challenge of high water production and disposal costs, and often choose the deep disposal option as the most economical solution. However, environmentalists and agriculture groups who view water as a valuable resource, warrant the costs associated with the treatment of produced water. The author proposed a conceptual solution to this dilemma concerning produced water. It was suggested that producers of water should be connected with consumers, while allowing free market supply and demand dynamics to price out the inefficient use of the resource. The author also discussed the related regulatory, environmental, technological, economic, and commercial issues. It was concluded that water is both a resource and a commodity. Alberta should implement measures to promote water conservation, pollute less, and manage supply and demand. figs

  2. Water resources activities of the USGS, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E.; Cardin, C. William

    1987-01-01

    Effective management of water resources requires an understanding of hydrologic systems and the factors that determine the distribution, availability, and quality of water. Within the Federal Government, the U.S. Geological Survey has the principal responsibility for providing hydrologic information and for appraising the Nation's water resources. The water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey are diverse, ranging from research investigations of specific aspects of the hydrologic cycle to large programs of regional water-resources investigations, such as the Regional Aquifer System Analyses.This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey's water resources activities. Some activities, such as the acid rain program, are mandated by line items in the Survey's fiscal year 1987 budget. Others, such as floods, sediment, and snow and ice, are topics of general interest to the water resources community. Still others are related to current water issues, such as nonpoint sources of pollution, the irrigation drainage problem of the western San Joaquin Valley, and national ground-water protection.In many cases, there is considerable overlap in the topical descrip-tions. The Survey's water resources research program, for example, conducts investigations that are applicable to virtually all of the activities listed in this book. Similarly, projects in the Federal-State Cooperative Program cover multiple aspects of water resources. For these reasons, the sums associated with funding for each of the activities listed exceeds by a considerable amount the Survey's budget for water resources activities.The report first describes the water-resources mission of the U.S. Geological Survey and discusses the principal sources of funds that support the activities. The remainder of the report consists of descriptions of 39 of the most significant water resources activities. An index appears at the end of the report.Each description of a significant water activity has the

  3. International Symposium on Karst Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) joined the Hacettepe University of Ankara, Turkey, in sponsoring the International Symposium on Karst Water Resources. The other sponsors of the symposium were the Karst Water Resources Research Center Project of Hacettepe University and the United Nations Development Program through the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, in addition to the following government organizations of Turkey: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, State Hydraulic, Works (DSI), General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) and Geological Engineering Department of the Engineering Faculty and Karst Hydrogeology Research Group (KRG) at the Hacettepe University Earth Sciences Application and Research Center. Cooperating organizations included the Turkish National Committee of the International Hydrological Program, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). The symposium was divided into two parts: a paper presentation session held at the new Turkish National Library in Ankara during July 7-12, 1985, and a field trip from Ankara through Konya and Antalya to Izmir during July 13-18. The symposium chairman was Gultekin Gunay of the Hydrogeological Engineering Department of Ankara's Hacettepe University, and the cochairman was A. Ivan Johnson, a water resources consultant from Denver, Colo., and editor of WaterWatch. Scientists from 27 countries were represented among the 200 or so participants in attendance.

  4. Municipal water resources management: evaluation of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi depend on ...

  5. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  6. Quantitative Analysis on the Influence Factors of the Sustainable Water Resource Management Performance in Irrigation Areas: An Empirical Research from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation and influence factors analysis are vital to the sustainable water resources management (SWRM in irrigation areas. Based on the objectives and the implementation framework of modern integrated water resources management (IWRM, this research systematically developed an index system of the performances and their influence factors ones of the SWRM in irrigation areas. Using the method of multivariate regression combined with correlation analysis, this study estimated quantitatively the effect of multiple factors on the water resources management performances of irrigation areas in the Ganzhou District of Zhangye, Gansu, China. The results are presented below. The overall performance is mainly affected by management enabling environment and management institution with the regression coefficients of 0.0117 and 0.0235, respectively. The performance of ecological sustainability is mainly influenced by local economic development level and enable environment with the regression coefficients of 0.08642 and −0.0118, respectively. The performance of water use equity is mainly influenced by information publicity, administrators’ education level and ordinary water users’ participation level with the correlation coefficients of 0.637, 0.553 and 0.433, respectively. The performance of water use economic efficiency is mainly influenced by the management institutions and instruments with the regression coefficients of −0.07844 and 0.01808, respectively. In order to improve the overall performance of SWRM in irrigation areas, it is necessary to strengthen the public participation, improve the manager’ ability and provide sufficient financial support on management organization.

  7. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  8. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  9. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, the vulnerability of the water cycle to radionuclide contamination has been an issue of great concern. The impact of the event throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water supplies, soilwater and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, on the methods of monitoring, and on concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight the possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book is a unique source of information about present radiological standards and monitoring requirements. It also includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. There are 19 papers all indexed separately. These are divided into sections -introduction, present radiological standards relating to drinking water, radiological monitoring requirements, the consequences of a nuclear event on water resources and water resource management strategy. The discussion at the end of each section is recorded. (author)

  10. Department of Water Resources a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... resource and fisheries management. In particular, streamflow variability and availability can affect stream biota at different life stages during the year. (Caissie, 2000). High flows resulted to flooding of downstream areas while the low flows affect fish movement, stream water temperature and causes drought.

  11. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate potential risk to drinking water supplies, soil water and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, methods of monitoring, and concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. (author)

  12. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  13. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  14. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  15. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  16. Water Resources of Beauregard Parish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, about 30.6 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water was withdrawn in Beauregard Parish, Louisiana, including about 30.4 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.1 Mgal/d from surface water sources. Industrial use, primarily for wood products, accounted for about 72 percent (22.0 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish peaked at about 43.5 Mgal/d in 1985. The large increase in groundwater usage from 1970 to 1975 was primarily due to industrial withdrawals, which increased from 3.64 Mgl/d in 1970 to 29.0 Mgal/d in 1975. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Beauregard Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  17. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  18. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  19. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  20. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  1. Water resources and water pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are widely used in the investigation of the dynamics of the water cycle. This paper focusses on their contributions to the development of strategies for the sustainability of environmental resources. Emphasis has been placed on the role of environmental isotopes and radiotracers in evaluating models of complex environmental systems. Specific reference is made to 1) the construction of a marine radioactivity database for Asia and the Pacific, 2) the sustainability of groundwater in regions challenged by climate change, and 3) the applications of radiotracers to off-shore transport of sediments and contaminants

  2. Activities as a research resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities play a guiding central role in occupational therapy, articulating to its utilization, the understanding and assessment of its capabilities in numerous and different interventions arising from this field. In this study, we aim to present the use of activities as a research methodology resource. Considering the pathways studied in a master’s research followed by a PhD work, some applications of this resource are reported as a powerful strategy of investigation for the occupational therapy researcher. It is about structuring, systematizing, and analyzing the activities proposed in professional practice by the theoretical and methodological rigor used in the research works. It emphasizes how the use of these activities can be considered important data, records, instruments and sources for different research methods, especially for qualitative analyses. Workshop activities were offered in the above mentioned studies; they were used as communication instruments and expressions of personal and collective experiences, supplying data to understand the actions of subjects and collectives. Furthermore, this strategy was applied as spaces of experimentation, learning and expression, where each participant was conceived as an active being of the process, in a way that the proposal could result in democratic experiences that reflected greater interest and participation, and a more complex presentation of the research data. It is worth mentioning that other methodological procedures, which substantiated the analyses and interpretation of the data collected, were also used. It was possible to conclude that activities, mainly as a qualitative research resource, constituted materialities in different languages and expressions that enriched the analyses arising from micro-realities, producing a repertoire of information that supported the interpretations required for the investigative processes.

  3. Protecting water resources with smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Protecting Water Resources with : Smart Growth is intended for audiences already familiar with smart : growth, who now seek specific ideas : on how techniques for smarter growth : can be used to protect their water : resources. This document is one...

  4. Present and future water resources in India: Insights from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India is a country of particular interest with regard to its future water resources, as it is expected to undergo continued rapid population growth while ... populated in the world (Kumar et al. 2005), it is critical that water security is ... This research aims to estimate the availability of present and future water resources in India, ...

  5. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  6. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  7. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  8. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Inter-SEDE: a new tool for interrogating transboundary basins

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available the potential for benefit-sharing (as opposed to the volumetric allocation of trans-boundary waters). Three case studies were included: the Jordan River; the Kagera River, extending to the Nile as a whole; and the Mekong River...

  9. Energy and water resources of Burkina Faso as catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is dedicated to the research conducted in Burkina Faso. The Research objectives were to study the energy situation, search for sources of water for the power plant and oil refinery. To operate the power plant and oil refinery, large amounts of water would be required. Water from open sources is a scarce resource ...

  10. Economic Requirements of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Khiabani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of water resources status and water consumption in Iran reveal an imbalance between supply and demand. This is compounded by the current unrealistic water price that signals the inefficiency of the water market in Iran. In economics parlance, the most important factors responsible for the low efficiency of water market are inaccurate valuation and failure to define the ownership rights of water. Low prices, low sensitivity of water demand to prices, and the lack of proper inputs as substitutes for water resources have collectively contributed to excessive pressures on the available water resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. A brief glance reveals that water resources in Iran are merely priced based on cost accounting. This is while study has shown that developed countries adopt approaches to water pricing that not only consider the final cost of water but also take into account such other parameters that are affected by intrinsic value of water including its bequest and existence values. The present paper draws upon the concepts of value, expenses, and pricing of water in an attempt to explore the marketing and pricing of water resources as the two major tools economists employ in the management of these resources. It is the objective of the study to arrive at an accurate definition of ownership rights of water resources to improve upon the present water marketing. In doing so, the more important components of modern pricing strategies adopted by developed nations will also be investigated. Results indicate that the present cost accounting method used in pricing water in Iran will in the long-run lead to the wastage of water resources and that it should, therefore, be given up in favor modern and more realistic policies to avoid such waste of resources.

  11. Isotope Hydrology: Understanding and Managing Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Development is intricately linked to water whether concerning issues of health, food and agriculture, sanitation, the environment, industry, or energy. The IAEA, through its Water Resources Programme provides its Member States with science-based information and technical skills to improve understanding and management of their water resources

  12. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  13. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Hearne, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation....

  14. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  15. Applying the WEAP Model to Water Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    Water resources assessment is a tool to provide decision makers with an appropriate basis to make informed judgments regarding the objectives and targets to be addressed during the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process. The study shows how water resources assessment can be applied in SEA...... in assessing the effects on water resources using a case study on a Coal Industry Development Plan in an arid region in North Western China. In the case the WEAP model (Water Evaluation And Planning System) were used to simulate various scenarios using a diversity of technological instruments like irrigation...... efficiency, treatment and reuse of water. The WEAP model was applied to the Ordos catchment where it was used for the first time in China. The changes in water resource utilization in Ordos basin were assessed with the model. It was found that the WEAP model is a useful tool for water resource assessment...

  16. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  17. Concept and Connotation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Water Ecological Civilization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhilong; Song, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Water ecological civilization construction is based on the water resources carrying capacity, guided by the sustainable development concept, adhered to the human-water harmony thoughts. This paper has comprehensive analyzed the concept and characteristics of the carrying capacity of water resources in the water ecological civilization construction, and discussed the research methods and evaluation index system of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction, finally pointed out that the problems and solutions of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction and put forward the future research prospect.

  18. Research Award: Climate Change and Water

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... CCW encourages the development of research on specific tools to cope with water stress, such as improving integrated water resource management, finding equitable ways to allocate exisng water. (tradable rights), reusing lower quality water (saline, wastewater), and facilitang sustainable and equitable ...

  19. Water Resources Research Program. Transport of oily pollutants in the coastal waters of Lake Michigan. An application of rare earth tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, D. L.; Saunders, K. D.; Allender, J. H.; Ditmars, J. D.; Harrison, W.

    1978-11-01

    An experimental method was developed to tag and to trace oily pollutants in fresh water environments. The use of two rare earth element tags (Dy and Sm) permitted simultaneous tracing of small oil spills at the water surface and of the underlying water. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the tracer concentrations in numerous, small water samples collected from a moving boat. The method was applied in two field experiments with simulated oily pollutants in the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC). Tagged oily pollutants and IHC waters were traced under both floating- and sinking-plume conditions. Floating-plume results indicated that oily waste artificially mixed downward by a ship did not resurface, no differences were seen in the movement of the oily waste and the underlying water, and mixing coefficients for tagged oil and water were similar to those measured by others on the Great Lakes. Sinking-plume results gave unequivocal evidence of the intake of IHC effluent at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant and indicated partitioning of the oily wastes and water. Simple dilution estimates for the sinking plume were supported by the tracer data and similar estimates indicated plume center-line dilution ratios for the entire IHC effluent at the water intakes could be as low as 2.8.

  20. Energy technology scenarios for use in water resources assessments under Section 13a of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This document presents two estimates of future growth of emerging energy technology in the years 1985, 1990, and 2000 to be used as a basis for conducting Water Resources Council assessments as required by the Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974. The two scenarios are called the high world oil price (HWOP) and low world oil price (LWOP) cases. A national-level summary of the ASA tabulations is shown in Appendix A; the scenarios are presented at the ASA level of detail in Appendix B. The two scenarios were generally derived from assumptions of the Second National Energy Plant (NEP II), including estimates of high and low world oil price cases, growth rate of GNP, and related economic parameters. The overall national energy growth inherent in these assumptions was expressed as a detailed projection of various energy fuel cycles through use of the Fossil-2 model and regionalized through use of the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS). These scenarios are for the use of regional analysts in examining the availability of water for and the potential impacts of future growth of emerging energy technology in selected river basins of the Nation, as required by Section 13(a).

  1. A model for water resource governance for the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Malayang, B.

    2002-01-01

    This is an attempt to apply a model of forest governance on water resource governance based on a previous work on adaptive collaborative management (ACM) and forest governance of the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

  2. Water resources rata - Washington water year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, R.A.; Wiggins, W.D.; Smith, R.R.; Ruppert, G.P.; Knowles, S.M.; Renslow, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    The Washington Water-Data Report includes records for both surface and ground water in the State. The report contains discharge records for 244 stream-gaging stations, stage only records for 9 gaging stations, discharge measurements for 211 miscellaneous streamflow stations, and annual maximum discharge for 3 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage and(or) content records for 36 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 40 surface-water sites; water-level records for 25 observation wells; and water quality records for 11 observation wells.

  3. A century of lessons about water resources in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Hornbeck; James N. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2001-01-01

    Water resources in forests of the northeastern United States have been a contentious issue throughout the 20th century. The Weeks Law of 1911 recognized the needs to protect water yield and quality, and stimulated long-term interest in the relationships between forests and water. Research has provided a clear understanding of the roles of forests in hydrologic and...

  4. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  5. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: antimicrobial properties of copper and its effects on micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that copper is effective at reducing bacterial numbers at concentrations that are typically permitted in drinking water (depending on the guideline of the country). It has however highlighted the need for a better...

  6. Teale Department of Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  7. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  8. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  9. Water Environment Research Foundation research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noss, Charles I.

    2002-02-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is a not- for-profit organization established in 1989 to advance the science and technology of a broad spectrum of environmental and human health concerns to the wastewater industry and the public. It is a unique public/private partnership between utilities, academia, government, and industry, committed to funding research by leveraging resources and expertise to develop and disseminate sound scientific and technological information. Funded by subscribers, grants and contributions, WERF manages a broad array of research projects aimed at protecting human health and the environment. While WERF funds and manages projects, the actual research is carried out by individual organizations or teams composed of utilities, consultants, universities, and industrial or commercial firms. Examples of WERF's current research program include the investigation of on- line monitoring techniques for microbial and chemical contaminants in water and wastewater, optimization of processes for pathogen removal and inactivation, improved treatment of toxic compounds, and assessing the potential risks to public health from exposure to these microbial and chemical contaminants. This paper will provide an overview of the program, research funded to date, and technology needs for the future.

  10. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  11. Fuzzy pricing for urban water resources: model construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ranhang; Chen, Shouyu

    2008-08-01

    A rational water price system plays a crucial role in the optimal allocation of water resources. In this paper, a fuzzy pricing model for urban water resources is presented, which consists of a multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model and a water resources price (WRP) computation model. Various factors affecting WRP are comprehensively evaluated with multiple levels and objectives in the multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model, while the price vectors of water resources are constructed in the WRP computation model according to the definition of the bearing water price index, and then WRP is calculated. With the incorporation of an operator's knowledge, it considers iterative weights and subjective preference of operators for weight-assessment. The weights determined are more rational and the evaluation results are more realistic. Particularly, dual water supply is considered in the study. Different prices being fixed for water resources with different qualities conforms to the law of water resources value (WRV) itself. A high-quality groundwater price computation model is also proposed to provide optimal water allocation and to meet higher living standards. The developed model is applied in Jinan for evaluating its validity. The method presented in this paper offers some new directions in the research of WRP.

  12. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  13. Analyses on Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Xiao, T.; Wang, C.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Chengdu is located in the Sichuan basin, and it is the most famous inland city in China. With suitable temperatures and rainfall, Chengdu is the most livable cities in China. With the development of urban economy and society, the population has now risen to 16 million, and it will up to 22 million in 2030. This will cause the city water resources demand, and the carrying capacity of water resources become more and more serious. In order to improve the contradiction between urban waterlogging and water shortage, sponge city planning was proposed by Chengdu government, and this is of great practical significance for promoting the healthy development of the city. Base on the reanalysis data from NCEP during 2007-2016, the characters of Water Vapor Resources was analyzed, and the main contents of this research are summarized as follows: The water vapor resource in Chengdu plain is more than that in Southeast China and less in Northwest China. The annual average water vapor resource is approximately 160 mm -320 mm, and the water vapor resource in summer can reach 3 times in winter. But the annual average precipitation in Chengdu is about 800 mm -1200 mm and it is far greater than the water vapor resource, this is because of the transport of water vapor. Using the formula of water vapor flux, the water vapor in Chengdu is comes from the west and the south, and the value is around 50kg/(ms). Base on the calculation of boundary vapor budget, the water vapor transport under 500hPa accounted for 97% of the total. Consider the water vapor transport, transformation and urban humidification effect, the Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu is 2500mm, and it can be used by artificial precipitation enhancement. Therefore, coordinated development of weather modification and sponge city construction, the shortage of water resources in Chengdu plain can be solved. Key words: Chengdu; Sponge city; Water vapor resource; Precipitation; Artificial precipitation enhancement Acknowledgements

  14. Conflicts Over Water as a Resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooksey, James

    2008-01-01

    .... A specific element that operational planners must consider when assessing political and military objectives of belligerents, and how those objectives may shape military operations, is water as a natural resource...

  15. Water resources: Future Nile river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is projected to increase annual Nile river flow; importantly, year-to-year variability is also expected to increase markedly. More variable flows could present a challenge for consistent water resource provision in this region.

  16. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more sustainable and equitable framework governing management measures capable of meeting the needs of riparian states and ensuring sustainability within the basin is highlighted. Keywords: biodiversity loss; East Africa; eutrophication; heavy metal pollution; international treaties; Nile Basin; shared water resources

  17. Water resources of Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a brief overview of groundwater and surface-water resources in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Information on the availability, use, and quality of water from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is discussed. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of this information.

  18. Water as an urban resource and nuisance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H.E.; Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Generally, when people speak of water as a resource, they are considering its good aspects and recognizing that it is essential for life and living. Sometimes or at some places or to some people, the same water may be annoying or unpleasant and thus a nuisance-for example, rain at a picnic, snow at any time except Christmas Eve, ground water in a basement, floodwater inundating personal property, and any water after it has been polluted by somebody else.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    AYDINALP, Cumhur; PORCA, M. Monica

    2004-01-01

    Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

  1. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has a population of about 160 million people and an area of land covering 200,000 square kilometres. Amongst the numerous natural resources in Nigeria; water resources is most plenteous and is developing at a fast pace. Because of the lack of sound early development policy and meaningful investments, the ...

  2. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    purpose projects in this country than that they are given at present. INTRODUCTION. Water is one of the most basic resources in a country. Some resources. like minerals, can be pre- served in their natural form and can be saved until required.

  3. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  4. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  5. Forest Ecosystem services: Water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; James Vose; Travis Warziniack; Bill Holman

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), awareness has steadily grown regarding the importance of maintaining natural capital. Forest vegetation is a valuable source of natural capital, and the regulation of water quantity and quality is among the most important forest ecosystem services in many regions around the world. Changes in...

  6. Water resources of Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  7. Water resources of Sabine Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Sabine Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  8. Water resources of St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  9. Water resources of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  10. Water resources of Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  11. Water resources of La Salle Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in La Salle Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  12. Water resources of Acadia Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Larry B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Acadia Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  13. Water resources of De Soto Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata. usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  14. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  15. Water resources of West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.; Tomaszewski, Dan J.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is discussed. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  16. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  17. Resolving and Prevention of Shared Water Resources Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning from experiences from other parts of the world, it was recommended to incorporate game theory technique in water resources conflicts and cooperation in the African river basins for equitable and fair utilization and management of shared water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 51- ...

  18. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. CORNEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on water resources – The most recent scientific assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC [6] concludes that, since the late 19th century, anthropogenic induced emissions of greenhouse gases have contributed to an increase in global surface temperatures of about 0.3 to 0.6o C. Based on the IPCC’s scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols a further increase of 2o C is expected by the year 2100. Plants, animals, natural and managed ecosystems, and human settlements are susceptible to variations in the storage, fluxes, and quality of water and sensitive to climate change. From urban and agricultural water supplies to flood management and aquatic ecosystem protection, global warming is affecting all aspects of water resource management. Rising temperatures, loss of snowpack, escalating size and frequency of flood events, and rising sea levels are just some of the impacts of climate change that have broad implications for the management of water resources. With robust scientific evidence showing that human-induced climate change is occurring, it is critical to understand how water quantity and quality might be affected. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the environmental risks caused by climate anomalies on water resources, to examine the negative impacts of a greenhouse warming on the supply and demand for water and the resulting socio-economic implications.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainable development of water resources is a multi-dimensional way of thinking about the connections or interdependencies among natural, social, and economic systems in the use of water. The purpose of environmental impact assessment is to guarantee a sustainable development that is in harmony with human ...

  1. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of the multiple-purpose development and calls for giving ... An appraisal of water resource must consider surface as well as ground water supplies in terms of location, .... as such a very satisfactory method of cost allocation that would be equally applicable to all projects and.

  2. Application and Prospect of Big Data in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Danchi; Xu, Xinyi

    2017-04-01

    Because of developed information technology and affordable data storage, we h ave entered the era of data explosion. The term "Big Data" and technology relate s to it has been created and commonly applied in many fields. However, academic studies just got attention on Big Data application in water resources recently. As a result, water resource Big Data technology has not been fully developed. This paper introduces the concept of Big Data and its key technologies, including the Hadoop system and MapReduce. In addition, this paper focuses on the significance of applying the big data in water resources and summarizing prior researches by others. Most studies in this field only set up theoretical frame, but we define the "Water Big Data" and explain its tridimensional properties which are time dimension, spatial dimension and intelligent dimension. Based on HBase, the classification system of Water Big Data is introduced: hydrology data, ecology data and socio-economic data. Then after analyzing the challenges in water resources management, a series of solutions using Big Data technologies such as data mining and web crawler, are proposed. Finally, the prospect of applying big data in water resources is discussed, it can be predicted that as Big Data technology keeps developing, "3D" (Data Driven Decision) will be utilized more in water resources management in the future.

  3. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  4. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... from several government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects in the area of forestry, fisheries, coastal resources and protected areas. Research support will be provided by a team based in the Cambodia CBNRM Learning Institute.

  5. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  6. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Integrated Water Resources Management, Capacity Building, Water Sector Organizations, Nigeria. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. The objective of sustainable water resources development is to make sure that adequate supply of water of good quality and quantity are maintained for.

  7. Climate impact on BC Hydro's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Rodenhuis, D.

    2008-01-01

    BC Hydro like many other hydro utilities has used the historical record of weather and runoff as the standard description the variability and uncertainty of the key weather drivers for its operation and planning studies. It has been conveniently assumed that this historical record is or has been statistically stationary and therefore is assumed to represent the future characteristics of climatic drivers on our system. This assumption is obviously no longer justifiable. To address the characterisation of future weather, BC Hydro has a multi-year a directed research program with the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the water resources that BC Hydro manages for hydropower generation and other uses. The objective of this program is to derive climate change adjusted meteorologic and hydrologic sequences suitable for use in system operations and planning studies. These climate-adjusted sequences then can be used to test system sensitivity to climate change scenarios relative to the baseline of the historical record. This paper describes BC Hydro's research program and the results achieved so far. (author)

  8. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haddadi Moghaddam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula, invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor, various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.. Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05, no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05.

  9. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  10. Research Resources Survey: Radiology Junior Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Votaw, John R

    2015-07-01

    To assess resources available to junior faculty in US academic radiology departments for research mentorship and funding opportunities and to determine if certain resources are more common in successful programs. An anonymous survey covering scientific environment and research mentorship and was sent to vice-chairs of research of radiology departments. Results were evaluated to identify practices of research programs with respect to mentorship, resources, and opportunities. Academy of Radiology Research's 2012 National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and awards list was used to determine if environment and practices correlate with funding. There was a 51% response rate. A greater fraction of clinical faculty gets promoted from assistant to associate professor than research faculty. Research faculty overall submits more funding applications. Most programs support start-up costs and K-awards. Over half of the departments have a vice-chair for faculty development, and most have formal mentorship programs. Faculty members are expected to teach, engage in service, publish, and apply for and get research funding within 3 years of hire. Top-tier programs as judged by NIH awards have a combination of MDs who devote >50% effort to research and PhD faculty. Key factors holding back both clinical and research junior faculty development were motivation, resources, and time, although programs reported high availability of resources and support at the department level. Better marketing of resources for junior faculty, effort devoted to mentoring clinical faculty in research, and explicit milestones/expectations for achievement could enhance junior faculty success, promote interest in the clinician–scientist career path for radiologists, and lead to greater research success.

  11. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  12. Isotope techniques in water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of 41 oral and the extended synopses of 40 poster presentations at the seventh symposium on the use of isotope techniques in water resources development. The topics of the sessions were as follows: Thermal water studies, groundwater dating, hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas, field studies with environmental isotopes, precipitation-surface-groundwater relationships, pollution, artificial tracers and sediment transport. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  14. Resource management and nonmarket valuation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Survey based nonmarket valuation research is often regarded as economics research. However, resource economists need to be aware of and acknowledge the manifold information sources that they employ in order to enhance the policy credibility of their studies. Communication between resource economists and practitioners of allied disciplines including chemistry, civil engineering, sociology, and anthropology are often neglected. Recent resource allocation policy debates have given rise to an extensive discussion of methodological issues that narrow the scope of the subject. The present paper provides a format for the presentation of nonmarket valuation research results that emphasizes the manifold links between economics studies that employ different methodologies to estimate nonmarket resource values. A more robust emphasis on the interlocking features of the different approaches for estimating nonmarket benefits should foster appreciation of the transdisciplinary aspects of the subject.

  15. Water resources and water management in the Bahurutshe heartland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With this study a brief descriptive survey, covering the period from 1972 to the present, of the water resources in the Lehurutshe district, formerly part of Bophuthatswana and now part of the Zeerust district of the North-West Province, is given. Both surface water bodies (rivers, catchments, drainage systems, wetlands, pans, ...

  16. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  17. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  18. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates.

  19. Towards Empowered Stakeholder Participation in Water Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers why stakeholder institutions mandated to manage water resources in Zimbabwe in a participatory manner, have failed to perform according to expectations. A central argument of the paper is that this failure is because of the absence of a clear development agenda, which can facilitate effective ...

  20. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  1. Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources for sustainable growth in Nigeria. Lekan Oyebande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 21-30. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  3. Water resources of Van Buren County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, P.R.; Hendrickson, G.E.; Stoimenoff, L.E.; Whetstone, G.W.

    1964-01-01

    The water resources of Van Buren County include productive ground-water reservoirs, a network of perennial streams, about 60 major inland lakes, and Lake Michigan. Most water users obtain their supplies from wells. The ground-water reservoirs in the glacial drift can provide several times the amount of water now used, but large withdrawals of ground water may lower the levels of nearby lakes or diminish the flow of nearly streams. Permeable soils and drift account for the relatively high base flows of streams in the southeastern two-thirds of the county. Less permeable surficial materials in the northwest part of the county result in relatively low base flows there. The water from wells is generally hard and high in iron content but is otherwise suitable for most uses. Water from streams and lakes is similar to that from wells except that iron-content is not a problem, and some of the inland lakes have very soft water. The availability of ground water, the base flow of streams, and the chemical character of water in the county are summarized in maps and tables accompanying this report.

  4. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  5. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The Water Resources Council Staff (hereinafter the Staff) serves the Council and the Chairman in the performance of...

  6. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  7. Resources | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through IDRC's resource library, we share our results, provide support to researchers, and offer tools for development actors. IDRC supports research that addresses critical development issues, finds sustainable solutions, and builds knowledge. Sharing that knowledge is one important way that IDRC and our grantees can ...

  8. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  9. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  10. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, H.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  11. Climate impact on BC Hydro's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Rodenhuis, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation outlined a research program designed to characterize future weather scenarios for BC Hydro. The program evaluated the impacts of climatic change on water resources managed by the utility for hydroelectric power generation by deriving climatic change-adjusted meteorologic and hydrologic sequences designed for use in system operations and planning studies. The effects of climate change on generation, inflow, and future reservoir levels were evaluated. Modified weather records were used to simulate alternative runoff and load patterns. The climate-adjusted sequences were validated using historical meteorological and hydrological records. The study examined the influence of precipitation, loads, and future electricity prices on BC Hydro system operations. The program will develop diagnostic hydrologic and climate models as well as to determine the impact of surface conditions on Fraser River hydrology. The program will be comprised of global climate model and Canadian regional climate model outputs. Results to date anticipate increases in winter temperatures, cooling of summer temperatures, and increases in precipitation for the region. Results of the program will be used in system planning studies. tabs., figs

  12. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  13. Climate change and integrated water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: In the Bangladesh Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP), Millennium Development Goals and other donor driven initiatives, two vital areas linked with poverty and ecosystem survival seem to be either missing or are being neglected: (a) transboundary water use and (b) coastal area poverty and critical ecosystems vulnerable due to climate change. Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) goals and PRSP are integrated, it is necessary that the countrys WSSD goals and PRSP should also be in harmony. All should give the recognition of Ganges Brahmaputra and Meghna as international basins and the approach should be taken for regional sustainable and integrated water resource management involving all co-riparian countries. The principle of low flow in the international rivers during all seasons should be ensured. All stakeholders should have a say and work towards regional cooperation in the water sector as a top priority. The energy sector should be integrated with water. The Indian River Linking project involving international rivers should be seriously discussed at all levels including the parliament so that voice of Bangladesh is concerted and information shared by all concerned. One of the most critical challenges Bangladesh faces is the management of water resources during periods of water excesses and acute scarcity. It is particularly difficult when only 7% of the catchments areas of the very international rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna are in Bangladesh while 97% is outside Bangladesh where unfortunately, Bangladesh has no control on upstream diversion and water use. The UN Conference on Environment and Development in its Agenda 21 emphasizes the importance of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The core point of IWRM is that is development of all aspects of entire basin in a basin wide approach, that all relevant agencies of the government and water users must be involved in the planning process and

  14. Resource recovery: research development and demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramelli, A B

    1979-10-01

    Implementation of resource recovery is being retarded by technological uncertainties and institutional impediments. Development and commercialization of new competitive technologies are not proceeding rapidly because a structured development program for the industry is lacking. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized these problems, and as part of its overall program in energy recovery from urban waste, it is developing a near- and longer-term research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to accelerate commercialization of promising resource recovery technologies. The MITRE Corporation was contracted to develop a near-term RD and D Plan for resource recovery which identifies actions which should be taken over the next three years to accelerate commercialization of existing and developing technologies. The research needs presented in this Plan exist in the industry today. The resolution, however, is not necessarily the sole responsibility of DOE, but rather calls for a combination of public and private sector efforts. An individual research program is presented for each resource recovery technology. A program consists of a combination of bench-, pilot-, demonstration-, and full-scale process and equipment evaluations as well as qualitative and quantitative studies. Each research program is tailored to alleviate the problems of a technology such that their resolution will accelerate the rate at which the technology advances toward commercial readiness and realizes commercial implementation. All the research needs identified are actions which should be taken in the next three years to advance the field of resource recovery.

  15. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  16. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  17. Sustainable water resources management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Total river discharge in Pakistan in summer season vary from 3 thousand to 34 thousand cusses (100 thousand Cusses to 1,200 thousand Cusses) and can cause tremendous loss to human lives, crops and property, this causes the loss of most of the flood water in the lower Indus plains to the sea. Due to limited capacity of storage at Tarbela and Mangla Dams on river Indus and Jhelum, with virtually no control on Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, devastating problems are faced between July and October in the event of excessive rainfall in the catchments. Due to enormous amounts of sediments brought in by the feeding rivers, the three major reservoirs -Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma will lose their storage capacity, by 25 % by the end of the year 2010, which will further aggravate the water-availability situation in Pakistan. The quality of water is also deteriorating due to urbanization and industrialization and agricultural developments. On the Environmental Front the main problems are water-logging and salinity, salt-imbalance, and increasing pollution of water-bodies. World's largest and most integrated system of irrigation was installed almost a hundred years ago and now its efficiency has been reduced to such an extent that more than 50 per cent of the irrigation-water is lost in transit and during application. On the other side, there are still not fully exploited water resources for example groundwater, the alluvial plains of Pakistan are blessed with extensive unconfined aquifer, with a potential of over 50 MAF, which is being exploited to an extent of about 38 MAF by over 562,000 private and 10,000 public tube-wells. In case of Balochistan, out of a total available potential of about 0.9 MAF of groundwater, over 0.5 MAF are already being utilized, but there by leaving a balance of about 0.4 MAF that can still be utilized. Future water resources management strategies should includes starting a mass-awareness campaign on a marshal scale in rural and urban areas to apply water

  18. Managing urban wastewater for maximising water resource utilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme uses artificial recharge of urban storm water and treated wastewater to augment the natural groundwater resource. The key to the success of the scheme is the fractionation of the storm water...

  19. Water in Africa: the paradoxes of a highly- coveted resource

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The programme. The overall objective of this pan-african programme of research is to contribute to making available good quality, reliable and accessible information systems through the application of the P-GIS approach to improve natural resource management (water, land and forest in particular) and promote food ...

  20. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  2. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  3. Engaging Southwestern Tribes in Sustainable Water Resources Topics and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karletta Chief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement

  4. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  5. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  6. Sustainable Water Resources in Semiarid Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Favreau, G.; Gates, J. B.; Mukherjee, A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Zheng, C.

    2009-12-01

    Developing sustainable water resources management in agroecosystems is difficult in semiarid regions with limited or sporadic water inputs and heavy reliance on irrigation. Sustainable water management needs to consider both water quantity and water quality. Conversion of natural ecosystems to rain-fed agroecosystems has increased groundwater recharge in many semiarid regions in Australia, SW US, and W. Africa; however, such changes are not sustainable because rising water tables may ultimately reach the land surface and direct evaporation would cause salinization, as found in dryland salinity in Australia. In addition, increased recharge mobilizes pre-existing salt reservoirs that accumulated in soil profiles over millennia since the previous glaciation in Australia and the SW US. Increased recharge can also mobilize pre-existing nutrient reservoirs to underlying aquifers or create new reservoirs from soil organic nitrogen as in SW US and W. Africa. It is much more difficult to develop sustainable water management in irrigated agroecosystems as shown by water table declines of up to 1 m/yr in the north China Plain and up to 1.4 m/yr in the US High Plains. In addition to mobilizing pre-existing salts, irrigation also adds salts and nutrients to the system through irrigation water and fertilizers as seen in the US High Plains and Rajasthan, India. Various approaches are being considered to make agricultural water management more sustainable. Approaches include switching from rain-fed to groundwater fed irrigated agriculture in the US High Plains to prevent water tables from reaching the land surface, proposed expansion of irrigation with fresh groundwater in west Africa to reduce water tables, deficit irrigation and rotation of irrigation with rain-fed agriculture to reduce overexploitation of aquifers in irrigated areas in the US High Plains and parts of India, improved timing of fertilizer applications to reduce leaching, and consideration of nutrients in

  7. Report on follow-up for joint research of valuable resources recovery techniques from brackish water; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report describes follow-up for research and development on the recovery of valuable resources, such as magnesium, bromine and boron, contained in the brackish water for manufacture of common salt in the coastal region of Mexico. For the field survey, salt garden, irrigation plant and manufacturing plant of dinning salt were inspected. The optimum site was examined by assuming desalination plant and solar pond. The groundwater in coastal regions is progressively salified. Since the coastal region is a tourist resort with an round-trip area of whales, environmental protection is indispensable. For the joint research with invited researchers, the solar pond system and fresh water generation were studied. As a result, it was found that the solar pond system is an excellent method for keeping thermal energy in a low cost at the salt garden with abundant solar energy, and that the desalination system combined with distilling is the most suitable method. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transforming Research Data into Resource Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Shepherd, A.; Groman, R. C.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Copley, N. J.; Ake, H.; York, A.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many of the Grand Challenge science questions are of interest to the marine science research community funded by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF). The highly diverse range of environmental data from the oceans, coastal regions, and Great Lakes are collected using a variety of platforms, instrument systems and sensors and are complemented by experimental results including sequence data, and model results. The data are often collected with a particular research purpose in mind. Such data are costly to acquire and environmental data, temporally and geographically unique, cannot be acquired again. The NSF-funded research community comprising funded investigators and their research teams, operators of the US academic research fleet, data managers, marine librarians, and NSF program managers are working together to transform `research data' into `resource data'. The objective is to ensure that the original research data become available to a much wider community, and have potential to be used as `resource data' for new and different types of research well beyond the initial focus of the NSF research grant. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) manages a community-driven data repository that serves some of these data: the data and results from research funded by NSF Ocean Sciences and Polar Programs. Individually such data sets are typically small in size, but when integrated these data become a valuable resource for the global research effort. The data are analyzed, quality controlled, finalized by the original investigators and their research teams, and then contributed to BCO-DMO. The BCO-DMO data managers reformat the data if they were submitted in proprietary formats, perform quality assessment review, augment the data sets with additional documentation, and create structured, machine-actionable metadata. The BCO-DMO data system allows researchers to make connections between related data sets within the BCO

  9. Water resources of the Pittsburgh area, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noecker, Max; Greenman, D.W.; Beamer, N.H.

    1954-01-01

    The per capita use of water in the Pittsburgh area in 1951 was 2, 000 gallons per day fgpd) or twice the per capita use in Pennsylvania as a whole. An average of about 3, 040 million gallons of water was withdrawn from the streams and from the ground each day. Of this amount, nearly 190 million gallons per day (mgd), or 6 percent, was for domestic public water supply. Industry, including public utilities generating steam for electric energy, used approximately 2, 900 mgd, of which about 42 mgd was purchased from public supply sources. In spite of this tremendous demand for water, a sufficient quantity was available to satisfy the needs of the area without serious difficulty. Acid mine drainage presents the greatest single pollution problem in the Pittsburgh area at the present time (1953) because no practical means has been found for its control. The waters of several of the rivers are strongly acid for this reason. Of the three major rivers in the area, Monongahela River waters have the greatest acid concentration and Allegheny River waters the least. Untreated domestic and industrial wastes are additional sources of stream pollution in the area. Much of the water is hard and corrosive, and occasionally has objectionable color, odor, and taste. The treatment used by public water-supply systems using river water is adequate at all times for removal of water-borne causes of disease. Attention is being concentrated on improving the quality of present supplies rather than developing new supplies from upstream tributaries. Present supplies are being improved by providing treatment facilities for disposal of wastes,, by reduction of acid mine drainage discharged into the streams, and by providing storage to augment low flows. The underground water resources are vitally important to the area. The use of ground water in the Pittsburgh area has doubled in the past two decades and in 1951 more ground water was used in Allegheny County than in any other county in

  10. Water: A critical resource in the thermoelectric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, Thomas J. III.; McNemar, Andrea; Skone, Timothy J.; Stiegel, Gary J. Jr.; Nemeth, Michael; Schimmoller, Brian; Murphy, James T.; Manfredo, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Water availability represents a growing concern for meeting future power generation needs. In the United States, projected population growth rates, energy consumption patterns, and demand from competing water use sectors will increase pressure on power generators to reduce water use. Water availability and use also exhibit strong regional variations, complicating the nature of public policy and technological response. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is engaged in a research and development (R and D) program to reduce freshwater withdrawal (total quantity of water utilized) and consumption (portion of withdrawal not returned to the source) from existing and future thermoelectric power generating facilities. The Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is currently developing technologies in 5 categories of water management projects to reduce water use while minimizing the impacts of plant operations on water quality. This paper outlines the freshwater withdrawal and consumption rates for various thermoelectric power generating types and then estimates the potential benefits of IEP program technologies at both the national and regional levels in the year 2030. NETL is working to protect and conserve water resources while leveraging domestic fossil fuel resources, such as coal, to increase national energy security. (author)

  11. Water resource taxation with full-cost water pricing: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Pizzol, Massimo

    regimes can be better designed to provide support to improved resource efficiencies in water services. Furthermore, we explore the intricate relationships between water quantity and freshwater quality, when pricing regimes are in place, with empirical evidence at the level of specific catchments......Green fiscal reform involves removal of environmentally harmful subsidies, introduction of taxes on pollution and resource depletion as well as full-cost pricing for environmental services. One sector which traditionally has been shielded against Green Fiscal Reform is the water sector, where...... under Art. 9 that EU Member States are to introduce full-cost water pricing including pricing of the environmental and resource costs related to water service provision. With relevance for the perspective of green fiscal reform, the European Union funded research project EPIWATER has surveyed the use...

  12. Resource recovery from black water. New concepts stimulate resource recovery; Resource recovery from black water. Nieuwe concepten bevorderen grondstofterugwinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, M.

    2011-02-15

    New sanitation concepts are based on separation at the source of domestic waste water into grey water and black water (faeces and urine) or in grey water, urine and Brown water (faeces). These concepts have a large potential for recovering important resources. The concepts therefore provide an alternative to the current sewer systems and central aerobe waste water purification. [Dutch] Nieuwe sanitatieconcepten zijn gebaseerd op het scheiden aan de bron van huishoudelijk afvalwater in grijs en zwart water (faeces en urine) of in grijs water, urine en bruin water (faeces). Deze concepten hebben een groot potentieel om belangrijke grondstoffen terug te winnen. De concepten zijn daarmee een alternatief voor de huidige rioleringssystemen en centrale aerobe afvalwaterzuiveringen.

  13. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  14. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  15. Undergraduate Program Focuses on International Issues in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Scott W.; Silliman, Stephen E.; Campana, Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    For the past two summers, faculty from the University of Notre Dame, the University of Nevada, Reno, and the University of New Mexico have directed a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site focusing on issues in international water resources. (See REU Site on Water Resources in Developing Countries, www.nd.edu/~reuwater/). The overarching objective of this project is to engage and educate U.S. students in the issues and problems facing the world's nations in water resource development and potable water supply. The stated goals of NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program are to expand student participation in all areas of research, and specifically, to attract a diverse group of students into the fields of science and engineering, including graduate-level studies. In addition, international REU sites often seek to develop students who can be ``globally competen;'' that is, understand science and engineering in frameworks other than a North American perspective. (More information on international REU sites and site development can be found at www.nsftokyo.org/REU/ and www.nsf.gov/sbe/int/.)

  16. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  17. Resources sustainable management of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation executive interinstitutional of the state of knowledge of the Raigon aquifer in the mark of the Project RLA/8/031 (sustainable Administration of Resources of groundwaters), elaborate of an I diagnose and definition of the necessities with a view to the formulation of the plan of activities of the project to develop. In the development of this work shop they were the following topics: Geology and hidrogeology, numeric modelation of the Aquifer and letter of vulnerability of the Aquifer Raigon. soils, quality and water demand, juridical and institutionals aspects

  18. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the water resources of Genesee County, Mich., whose principal city is Flint. The sources of water available to the county are the Flint and Shiawassee Rivers and their tributaries, inland lakes, ground water, and Lake Huron. The withdrawal use of water in the county in 1958 amounted to about 45 mgd. Of this amount, 36 mgd was withdrawn from the Flint River by the Flint public water-supply system. The rest was supplied by wells. At present (1959) the Shiawassee River and its tributaries and the inland lakes are not used for water supply. Flint River water is used for domestic, industrial, and waste-dilution requirements in Flint. About 60 percent of the water supplied by the Flint public water system is used by Flint industry. At least 30 mgd of river water is needed for waste dilution in the Flint River during warm weather.Water from Holloway Reservoir, which has a storage capacity of 5,760 million gallons, is used to supplement low flows in the Flint River to meet water-supply and waste-dilution requirements. About 650 million gallons in Kearsley Reservoir, on a Flint River tributary, is held in reserve for emergency use. Based on records for the lowest flows during the period 1930-52, the Flint River system, with the two reservoirs in operation, is capable of supplying about 60 mgd at Flint, less evaporation and seepage losses. The 1958 water demands exceeded this amount. Development of additional storage in the Flint River basin is unlikely because of lack of suitable storage sites. Plans are underway to supply Flint and most of Genesee County with water from Lake Huron.The principal tributaries of the Flint River in and near Flint could furnish small supplies of water. Butternut Creek, with the largest flow of those studied, has an estimated firm yield of 0.054 mgd per sq mi for 95 percent of the time. The Shiawassee River at Byron is capable of supplying at least 29 mgd for 95 percent of the time.Floods are a serious problem in Flint

  19. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  20. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  1. Passive Solar Driven Water Treatment of Contaminated Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mubasher

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology Freshwater, being vital for mankind survival, has become a very serious concern for the public especially living in countries with limited water, energy and economic resources. Freshwater generation is an energy-intensive task particularly when fossil based fuels are required as energy source. However, environmental concerns and high energy costs have called for the alternative and renewable sources of energy like wind, hy...

  2. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    Along with the Arctic’s icy barriers melting which allows species to move northwards, new invasion corridors also arise with the opening of new shipping routes. The Snow Crab in the North West Atlantic is suspected to be a stowaway transferred via ballast water from the North Pacific. It was iden......Along with the Arctic’s icy barriers melting which allows species to move northwards, new invasion corridors also arise with the opening of new shipping routes. The Snow Crab in the North West Atlantic is suspected to be a stowaway transferred via ballast water from the North Pacific....... It was identified two decades ago in the southeastern Barents Sea and has been expanding its geographical range and abundance, thus allowing the opening of a new fishery in international waters. The high commercial value of the fishery has led to a proliferation of articles discussing the regulatory regime...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty...

  3. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished

  4. Applications of NST in water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    2006-01-01

    At first instance, Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) appears to have no relation to water resource management. Its dark side, the sole purpose of which is weaponry, has for a long time overshadowed its bright side, which has plenty of peaceful applications in the main socio-economic development sectors: power generation, agriculture, health and medicine, industry, manufacturing and environment. Historically, the medical sector is one of the early beneficiaries of the applications of NST. The same is true for Malaysia when the first x-ray machine was installed in 1897 at Taiping Hospital, Perak. In the environment sector, the use of little or no chemical in nuclear processes contributes to a cleaner environment. Nuclear power plants for example do not emit polluting gases and do not harm to the ozone layer. At the end of 2004, there are more than 440 nuclear power reactors operating in more than 30 countries fulfilling 17% of the world electricity demand, and it is growing. While nuclear power is yet to arrive in Malaysia the uses of NST in other areas are increasing. The application of radiotracer techniques in water resource management, in the environment, as well as in industry is an example. (Author)

  5. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  6. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana A. A. Rufino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  7. Water Governance, Stakeholder Engagement, and Sustainable Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water governance and stakeholder engagement are receiving research attention for their role in formulating and implementing solutions to the world’s critical water challenges. The inspiration for this Special Issue came from our desire to provide a platform for sharing results and informing the global water governance community about the wealth of excellent interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research and projects being carried out around the world. The 20 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into three categories: stakeholder engagement, tools for building water management and governance capacity, and perspectives on water management and governance. Following a brief summary of the papers, concluding remarks that reflect on what the papers, taken as a whole, contribute to our understanding are provided.

  8. NASA Remote Sensing Technologies for Improved Integrated Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and international community to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Key objectives of this talk will highlight NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs with their objective to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management in national and international applications. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations).

  9. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  10. [Research progress on water footprint in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Xi-ying

    2015-10-01

    Water is one of the important resources in human activities. Scientifically and rationally evaluating the effects of human activities on water resources is important for sustainable water resource management. The innovative concepts of water footprint (WF) distinguished the human water consumption into green water, blue water and grey water which extended the evaluation methods in sustainable utilization of water resources. Concepts of WF based on virtual water (VW) and based on life cycle assessment (LCA) both combined water quality and water quantity are now the focuses in agricultural water management researches. Theory of WF based on VW includes the calculation of green, blue and grey WF as well as the evaluation of the sustainability of water environment. Theory of WF based on LCA reflects the overall impact of consumptive and degradative water use on the environment. The purpose of this article was to elaborate the research progresses in theoretical calculation methods and environmental sustainability assessment of the two water footprint theories and then to analyze the differentiation of these two methodologies in describing the consumptive water use in agriculture and its effects on environment. Finally, some future research aspects on water footprint were provided.

  11. Key challenges facing water resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses geographic reality; water availability and water security as well as the challenges and opportunities facing water resource managers and the importance of good governance...

  12. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  13. Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzilacou, Dionyssia; Kallis, Giorgos; Mexa, Alexandra; Coccosis, Harris; Svoronou, Eleni

    2007-06-01

    This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On the first day, participants worked to envision a sustainable development future for the island and its water resources. Discussion was inspired by four alternative water development scenarios prepared by the organizers. Participants' vision statements emphasized a diversified development path and balanced water solutions. On the second day, participants worked to plan the actions needed to realize their common vision. The SW turned out to be a good method to initiate a multipartner dialogue, to include new stakeholders in the water policy debate, and to a certain extent, to promote learning between participants. On the other hand, it did not appear well suited to resolve conflicts and aid decisions in the face of scientific complexity and uncertainty. SW seems to be a good method for the "upstream," preparatory, capacity-building tasks of a planning process but not for the production of substantive decision outputs such as consensual agreements or action plans. The Naxos experiment also raised the centrality of framing, participant selection, and facilitation in participatory processes.

  14. Hyphenated hydrology: Interdisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Kathryn L.; Jawitz, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-twentieth century. Modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation from exclusively physical or engineering science viewpoints toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution were foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists. However, their narrative descriptions have lacked substantial quantification. This study addressed that gap by measuring the prevalence of and analyzing the relationships between the terms most frequently used by hydrologists to define and describe their research. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerged. Our word frequency and term cooccurrence network results revealed the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines as well as the deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. The conversation among water resource scientists surrounding the hydrologic subdisciplines of catchment-hydrology, hydro-meteorology, socio-hydrology, hydro-climatology, and eco-hydrology gained statistically significant momentum in the analyzed time period, while that of hydro-geology and contaminant-hydrology experienced periods of increase followed by significant decline. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines can potentially modify hydrology, prompting new insights and inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions that may have otherwise become obsolete.

  15. Scoping Materials for Initial Design of EPA Research Study on Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the initial steps in framing a study consistent with the House of Representatives Appropriate Conference committee mandate to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water.

  16. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  17. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  18. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: improved methods for aquifer vulnerability assessments and protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessments and Protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils Groundwater resources are increas- ingly threatened by pollution. The AVAP project was initiated to develop improved... characteristics. Both intrinsic and specific vulnerability are taken into account. The approach used to determine the vulnerability of the in- termediate zone involved the descrip- tion and quantification of the factors that influence vulnerability (unsatu...

  19. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  20. 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on environment-compatible type water resource effective-utilization system; 1998 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of securing water stably and preventing water pollution in the Philippines, R and D were carried out on a wastewater treatment and water reclamation and reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain and low in cost through the research cooperation between the Philippine Industrial Technology Development Institute and Japan. According to the survey result of statistical data concerning water pollution load structure by industrial wastewater classified by the industry in the Philippines, enumerated are the food manufacturing industry, paper pulp manufacturing industry, and the textile dyeing industry as those greatly affecting water pollution in BOD exhaust and wastewater, etc. Consequently, with Ram Food Product Co. of vegetable processing and Solid Mill Co., of textile dyeing as plants to be studied, a wastewater treatment test was performed in a laboratory scale. From the result of the test, the pilot plant was basically designed to have 'anaerobic + aerobic treatment + tertiary treatment' for the treatment process, with an one-tank type UASB method used as the anaerobic treatment, with a sand filtration + activated charcoal treatment as the tertiary treatment, and with the cost effectiveness for water reuse set to be examined. (NEDO)

  1. A General Water Resources Regulation Software System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEI, X.

    2017-12-01

    To avoid iterative development of core modules in water resource normal regulation and emergency regulation and improve the capability of maintenance and optimization upgrading of regulation models and business logics, a general water resources regulation software framework was developed based on the collection and analysis of common demands for water resources regulation and emergency management. It can provide a customizable, secondary developed and extensible software framework for the three-level platform "MWR-Basin-Province". Meanwhile, this general software system can realize business collaboration and information sharing of water resources regulation schemes among the three-level platforms, so as to improve the decision-making ability of national water resources regulation. There are four main modules involved in the general software system: 1) A complete set of general water resources regulation modules allows secondary developer to custom-develop water resources regulation decision-making systems; 2) A complete set of model base and model computing software released in the form of Cloud services; 3) A complete set of tools to build the concept map and model system of basin water resources regulation, as well as a model management system to calibrate and configure model parameters; 4) A database which satisfies business functions and functional requirements of general water resources regulation software can finally provide technical support for building basin or regional water resources regulation models.

  2. Research Needs for Wind Resource Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, S. J.; Lundquist, J. K.; Shaw, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, wind energy provides about 1 percent of U.S. electricity generation. A recent analysis by DOE, NREL, and AWEA showed the feasibility of expanding U.S. wind energy capacity to 20 percent, comprising approximately 300 gigawatts. Though not a prediction of the future, this represents a plausible scenario for U.S. wind energy. To exploit these opportunities, a workshop on Research Needs for Wind Resource Characterization was held during January 2008. This event was organized on behalf of two DOE organizations; the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Over 120 atmospheric science and wind energy researchers attended the workshop from industry, academia, and federal laboratories in North America and Europe. Attendees identified problems that could impede achieving the 20 percent wind scenario and formulated research recommendations to attack these problems. Findings were structured into four focus areas: 1) Turbine Dynamics, 2) Micrositing and Array Effects, 3) Mesoscale Processes, and 4) Climate Effects. In the Turbine Dynamics area, detailed characterizations of inflows and turbine flow fields were deemed crucial to attaining accuracy levels in aerodynamics loads required for future designs. To address the complexities inherent in this area, an incremental approach involving hierarchical computational modeling and detailed measurements was recommended. Also recommended was work to model extreme and anomalous atmospheric inflow events and aerostructural responses of turbines to these events. The Micrositing and Array Effects area considered improved wake models important for large, multiple row wind plants. Planetary boundary layer research was deemed necessary to accurately determine inflow characteristics in the presence of atmospheric stability effects and complex surface characteristics. Finally, a need was identified to acquire and exploit large wind inflow data sets, covering heights

  3. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  4. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  5. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  6. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  7. Republic of Yemen Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank report Republic of Yemen country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS). The preparation of a CWRAS is timely, given the rising pressure placed on water resources by the rapidly growing population and the emergence of lessons learned from a recent review of World Bank water projects in Yemen. This section reviews the c...

  8. Social Learning and Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled. In recent years, stakeholder involvement has gained increasing importance. Collaborative governance is considered to be more appropriate for integrated and adaptive management regimes needed to cope with the complexity of social-ecological systems. The paper presents a concept for social learning and collaborative governance developed in the European project HarmoniCOP (Harmonizing COllaborative Planning. The concept is rooted in the more interpretive strands of the social sciences emphasizing the context dependence of knowledge. The role of frames and boundary management in processes of learning at different levels and time scales is investigated. The foundation of social learning as investigated in the HarmoniCOP project is multiparty collaboration processes that are perceived to be the nuclei of learning processes. Such processes take place in networks or "communities of practice" and are influenced by the governance structure in which they are embedded. Requirements for social learning include institutional settings that guarantee some degree of stability and certainty without being rigid and inflexible. Our analyses, which are based on conceptual considerations and empirical insights, suggest that the development of such institutional settings involves continued processes of social learning. In these processes, stakeholders at different scales are connected in flexible networks that allow them to develop the capacity and trust they need to collaborate in a wide range of formal and informal relationships ranging from formal legal structures and contracts to informal, voluntary agreements.

  9. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  10. Missouri StreamStats—A water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains and operates more than 8,200 continuous streamgages nationwide. Types of data that may be collected, computed, and stored for streamgages include streamgage height (water-surface elevation), streamflow, and water quality. The streamflow data allow scientists and engineers to calculate streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood (also known as the 100-year flood), the mean flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are used by managers to make informed water resource management decisions, at each streamgage location. Researchers, regulators, and managers also commonly need physical characteristics (basin characteristics) that describe the unique properties of a basin. Common uses for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics include hydraulic design, water-supply management, water-use appropriations, and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. The USGS periodically publishes reports that update the values of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics at selected gaged locations (locations with streamgages), but these studies usually only update a subset of streamgages, making data retrieval difficult. Additionally, streamflow statistics and basin characteristics are most often needed at ungaged locations (locations without streamgages) for which published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics do not exist. Missouri StreamStats is a web-based geographic information system that was created by the USGS in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to provide users with access to an assortment of tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain the most recent published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamgage locations and to automatically calculate selected basin characteristics and estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged

  11. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range: 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R.R.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents water-resource information that was collected at White Sands Missile Range during 1971 and early 1972 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality, percipitation, and surface-water runoff are summarized in the report. The data were obtained as a result of the continuing water-resources basic-data collection program sponsored by the Facilities Engineering Directorate, White Sands Missile Range.

  12. Scenario-based Water Resources Management Using the Water Value Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard

    2013-04-01

    The Saskatchewan River is the key water resource for the 3 prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Western Canada, and thus it is necessary to pursue long-term regional and watershed-based planning for the river basin. The water resources system is complex because it includes multiple components, representing various demand sectors, including the environment, which impose conflicting objectives, and multiple jurisdictions. The biophysical complexity is exacerbated by the socioeconomic dimensions associated for example with impacts of land and water management, value systems including environmental flows, and policy and governance dimensions.. We focus on the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which is already fully allocated in southern Alberta and is subject to increasing demand due to rapid economic development and a growing population. Multiple sectors and water uses include agricultural, municipal, industrial, mining, hydropower, and environmental flow requirements. The significant spatial variability in the level of development and future needs for water places different values on water across the basin. Water resources planning and decision making must take these complexities into consideration, yet also deal with a new dimension—climate change and its possible future impacts on water resources systems. There is a pressing need to deal with water in terms of its value, rather than a mere commodity subject to traditional quantitative optimization. In this research, a value-based water resources system (VWRS) model is proposed to couple the hydrological and the societal aspects of water resources in one integrated modeling tool for the SSRB. The objective of this work is to develop the VWRS model as a negotiation, planning, and management tool that allows for the assessment of the availability, as well as the allocation scenarios, of water resources for competing users under varying conditions. The proposed

  13. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  14. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan that will be analyzed in the Programmatic EIS include, but are not...

  15. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management: Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would be interesting to evaluate how well water resources plans are adhering to the principles of IWRM, to learn and further tailor these principles to the Vietnamese situation. Practical approaches on h...

  16. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  17. Can SA afford to continue polluting its water resources? – With special reference to water pollution in two important catchment areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available return flows for environmental release and polluted water resource remediation for reuse is justified within a water scarcity context such as South Africa. However, a current CSIR investigation (funded by the Water Research Commission) indicates...

  18. Current perspectives in contaminant hydrology and water resources sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Human society depends on liquid freshwater resources to meet drinking, sanitation and hygiene, agriculture, and industry needs. Improved resource monitoring and better understanding of the anthropogenic threats to freshwater environments are critical to efficient management of freshwater resources and ultimately to the survival and quality of life of the global human population. This book helps address the need for improved freshwater resource monitoring and threat assessment by presenting current reviews and case studies focused on the fate and transport of contaminants in the environment and on the sustainability of groundwater and surface-water resources around the world. It is intended for students and professionals working in hydrology and water resources management.

  19. A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

    2013-01-01

    Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

  20. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future wat...

  1. Resourcing Officer | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Resourcing Officer is the focal point for the coordination of activities and provides logistical support to the Resourcing and Learning Services Team to ensure effective and efficient execution of ... Coordinate the process and logistics of staffing and recruitment in collaboration with the Senior Human Resources Advisors.

  2. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  3. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in Guangdong Province based on a cloud model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on the difficulty of quantitatively describing the degree of nonuniformity of temporal and spatial distributions of water resources, quantitative research was carried out on the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in Guangdong Province from 1956 to 2000 based on a cloud model. The spatial variation of the temporal distribution characteristics and the temporal variation of the spatial distribution characteristics were both analyzed. In addition, the relationships between the numerical characteristics of the cloud model of temporal and spatial distributions of water resources and precipitation were also studied. The results show that, using a cloud model, it is possible to intuitively describe the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in cloud images. Water resources in Guangdong Province and their temporal and spatial distribution characteristics are differentiated by their geographic locations. Downstream and coastal areas have a larger amount of water resources with greater uniformity and stronger stability in terms of temporal distribution. Regions with more precipitation possess larger amounts of water resources, and years with more precipitation show greater nonuniformity in the spatial distribution of water resources. The correlation between the nonuniformity of the temporal distribution and local precipitation is small, and no correlation is found between the stability of the nonuniformity of the temporal and spatial distributions of water resources and precipitation. The amount of water resources in Guangdong Province shows an increasing trend from 1956 to 2000, the nonuniformity of the spatial distribution of water resources declines, and the stability of the nonuniformity of the spatial distribution of water resources is enhanced.

  4. Hydrological preview on water resources and water quantity in the Central Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stdiov, Vasko

    2004-01-01

    In the Hydrological Preview on Water Resources and Water Quantity in the Central Balkan Region, will be presented water resources on the one Balkan country where exist network of hydrological and meteorological stations with hydro meteorological database. Considering water resources, hydrological and meteorological data on separated catchments areas will be determined water quantity and specific water discharges on main rivers in that part of the Balkan Region.(Author)

  5. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  6. Climate change, water resources and WASH: a scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Calow, Roger; Bonsor, Helen; Jones, Lindsey; O'Meally, Simon; MacDonald, Alan; Kaur, Nanki

    2011-01-01

    Water is predicted to be the primary medium through which early climate change impacts will be felt by people, ecosystems and economies. Both observational records and climate projections provide strong evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable, and have the potential to be strongly impacted. However, impacts on water resources and water-dependent services have yet to be adequately addressed in either scientific analyses or water policy. This report aims to fill in some of the gaps...

  7. Research Award: Climate Change and Water Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... university or having completed a master's or doctoral program at a recognized university. IDRC's Research Awards provide a unique opportunity to enhance ... of research on specific tools to cope with water stress, such as improving integrated water resource management, finding equitable ways to allocate ...

  8. Decision Support for Water Resource Management: Integration of Water Control and Water Quality Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, R

    2000-01-01

    ... management as a means to enhance stewardship and protect the Nation's water resources. Because of this, new approaches to decision support that integrate across political, technological, social, economic, and physical considerations are needed...

  9. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES IN NORTHERN KUTA DISTRICT OF BADUNG BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sunarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problem in the development of Bali tourism is declining carrying capacity supporting tourism resources, especially water. In the past, rural areas have never experienced a lack of water, by which presently facing a water crisis. This condition corresponds to the higher intensity of exploitation of water resources as a result of tourism development. The rapid development of business on accommodation facilities in North Kuta District is potential to accupy rice paddy and water resources. If this development is not properly controlled can cause negative impacts not only on the existence of the fields, but also for the potential of water resources. Tourism is significantly depend on adequacy of water resources to be able to function properly, thus in case of a water crisis in the tourist areas of Bali in particular, then sooner or later will create the economic crisis and the crisis of tourism. The research was located in North Kuta District aimed to know the impacts of the development of the tourism on water resources potential. In order to understand the impact on water resources used geography disciplines approach, and applying survey research methods. Tourism development is determined by the interpretation of Quickbird imagery in a different location. Carrying capacity of water resources is determined by using the guidelines of Per Men LH. No. 17 year 2009. Impact of tourism development on water resources was determined using comparative analysis of surface water and groundwater, both an quantity and quality. There were two patterns of land use change in North Kuta District, namely from the rice fields to tourist accommodation and from the dryland/orchard land, to tourist accommodation. Changes from rice field for about 16 years (1992-2008 in North Kuta District was 1,218.44 Ha. Carrying capacity of water resources was considered deficit at all village in North Kuta District. Development of tourism, especially tourism accommodation

  10. Mining influence on underground water resources in arid and semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A. K.; Hou, Y.; Hu, X. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Coordinated mining of coal and water resources in arid and semiarid regions has traditionally become a focus issue. The research takes Energy and Chemical Base in Northern Shaanxi as an example, and conducts statistical analysis on coal yield and drainage volume from several large-scale mines in the mining area. Meanwhile, research determines average water volume per ton coal, and calculates four typical years’ drainage volume in different mining intensity. Then during mining drainage, with the combination of precipitation observation data in recent two decades and water level data from observation well, the calculation of groundwater table, precipitation infiltration recharge, and evaporation capacity are performed. Moreover, the research analyzes the transforming relationship between surface water, mine water, and groundwater. The result shows that the main reason for reduction of water resources quantity and transforming relationship between surface water, groundwater, and mine water is massive mine drainage, which is caused by large-scale coal mining in the research area.

  11. The Wealth of Water: The Value of an Essential Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, Melanie K.; Baum, Karina J.

    2011-01-01

    Many students take water availability for granted and yet, by 2025, two-thirds of the world will not have access to clean drinking water. This case study is designed to encourage students to think about water as a limited natural resource and is used to highlight how the exploitation of water can have far-reaching social, political, and economic…

  12. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of the Greek national regime for water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampa, Eleftheria; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes and explains the development of the Greek national water regime, based on a framework from institutional resource regime theory. The specific framework combines public resource policies with property rights and operationalizes the concept of integration for resource regimes.

  14. Multiple-purpose development of water resources | Worki | Zede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full and complete utilization of water resources is an economic and social advantage to all members of a society. The water resources potential of Ethiopia is practically untouched, and their systematic and wise development is of paramount importance for enjoying the maximum possible benefits. This paper indicates that, ...

  15. Utilizing land and water resources at Apoje sub-basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the untapped land and water resources that abound at Apoje subbasin on River Osun, and to determine the most appropriate statistical method to estimate the water resources. A field study of cultivable farmlands on the sub-basin was conducted. The stream flow discharges of River ...

  16. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  17. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... The consumption of gari (or roasted cassava granule) is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resource in the country where cassava crop is grown, processed and consumed. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria. The paper elaborates on.

  18. Management of water resources in South Africa: A review | Molobela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Too often, the participation discourse draws attention away from the very real social and economic differences between people and the need for the redistribution of resources, entitlements, and opportunities. This is typified by the definition of stakeholders as water. Keywords: Water, management, resources, stakeholder, ...

  19. Groundwater resource-directed measures software | Dennis | Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability, equity and efficiency are identified as central guiding principles in the protection, use, development, conservation, management and control of water resources. These principles recognise the basic human needs of present and future generations, the need to protect water resources, the need to share some ...

  20. Climate change and decline in water resources in Kikuletwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LINUS MUNISHI

    global climate change impacts (Neff et al., 2000; Hemp,. 2009). Many studies from around the world have considered the impacts of future climate changes on water resources to exhibit several significant trends. While decline in sream flow and catchment areas (which consequently affect water resources) in other regions of.

  1. Water resources planning in a typical state in Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some twelve strategic water resources development projects were examined using the methodology and techniques of Dynamic Programming and Mixed Integer programming. Keywords: Water Resources, Adamawa State, Poverty Alleveiation, Job Creation, Dynamic Programming. [Global Jnl Mathematical Sci Vol.2(1) ...

  2. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, reliable drinking water to their customers, many face a number of challenges in their ability to achieve and maintain system sustainability. Some of these include high operator turnover, aging infrastructure, and lack of financial resources. Oftentimes, small communities and their state primacy agencies are reluctant to use novel approaches to drinking water challenges because they may have hidden costs or result in unforeseen health consequences for the community. EPA’s Office of Research and Development is helping to build confidence in innovative treatment technologies and approaches by conducting research that small communities, including tribal communities, and state primacy agencies can rely on to successfully remove contaminants of interest, without compromising the overall sustainability of their system. To share EPA's small drinking water systems research with the states, small systems, and the public.

  3. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  4. Water quality assessment for self-sufficient water resources for DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanidar, R.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    DKI Jakarta, Indonesia (106.22’42” S and 106.58’18”E) is passed by the 13 major rivers. However, only Krukut River, in South Jakarta has contributed 5.7% for supply the 60,27% coverage service of the10.178 million populations (2015). This paper is preliminary research to find the potential water resources for self-sufficient water supply. This study used multivariate analyzed of Factor Analyzed (FA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) for the archive river water quality data set covers the period from 2010 to 2015 from the Environment Department of DKI Jakarta. They selected the main pollution parameter and the potential raw water resources which necessary to study severely. The FA identified the two groups of water quality variables, which explain majority of the experimental data, and resulted organic pollutant as main factor that influenced DKI Jakarta river water quality. Therefore, BOD and COD used as main parameter for water quality further assessment. CA grouped 43 sampling sites into four clusters. 5 sampling locations on 4 rivers need further study for additional raw water sources.

  5. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  6. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members

  7. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Introduction: Water is a necessity of life. Accordingly, every person is deeply interested in the subject of water supply. He knows that he must have water to drink. He depends indirectly on water for all his food and clothing. He may want water in which to wash. Civilized man has learned also that water serves admirably for a large and ever enlarging list of uses that depend on its easy convertibility from a liquid to a solid or gaseous state and its adaptability as a chemical solvent, a medium for transfer of matter or energy, and a regulator of temperature. 

  8. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ewen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  9. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  10. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and also play significant roles in supporting agricultural development but resources are inadequately provided. The main objective of the study was to assess the use of library resources on research activities of scientists in three ...

  11. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  12. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  13. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  14. NASA Tools for Climate Impacts on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Climate and environmental change are expected to fundamentally alter the nation's hydrological cycle and water availability. Satellites provide global or near-global coverage using instruments, allowing for consistent, well-calibrated, and equivalent-quality data of the Earth system. A major goal for NASA climate and environmental change research is to create multi-instrument data sets to span the multi-decadal time scales of climate change and to combine these data with those from modeling and surface-based observing systems to improve process understanding and predictions. NASA and Earth science data and analyses will ultimately enable more accurate climate prediction, and characterization of uncertainties. NASA's Applied Sciences Program works with other groups, including other federal agencies, to transition demonstrated observational capabilities to operational capabilities. A summary of some of NASA tools for improved water resources management will be presented.

  15. Water resource management and the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Schoengold, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Water allocations as well as water quality and health concerns are often due to inadequate policies and institutions, which pose major challenges for policy reform. The necessary ingredients of such reform include four elements: rules to improve the decision-making process about water projects,

  16. Estimation of climate change impact on water resources by using Bilan water balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Stanislav; Kasparek, Ladislav; Novicky, Oldrich

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of water balance under changed climate conditions has been carried out by T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute in Prague for basins in the Czech Republic since 1990. The studies presently use climate change scenarios derived from simulations by regional climate models. Climate change scenarios are reflected in meteorological time-series for given catchment and subsequently used for simulation of water cycle components by using Bilan water balance model. Results of Bilan model simulations for input meteorological series not affected and affected by climate change scenarios give information for assessing the climate change impacts on output series of the model. The results of the studies generally show that annual runoff could largely decrease. The increased winter temperature could cause an increase in winter flows and a decrease in snow storage, and consequently, spring and summer outflows will decrease significantly, even to their current minimum values. The groundwater storage and base flow could also be highly reduced. The described method has been used in a number of research projects and operational applications. Its typical application is aimed at assessing possible impacts of climate change on surface water resources, whose availability can subsequently be analysed by using water management models of the individual basins. The Bilan model, particularly in combination with Modflow model, can also suitably be used for simulation and assessments of groundwater resources.

  17. Integrated water resources management as a new approach to water security

    OpenAIRE

    Graefe, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Access to safe water is a worldwide problem facing three quarters of a billion people every day. The problem of access to water is not primarily due to an overall scarcity of water, but rather the unequal geographical and seasonal distribution of the water resources. The key issue at stake here is, how to make water available. The new approach presented by international institutions for improving water access is Integrated Water Resource Management. This chapter questions this new approa...

  18. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  19. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  20. Hyphenated hydrology: Multidisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, K. 4553; Jawitz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-20th century. While hydrology may have evolved from the singular viewpoint of a more rigid physical or engineering science, modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution have been foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists, though their narrative descriptions were not substantially quantified. This study addresses that gap by directly measuring and inspecting the words that hydrologists use to define and describe their research endeavors. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerges. Word frequency and term concurrence reveal the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines and a deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines are increasingly modifying hydrology, prompting new insights as well as inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions.

  1. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  2. EPA Research in Sustainable Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four goals addressed in this slide presentation are: (1) Address contaminants as groups, (2) Technology advancement: engage the private sector, universities, communities, and utilities, (3) Leverage all appropriate authorities, and (4) Improve information sharing with stake...

  3. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  4. Empowering stakeholders through simulation in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.N.; Keyes, A.M.; Fisher, S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past two years, researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have had the unique opportunity to facilitate and observe the development of drought planning activities associated with the National Drought Study (NDS) and its Drought Preparedness Studies (DPS) sites as sponsored by the Institute of Water Resources of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Each of the DPS sites is unique, with different study objectives and institutional constraints. However, one uniform requirement of the study is to develop tactical and strategic drought plans that can be successfully implemented within the study region. At the onset of the study, it was recognized that successful implementation is directly related to the active involvement of affected parties and agencies (denoted as stakeholders) and the degree to which they support the plan's conclusions. Their involvement is also necessary because the problems addressed by the DPS's require the experience and knowledge of a variety of water resource interests in order to arrive at effective alternatives. Their support of the plan conclusions enables regional implementation. Several techniques were used to encourage stakeholder participation in the planning process. Individuals representing the stakeholders had a wide range of professional backgrounds. This paper concentrates on one specific approach found useful in encouraging comprehensive and meaningful participation by a wide range of stakeholders; the development of object-oriented simulation models for the water resource systems under study. Simulation models were to develop tactical and strategic drought plans and to ensure the acceptance of the plans by building consensus among the stakeholders. The remainder of this paper describes: how simulation models became a part of the National Drought Study, procedures used to develop the DPS models, and how the model empowered stakeholders

  5. Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

    of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority......Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water...... resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led...

  6. Environmental research needs for geothermal resources development. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstea, D.

    1977-04-01

    A detailed analysis was conducted to determine the adequacy of the total research efforts regarding the potential environmental impacts related to the exploration, drilling, production, and transmission stages of vapor-dominated, liquid-dominated, geopressured, and hot-dry-rock geothermal resources. The following environmental considerations were selected and analyzed in detail: air emissions (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, mercury, boron, radon, etc.); liquid emissions (brine, and toxic chemicals); land subsidence; seismic activity; and noise. Following the definition of the problem and the assessment of the past and ongoing research efforts, environmental research needs were then recommended based on: (1) the severity of the environmental problems as perceived by literature and contacts with the research community; (2) probability of occurrence; (3) and the research dependency for a solution to that particular problem. The recommended research needs consisted of: (1) an evaluation of the past and ongoing research efforts to ascertain gaps in knowledge for a particular pollutant, process, or control technology; (2) baseline studies of air, soil, water, and ecology around the existing geothermal facilities and in the locations scheduled for future geothermal development; (3) need for the development of appropriate models for predicting concentration and dispersion of pollutants; (4) development of predictive models for potential health and environmental effects associated with geothermal operations; and (5) development of appropriate control technology to destroy, remove or reduce harmful emissions in order to prevent the occurrence of environmental and health hazards and to comply with existing standards and criteria.

  7. GIS and Game Theory for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, N.; Guney, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  8. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  9. Weighted Bankruptcy Rules and Transboundary Water Resources Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mianabadi, H.; Mostert, E.; Pande, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    One significant problem of transboundary river basins causing various challenges and disputes throughout the world is that because of increasing water resource variability and consumption, the water demand often exceeds water availability. Hence, one of the main challenges in transboundary river

  10. Water value, resource rent recovery and economic welfare cost of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second, the study can benefit from improved specification of the water sector model parameters, particularly the supply side as better information will allow estimation of an upward sloping supply (marginal cost) curve. Key words: water value, resource rent and subsidies, water sector model, price elasticity of demand

  11. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  12. Improving water resources management in Nigeria: policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these noble giant strides by government, potable water supply for all is still uncertain. It is sad to note, however, that at this stage of the nation's development that there are varied and poorly coordinated groups and individual agencies participating in water supply programmes. These result in conflicts of efforts and ...

  13. Evaluation and Prediction of Water Resources Based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Sun, Anqi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the shortage of water resources is a threat to us. In order to solve the problem of water resources restricted by varieties of factors, this paper establishes a water resources evaluation index model (WREI), which adopts the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) algorithm. After considering influencing factors of water resources, we ignore secondary factors and then hierarchical approach the main factors according to the class, set up a three-layer structure. The top floor is for WREI. Using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine weight first, and then use fuzzy judgment to judge target, so the comprehensive use of the two algorithms reduce the subjective influence of AHP and overcome the disadvantages of multi-level evaluation. To prove the model, we choose India as a target region. On the basis of water resources evaluation index model, we use Matlab and combine grey prediction with linear prediction to discuss the ability to provide clean water in India and the trend of India’s water resources changing in the next 15 years. The model with theoretical support and practical significance will be of great help to provide reliable data support and reference for us to get plans to improve water quality.

  14. Research cooperation report for fiscal 1997 on the environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1997 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku itaku gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This effort exerted in cooperation with the Philippines aims to solve problems related to water resources such as stable supply and pollution of water through developing a waste water treatment/water reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain, and low in price. The ultimate goal includes (1) the construction of a waste water treatment/water reuse system comprising an anaerobic reaction tank and activated charcoal absorption tower, easy to operate and maintain, and low in price, (2) the employment of goods procurable in the Philippines, the goods including carriers for use in the anaerobic reaction tank, microbes for use in both aerobic and anaerobic reaction tanks, and activated charcoal for use in waste water reutilization, and (3) the establishment of optimum operating conditions for the waste water treatment/water reuse system by use of a pilot plant and the transfer of operating and managing techniques to the Filipino counterpart. In this fiscal year, investigations are conducted to disclose the actualities of waste water treatment and water consumption by primary industries in the vicinity of Laguna de Bay, and the waste water to be the object of study and the place of pilot plant installation have been selected. Also conducted are investigations into the carrier, microbe, activated charcoal, etc., for use in the anaerobic reaction tank. (NEDO)

  15. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ivanov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the current state of affairs with water resources in Moldova, the challenges it faces for its national human and economic development, having in mind that the water resources are quite limited in Moldova, which encounters pollution, degradation influenced by climate change and unwise human activity to their biodiversity and ecosystems, availability and accessibility. It also attempts to highlight the relationship between climate change and water resources in Moldova, which has adverse effects on both environment and people’s health, and raise significant hurdles to the international, regional and sectoral development.

  16. THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL OF WATER RESOURCES IN SUCEAVA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It was realised a map of the touristic potential of the water resources in Suceava District and various aspects of this potential are discussed. Rivers, lakes, swamps, springs and other forms of water which represents a touristic resource are detailed by functional domains; from these, the mineral springs and the presence of the snow are the most important elements of touristic potential that can generate touristic flows. The evolution, in the county, of the water resources-related tourism is assumed to be similar to that observed for other countries in Central-Eastern Europe.

  17. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  18. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  19. Regional climate scenarios for use in Nordic water resources studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Räisänen, J.; Bjørge, D.

    2003-01-01

    According to global climate projections, a substantial global climate change will occur during the next decades, under the assumption of continuous anthropogenic climate forcing. Global models, although fundamental in simulating the response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing are typi......-users of water resources scenarios are the hydropower industry, dam safety instances and planners of other lasting infrastructure exposed to precipitation, river flows and flooding....... do not yet fully incorporate hydrology. Water resources studies are carried out off-line using hydrological models. This requires archived meteorological output from climate models. This paper discusses Nordic regional climate scenarios for use in regional water resources studies. Potential end...

  20. Non-conventional water resources in coastal areas: a review on the use of reclaimed water

    OpenAIRE

    Salgot i de Marçay, Miquel; Tapias, Josefina C.

    2004-01-01

    In an era of increasing contest for limited water resources a wise joint management of conventional and non-conventional water resources must be considered. Water scarcity aggravates in coastal zones which are often characterised by high population density, intense economic activity and tourism meaning heavy seasonal water demands. The relationships between sea and land water can also compromise the quality of available freshwater. In this context, the use of non-conventional water increases ...

  1. Non-conventional water resources in coastal areas: a review of the use of reclaimed water

    OpenAIRE

    Salgot i de Marçay, Miquel; Tapias Pantebre, Josefina Carlota

    2004-01-01

    In an era of increasing concern for limited water resources a wise joint management of conventional and nonconventional water resources must be considered. Water scarcity aggravates in coastal zones which are often characterised by high population density, intense economic activity and tourism; meaning heavy seasonal water demands. The relationships between sea and land-water can also compromise the quality of available freshwater. In this context, the use of non-conventional water increases ...

  2. Isotope methods in water resources assessment and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araguas-Araguas, L.

    1996-01-01

    Availability of water and protection of water resources have become top environmental issues in many countries. Governments are forced to issue strict guidelines to protect the environment and create agencies to pursue these aspects as well as enforce such regulations. The supply of good-quality water from rivers and lakes is becoming a costly and complex problem for many institutes responsible for water supply. Because of the high pollution levels in surface waters, ground water is the main source of drinking water in many countries. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people world-wide depend on it for drinking water. Since ground water cannot be directly measured, and despite its importance for drinking purposes there is not enough public concern about its protection. In other cases, it is found that the exploited ground water is not a renewable resource. In many countries in arid and semi-arid regions, fossil ground water is being tapped for extensive agricultural development, but such extraction depletes the reserves, in the same way as an oil reservoir. The availability of correct information, before decisions are taken will lead to improved management of water resources, distributing the available resources for different uses according to their quality, and ultimately, to manage the resource. Nuclear science has developed a series of methodologies based on the use of naturally-occurring isotopes and artificial tracers to study the processes involved in the occurrence and circulation of water. The discipline called 'Isotope Hydrology' provides a deep insight into many parts of the water cycle; from the evaporation over the ocean or the continents, to the formation of surface runoff and ground water and in the discharge of aquifer systems into the ocean. Isotope hydrology, as a scientific and applied discipline in earth sciences, was created during the late 1950s and early 1960s, beyond the classical hydrological science. In these early stages, new methodologies

  3. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  4. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  5. A scientometric examination of the performance of water research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular assessment of the state of water research and development (R&D) in South Africa is a necessary component of science policy and successful R&D implementation. Among others, effective R&D has a direct impact on water resource management and promotes training and capacity building initiatives. Much of the ...

  6. A bibliometric analysis of drinking water research in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... scarcity and enhancing of food security (Pouris and Ho, 2014). In particular, drinking water research ..... and Ho (2014), which showed that 'environmental science', 'water resources', and 'public health' were .... (444 articles; 56% of 799 articles), North America (161; 20%),. Far East (93; 12%), Middle East ...

  7. Evaluation of available saline water resources in New Mexico for the production of microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.; Hernandez, J.; Enis, P.; Truby, D.; Mapel, C.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers evaluated saline water resources in New Mexico for their suitability as sites for large-scale microalgae production facilities. Production of microalgae could provide a renewable source of fuel, chemicals, and food. In addition, making use of the unused saline water resources would increase the economic activity in the state. After analyzing the 15 billion acre-ft of unused saline water resources in the state, scientists narrowed the locations down to six sites with the most potential. With further analysis, they chose the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico as the best-suited area for 100-hectare microalgae production facility. 34 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Water Resources Adaptation Policies in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Mediero, L.; Martin-Carrasco, F.

    2011-12-01

    Many factors challenge water management in Southern Europe: scarce water resources, climate change, population growth, environmental concerns and economic development, among others. Water policy in the region is designed to ensure future sustainability of water resources under strong socioeconomic forcing while maintaining the strategic ecological and social services of water. Climate change is projected to intensify these conflicts, since most models agree that Southern Europe will show a significant drying trend, especially during the second half of the century. For this reason, there is a strong need to integrate climate change adaptation into implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. From the policy perspective, there are many studies on how climate change might lead to changes in hydrologic regime, water demands, water quality or ecosystems, but there little knowledge on how much water demand might be met with future hydrologic regime. In water scarce regions, water demands are supplied by means of hydraulic infrastructure, which performs functions of storage, transportation and distribution, to overcome the spatio-temporal irregularities of hydrologic regime. Knowledge on the relationship between natural water resources, reservoir storage and water demands is essential to assess the effectiveness of alternative policy options to ensure adequate public water supply. In this paper we provide a simple way to account for the influence of socioeconomic factors (hydraulic infrastructure and water policy) on climate change impacts on water resources in the Mediterranean region. We present a methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation policies in this context. The methodology is based on the application of the WAAPA (Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Assessment) model, which computes net water availability for consumptive use for a river basin taking into account the regulation capacity of its water supply system and a set of

  9. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brings together an impressive set of action research studies [that] are clearly written and understandable. Both researchers and practitioners concerned with rural development will find the book to be a valuable source of lessons and inspiration.– Ruth Meinzen-Dick (Senior Research Fellow, International Food Policy ...

  10. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  11. Sectoral Impact and Current Coping Mechanisms: Water Resources and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    SUBAGYONO, KASDI; SUSANTI, ERNI

    2009-01-01

    Available water resources and its quality in Indonesia have been deteriorated as an impact of climate change (and/or) environmental degradation. This could affect on farming processes particularly and agricultural development in general. Virtual available surface water gives a figure that available water decreased temporally and spatially. For instance, in Java island with cover 65% of total population only has 4.5% of the total available water in the country. Agriculture is the biggest use o...

  12. Impact of future energy policy on water resources in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivotti, Pedro; Karatayev, Marat; Sobral Mourão, Zenaida; Shah, Nilay; Clarke, Michèle; Konadu, D. Dennis

    2017-04-01

    As part of its commitment to become one of the top-30 developed countries in the world, Kazakhstan set out an ambitious target of increasing the share of renewables and alternative sources of energy in its power generation mix to 50% by 2050. This vision greatly contrasts with the current situation, with coal and natural gas power plants producing around 90% of total electricity in 2016. While this transition provides a unique opportunity to improve the sustainability of the national energy system, major natural resources challenges currently faced in the country should be taken into account. Particularly in the case of water resources management, the current system is characterised by significant losses, heavy reliance on irrigation for the agricultural sector, unevenly distributed surface water, vulnerability to climate change and variations in transboundary inflows, amongst other issues. In this context, this study aims to investigate the future availability of water resources to support food production and the transition to a new energy system. Given the challenges mentioned above, tackling this question requires an integrated analysis of the water-energy-food systems in Kazakhstan. This is done in three stages: (1) characterising the water supply and demand in the country; (2) establishing the linkages between water resources and activities in the power production and agricultural sectors; and (3) identifying potential conflicts at the nexus between water, energy and food, taking into account future energy policy scenarios, trends for food production and water resource use.

  13. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar Leal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996 water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010. This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never before experienced by our species, such as loss of biodiversity, global climate change, and changes in biogeochemical fluxes (Steffen et al. 2015. These crises, in addition to water crises, threaten our quality of life and even our ability to survive.

  14. Water resources of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Red Lake Indian Reservation Tribal Council, to evaluate the water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation. Water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation meet the present (1989) needs for potable supply and other household uses. In addition, they provide ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits.

  15. MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN PURSUIT OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN WATER RESOURCE GOVERNANCE IN BUHERA, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Chifamba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Women have the primary role for the management of household water supply, sanitation and health. Water is necessary for drinking, but also for food production and preparation, personal hygiene, care of the sick, cleaning, washing and waste disposal. Because of their dependence on water resources, women have accumulated considerable knowledge about water resources, including location, quality and storage methods. However, efforts geared towards improving the management of the finite water resources and extending access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, have often overlooked the central role that women play in water management. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The research noted that despite increased gender awareness and the availability of much more information on women's and men's roles in water management, gender is not yet mainstreamed into this sector. The study revealed that prospects for effective gender mainstreaming in water resource management will hinge on how the main agenda can address the transformation of gender relations and treat water as a human right so as to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in Buhera. A gender equity approach within the water sector, should strive for a more balanced division between women and men in access to information, sharing of contribution, the degree of decision making, access to resources and benefits and the control over water resources. Addressing women's concerns and mainstreaming gender in water governance through a livelihood approach is critical because this generates an understanding of people's livelihood strategies and their decision making mechanisms and processes. Significant support and capacity development are required to enhance the participation in decision making processes for the success of water management initiatives.

  16. Water resources of Windward Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, K.J.; Hirashima, George Tokusuke; Lubke, E.R.

    1969-01-01

    Windward Oahu lies in a large cavity--an erosional remnant of the Koolau volcanic dome at its greatest stage of growth. Outcrops include volcanic rocks associated with caldera collapse and the main fissure zone which is marked by a dike complex that extends along the main axis of the dome. The fissure zone intersects and underlies the Koolau Range north of Waiahole Valley. South of Waiahole Valley, the crest of the Koolau Range is in the marginal dike zone, an area of scattered dikes. The crest of the range forms the western boundary of windward Oahu. Dikes, mostly vertical and parallel or subparallel to the fissure zone, control movement and discharge of ground water because they are less permeable than the rocks they intrude. Dikes impound or partly impound ground water by preventing or retarding its movement toward discharge points. The top of this water, called high-level water in Hawaii, is at an altitude of about 1,000 feet in the north end of windward Oahu and 400 feet near the south end in Waimanalo Valley. It underlies most of the area and extends near or to the surface in poorly permeable rocks in low-lying areas. Permeability is high in less weathered mountain areas and is highest farthest away from the dike complex. Ground-water storage fluctuates to some degree owing to limited changes in the level of the ground-water reservoir--maximum storage is about 60,000 million gallons. The fluctuations control the rate at which ground water discharges. Even at its lowest recorded level, the reservoir contains a major part of the storage capacity because most of the area is perennially saturated to or near the surface. Tunnels have reduced storage by about 26,000 million gallons--only a fraction of the total storage--by breaching dike controls. Much of the reduction in storage can be restored if the .breached dike controls are replaced by flow-regulating bulkheads. Perennial streams intersect high-level water and collectively form its principal discharge. The

  17. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  18. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  19. Land Use Planning of Way Betung Watershed for Sustainable Water Resources Development of Bandar Lampung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunasor Sanim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Way Betung watershed is one of the important water resources in Lampung Province and it provides a clean water for Bandar Lampung City through a regional water supply company (PDAM. By the increase of population and economical activities of Bandar Lampung City, the need of clean water also increase, however by the time, the conditions of Way Betung watershed as water resources are declining. Therefore, to improve or to restore Way Betung watershed, a high cost is needed. The research was aimed: (a to study the effects of Way Betung watershed land use change on the water resources of Bandar Lampung City, (b to arrange the sustainable development of Way Betung watershed in order to maintain the availability of water resources. The sustainable developments of water resources of Way Betung watershed were arranged in five alternatives/scenarios and each alternative was related to its erosion (USLE method and its run off volume (SCS method. The results showed that land use changes of Way Betung watershed (1991-2006 were likely to increase daily maximum discharge (Q max, to decrease daily minimum discharge (Q min, to increase fluctuation of river discharge, and to increase yearly run off coeffcient. The best sustainable development of water resources of Way Betung watershed, Lampung Province, was alternative/scenario-4 (forest as 30% of watershed areas + alley cropping in the mix garden. This alternative will decrease erosion to the level lower than tolerable soil loss and also decrease fluctuation of monthly run off.

  20. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  1. Ecological Risk Assessment in Water Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US EPA published guidelines for the application of ecological risk assessment (ERA) in the USA in 1998 (US EPA 1998). The process diagram derived by Murray and Claassen (1999) in an evaluation of the US EPA framework is discussed in the context of the South African National Water Act. The evaluation discusses ...

  2. Impact of enterprises of Ural mineral resource complex on water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliya Maratovna Bobrova; Oksana Yur'evna Il'ina; Gennadiy Andreevich Studenok; Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Tseytlin

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the negative impact of mining and metallurgical enterprises of the Middle and South Urals on water resources. Authors define characteristic pollutants for mineral resources complex, including ferrous, nonferrous metallurgy and mining enterprises of building materials. Authors also show the information about water pollution contaminants, including metals, nitrogen compounds, sulfates, manganese and other substances. The article describes main causes of pollution and measu...

  3. Isotope techniques in water resources development and management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 10th International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with UNESCO, WMO and International Association of Hydrological Sciences and was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, during 10-14 May 1999. The symposium provided an international forum for assessing the status and recent advances in isotope applications to water resources and an exchange of information on the following main themes: processes at the interface between the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigations in surface waters and groundwaters: their origin, dynamics, interrelations; problems and techniques for investigating sedimentation; water resources issues: pollution, source and transport of contaminants, salinization, water-rock interaction and processes in geothermal systems; isotope data interpretation and evaluation methodologies: modelling approaches. The proceedings contain the 46 papers presented and extended synopses of poster presentations; each of them was indexed individually

  4. The pluralistic water research concept - a new human-water system research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda; Garcia-Santos, Glenda

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management has been and still is a main challenge for decision makers even though for the past number of decades integrative approaches and concepts (e.g. Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) have been developed to address problems on floods, droughts, water quality, water quantity, environment and ecology. Although somehow these approaches are aiming to address water related problems in an integrative approach and to some extent include or involve society in the planning and management, they still lack some of the vital components in including the social dimensions and their interaction with water. Understanding these dynamics in a holistic way and how they are shaped by time and space may tackle these shortcomings and provide more effective and sustainable management solutions with respect to a set of potential present social actions and values as well as possible futures. This paper aims to discuss challenges to coherently and comprehensively integrate the social dimensions of different human-water concepts like IWRM, socio-hydrology and waterscape. Against this background it will develop criteria for an integrative approach and present a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR) concept. PWR is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to acknowledge the social and water dimensions and their interaction and dynamics by considering more than one perspective of a water-related issue, hereby providing a set of multiple (future) developments. Our PWR concept will be illustrated by a case study application of the Canary island La Gomera. Furthermore an outlook on further possible developments of the PWR concept will be presented and discussed.

  5. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  6. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  7. Water resources of St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  8. Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörösmarty, C J; Green, P; Salisbury, J; Lammers, R B

    2000-07-14

    The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

  9. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  10. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strengthening Research Capacity to Enhance Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of national agricultural research and extension systems (NARES) in Africa to apply participatory approaches and cutting-edge ideas to research for development. The project will involve a series of iterative steps including learning, practice, reflection and feedback, and focus on ...

  12. Thoughts on access to water in Peru within the new Water Resources Law framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ruiz Ostoic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty involved addressing issues related with water management in Peru is the article’s starting point. Therefore, the water issue approach is introduced explaining its administrative procedures, the rights involved and making a critical analysis of 2008 Water Resources Law. Finally, the need for an integrated management analysis of the water resource is highlighted by integrally understanding the General Water Law as well as the current Water Resources Law, and encouraging dialogue among social actors involved in order to avoid future conflicts.

  13. Used water resource recovery using green microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta

    . Moreover, using a discretized layer-model to describe the light distribution in PBRs can result in more accurate prediction of the microalgal growth as well as the reduction of the uncertainty of the model predictions. Furthermore, the effect of the variation of influent N-to-P ratio on the reactor....... The microalgal suspension cultivated in the photobioreactor (PBR) can be then used for e.g., “fertigation” on agricultural land whereby the water and the nutrients are recovered. Alternatively, the algal biomass can be harvested and can be used for co-digestion in existing anaerobic digesters, whereas the water...... unit processes. The process rates of the microalgal model were identified based on extensive literature review. Laboratory experiments in differently scaled batch PBRs were conducted in order to provide proper measurement data for model identification, comprising the selection of process rate equations...

  14. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  15. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No. 14 of year 2002 and Water Supply Act No.12 of year 2009 among others. However the mechanisms processes and institutions through which all stakeholders articulate their priorities exercise their legal rights meet their obligations and mediate their differences is still missing. This study employed descriptive exploratory research design. Data collection was done by the use of both structured and semi structured interview to respondents who were both purpose and simple randomly selected observation and focus group discussion. Review of reports from Districts and Basin offices and internet to access relevant secondary information was done. Results show that WUAs LGAs and WSSAs lack relevant understanding capacities management and law enforcement as result water management generally remains non participatory inefficient and expensive and increased water user conflicts in Kisangata and Ilonga WUAs of Mkondoa sub catchment Morogoro region. The study propose participatory approaches best practices on water resource management at local level for embracement of Community- Based Water Resource Management as the only option of managing sub catchment water resources and reduce water related conflicts among water users. Awareness creation on policy and establishment of alternative economic activities like horticulture bee keeping and poultry is significant to give relief to land.

  16. Adaptation to climate change and variability in Canadian water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttle, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of topics and issues related to the adaptation to climate change in Canadian water resources. These resources are seen as especially sensitive to changes in variability in climate and hydrology. Based on current knowledge of global warming, significant changes in climate and hydrology are plausible within a time period that is significant for water resource management. Global warming will tend to exacerbate existing water resources problems in the southern Prairies and the Great Lakes. The Prairies can expect increased drought during summer, and the Great Lakes can expect a decline in mean lake levels to historic lows. Measures for adapting to climate change include traditional practices (supply management), which stress system reliability. They provide some adaptation to climate change but are limited in their ability to respond to rapid change. Nontraditional and non-management measures stress flexibility and resilience. These measures also address other concerns and can be implemented immediately, before the effects of climate change are evident. Water resources managers require methods of assessing the vulnerability of water resources systems to climate change to help identify when and where adaptive measures should be applied. Adaptation to climate change requires ongoing observation and interpretation of climate, hydrology, and related environmental processes. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Geopolitics of Water Resources in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Lizcano Chapeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently renewable and non-renewable natural resources are limited on the planet, due to several actions that cause global warming and hence climate change. In this sense, the objective was to analyze the impact of global warming on water supplies, placing the resource as a fundamental element of international geopolitics. A documentary design, descriptive was used as data collection technique tonnage and bibliographic content analysis was used earlier sources. The results showed that the temperature levels on earth have risen and that warming is drying reserves of fresh water, they reach only 3% of the total resource. It was concluded that fresh water becomes a strategic element and a resource of vital interest to the countries at the beginning of this century, so that the integrated management thereof is required.

  18. Climate change and decline in water resources in Kikuletwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The eight villages covered by this study face a variety of water shortage and environmental challenges that are intertwined with the causes and consequences of a changing climate. Access to water is the primary natural resource concern in Pangani Basin and Kikuletwa catchment villages and a lack of infrastructure for ...

  19. Promoting Integrated Water Resources Management in South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper elucidates the need to implement Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in South West Nigeria. At present, water related programmes in existing capacity building institutions (CBIs) do not have IWRM and climate change adaptation in their synopsis; this suggests the need for curriculum review.

  20. Sustainability of water resources development in the Komadugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability of water resources development in the Komadugu Yobe River basin of Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... A water audit of the Hadejia river sub-catchment of Komadugu Yobe River basin of Nigeria (KYB) has been carried out in order to elucidate the sustainability of existing ...

  1. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Concentrations of these potentially toxic substances were below WHO acceptable limits for surface and groundwaters, indicating these water resources appear safe for drinking from a dissolved nitrogen perspective. Key words: ammonia, Brong Ahafo, nitrate, nitrite, nitrogen, ground and surface water. INTRODUCTION.

  2. Water resource co-management and sustainable regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, C.L.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Given the importance of multi-stakeholder processes in managing water resources, this paper aims to shed light on various project management strategies being used in The Netherlands to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of implementing multifunctional water projects.

  3. Water resources issues in Tarkwa municipality, southwest Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarkwa is an old and important gold mining town located in a sub-humid tropical climate with its economy built on mining and allied services. The current high gold price has generated a vibrant local economy in Tarkwa and increased its population and water use. Consequently, the water resources of Tarkwa are getting ...

  4. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  5. Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a water resource management model that facilitates indicator-based decisions, with respect to environmental, social and economic dimensions in a multiple criteria perspective, is developed for the Gediz River Basin in Turkey. The basic input of the proposed model is the quantity of surface water that is mainly ...

  6. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  7. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    , efficient managing agencies, political interest and economic resources. Investments in research and developing water resource management plans are inefficient measures if they are not implemented with special emphasis on monitoring and inspection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water Resources of Israel: Trackrecord of the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai S. Orlovsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a country in the Near East consisting for 95% of the arid regions in which 60% of the territory are covered by the Negev Desert. Therefore, the water resources are scant here and formed mostly by atmospheric precipitations. In the period from 1989 to 2005 the average precipitations were 6 billion cu. m, of which 60–70% were evaporated soon after rainfalls, at least 5% run down by rivers into the sea (mostly in winter and the remaining 25% of precipitations infiltrated into soil from where the greater part of water got into the sea with ground waters. In Israel there are two groups of water resources: surface and underground. Israel is not rich in surface waters. The natural reservoir of surface fresh water is the Kinneret Lake in the northeast of the country. It gets water from the Jordan River and its tributaries. The average annual amount of available water of this lake is around 370 million cu. m, which accounts for one-third of the country’s water needs and still higher share of the drinking water needs. The greater part of fresh waters (37% of water supply of Israel as of 2011 in this country is supplied from ground water sources. Owing to insufficiency of available natural resources, unevenness of precipitations by years and seasons and with the growth of the population and economic development the issues of provision with the quality drinking water of the population as well as agriculture and industry, rehabilitation of natural environment cause permanently growing concern. In view of the water shortage untiring efforts have been taken to improve the irrigation efficiency and to reduce water use by improving the efficacy of irrigation techniques and application of advanced system management approaches. Among the water saving technologies applied in Israel there are: drop irrigation, advanced filtration, up to date methods of water leak detection from networks, rainwater collection and processing systems. At the same time

  9. MX Siting Investigation Water Resources Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Henningson, Durham and Richardson (HDR) Sciences in Santa Barbara, Califor- nia, on 15 May 1980. The report was submitted to HDR Sciences at that time so...4400 acre-feet (5.4 hm3 ) for a primary base and 6380 acre-feet (7.9 hm3 ) for cluster construction, during the peak construction-water use year. What...This is evidenced by the combined i discharge of 13,600 gpm (858 1/s) which issues from Hiko (4S/60- 22), Crystal (5G,/60-10), and Ash (5S/60-36

  10. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  11. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  12. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  13. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...... reservoir state variables. Linearity and convexity reduce the computation time, but are not required to solve the problem. Cost-effective management can be found across traditionally separate disciplines, and this method thereby represents the type of integrated assessments needed in the context...... of the growing demand for water to irrigation, industrial and domestic uses. As a response, the Chinese authorities have launched the 2011 No. 1 Central Policy Document, which set targets related to water scarcity and water quality and marks the first step towards sustainable management of the Chinese water...

  14. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  15. Essentials and Targets of Water Resources Management in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutuku, J. Mutinga

    2006-01-01

    Fresh water comprises of 3% of the global waters and the rest is saline and not suitable for consumption without subjecting it to expensive treatment. Water is associated with development since civilization started in areas where water was easily accessible. However, much of the 3% is locked up in the ice caps. Water scarcity in any community is associated with abject poverty. The ecosystem functions of water and it's interactions with other environmental resources are least appreciated which has contributed to over exploitation, misuse, contamination, impairment and degradation of water bodies and their catchments. Over-exploitation of ground water in some coastal areas has in turn led to of seawater into freshwater aquifers and therefore making the water from aquifers unaccessible due to salinity

  16. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  17. Water resources and water management in the Bahurutshe heartland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-03

    Dec 3, 2004 ... (aquifers, dolomitic eyes, springs and boreholes) of Lehurutshe are discussed in terms of the quantity and quality of their water yields. Water provision and .... people not needed for labour in the urban and rural areas of. 'White' South Africa. A mas- sive programme of relocation of Black people to the home-.

  18. Payments for Ecosystem Services for watershed water resource allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Zang, Wenbin; Guo, Wenxian; Qian, Zhan; Liu, Laisheng; Zhao, Jinyong; Feng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Watershed water resource allocation focuses on concrete aspects of the sustainable management of Ecosystem Services (ES) that are related to water and examines the possibility of implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for water ES. PES can be executed to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives and demands. Considering the importance of calculating PES schemes at the social equity and cooperative game (CG) levels, to quantitatively solve multi-objective problems, a water resources allocation model and multi-objective optimization are provided. The model consists of three modules that address the following processes: ① social equity mechanisms used to study water consumer associations, ② an optimal decision-making process based on variable intervals and CG theory, and ③ the use of Shapley values of CGs for profit maximization. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for realizing sustainable development was examined. First, an optimization model with water allocation objective was developed based on sustainable water resources allocation framework that maximizes the net benefit of water use. Then, to meet water quality requirements, PES cost was estimated using trade-off curves among different pollution emission concentration permissions. Finally, to achieve equity and supply sufficient incentives for water resources protection, CG theory approaches were utilized to reallocate PES benefits. The potential of the developed model was examined by its application to a case study in the Yongding River watershed of China. Approximately 128 Mm3 of water flowed from the upper reach (Shanxi and Hebei Provinces) sections of the Yongding River to the lower reach (Beijing) in 2013. According to the calculated results, Beijing should pay USD6.31 M (¥39.03 M) for water-related ES to Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is an available tool that can be used for sustainable development with resolving PES

  19. Water resources of the White Earth Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources in the White Earth Indian Reservation meet the present (1988) needs for potable supply and other household uses and provide valuable ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits. Total annual water use in the Reservation is about 460 million gallons per year. Domestic supply from privately owned wells and municipal systems accounts for roughly three-fourths of the water use, and irrigation of croplands and nurseries accounts for approximately one-fourth, depending on rainfall.

  20. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  1. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  2. Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased demands for water and land in Indonesia as a consequence of the population growth and economic development has reportedly have been accelerated from the year to year. The spatial and temporal variability of human induced hydrological changes in a river basin could affect quality and quantity of water. The challenge is that integrated water resources management (IWRM should cope with complex issues of water in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Even though the government of Indonesia has adopted new paradigm for water resources management by the enactment of Law No. 7/2004 on water resources, the implementation of IWRM may face the technical and managerial challenges. This paper briefly reviews the implementation of IWRM and related principles and provides an overview of potential water-related issues and progress towards implementation of IWRM in Indonesia. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem-solving ability.

  3. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  4. Report for fiscal 1998. Joint research of environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research is conducted in cooperation with Industrial Technology Development Institute of the Philippines, and aims to solve water related problems such as unstable water supply and water quality pollution though developing a waste water treatment and recycling system which is easy to operate and maintain, low in cost, and usable in the Philippines. Fiscal 1998 is the second year of the project. Statistics are studied about the load that each industrial branch imposes on water for its pollution, and it is found that food manufacturers, paper pulp mills, and fiber dyeing plants are heavily responsible for water pollution. A method consisting of single-tower UASB anaerobic treatment and activated sludge treatment is applied as a water treatment process to Ram Food Products Corporation, and its optimization is studied. A removal rate 60% is achieved after a 12-hour treatment period at a COD (chemical oxygen demand) rate of 8g/liter/day. A method consisting of coagulating sedimentation and activated sludge treatment is applied to the waste water from a Solid Mill Corporation dyeing plant, when it is found that the water after ultimate treatment is almost colorless and that COD is 76mg/liter and BOD (biological oxygen demand) 13mg/liter, and these suggest that the waste water is recyclable. Since it is low in COD removing rate, the application of anaerobic treatment to high-concentration water after washing is not appropriate. (NEDO)

  5. Our Natural Resources: Basic Research Needs in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Task Force on Basic Research in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    This report examines basic research needs in forestry and renewable natural resources and determines benefits to be gained from greater investments in basic research. It was prepared by a group of 17 research scientists, each an accomplished investigator in one or more fields. Each contributor reflected on research needs within his own discipline…

  6. A REVIEW ON FEASIBILITY OF MAGNETIC WATER TECHNOLOGY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yadollahpour1, Samaneh Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Magnetic or magnetized water technology (MWT) has been recently introduced as promising approach for water resources management in agricultural, environmental, and industrial processes. Despite controversial findings of the recent studies, MWT seems one of the future technologies for efficient water management. This study aims to review the feasibility and perspectives of MWT in water resources management. Method: The databases of Web of Sciences (1980–2016), EMBASE ...

  7. Evaluating water resources in California using a synoptic typing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Derek W.

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range is the key component of water resources in California, and hence has been extensively investigated by many researchers. This study focuses on establishing a link between hemispheric-scale forcing mechanisms and the spring snowpack through a synoptic pathway. Daily meteorological data from Fresno, CA for the snow accumulation season from November to March over the period from 1950 to 2011 is used in a synoptic typing procedure in order to classify days with similar meteorological conditions into groups representing individual synoptic types. Twelve synoptic types are classified and subsequently related to 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) values. One synoptic type proved to be particularly important for the magnitude of the spring snowpack explaining 50% to 70% of the variance in 1 April SWE at most snow courses. High frequencies of this synoptic type are found to be associated with the warm phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the negative phase of the Tropical Northern Hemisphere pattern. Moreover, univariate and multiple linear regression analyses show that this synoptic type is significantly related to indices of the Pacific Hadley-Walker circulation during the snow accumulation season and during the preceding fall. During the snow accumulation season the Northern Oscillation Index explains 43% of the variance while during the preceding fall the Southern Oscillation Index accounts for 23% of the variance in this synoptic type. Thus, a more complete understanding of tropical and extra-tropical interactions associated with the Pacific Hadley-Walker circulation may provide a basis for forecasting synoptic-scale conditions conducive to producing heavy snowfall and thereby California's water supply earlier in the water year.

  8. Climate change adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in the water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Fulco; van Slobbe, Erik; Cofino, Wim

    2014-10-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was introduced in 1980s to better optimise water uses between different water demanding sectors. However, since it was introduced water systems have become more complicated due to changes in the global water cycle as a result of climate change. The realization that climate change will have a significant impact on water availability and flood risks has driven research and policy making on adaptation. This paper discusses the main similarities and differences between climate change adaptation and IWRM. The main difference between the two is the focus on current and historic issues of IWRM compared to the (long-term) future focus of adaptation. One of the main problems of implementing climate change adaptation is the large uncertainties in future projections. Two completely different approaches to adaptation have been developed in response to these large uncertainties. A top-down approach based on large scale biophysical impacts analyses focussing on quantifying and minimizing uncertainty by using a large range of scenarios and different climate and impact models. The main problem with this approach is the propagation of uncertainties within the modelling chain. The opposite is the bottom up approach which basically ignores uncertainty. It focusses on reducing vulnerabilities, often at local scale, by developing resilient water systems. Both these approaches however are unsuitable for integrating into water management. The bottom up approach focuses too much on socio-economic vulnerability and too little on developing (technical) solutions. The top-down approach often results in an “explosion” of uncertainty and therefore complicates decision making. A more promising direction of adaptation would be a risk based approach. Future research should further develop and test an approach which starts with developing adaptation strategies based on current and future risks. These strategies should then be evaluated using a range

  9. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application...: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e...

  10. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded.......A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...

  11. Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Britto, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    The increasing interaction between large cities and nature makes "urban water" an issue: water resources and water services - including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and in large cities, storm water control -, which had become separate issues thanks to the process of water transport and treatment technologies, are now increasingly interfering with each other. We cannot take nature for granted anymore, and we need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water industry technologies in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, in their socio-economic and political context, tracing it through three "ages" of water technology and services which developed under civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering perspectives: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm was developed on the assumption that water should be drawn from natural environments far from the cities; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitation engineering paradigm, water treatment was invented and allowed cities to take water from rivers closer to them and treat it, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; finally, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  12. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  13. How Solar Resource Data supports Research and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The presentation describes the methods of renewable resource data, how the research and development will benefits from Renewable Resource Atlas and how institutions will leverage the solar monitoring station data to support renewable energy project deployment in other locations throughout the Kingdom.

  14. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  15. Partnerships panel: natural, resource partnerships: literature synthesis and research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Selin; Nancy Myers

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of an annotated bibliography on natural resource partnerships. Resource areas and management functions addressed in the partnership literature are examined. Partnership research is summarized and broken into categories including: Partnership outcomes, assessing the potential for partnerships, characteristics of successful partnerships,...

  16. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  17. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  18. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout their existence, humans use the water of rivers, lakes and underground sources not only for water supply but also for dumping of polluted waters and wastes into it. Significant development of urbanization, concentration of urban industrial enterprises, transport, increase in mining, expansion of drainage and irrigation reclamation, plowing of the river channels, creating a large number of landfills resulted in significant, and in some regions critical, depletion and contamination of the surface and ground waters. Because of this disastrous situation, the society is getting more and more concerned about the state of the environment. The public became increasingly interested in the state of the soil cover, air, water resources, and biotic diversity. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is situated in the heart of Europe, bordered by four Central European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania and two regions of Ukraine (Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is one of the richest regions of Ukraine in terms of water resources. The territory is permeated by the dense network of rivers. There are in total 9,429 rivers of 19,866 kmlength flowing in the region. Among them, the rivers Tysa, Borzhava, Latoryca, Uzh have the length of over 100 kmeach. 25 cities and urban settlements of the area are substantially provided with the centralized water intake of underground drinking water. The rural areas have virtually no centralized water supply; mainly, it is carried out due to domestic wells or water boreholes. Predicted resources of underground drinking waters in the region are equal to 1,109,300 m3/day. The use of fresh water in 2014 per capita amounted to 23,769 m3, 15% less than in 2009. The main pollutants of surface water bodies are the facilities of utility companies in the region. Analysis of studies of surface water quality in Transcarpathian region in 2014 shows that water quality meets the

  19. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  20. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  1. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H

    2010-12-14

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades.

  2. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725

  3. Water, Energy, and Food Nexus: Modeling of Inter-Basin Resources Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIm, T. W.; Kang, D.; Wicaksono, A.; Jeong, G.; Jang, B. J.; Ahn, J.

    2016-12-01

    The water, energy, and food (WEF) nexus is an emerging issue in the concern of fulfilling the human requirements with a lack of available resources. The WEF nexus concept arises to develop a sustainable resources planning and management. In the concept, the three valuable resources (i.e. water, energy, and food) are inevitably interconnected thus it becomes a challenge for researchers to understand the complicated interdependency. A few studies have been committed for interpreting and implementing the WEF nexus using a computer based simulation model. Some of them mentioned that a trade-off is one alternative solution that can be taken to secure the available resources. Taking a concept of inter-basin water transfer, this study attempts to introduce an idea to develop a WEF nexus model for inter-basin resources trading simulation. Using the trading option among regions (e.g., cities, basins, or even countries), the model provides an opportunity to increase overall resources availability without draining local resources. The proposed model adopted the calculation process of an amount of water, energy, and food from a nation-wide model, with additional input and analysis process to simulate the resources trading between regions. The proposed model is applied for a hypothetic test area in South Korea for demonstration purposes. It is anticipated that the developed model can be a decision tool for efficient resources allocation for sustainable resources management. Acknowledgements This study was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government.

  4. Interventions and Interactions: Understanding Coupled Human-Water Dynamics for Improved Water Resources Management in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding coupled human-water dynamics offers valuable insights to address fundamental water resources challenges posed by environmental change. With hydropower reshaping human-water interactions in mountain river basins, there is a need for a socio-hydrology framework—which examines two-way feedback loops between human and water systems—to more effectively manage water resources. This paper explores the cross-scalar interactions and feedback loops between human and water systems in river basins affected by run-of-the-river hydropower and highlights the utility of a socio-hydrology perspectives to enhance water management in the face of environmental change. In the Himalayas, the rapid expansion of run-of-the-river hydropower—which diverts streamflow for energy generation—is reconfiguring the availability, location, and timing of water resources. This technological intervention in the river basin not only alters hydrologic dyanmics but also shapes social outcomes. Using hydropower development in the highlands of Uttarakhand, India as a case study, I first illustrate how run-of-the-river projects transform human-water dynamics by reshaping the social and physical landscape of a river basin. Second, I emphasize how examining cross-scalar feedbacks among structural dynamics, social outcomes, and values and norms in this coupled human-water system can inform water management. Third, I present hydrological and social literature, raised separately, to indicate collaborative research needs and knowledge gaps for coupled human-water systems affected by run-of-the-river hydropower. The results underscore the need to understand coupled human-water dynamics to improve water resources management in the face of environmental change.

  5. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  6. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  7. Chinese water policy for sustainable water resources: Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China has no option but to press on with the implementation of the National Water Initiative as stated by its government in ''Document No. 1". One might observe that it can be a bit heavy in political terms. Most hydrological means are pretty meaningless in reality. Though the nation is not sure if it can handle such a project ...

  8. Risk, Robustness and Water Resources Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; Guillod, Benoit P.

    2018-03-01

    Risk-based water resources planning is based on the premise that water managers should invest up to the point where the marginal benefit of risk reduction equals the marginal cost of achieving that benefit. However, this cost-benefit approach may not guarantee robustness under uncertain future conditions, for instance under climatic changes. In this paper, we expand risk-based decision analysis to explore possible ways of enhancing robustness in engineered water resources systems under different risk attitudes. Risk is measured as the expected annual cost of water use restrictions, while robustness is interpreted in the decision-theoretic sense as the ability of a water resource system to maintain performance—expressed as a tolerable risk of water use restrictions—under a wide range of possible future conditions. Linking risk attitudes with robustness allows stakeholders to explicitly trade-off incremental increases in robustness with investment costs for a given level of risk. We illustrate the framework through a case study of London's water supply system using state-of-the -art regional climate simulations to inform the estimation of risk and robustness.

  9. Utilization of saline water and land: Reclaiming lost resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Mujtaba

    2001-01-01

    There is an abundance of saline water on the globe. Large tracts of land are arid and/or salt-affected, and a large number of plant species are known to be salt-tolerant. It would seem obvious that salt tolerant plants (halophytes) have a role in utilizing the two wasted resources, saline water and wastelands. We will briefly describe how these resources can be fruitfully utilized and how the IAEA has helped several countries to demonstrate the possibility of cultivating salt tolerant plant species on arid saline wastelands for economic and environmental benefit. After some brief introductory remarks we will discuss the results of the project

  10. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  11. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  12. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  13. Western Water Resources: Coming Problems and the Policy Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Richard

    This quote from the book leads one to speculate as to what will happen to water policy in these times of increased concern for reducing federal spending, for more reliance on state and local governments as opposed to the federal government, and for more reliance on the private sector as opposed to any level of governmental control. Remembering that a wrenching debate preceded deregulation of oil and other energy prices, what are the opportunities for deregulation in the water resources field?Western Water Resources consists of the proceedings of a symposium held in Denver in September 1979 and Hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. As in any conference, there is, in addition to the organized substantive content of the papers, a mixture of the clever and the banal, peppered with some humor and chit-chat. Among the contributors are economists, including Charles Howe, Allen Kneese, Emery Castle, and Kenneth Boulding; legal scholars, such as George Radosevich and Frank Trelease; and political figures, such as Scott Matheson, Governor of Utah, Guy Martin, former Assistant Secretary for Land and Water Resources of the Department of the Interior, and Leo Eisel, former Director of the Water Resources Council. Some papers are followed by a discussion from commentors.

  14. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  15. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  16. Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  17. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  18. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego

    2017-10-01

    The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

  19. Evaluating Beijing's human carrying capacity from the perspective of water resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxuan; Chen, Min; Zhou, Wenhua; Zhuang, Changwei; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2010-01-01

    As the demands on limited water resources intensify, concerns are being raised about the human carrying capacity of these resources. However, few researchers have studied the carrying capacity of regional water resources. Beijing, the second-largest city in China, faces a critical water shortage that will limit the city's future development. We developed a method to quantify the carrying capacity of Beijing's water resources by considering water-use structures based on the proportions of water used for agricultural, industrial, and domestic purposes. We defined a reference structure as 45:22:33 (% of total, respectively), an optimized structure as 40:20:40, and an ideal structure as 50:15:35. We also considered four domestic water quotas: 55, 75, 95, and 115 m3/(person x yr). The urban carrying capacity of 10-12 million was closest to Beijing's actual 2003 population for all three water-use structures with urban domestic water use of 75 m3/(person x yr). However, after accounting for our underlying assumptions, the adjusted carrying capacity is closer to 5-6 million. Thus, Beijing's population in 2003 was almost twice the adjusted carrying capacity. Based on this result, we discussed the ecological and environmental problems created by Beijing's excessive population and propose measures to mitigate these problems.

  20. Water quality and resource management in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zablocka, Joanna; Klosok-Bazan, Iwona; Naddeo, Vincenzo

    2017-11-03

    Food industry is one of the most important and fastest growing sectors of economy in Poland. This sector is also characterized by high demand for the resources, particularly for water. Polish food industrial plants consumed 793 hm 3 of water in 2014. Dairy branch had a combined 35% share of the above consumption. As shown by the data obtained from the Polish Central Statistical Office, the majority of dairy plants use its own source of water, so this branch is also important water producer in Poland. Water used for dairy industry should meet the requirements of at least drinking water quality, so the factories need to treat the water. This paper analyses the correlations between selected technical process, equipment profiles and water quality, and consumption in two types of dairy factories (DF). The first one DF-1 processes approx. 50,000 L of milk, and the second, DF-2 processes approx. 330,000 L of milk per day. The water taken from the wells needs to be pre-treated because of iron and manganese concentration and due to specific requirements in various industrial processes. As a result of this work, we have managed to propose technological solutions in the context of water consumption rationalization. The proposed solutions aim at improving water and wastewater management by reducing the amount of consumed water by industry.

  1. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  2. The Process of Creation and Consolidation Committees for Hydrographic Basin Management Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcos Lopes Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is among the most precious goods in Earth's environmental heritage, however, the economic activities have caused the contamination and degradation of surface and underground springs. Consequently, emerges the need to reconcile the development and the management of natural resources. Several national and international conferences have been taken place to spread this idea. In Brazil, this new model of water resources management is beginning to be implanted, culminating in the approval of The State Water Resources Policy and, later, in the National Water Resources Policy. This legislation takes the river basin as a regional unity of water planning and management. The objective of this work is to present the evolution of the process of organization and creation of river basin committees. Literature search as well as documentary analysis (minutes, decisions were used as research methodology. The experience of basin committees is considered an innovation for considering deliberative groups with effectively deliberative actions, incorporating guiding principles favoring shared management, taking as a support basis decentralization, integration and participation in the destiny of water resources in each region of the river basin. However, it is also necessary to intensify the involvement of users and other segments of society so that these groups can really work as "Water Parliament".

  3. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach in water governance in Lao PDR. Cases of hydropower and irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Water resources are essential for socio-economic development, enabling, for example, hydropower and irrigation. Water resources management and development are expected to become more complex and challenging and to involve new uncertainties as water development increases and accelerates in different water use sectors and is coupled with increasing population, urbanisation, and climate change. Hence, water resources need to be managed in more integrated and sustainable way, both in Lao PDR and in the whole Mekong Basin area. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has become a universal paradigm of enhancing and promoting sustainable and equal water resources management and use. However, integrating water functions is a very complex task as it involves many actors with different interests. This research analyses the application of the IWRM approach and the related principles of integration, decentralisation, and participation in the development and management of water resources in Laotian water regime at the water use sectors of hydropower and irrigation. A case study approach was used for the research and for the four appended articles in order to examine hydropower and irrigation sectors, institutional structures, and processes of institutional change - Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at constitutional, organisational, and operational levels. The constitutional level refers to water policy and law, organisational to water resource management, and operational to water use. The Management and Transition Framework (MTF) and one of its components, Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, have been used for the research to explore processes, institutions, and actors related to water governance reforms including the adoption of the IWRM paradigm, and to increase understanding of the strengths and weaknesses related to different institutional contexts and levels in Laotian water management. Through Action Situations, IAD and MTF have

  4. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  5. Water Resources: the Central Component of the WEF Nexus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing population growth, consumption of natural resources, and deterioration of the environment coupled with climate change impacts (such as increased variability in precipitation) will challenge our abilities to provide water, energy and food (WEF) to the global populace. Less developed areas, such as the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, are particularly vulnerable to such resource issues due to immature governance and management structures and strategies. We introduce an integrated approach to resource security analysis, which traditionally has focused on the WEF components separately and apply the methods to a suite of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, we evaluate the inter-connected nature of WEF securities by considering physical, demographic, socioeconomic, health, and institutional parameters related to each of the resource securities and by analyzing the relationships among the metrics. For example, reported food deficits for countries are strongly correlated with reported levels of access to safe drinking water. Multivariate statistical analyses are applied to identify relationships among resources and to develop indices that robustly and comprehensively capture the WEF nexus. Our results indicate that water plays the central role in the WEF nexus, due to its extensive use for both food and energy production in these countries. This approach provides a framework for analyzing the WEF nexus in other regions of the world.

  6. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Normatov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  7. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  8. Socio-hydrology and integrated water resources management in northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Michael; Jackson, Sue

    2017-04-01

    Australia's tropical rivers account for more than half of the nation's freshwater resources. Nearly all of these rivers flow freely to the sea, with less than 0. 01% of river flows diverted for human use, but there is increasing interest in developing the region's water resources for irrigated agriculture. Interdisciplinary research conducted over the past decade has demonstrated the reliance of biodiversity on free-flowing rivers and has also identified a broad range of benefits that people derive from these river systems including irrigated agriculture, tourism, commercial and recreational fishing and Indigenous subsistence harvesting. This has revealed the highly coupled nature of the socio-hydrological system in northern Australia's catchments and the trade-offs among different water users. This paper provides an overview of past and current research with a focus on how socio-hydrology may assist in undertaking integrated water resource management in this region.

  9. Water Resource Management and the Changing Climate in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Water Resource Management and the Changing Climate in Angola's Coastal Settlements. Angola's civil war caused a massive movement of people from rural conflict areas to settlements in places vulnerable to climate extremes - low-lying coastal zones, floodplains, and steep ravines. Climate-related risks to the population ...

  10. In support of water-resource planning – highlighting key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... urgent need to provide clear, easily-understandable information on the consequences for the river ecosystem of various tradeoffs characteristic of water resource developments. The results indicated that abstracting during high flows in winter and river restoration work can have positive ecological and agricultural returns.

  11. Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Soils are the fundamental resource enabling land to provide a wide array of benefits. Both humans and wildlife rely on soils for the production of life-sustaining nourishment and shelter. Soil is important to society because it supports plants that supply food, fibers, drugs, and other essentials and because it filters water and recycles wastes.The factors that affect...

  12. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the progress made in the assessment of water resources in South Africa over the past 60 years by examining 5 major studies that were undertaken in this period. These studies illustrate how the exponential growth in computer power and the concomitant development of highly sophisticated tools have ...

  13. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project's main objective is to support capacity for adapting to the impacts of climate change on water resources in Canada, Morocco, and Niger. This will involve improving human health and the resilience of natural and human systems while also promoting the communication and application of knowledge about ...

  14. Present and future water resources in India: Insights from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India is a country of particular interest with regard to its future water resources, as it is expected to undergo continued rapid population growth while also being especially sensitive to climate change. The Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX-DGVM) is used here to simulate ...

  15. Challenges and contradictions in Nigeria's water resources policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But considering the underdeveloped status of Nigeria, there are three critical sectors whose effective functionalities are synergistic for accomplishing the RBDAs ... Work should continue on the comprehensive Water Resources Bill through the process of consultation that promote inclusion, accountability, transparency, and ...

  16. Climate change and decline in water resources in Kikuletwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LINUS MUNISHI

    temperature in the catchment suggesting the effects of climate change on water resources at Kikuletwa ... various regions of the world which includes Australia and. East Africa (Oxfam, 2012; WMO, 2013). Climate change has become a source of uncertainty for .... groundwater from volcanic aquifers that act like artesian.

  17. Climate change and adaptation strategies to water resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the impact of climate change on water resources in some parts of the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Nigeria. Climatological data of rainfall amount, temperature and evaporation from rivers and lakes in the zone were collected from Nigeria Meteorological Agency(NIMET),Lagos and Nigeria Hydrological ...

  18. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Sakaa et al. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources management with artificial neural networks in the Saf-Saf river basin. (N-E of Algeria). Bachir Sakaa1, Hicham Chaffai*1, Badra Aoun Sebaiti2. , Azzedine Hani1. 1 Laboratoire Ressource en Eau et Developpement Durable, Departement de ...

  19. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on determining the most important intervention in technical and managerial policy response category of Integrated Water Resources Management in the Saf-Safriver basin characterized by the fast growing demand of populations and economic sectors including industry and agriculture. The artificial ...

  20. CLASSICS Are we Utilizing our Water Resources Wisely?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    side, especially the question of wise utilization of our soil and water resources. The problem. 'I can foretell the ... continues to remain as the largest sick industry. The craze for big dams and ..... contracted time of human life, had strained with all the reachings and gropings of a vivacious mind to extend the dominion of their ...

  1. Integrated management of water resources in the valley of Oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study designed to analyze and evaluate the results of trend scenarios of the strategy management of water resources used in the valley of Oued-Souf, who led the region to a truly dramatic situation and almost desperate: rise of groundwater and its adverse consequences. In terms of this work, we seek a model (plan) ...

  2. Present and future water resources in India: Insights from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India is a country of particular interest with regard to its future water resources, as it is expected to undergo continued rapid population growth while also being especially sensitive to climate change. The. Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX-DGVM) is used here to simulate ...

  3. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  4. From energy water use towards integration of multi-purpose water at the local scale. Modelling water resources and water uses for adapting to global changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulhe, P.; Hendrickx, F.; Samie, R.; SAUQUET, E.; Vidal, J.P.; Perrin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Water management within large catchments is a complex question related to local issues, with a high-impact potential for the EDF Group. That is why EDF R and D carried out a scientific study in the Garonne river basin upstream to Golfech, under the framework of a research program partly funded by the French Ministry of Ecology and in partnership with Irstea and the Adour-Garonne Water Agency. This project aims at assessing water availability under present-day conditions and under climate change scenarios in the 2030's, including a detailed analysis of pressure on water resources and actual management rules. Down-scaled IPCC AR4 precipitation and temperature scenarios for 2030 forecast a significant increase in summer temperatures (+ 4 deg. C), more limited in winter (+ 2 deg. C) and a less pronounced decrease in precipitation. This leads to a reduction of natural flows in summer as a result of increased potential evapotranspiration, a reduction in snow contribution and a shift towards earlier snow melt in the mountain basins. Regarding evolution of water uses, the results suggest a decrease of hydropower production, an increase in summer water releases to sustain low water and a lesser flexibility to meet needs of the electrical system. In parallel, a 20% increase in demand for irrigation is projected under 'business-as-usual' practices. This project highlights the challenges of water allocation policy-making that should be considered in a collective way. It opens the way towards a more operational consideration of a 'water resources' risk for both electrical production manager and producers. However, technical issues related to necessary tools for decision support remain. The extension of this type of study encompassing climate, water resources, water uses and socio-economic aspect is considered in other river basins. (authors)

  5. World water resources and water use: Modern assessment and outlook for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiklomanov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the world water resources, water use, and water availability has been made during 1991-1996. The assessment has been made in retrospective for the period 1921-1985, for 1995, and for the future (2000, 2010 and 2025)

  6. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure MIRRI: Strength through Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Stackebrandt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial resources have been recognized as essential raw materials for the advancement of health and later for biotechnology, agriculture, food technology and for research in the life sciences, as their enormous abundance and diversity offer an unparalleled source of unexplored solutions. Microbial domain biological resource centres (mBRC provide live cultures and associated data to foster and support the development of basic and applied science in countries worldwide and especially in Europe, where the density of highly advanced mBRCs is high. The not-for-profit and distributed project MIRRI (Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure aims to coordinate access to hitherto individually managed resources by developing a pan-European platform which takes the interoperability and accessibility of resources and data to a higher level. Providing a wealth of additional information and linking to datasets such as literature, environmental data, sequences and chemistry will enable researchers to select organisms suitable for their research and enable innovative solutions to be developed. The current independent policies and managed processes will be adapted by partner mBRCs to harmonize holdings, services, training, and accession policy and to share expertise. The infrastructure will improve access to enhanced quality microorganisms in an appropriate legal framework and to resource-associated data in a more interoperable way.

  7. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure MIRRI: Strength through Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Schüngel, Manuela; Martin, Dunja; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Microbial resources have been recognized as essential raw materials for the advancement of health and later for biotechnology, agriculture, food technology and for research in the life sciences, as their enormous abundance and diversity offer an unparalleled source of unexplored solutions. Microbial domain biological resource centres (mBRC) provide live cultures and associated data to foster and support the development of basic and applied science in countries worldwide and especially in Europe, where the density of highly advanced mBRCs is high. The not-for-profit and distributed project MIRRI (Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure) aims to coordinate access to hitherto individually managed resources by developing a pan-European platform which takes the interoperability and accessibility of resources and data to a higher level. Providing a wealth of additional information and linking to datasets such as literature, environmental data, sequences and chemistry will enable researchers to select organisms suitable for their research and enable innovative solutions to be developed. The current independent policies and managed processes will be adapted by partner mBRCs to harmonize holdings, services, training, and accession policy and to share expertise. The infrastructure will improve access to enhanced quality microorganisms in an appropriate legal framework and to resource-associated data in a more interoperable way. PMID:27682123

  8. Utilization of Web-Based Information Resources for Researchers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the extent of utilization of web-based information resources for researches in Nigerian universities. All the postgraduate students and lectures of three universities in the state who are registered library users formed the population of the study. Two research questions were raised for the study. Descriptive ...

  9. Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-30

    Oct 30, 2010 ... ... A Practical Guide for Research and Community-Based Organizations. This guide provides a collection of information and activities that can help development research non-profits gain financial sustainability by: Planning resource mobilization in a strategic, mission-driven rather than donor-driven manner ...

  10. Educational Design Research in Mozambique : Starting Mathematics from Authentic Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pauline; Devesse, Tiago G.; Rassul, Assane; Novotna, J; Moraova, H; Kratka, M; Stehlikova, N

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a research on learner-centred instruction in Mozambique, Africa. A starting point was the use of real-life resources, such as traditional art craft objects and authentic newspaper clippings. The study used a method which is termed 'design research'. This method aligns theory

  11. Research Using Government Data Sets: An Underutilised Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The use of existing data for education research activities can be a valuable resource. Improvement in statistical analysis and data management and retrieval techniques, as well as access to government data bases, has expanded opportunities for researchers seeking to investigate issues that are institutional in nature, such as participation…

  12. Resource-poor Farmer Participation in Formal Research is Easier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses a case study of a livestock research project conducted in Zimbabwe that demonstrates some of the practical difficulties in achieving effective farmer participation. A theoretical model of an ideal resource-poor farmer participatory research approach was used as an overlay on the project to assess the extent of ...

  13. The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource, research and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource has an estimated accessible resource base of 5700 quads of gas and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured- geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. Supporting research in the Geopressured Program includes research on rock mechanics, logging, geologic studies, reservoir modeling, and co-location of brine and heavy oil, environmental monitoring, geologic studies, hydrocarbons associated with the geopressured brines and development of a pH monitor for harsh environments, research support in prediction of reservoir behavior, thermal enhanced oil recovery, direct use, hydraulic and thermal conversion, and use of supercritical processes and pyrolysis in detoxification. The on-going research and well operations are preparing the way to commercialization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource is covered in this report. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A scientometric examination of the water quality research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishy, P; Saroja, Renuka

    2018-03-16

    Water quality has emerged as a fast-developing research area. Regular assessment of research activity is necessary for the successful R&D promotion. Water quality research work carried out in different countries increased over the years, and the USA ranked first in productivity while India stands in the seventh position in quantity and occupies the ninth position in quality of the research output. India observes a steady growth in the water quality research. Four thousand six hundred sixteen articles from India assessed from the aspect of citations received distributions of source countries, institutes, journals, impact factor, words in the title, author keywords. The qualitative and quantitative analysis identifies the contributions of the major institutions involved in research. Much of the country's water quality research is carried out by universities, public research institutions and science councils, whereas the contribution from Ministry of water resources not so significant. A considerable portion of Indian research is communicated through foreign journals, and the most active one is Environmental Monitoring and Assessment journal. Twenty-one percent of work is reported in journals published from India and around 7% ages in open access journals. The study highlights that international collaborative research resulted in high-quality papers. The authors meticulously analyse the published research works to gain a deeper understanding of focus areas through word cluster analyses on title words and keywords. When many papers deal with 'contamination', 'assessment' and 'treatment', enough studies done on 'water quality index', 'toxicity', considerable work is carried out in environmental, agricultural, industrial and health problems related to water quality. This detailed scientometric study from 1,09,766 research works from SCI-E during 1986-2015 plots the trends and identifies research hotspots for the benefit to scientists in the subject area. This study

  15. Otolaryngology Residency Program Research Resources and Scholarly Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villwock, Jennifer A; Hamill, Chelsea S; Nicholas, Brian D; Ryan, Jesse T

    2017-06-01

    Objective To delineate research resources available to otolaryngology residents and their impact on scholarly productivity. Study Design Survey of current otolaryngology program directors. Setting Otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods An anonymous web-based survey was sent to 98 allopathic otolaryngology training program directors. Fisher exact tests and nonparametric correlations were used to determine statistically significant differences among various strata of programs. Results Thirty-nine percent (n = 38) of queried programs responded. Fourteen (37%) programs had 11 to 15 full-time, academic faculty associated with the residency program. Twenty (53%) programs have a dedicated research coordinator. Basic science lab space and financial resources for statistical work were present at 22 programs (58%). Funding is uniformly provided for presentation of research at conferences; a minority of programs (13%) only funded podium presentations. Twenty-four (63%) have resident research requirements beyond the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate of preparing a "manuscript suitable for publication" prior to graduation. Twenty-five (67%) programs have residents with 2 to 3 active research projects at any given time. None of the investigated resources were significantly associated with increased scholarly output. There was no uniformity to research curricula. Conclusions Otolaryngology residency programs value research, evidenced by financial support provided and requirements beyond the ACGME minimum. Additional resources were not statistically related to an increase in resident research productivity, although they may contribute positively to the overall research experience during training. Potential future areas to examine include research curricula best practices, how to develop meaningful mentorship and resource allocation that inspires continued research interest, and intellectual stimulation.

  16. Radar systems for the water resources mission, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. K.; Claassen, J. P.; Erickson, R. L.; Fong, R. K. T.; Hanson, B. C.; Komen, M. J.; Mcmillan, S. B.; Parashar, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    The state of the art determination was made for radar measurement of: soil moisture, snow, standing and flowing water, lake and river ice, determination of required spacecraft radar parameters, study of synthetic-aperture radar systems to meet these parametric requirements, and study of techniques for on-board processing of the radar data. Significant new concepts developed include the following: scanning synthetic-aperture radar to achieve wide-swath coverage; single-sideband radar; and comb-filter range-sequential, range-offset SAR processing. The state of the art in radar measurement of water resources parameters is outlined. The feasibility for immediate development of a spacecraft water resources SAR was established. Numerous candidates for the on-board processor were examined.

  17. The Undergraduate Research Resources at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI), a former NASA tracking station located in western North Carolina, has been offering programs, campus, and instrument use for undergraduate research and learning experiences since 2000. Over these years, PARI has collaborated with universities and colleges in the Southeastern U.S. Sharing its campus with institutions of higher learning is a priority for PARI as part of its mission to "to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines."PARI is a 200 acre campus for environmental, earth, geological, physical, and astronomical sciences. For example, the PARI 26-m and 4.6-m radio telescopes are excellent for teaching electromagnetic theory, spectroscopy, atomic and molecular emission processes, and general physics and astronomy concepts. The PARI campus has lab and office space, data centers with high speed internet, distance learning capabilities, radio and optical telescopes, earth science sensors, housing and cafeteria.Also, the campus is in an excellent spot for environmental and biological sciences lab and classroom experiences for students. The campus has the capability to put power and Internet access almost anywhere on its 200 acre campus so experiments can be set up in a protected area of a national forest. For example, Earthscope operates a Plate Boundary Observatory sensor on campus to measure plate tectonic motion. And, Clemson University has an instrument measuring winds and temperatures in the Thermsophere. The use of thePARI campus is limited only by the creativity faculty to provide a rich educational environment for their students. An overview of PARI will be presented along with a summary of programs, and a summary of undergraduate research experiences over the past 15 years. Access to PARI and collaboration possibilities will be presented.

  18. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  19. Investigation of Fungi in Drinking Water Resources as a Source of Contamination Tap Water in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: One of the most prominent concerns for the water consumers is pathogenic microorganism contamination. Wells and underground water resources are the main resources of drinking water in Sari city, Iran. The main objectives of the research project were to explore the distribution and frequency of mycoflora in wells and underground water resources of the city and their contamination effects on humans. Materials and methods: Three reservoirs and 18 wells or underground water resources were analyzed. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Each filter and 0.2 ml of suspension inoculated on SDA+CG media. For fungal growth, plates were incubated at 27’C for 7-10 days. The fungi were identified by standard mycological techniques. Results: Fungal colonies were isolated from all samples. From total of 160 fungal colonies isolated from wells water, 14 species of fungi were distinguished. Rhodotorula (54.4%, Monilinia (13.7%, Alternaria (6.9% were the most commonly isolated. Drechslera, Rhizopus, and Exserohilum (0.6% had the lowest frequency. There was no significant difference between fungal elements isolated from three major reservoirs (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study revealed that resources of drinking water from an area have to monitored and if its fungal CFU be greater than a certain value, medical and health preventive measures should be taken before the water is used by human. In this context, public and private awareness should also be provided through the media, broadcasting, teachers and scholars.

  20. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; Blanco, María del C.

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  1. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Paoloni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004. and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  2. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  3. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  4. Application of Isotope Techniques in the Assessment of Groundwater Resource in Water Resources Region 10, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Castañeda, Soledad S.; Abaño, Susan P.; Rongavilla, Luis S.; Castro, Joey

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has been the primary source of drinking water of about 50% of the people in the Philippines and the numbers continue to rise. However, data and information on groundwater resources are generally spasmodic or sparse in the country. A specific remedy to address this gap is the use of isotope hydrological techniques. A pilot project utilizing this technique was done in Water Resources Region X with the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of these approach in groundwater resources assessment. When optimized, the technique will be replicated in other areas of the country. Groundwater samples from springs deep wells hand pumps and dug wells and river water were collected within the study area from September 2012 to June 2014. Monthly integrated precipitation samples were also collected at different points within the study area from October 2012 to March 2015. Samples were analyzed for stable isotope (δ”2H and δ”1”8O) using Laser Water Isotope Analyzer and tritium for groundwater dating. Results showed that aquifers in the study area are recharged by infiltrated rain during the heavy rainfall moths (May to November for Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin, and December to April for Agusan Basin). Water in Agusan Basin is isotopically enriched compared with the water in Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin. There appears to be interaction between shallow unconfined aquifer and deep semi-confined aquifer in Cagayan de Oro City. Shallow aquifers appear to be recharged by local precipitation. Groundwater in the study area is of Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which is characteristic of dynamic water with short residence time. Tritium-helium aging puts the water at ages between 18 to 72 years. Recharged rates of 422 to 625 mm/year were calculated for Cagayan de Oro City.(author)

  5. The EPA's Study on the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The United States has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, which enable greater access to gas in rock formations deep underground. These advances have spurred a significant increase in the production of both natural gas and oil across the country. However, as the use of hydraulic fracturing has increased, so have concerns about its potential human health and environmental impacts, especially for drinking water. In response to public concern, the US Congress requested that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conduct scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. In 2011, the EPA began research to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of such impacts. The study is organized around the five stages of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle, from water acquisition through the mixing of chemicals and the injection of fracturing fluid to post-fracturing treatment and/or disposal of wastewater. EPA scientists are using a transdisciplinary research approach involving laboratory studies, computer modeling, toxicity assessments, and case studies to answer research questions associated with each stage of the water cycle. This talk will provide an overview of the EPA's study, including a description of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and a summary of the ongoing research projects.

  6. Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario

  7. Adaptation of water resource systems to an uncertain future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Claire L.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Burton, Aidan; Dawson, Richard J.; Glenis, Vassilis; Manning, Lucy J.; Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Kilsby, Chris G.

    2016-05-01

    Globally, water resources management faces significant challenges from changing climate and growing populations. At local scales, the information provided by climate models is insufficient to support the water sector in making future adaptation decisions. Furthermore, projections of change in local water resources are wrought with uncertainties surrounding natural variability, future greenhouse gas emissions, model structure, population growth, and water consumption habits. To analyse the magnitude of these uncertainties, and their implications for local-scale water resource planning, we present a top-down approach for testing climate change adaptation options using probabilistic climate scenarios and demand projections. An integrated modelling framework is developed which implements a new, gridded spatial weather generator, coupled with a rainfall-runoff model and water resource management simulation model. We use this to provide projections of the number of days and associated uncertainty that will require implementation of demand saving measures such as hose pipe bans and drought orders. Results, which are demonstrated for the Thames Basin, UK, indicate existing water supplies are sensitive to a changing climate and an increasing population, and that the frequency of severe demand saving measures are projected to increase. Considering both climate projections and population growth, the median number of drought order occurrences may increase 5-fold by the 2050s. The effectiveness of a range of demand management and supply options have been tested and shown to provide significant benefits in terms of reducing the number of demand saving days. A decrease in per capita demand of 3.75 % reduces the median frequency of drought order measures by 50 % by the 2020s. We found that increased supply arising from various adaptation options may compensate for increasingly variable flows; however, without reductions in overall demand for water resources such options will be

  8. Conflict management in natural resources : a study of land, water and forest conflicts in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their

  9. Forest Influences on Climate and Water Resources at the Landscape to Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that climate controls the distribution, productivity and functioning of vegetation on earth, our knowledge about the role of forests in regulating regional climate and water resources is lacking. The studies on climate-forests feedbacks have received increasing attention from the climate change and ecohydrology research communities. The goal...

  10. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2010-01-01

    for effective land surface representation in water resource modeling” (2009- 2012). The purpose of the new research project is to develop remote sensing based model tools capable of quantifying the relative effects of site-specific land use change and climate variability at different spatial scales...

  11. An Agent-based Modeling of Water-Food Nexus towards Sustainable Management of Urban Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, N.; Kanta, L.

    2017-12-01

    Growing population, urbanization, and climate change have put tremendous stress on water systems in many regions. A shortage in water system not only affects water users of a municipality but also that of food system. About 70% of global water is withdrawn for agriculture; livestock and dairy productions are also dependent on water availability. Although researchers and policy makers have identified and emphasized the water-food (WF) nexus in recent decade, most existing WF models offer strategies to reduce trade-offs and to generate benefits without considering feedback loops and adaptations between those systems. Feedback loops between water and food system can help understand long-term behavioral trends between water users of the integrated WF system which, in turn, can help manage water resources sustainably. An Agent-based modeling approach is applied here to develop a conceptual framework of WF systems. All water users in this system are modeled as agents, who are capable of making decisions and can adapt new behavior based on inputs from other agents in a shared environment through a set of logical and mathematical rules. Residential and commercial/industrial consumers are represented as municipal agents; crop, livestock, and dairy farmers are represented as food agents; and water management officials are represented as policy agent. During the period of water shortage, policy agent will propose/impose various water conservation measures, such as adapting water-efficient technologies, banning outdoor irrigation, implementing supplemental irrigation, using recycled water for livestock/dairy production, among others. Municipal and food agents may adapt conservation strategies and will update their demand accordingly. Emergent properties of the WF nexus will arise through dynamic interactions between various actors of water and food system. This model will be implemented to a case study for resource allocation and future policy development.

  12. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  13. The essential role of isotopes in studies of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In studies of surface water, isotope techniques are used to measure water runoff from rain and snow, flow rates of streams and rivers, leakage from lakes, reservoirs and canals and the dynamics of various bodies of water. Studies of groundwater resources (springs, wells) today are virtually unthinkable without isotope techniques. Basically, these techniques are simple and relatively quick. Among the many questions which may be asked of hydrologists about a given groundwater supply, often the most critical one concerns the safe yield so that the source will not run dry, or for a source to be 'mined', the total yield. Isotope techniques can be used to solve such problems as: identification of the origin of groundwater, determination of its age, flow velocity and direction, interrelations between surface waters and ground waters, possible connections between different aquifers, local porosity, transmissivity and dispersivity of an aquifer. The cost of such investigations is often small in comparison to the cost of classical hydrological techniques, and in addition they are able to provide information which sometimes cannot be obtained by other techniques. The IAEA provides assistance to countries in the application of isotope techniques in water resources studies and other hydrology field projects. The examples given of field studies are intended to give some idea of how these techniques are being applied to specific problems in various regions of the world. Most are discussed briefly, but in some cases a more detailed description has been given in order to demonstrate the application of environmental isotope techniques

  14. Simulation Games: The Future of Water Resources Education and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists rely on models of the water cycle to describe and predict problems of water scarcity in a changing climate, and to suggest adaptation strategies for securing future water needs. Yet these models are too often complicated for managers, the general public and for students to understand. Simpler modelling environments will help with finding solutions by engaging a broader segment of the population. Such environments will enable education at the earliest stages and collective action. I propose that simulation games can be an effective communication platform between scientists and 'non-experts' and that such games will shed light on problems of pollution and overuse of water resources. In the same way as pilots use flight simulators to become proficient at flying aircraft, simulation games—if underpinned by good science—can be used to educate the public, students and managers about how to best manage our water resources. I aim to motivate young scientists to think about using games to advance water education and management.

  15. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  16. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1997. Volume 4. Ground-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1996-30 September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-12-03

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 790 observation wells and 245 water-quality data for monitoring wells.

  17. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 4. Ground-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1996-11-22

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 845 observation wells and 187 water-quality data for monitoring wells.

  18. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  19. Conflict management in natural resources : a study of land, water and forest conflicts in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/management practices. Five inter-connected conflict cases related to irrigation, Guthi -land, spring water source and forest-pasture land were examined and compared with elev...

  20. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  1. Enhancing Research Utilization for Integrated Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisserhof, J.

    1995-01-01

    Water-related research is often performed at significantly lower levels of integration than policymaking for integrated water management. This may limit its utilization in policymaking. Nevertheless, an analysis of strategic policymaking for water management in The Netherlands shows that policy

  2. ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

  3. Water resources data, Pennsylvania, water year 2003; volume 1. Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlin, R.R.; Schaffstall, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Pennsylvania consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; contents and elevations of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 79 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 8 partialrecord stations, 19 special-study and miscellaneous streamflow sites; (2) elevation and contents records for 13 lakes and reservoirs, and water-quality records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 37 gaging stations and 12 ungaged streamsites; (4) water-quality records for 67 special-study stations; (5) water-level records for 49 network observation wells; and (6) water-quality analyses of ground water from 10 ground-water wells. Site locations are shown in figures 6-13. Additional water data collected at various sites not involved in the systematic datacollection program are also presented. These data together with the data in Volumes 2 and 3, represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Pennsylvania. *Pennsylvania, *Hydrologic data, *Ground water, *Surface water, *Water quality, Gaging stations, Streamflow, Flow rates, Lakes, Reservoirs, Chemical analysis, Sediments, Water temperature, Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Pennsylvania consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; contents and elevations of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 79 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 8 partialrecord stations, 19 special-study and miscellaneous streamflow sites; (2) elevation and contents records for 13 lakes and reservoirs, and water-quality records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 37 gaging stations and 12 ungaged streamsites; (4) water

  4. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  5. Stress Testing Water Resource Systems at Regional and National Scales with Synthetic Drought Event Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. W.; Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Coxon, G.; Guillod, B. P.; Allen, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources systems can fail to deliver the services required by water users (and deprive the environment of flow requirements) in many different ways. In an attempt to make systems more resilient, they have also been made more complex, for example through a growing number of large-scale transfers, optimized storages and reuse plants. These systems may be vulnerable to complex variants of hydrological variability in space and time, and behavioural adaptations by water users. In previous research we have used non-parametric stochastic streamflow generators to test the vulnerability of water resource systems. Here we use a very large ensemble of regional climate model outputs from the weather@home crowd-sourced citizen science project, which has generated more than 30,000 years of synthetic weather for present and future climates in the UK and western Europe, using the HadAM3P regional climate model. These simulations have been constructed in order to preserve prolonged drought characteristics, through treatment of long-memory processes in ocean circulations and soil moisture. The weather simulations have been propagated through the newly developed DynaTOP national hydrological for Britain, in order to provide low flow simulations at points of water withdrawal for public water supply, energy and agricultural abstractors. We have used the WATHNET water resource simulation model, set up for the Thames Basin and for all of the large water resource zones in England, to simulate the frequency, severity and duration of water shortages in all of these synthetic weather conditions. In particular, we have sought to explore systemic vulnerabilities associated with inter-basin transfers and the trade-offs between different water users. This analytical capability is providing the basis for (i) implementation of the Duty of Resilience, which has been placed upon the water industry in the 2014 Water Act and (ii) testing reformed abstraction arrangements which the UK government

  6. Bibliography of Water Quality Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    Prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this bibliography of published reports covers information concerning the advancement of water pollution control technology and knowledge. The reports provide a central source of information on the research, development, and demonstration activities in the water research program of the EPA,…

  7. The Strategy of Water Resources Conservation in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puatin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water resource conservation is a required activity to do in in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District because this area is potentially dried and has often experienced the lack of clean water even though the water resource conservation is vegetatively conducted. The resecarh is conducted from June to August 2014. The purpose of this research is to analyze the strategy of water resource conservation in Regunung Village by analyze the social-economy condition and physical condition. The method used to gain data is obeservation and direct measuring including vegetation analysis, the data analysis of the citra condition of the changing of the land; the crossed tabulation analysis and Marcov Chain for the projection of the cahinging of the land use; the technique of interview using questioners to know the participation of community; the secondary data analysis, FGD to determine the strategy of water resource conservation with SWOT analysis. The population of this research is the people of Regunung Village. Respondent is purposively determined by the number of respondent based on Slovin formula, while the FGD informant is purposively determined. The result of the research shows that the condition of Regunung Village is located at discharged area CAT Salatiga with the various level of elevation and the type of soil is latosol. The changing of the use of land happening since 1991 - 2014. The vegetation condition shows that the planting method used in Regunung Village is Agroforestry. The index of diversity for three in Regunung Village is at the low level (0,8. The result of the social-economy condition research shows that the majority people's income is less than Rp. 1.000.000,00 and the level of participation is on placation level. The Water Resource Conservation Strategy suggested is the diversification strategy.

  8. Natural Resources Management on Corps of Engineers Water Resources Development Projects: Practices, Challenges, and Perspectives on the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasual, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Natural resources management on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers water resources development projects was documented from the responses of management personnel to a detailed questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of projects...

  9. Management of scarce water resources: a Middle Eastern experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Naser, H

    2009-01-01

    .... Research in these regions has long supported the necessity of delivering life sustaining access and availability to water while being inherently linked to several inter-related factors, including...

  10. optimization of water resources allocation in semi-arid region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eng Obi Ibeje

    ABSTRACT. The uncertainty of water availability and lack of sustainability even when available has challenged the wit of researchers to arrest this menace characteristic of the semi-arid regions. Thus, the best practice globally is to make optimal use of the little but precarious amount of water found in these areas. This study ...

  11. A Review of Water Reclamation Research in China Urban Landscape Design and Planning Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Zeng, Tianran

    2018-04-01

    With the continuously growing demand for better living environment, more and more attention and efforts have been paid to the improvement of urban landscape. However, the expansion of green area and water features are at the cost of high consumption of water resources, which has become prominent problems in cities that suffer from water shortage. At the same time, with the water shortage and water environment deterioration problems that shared globally, water conservation has become an inevitable choice to achieve sustainable social development. Urban landscape is not simply a consuming body of water resources, but also are of water-saving potential and able to perform the function of water storage. Thus, recycling the limited water resources becomes a challenge for every landscape designer. This paper is intended to overview the existing effort of reclaimed water recycle research in China landscape designing fields, and raise recommendations for future research and development.

  12. Water resources and the development of human civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents available water resources in the world and the relation between socio-economic and natural systems throughout history of mankind. Some of the monuments of culture from the Iron Gate (hydro power constructions) region of the Danube river are described which illustrate old bond between man and water. The Danube river waters are of prime importance for Danubian counties and a change in people's treatment and relation to water is necessary at both national and international level. This implies application of long-term environmentally compatible economic strategies in accordance with bio-culture, which, at the bottom line, should lead to the concept of sustainable development. There is an interest in Yugoslavia for international co-operation with Danubian countries and vice versa, as well as the concern for environmental in the Yugoslavian part of the Danube basin, problems and means for management of pollution sources in the area. (author)

  13. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward

  14. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  15. Isotope techniques in water resource investigations in arid and semi-arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Investigations in Arid and Semi-arid Regions was initiated with the aim od contributing to the assessment of groundwater resources in arid areas through the use of environmental isotope techniques, and thereby to help in better management of these valuable fresh groundwater resources. The main emphases identified were in three key areas: (i) the evaluation of water balance components such as recharge rate estimation and recharge and discharge cycles at different spatial scales, (ii) paleohydrology and hydroclimatic change and, (iii) anthropogenic impacts and the assessment of the vulnerability of arid zone ground waters to salinisation and pollution impacts. This publication presents individual projects carried out within the frameworks of the CRP. Each paper has been indexed separately

  16. Isotope techniques in water resources development. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of 41 oral and the extended synopses of 40 poster presentations at the seventh symposium on the use of isotope techniques in water resources development. The topics of the sessions were as follows: Thermal water studies, groundwater dating, hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas, field studies with environmental isotopes, precipitation-surface-groundwater relationships, pollution, artificial tracers and sediment transport. Thirty-three poster presentations in English have been indexed here separately. All other articles from this Proceedings Series are available under ISBN 92-0-040087-6

  17. A water resources threshold and its implications for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Reichert, Peter; Abbaspour, Karim C; Zehnder, Alexander J B

    2003-07-15

    Cereal import has played a crucial role in compensating local water deficit. A quantitative account of water deficit and cereal import relations therefore is of significance for predicting future food import demand and formulating corresponding national and international policies. On the basis of data for countries in Asia and Africa, we estimated a water resources threshold with respect to cereal import. Below the threshold, the demand for cereal import increases exponentially with decreasing water resources. There appeared to be a declining trend in the threshold, from 2000 m3/(capita year) in the early 1980s to 1500 m3/(capita year) by the end of the 1990s. Until recently, most countries below the threshold were oil-rich and thus were able to afford cereal import. However, the next 30 yr may see many poor and populous countries dropping below the threshold in association with their rapid population growth and the depletion of fossil groundwater. Water deficit-induced food insecurity and starvation could intensify because cereal import may not be affordable for these countries.

  18. 75 FR 8106 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2010 is 4.375...

  19. 76 FR 73674 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2012 is 4 percent...

  20. 78 FR 16706 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2013 is 3.75...