WorldWideScience

Sample records for research unit atru

  1. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  2. ARTICLE Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARTICLE. Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg,. W Cape ... determined by questionnaire; anunquantified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine usual food intake. Biochemical ..... complementary foods, incorrect preparation of formula feeds, and frequent ...

  3. Application Technology Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...

  4. The Uranium Chemistry Research Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article discusses the research work done at the Uranium Chemistry Research Unit of the University of Port Elizabeth. The initial research programme dealt with fundamental aspects of uranium chemistry. New uranium compounds were synthesized and their chemical properties were studied. Research was also done to assist the mining industry, as well as on nuclear medicine. Special mentioning is made of the use of technetium for medical diagnosis and therapy

  5. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  6. Beryllium Technology Research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

    2005-01-01

    While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease

  7. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  8. 1995 Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    from DuPont Pharmaceuticals (Wilmington, DE) and V-7® preservation buffer was obtained from Vitron, Inc. (Tucson, AZ). Toxicity assays required the...gauge catheters (Angiocath®, Deseret Pharmaceuticals , Sandy, UT). The liver is flushed with 3.0 mL sterile heparin (1000 units/mL) (Elkins-Sinn, Cherry...Toxicology and Ecotoxicology . Mattie, Marit, Flemming, Cooper, The Effects of JP-8 Jet Fuel on Sprague-Dawley Male Rats After a 90-day Expo- sure by Oral

  9. Basic Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  10. THE ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAZARSFELD, PAUL F.; SIEBER, SAM D.

    THE CHIEF TECHNICAL PROBLEM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO MEASURE THE NUMEROUS SOCIAL CONDITIONS WHICH MIGHT CONCEIVABLY IMPINGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH AND OF RESEARCHERS BY GRADUATE SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION. THE TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED INCLUDED (1) QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS OF EDUCATION DEANS, RESEARCH COORDINATORS, DIRECTORS OF RESEARCH UNITS, PROJECT…

  11. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    and of a clinically observable tumor. These experiments, however, are feasible with currently available technology . An important aspect of simulation...S.M. 1986. Carcinogenesis modeling: From molecular biology to epidemiology. Ann. Rev. Public Helth . 7:151-169. Moolgavkar, S.., N.E. Day, and R.G...TH) of the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL). The objective was to employ new exposure system technology to provide TH with

  12. Bubble Chamber Research Group Microcomputer Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.; Barlow, J.; Mace, P.R.; Seller, P.; Waters, M.; Watson, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    A distributed data acquisition system has been developed by the Bubble Chamber Research Group at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory for use with their film measuring machines. The system is based upon a set of microcomputers linked together with a VAX 11/780 computer, in a local area computer network. This network is of the star type and uses a packet switching technique. Each film measuring machine is equipped with a microcomputer which controls the function of the table, buffers data and enhances the interface between operators and machines. This paper provides a detailed description of each microcomputer and can be used as a reference manual for these computers. (author)

  13. European and United States Political Contexts for Family Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Wilfried; Aldous, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Presents how and why programs embodying family policy in Western Europe and the United States differ. By indicating current changes in these programs and how political decisions affect them, fruitful areas for family policy research are suggested. Family policy meeting needs of pragmatically defined parent-child units will be most successful.…

  14. 75 FR 49357 - United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... research misconduct proceedings reveal behavior that may be criminal in nature at any point during the... United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research AGENCY... Federal Policy on Research Misconduct applicable to extramural research. The regulation defines research...

  15. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  16. Highlight: Research Chair unites four West African universities in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Local and regional experts including researchers, consultants, and academics convened in Cotonou, Benin, on February 26, 2015 to launch a Research Chair on EcoHealth. The Chair unites four West African universities that have pledged to reduce air pollution and non-communicable respiratory ...

  17. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  18. The Microcomputer in the Clinical Nursing Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwirian, Patricia M.; Byers, Sandra R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the microcomputer in clinical nursing research. There are six general areas in which computers have been useful to nurses: nursing notes and charting; patient care plans; automated monitoring of high-tech nursing units; HIS and MIS systems; personnel distribution systems; and education. Three alternative models for the conduct of clinical nursing research in a hospital are described. The first is a centralized model relying on the bureaucratic structure of the hospital. Second is a decentralized network of professional nurses and research support personnel woven together by a Clinical Nurse Researcher, and third is a dedicated clinical nursing research unit. Microcomputers have five characteristics which make them vital tools for nurse researchers: user-friendliness; environment friendliness; low cost; ease of interface with other information systems; and range and quality of software.

  19. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  1. The Microcomputer in the Clinical Nursing Research Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Schwirian, Patricia M.; Byers, Sandra R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the microcomputer in clinical nursing research. There are six general areas in which computers have been useful to nurses: nursing notes and charting; patient care plans; automated monitoring of high-tech nursing units; HIS and MIS systems; personnel distribution systems; and education.

  2. Biomass publications of the forest operations research unit: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...

  3. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  4. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  5. Research and photovoltaic industry at the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R.

    2006-06-01

    For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)

  6. Operational Research to Improve HIV Prevention in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities. PMID:22217681

  7. [General practice research units in Denmark: multidisciplinary research in support of practical work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reventlow, Susanne; Broholm, Katalin Alexa Király; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark the general practice research units operating in connection with universities provide a home base, training and methodology support for researchers in the field from medical students to general practitioners carrying out practical work. Research issues frequently require a multidisciplinary approach and use of different kinds of materials. Problems arising from the practical work of general practitioners take priority in the wide selection of topics. The units have networked efficiently with organizations of general practitioners and medical education. The combination of research environments has created synergy benefiting everybody and increased the scientific productivity and visibility of the field.

  8. Intensive care unit research ethics and trials on unconscious patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, G R

    2015-05-01

    There are widely acknowledged ethical issues in enrolling unconscious patients in research trials, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. An analysis of those issues shows that, by and large, patients are better served in units where research is actively taking place for several reasons: i) they do not fall prey to therapeutic prejudices without clear evidential support, ii) they get a chance of accessing new and potentially beneficial treatments, iii) a climate of careful monitoring of patients and their clinical progress is necessary for good clinical research and affects the care of all patients and iv) even those not in the treatment arm of a trial of a new intervention must receive best current standard care (according to international evidence-based treatment guidelines). Given that we have discovered a number of 'best practice' regimens of care that do not optimise outcomes in ICU settings, it is of great benefit to all patients (including those participating in research) that we are constantly updating and evaluating what we do. Therefore, the practice of ICU-based clinical research on patients, many of whom cannot give prospective informed consent, ticks all the ethical boxes and ought to be encouraged in our health system. It is very important that the evaluation of protocols for ICU research should not overlook obvious (albeit probabilistic) benefits to patients and the acceptability of responsible clinicians entering patients into well-designed trials, even though the ICU setting does not and cannot conform to typical informed consent procedures and requirements.

  9. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  10. Closing Symposium of the DFG Research Unit FOR 1066

    CERN Document Server

    Niehuis, Reinhard; Kroll, Norbert; Behrends, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The book reports on advanced solutions to the problem of simulating wing and nacelle stall, as presented and discussed by internationally recognized researchers at the Closing Symposium of the DFG Research Unit FOR 1066. Reliable simulations of flow separation on airfoils, wings and powered engine nacelles at high Reynolds numbers represent great challenges in defining suitable mathematical models, computing numerically accurate solutions and providing comprehensive experimental data for the validation of numerical simulations. Additional problems arise from the need to consider airframe-engine interactions and inhomogeneous onset flow conditions, as real aircraft operate in atmospheric environments with often-large distortions. The findings of fundamental and applied research into these and other related issues are reported in detail in this book, which targets all readers, academics and professionals alike, interested in the development of advanced computational fluid dynamics modeling for the simulation of...

  11. Radioactivity and United Kingdom estuaries: an overview identifying research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.

    1985-05-01

    The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)

  12. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  13. The United States of America and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hather, Gregory J; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

    2010-08-16

    To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  14. The United States of America and scientific research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Hather

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US, we compared federal research funding (FRF with the US gross domestic product (GDP and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU and the People's Republic of China (China over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  15. Exploring the SCOAP3 Research Contributions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. This presentation will inform the audience about SCOAP3 and also delve into descriptive statistics of the United States' intellectual contribution to particle physics via these open access journals. Exploration of the SCOAP3 particle physics literature using a variety of metrics tools such as Web of Science™, InCites™, Scopus® and SciVal will be shared. ORA or Sci2 will be used to visualize author collaboration networks.

  16. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure - TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrell, Douglas [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2008-10-29

    The purpose of the United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program is to provide fresh nuclear reactor fuel to United States universities at no, or low, cost to the university. The title of the fuel remains with the United States government and when universities are finished with the fuel, the fuel is returned to the United States government. The program is funded by the United States Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy division, managed by Department of Energy - Idaho Field Office, and contracted to the Idaho National Laboratory's Management and Operations Contractor - Battelle Energy Alliance. Program has been at Idaho since 1977 and INL subcontracts with 26 United States domestic reactor facilities (13 TRIGA facilities, 9 plate fuel facilities, 2 AGN facilities, 1 Pulstar fuel facility, 1 Critical facility). University has not shipped fuel since 1968 and as such, we have no present procedures for shipping spent fuel. In addition: floor loading rate is unknown, many interferences must be removed to allow direct access to the reactor tank, floor space in the reactor cell is very limited, pavement ends inside our fence; some of the surface is not finished. The whole approach is narrow, curving and downhill. A truck large enough to transport the cask cannot pull into the lot and then back out (nearly impossible / refused by drivers); a large capacity (100 ton), long boom crane would have to be used due to loading dock obstructions. Access to the entrance door is on a sidewalk. The campus uses it as a road for construction equipment, deliveries and security response. Large trees are on both sides of sidewalk. Spent fuel shipments have never been done, no procedures approved or in place, no approved casks, no accident or safety analysis for spent fuel loading. Any cask assembly used in this facility will have to be removed from one crane, moved on the floor and then attached to another crane to get from the staging area to the reactor room

  17. Fuel cycle research and development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Goff, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) developed a road map of its research, development, and demonstration activities to ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. One of the four objectives defined in the road map is developing sustainable nuclear fuel cycles. DOE's Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program is focused on meeting this objective. The current reference fuel cycle in the United States is once through or direct disposal of used fuel in a geological repository. The FCRD Program is developing fuel cycle options that increase sustainability compared to this reference. Measures for increased sustainability include improving uranium resource availability and utilization, minimizing waste generation, and providing adequate capability and capacity to manage all wastes produced. Future decision makers will use the suite of options developed under the program to make informed choices about how best to manage used nuclear fuel. The overall goal is to demonstrate the technologies necessary to allow deployment of a sustainable system for management of used nuclear fuel by 2050

  18. Directions of ICF research in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.J.; Campbell, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research in the United States is in a dramatic upswing. Technical progress continues at a rapid pace and with the start of construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) this year the total U.S. budget for ICF for fiscal year 1997 stands at $380 million. The NIF is being built as an essential component of the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, which has been formulated to assure the continued safety, reliability and performance of the downsized nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear tests. Thus the increase in funding originates in the Congressional armed services committees and is managed by Defense Programs of the Department of Energy. The NIF, however, is a fundamental research tool that will be of great benefit beyond its mission within the nuclear weapons program. Its experiments will promote fusion energy development and will open new areas of basic scientific research. This paper will discuss some of the directions that ICF research is now taking, the progress on the NIF Project, and the potential impact that these developments are likely to have on fusion energy development and on certain areas of the basic sciences.

  19. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Carolyn A F; Kellermann, Jherime L; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  20. Research in the United States relative to geochemistry and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.

  1. Griffith Edwards, the Addiction Research Unit and research on the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael; Marsden, John; Strang, John

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the early work of Griffith Edwards and his colleagues on alcohol in the criminal justice system and outlines the direction of research in this area in the Addiction Research Unit in the 1960s and 1970s. The paper outlines the link between that work and work undertaken in the more recent past in this area. The key papers of the authors are reviewed and the impact of this work on policy and practice is discussed. There is a rich seam of work on deprived and incarcerated populations that has been under way at the Addiction Research Unit and subsequently the National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London. Griffith Edwards initiated this work that explores the risks and problems experienced by people moving between the health and criminal justice system, and demonstrated the need for better care and continuity across this system. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Connecting Arctic Research Across Boundaries through the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. H.; Myers, B.; Wiggins, H. V.; Zolkos, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complexities inherent in Arctic research demand a unique focus on making connections across the boundaries of discipline, institution, sector, geography, knowledge system, and culture. Since 1988, ARCUS has been working to bridge these gaps through communication, coordination, and collaboration. Recently, we have worked with partners to create a synthesis of the Arctic system, to explore the connectivity across the Arctic research community and how to strengthen it, to enable the community to have an effective voice in research funding policy, to implement a system for Arctic research community knowledge management, to bridge between global Sea Ice Prediction Network researchers and the science needs of coastal Alaska communities through the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook, to strengthen ties between Polar researchers and educators, and to provide essential intangible infrastructure that enables cost-effective and productive research across boundaries. Employing expertise in managing for collaboration and interdisciplinarity, ARCUS complements and enables the work of its members, who constitute the Arctic research community and its key stakeholders. As a member-driven organization, everything that ARCUS does is achieved through partnership, with strong volunteer leadership of each activity. Key organizational partners in the United States include the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and the North Slope Science Initiative. Internationally, ARCUS maintains strong bilateral connections with similarly focused groups in each Arctic country (and those interested in the Arctic), as well as with multinational organizations including the International Arctic Science Committee, the Association of Polar Early Career Educators, the University of the Arctic, and the Arctic Institute of North America. Currently, ARCUS is applying the best practices of the science of team science

  3. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in

  4. Summary of Research 1998-1999, United States Naval Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...% non-DoD federal, and 3% private research foundations. The Chief ofNaval Research, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Naval Research Laboratory, and Naval Space Command are the primary Navy sponsors of faculty and midshipman research...

  5. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Lichtman, Amos B.; Soyode, Damilola T.; Harris, Jennifer N.; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. Methods. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997–2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. Results. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Conclusions. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. PMID:26744430

  6. Reactor aging research. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    The reactor ageing research activities in USA described, are focused on the research of reactor vessel integrity, including regulatory issues and technical aspects. Current emphasis are described for fracture analysis, embrittlement research, inspection capabilities, validation od annealing rule, revision of regulatory guide

  7. The status of forest management research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald G. Hodges; Pamela J. Jakes; Frederick W. Cubbage

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, the USDA Forest Service invested nearly $30 million in forest management research, forest industry invested $19 million, and universities invested at least $17 million. Investments in this research have been declining since then. Forest Service data indicate that the public sector is the largest beneficiary of forest management research.

  8. Research on human reproduction and the United Nations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and. Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972 by the World Health Organisation to promote, co-ordinate, support, conduct and evaluate research on human reproduction with particular reference to the needs of developing countries. Today, the.

  9. University Research Funding: The United States Is Behind and Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Stewart, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development drives innovation and innovation drives long-run economic growth, creating jobs and improving living standards in the process. University-based research is of particular importance to innovation, as the early-stage research that is typically performed at universities serves to expand the knowledge pool from which the…

  10. Research Note Topographical units and soil types prove more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floristic data (species presence at each site) were grouped into Land Types, topographical units and broad soil types. Each group was analysed independently using multivariate detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and the mean similarity test. The floristic data in each Land Type showed a 42% range of ...

  11. Learning to become graduate students: Japanese women's experience in the research unit in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2010-12-01

    Based on the analysis of 16 interviews with women first-year master's students at two national engineering schools in Japan, this article examines the socialisation role of compulsory undergraduate research experience in Japanese women's decisions to pursue graduate education and choices of the programme. The findings suggest that research experiences in a small independent research unit within the major department convinced Japanese women engineering students of their academic and social success as graduate students in the current environment. Although participants generally adapted themselves to the research unit through their research, there is a variation in the degree to which they were smoothly integrated into the research unit, reflecting organisational and individual differences.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics research at the United Technologies Research Center requiring supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.

  13. The United States Air Force Academy Solar Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    2469 NJ 2018 NJ Efficiency 49.4% 36.5% Total (Combined Arrays): Available 9126 NJ 10105 NJ Collected 3606 NJ 3178 NJ Efficiency 39.5% 31.4% Change in...modular-- - collector units. o5 E A25 i 0 25 So 76 15 150 175 0 50 00 ISO 200 20E m leWATER TEMPERATURE MINUS AL481ENT J*FI PANEL CAPACITY ISTU/HR/SO FT

  14. Exploring the Readability of Consent Forms in Human Research in the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruse, Clemens S

    2005-01-01

    Informed consent documents used in human subject research within the United States Air Force appear increasingly complex and lengthy based on the level of risk, or potential harm to a human research...

  15. The research of high voltage switchgear detecting unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tong; Xie, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jinbo

    2017-07-01

    In order to understand the status of the high voltage switch in the whole life circle, you must monitor the mechanical and electrical parameters that affect device health. So this paper gives a new high voltage switchgear detecting unit based on ARM technology. It can measure closing-opening mechanical wave, storage motor current wave and contactor temperature to judge the device’s health status. When something goes wrong, it can be on alert and give some advice. The practice showed that it can meet the requirements of circuit breaker mechanical properties temperature online detection.

  16. The United States Advanced Reactor Technologies Research and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The following aspects are addressed: • Nuclear energy mission; • Reactor research development and deployment (RD&D) programs: - Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program; - Small Modular Reactor Licensing Technical Support; - Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART)

  17. United Kingdom health research analyses and the benefits of shared data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S

    2016-06-24

    To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a

  18. Mining safety and health research initiatives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, J.L. [NIOSH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Overall, the safety and health of US mineworkers has never been better. This is largely due to the concerted efforts of labor unions, trade associations, manufacturers, universities, and government agencies. Despite the progress, however, mining is occurring under more adverse conditions in some sectors, and mining methods and equipment are evolving. These are resulting in different or increased risks, and this requires a proactive approach to ensure that safety or health conditions do not worsen. Increasing societal expectations for 'zero accidents' necessitates renewed efforts to understand the underlying causes of occupational injuries and illnesses and to develop effective interventions to prevent them. Concurrently, financial resources for research are diminishing, while customer expectations for new health and safety solutions are increasing. This paper describes an approach to improve mineworker safety and health through a targeted research program that is focussed on the development and implementation of successful interventions. The research needs of the US mining community, as defined by the surveillance data and stakeholder groups, are presented. A process to match heretofore unobtainable customer needs with research barriers is summarized, and the resulting research portfolio is highlighted. Then, specific examples are given in the areas of disaster prevention, cumulative trauma, and respiratory hazards, among others. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The cooperative research unit program and wildlife education: Historic development, future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Leslie, David M.; Nordstrom, L.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1932, J. N. 'Ding' Darling proposed a 3-year tripartite arrangement between the Iowa Fish and Game Commission, Iowa State University, and himself to establish the first Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. Three years later, the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit Program was broadened to include 9 land-grant colleges representing recognized ecoregions in the United States. In 1960, the Units were given statutory recognition by Public Law 86-686 that also included provision for establishing Cooperative Fishery Units. The Cooperative Research Unit idea has evolved to 39 Units in 2000. Today, the main cooperators of the Unit program are the land-grant university, the state fish and game or conservation agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Wildlife Management Institute. The Cooperative Units mission, as stated in Public Law 86-686, remains: 'To facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government, colleges and universities, and private organizations for cooperative unit programs of research and education relating to fish and wildlife and for other purposes.' Graduate research and education continue to be the program's primary missions. In any given year >600 graduate and post-graduate students are involved. Post-graduate employment of Unit-afffiliated students is >90%. Perhaps the primary benefit to the education process is the Units' formal connection to the state cooperator and to their federal agency that might not otherwise be available to university faculty and students. Units are conduits to state and federal funding for research projects conducted by university faculty and students. The CRU program is well positioned to educate a multitalented, ethnically diverse cadre of graduate students who will be prepared not only for their first professional job but also for their career by having been instilled with a desire for life-long professional accomplishment.

  1. Arctic Research of the United States, Fall 1991, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on international activities, including the environment, research ships, and the Bering Sea region's history and resources.

  2. Determinants of Effective Unit Performance: Research on Measuring and Managing Unit Training Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    ARI was concerned with filtering exercise data to facilitate data processing (Meliza, Tan, and Bessemer , in prepa- ration). A tremendous number of...Unit Training Feedback in the Distributed Interactive Simulation Environment ................ 257 Larry L. Meliza, David W. Bessemer , and Jack H...Army systems and conceptualizing required improvements is a sea change that is yet in the process of forming. Neale Cosby has provided the positive

  3. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review postcard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 Year in Review postcardThis postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program—2016 Year in Review, Circular 1424. This Circular provides information relating to fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, background on the CRU program, accolades, and professional services. Snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators are included. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with our research projects at www.coopunits.org.

  4. Biobanking Research and Privacy Laws in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Heather L; Rothstein, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Privacy is protected in biobank-based research in the US primarily by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule and the Federal Policy for Protection of Human Subjects (Common Rule). Neither rule, however, was created to function in the unique context of biobank research, and therefore neither applies to all biobank-based research. Not only is it challenging to determine when the HIPAA Privacy Rule or the Common Rule apply, but these laws apply different standards to protect privacy. In addition, many other federal and state laws may be applicable to a particular biobank, researcher, or project. US law also does not directly address international sharing of data or specimens outside of the EU-US Safe Harbor Agreement, which only applies to receipt of data by certain US entities from EU countries, and is in the process of revision. Although new rules would help clarify privacy protections in biobanking, any implemented changes should be studied to determine the sufficiency of the protections as well as its ability to facilitate or hinder international collaborations. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  5. Using Action Research Methodology to Unite Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…

  6. Biosurveillance at the United States Meat Animal Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...

  7. Wind Energy in the United States: Market and Research Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, P.R.; Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    U.S. market activity has increased over the last two years. In 1998, new capacity totaled about 150 MW and projected 1999 capacity additions are over 600 MW. As the electricity market continues to evolve under restructuring, the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Wind Energy Program has positioned itself to work with industry to meet current challenges and opportunities, and prepare for the market of tomorrow. Some opportunities include green power markets and distributed applications, although a primary challenge involves the fact that avoided cost payments to renewable generators are not high enough to economically support projects. A recently incorporated power exchange in California, APX, Inc., has demonstrated that green power does attract a premium over prices on the conventional power exchange. The key elements of the U.S. DOE Wind Program are (1) Applied Research, which is critical for achieving advanced turbine designs capable of competing in a restructured market that emphasizes low cost generation; (2) Turbine Research, which supports the U.S. industry in developing competitive, high performance, reliable wind turbine technology for global energy markets; and (3) Cooperative Research and Testing, under which standards development and certification testing are the key activities for the current year

  8. An Overview of Research Infrastructure for Medieval Studies in the United States: Associations, Institutes, and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Kocher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview of research infrastructure in the United States brieflymentions some institutes, universities, associations, conferences,sources of funding, types of courses, research databases, academicjournals and book publishers. It intends to make American medievalistresources better accessible to colleagues from other countries, and toencourage those who wish to study in the United States and those whoare using the Internet to seek printed or digital materials for theirteaching or research.

  9. Enabling International Safeguards Research and Development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, John E.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Bjornard, Trond A.

    2009-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead laboratory in nuclear energy research and development within the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory complex. INL is tasked with the advancement of nuclear energy research and development, and leadership in the renaissance of nuclear power globally. INL scientists have been central to the assessment of needs and the integration of technical programs aimed at the world-wide growth of nuclear power. One of the grand challenges of the nuclear energy resurgence is nuclear nonproliferation. Nonproliferation technology development is key to meeting this challenge. The needed advances in nonproliferation technologies are being made more difficult by the growing gap between increasing demands for nuclear materials to support technology development, and reduced availability of these materials. The gap is caused by the reduction, consolidation and more stringent lockdown of nuclear materials, made necessary by heightened and evolving security concerns, in the face of increased demand for materials to support technology development. Ironically, the increased demand for materials for technology development is made necessary by these same security concerns. The situation will continue to worsen if safeguards and security budgets remain limited for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and many member states, while growth in global nuclear energy becomes a reality. Effective U.S. leadership in the closing of this gap is vital to homeland security and global stability. INL has taken positive steps, described in this paper, to close this gap by reestablishing a viable base for the development, testing and demonstration of safeguards and security technologies. Key attributes of this technology development base are (1) the availability of a wide variety of special nuclear materials in forms that allow for enhanced accessibility; (2) ease of access by U.S. government, national laboratory, industry and academic institution

  10. Arctic Research of the United States, Spring 1990, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on the importance of the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas to U.S. national interests, including fisheries, the oil and gas industries, and global climate change processes.

  11. An example of a United States Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Under the likely scenario in which public support for nuclear energy remains low and fossil fuels continue to be abundant and cheap, government supported nuclear research centers must adapt their missions to ensure that they tackle problems of current significance. It will be critical to be multidisciplinary, to generate economic value, and to apply nuclear competencies to current problems. Addressing problems in nuclear safety, D and D, nuclear waste management, nonproliferation, isotope production are a few examples of current needs in the nuclear arena. Argonne's original mission, to develop nuclear reactor technology, was a critical need for the U.S. in 1946. It would be wise to recognize that this mission was a special instance of a more general one--to apply unique human and physical capital to long term, high risk technology development in response to society's needs. International collaboration will enhance the collective chances for success as the world moves into the 21st century

  12. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  13. Public Spending on Health Service and Policy Research in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: A Modest Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Vidhi; Sullivan, Terrence

    2017-04-10

    Health services and policy research (HSPR) represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publicly-funded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open

  14. Public Spending on Health Service and Policy Research in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: A Modest Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Thakkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Health services and policy research (HSPR represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publiclyfunded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending.

  15. International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2011-03-08

    As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most

  16. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  17. Watershed research and management in the lake states and northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton S. Verry; James W. Hornbeck; H. Albert

    2000-01-01

    We present a brief synopsis of the beginnings of watershed management research and practice in the Lake States and Northeastern United States, followed by a summary of significant research findings on many aspects of watershed management, and finally, a review of four examples of how watershed management research has been incorporated into national forest management...

  18. Developing a clinical trial unit to advance research in an academic institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Ivana T; Viker, Steven D; Limper, Andrew H; Evans, Tamara K; Cornell, Alissa R; Ebbert, Jon O; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-11-01

    Research, clinical care, and education are the three cornerstones of academic health centers in the United States. The research climate has always been riddled with ebbs and flows, depending on funding availability. During a time of reduced funding, the number and scope of research studies have been reduced, and in some instances, a field of study has been eliminated. Recent reductions in the research funding landscape have led institutions to explore new ways to continue supporting research. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN has developed a clinical trial unit within the Department of Medicine, which provides shared resources for many researchers and serves as a solution for training and mentoring new investigators and study teams. By building on existing infrastructure and providing supplemental resources to existing research, the Department of Medicine clinical trial unit has evolved into an effective mechanism for conducting research. This article discusses the creation of a central unit to provide research support in clinical trials and presents the advantages, disadvantages, and required building blocks for such a unit. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Clinic. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research unit on the environment under the supervision of establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and risks, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each research axis: study of the seismic hazard, study of risk management related to waste storage in deep geological layer, radionuclide transfer in the biosphere, study of the effects on ecosystems of a chronic exposure to radioactive materials

  20. Coordinated Research Projects of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is dedicated to the provision of databases for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (AM/PMI) data that are relevant for nuclear fusion research. IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) are the principal mechanism by which the Unit encourages data evaluation and the production of new data. Ongoing and planned CRPs on AM/PMI data are briefly described here.

  1. The nursing professorial unit: translating acute and critical care nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Christensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing professorial unit for acute and critical care was undertaken to meet this challenge. The unit’s key aim is to develop, mentor and support a nursing research culture that is wholly situated within and driven by the requirements of the clinical environment. Aim: The aim of this article is to offer some insights as to how staff set about engaging with and developing the nursing professorial unit to support nursing research in our local hospital. Conclusions: The article highlights how an effective and coordinated approach to supporting clinical nursing research is possible. The nursing professorial unit has been successful in bridging the divide between academia and practice by using a non-university approach to supporting nursing research. Instead we have adopted the philosophy that practice is the sole driver for research and as academics our role is to support that position. Implications for practice: The adoption of the nursing professorial unit model for supporting clinical nursing research is beneficial in closing the divide between clinical practice and the university The continual presence of the academics in the clinical environment has had a positive impact on research development and implementation in practice The nursing professorial unit has become an integral part of the nursing culture in the hospital environment

  2. U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, Research Reports (1989-1991)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-21

    with parents, pregnancy, and other problems associated with sexuality. When asked where a teenager would go with a problem, 58% of the teens mentioned...interest to military commanders, community leaders, and mental health professionals. Topics range from USAREUR active duty suicides , support of...accidents, mass casualty stress on a military hospital staff, military teens in Europe, role of alcohol abuse in trauma, cohesion in COHORT units, family

  3. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  4. Job satisfaction and importance for intensive care unit research coordinators: results from binational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Claire M; Roberts, Brigit L; Foote, Jonathon; McGrail, Matthew R

    2007-09-01

    To measure Intensive Care Unit Research coordinator job satisfaction and importance and to identify priorities for role development. Research coordinator numbers are growing internationally in response to increasing clinical research activity. In Australia, 1% of registered nurses work principally in research, many as Research coordinators. Internationally, the Association of Clinical Research Professionals currently has 6536 certified Research coordinators in 13 countries, with likely additional large numbers practicing without the voluntary certification. Research coordinators are almost always nurses, but little is know about this emerging specialty. Design. Cross-sectional study using anonymous self-report questionnaire. After ethics approval, the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale and McCloskey-Mueller Importance Scale were administered via the Internet. The sample was 49 (response rate 71%) Research coordinators from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Unit Research coordinators' Interest Group. Research coordinators were satisfied with structural aspects of the position working business hours; flexibility of working hours; high levels of responsibility and control over their work. Dissatisfaction was expressed regarding: remuneration and recognition; compensation for weekend work; salary package; career advancement opportunities; and childcare facilities. High priorities for role development are those rated highly important but with much lower satisfaction. These are: compensation for weekend call-out work; salary and remuneration package; recognition by management and clinicians; career advancement opportunities; departmental research processes; encouragement and feedback; and number of working hours. Increasing numbers of nurses have been attracted to this clinically based research position. These data contribute to the understanding and development of the role.

  5. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2018-02-08

    The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program was involved in a number of notable events during 2017, many concerning our personnel. Dr. Barry Grand left his position as Leader of the Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit to become the Cooperative Units Program Supervisor for the South, replacing Dr. Kevin Whalen who took over as Supervisor for the West. We welcomed Dr. Sarah Converse who left the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to become Leader of the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Dr. Amanda Rosenberger joined the Tennessee Cooperative Fishery Research Unit as Assistant Leader, transferring from the Missouri Cooperative Unit. Dr. Scott Carleton left his position as Assistant Unit Leader in New Mexico to become Chief of the Region 2 Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.We said farewell to many colleagues who retired. Their departure is bittersweet as we wish them health, happiness, and wellness in retirement. We will miss their companionship and the extraordinary contributions they have made to the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program and conservation.The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program has a record high number of vacant scientist positions due to a combination of retirements and base funding short-falls. These issues are affecting our ability to meet cooperator needs. Yet, we remain highly productive. For example, this year we released a report (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1427) containing abstracts of nearly 600 of our research projects, covering thematic areas ranging from advanced technologies to wildlife diseases. We provided highly competent, trained scientists and natural resource managers for our cooperators’ workforce. We delivered technical training and guidance to professional practitioners. We provided critical information to cooperators for decisions on species status assessments and management of species of greatest conservation need

  6. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  8. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  9. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-12-11

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health.

  10. Family Medicine Research in the United States From the late 1960s Into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Lucan, Sean C; Rosenthal, Thomas C; Mainous, Arch G; James, Paul A

    2017-04-01

    When the new field of family medicine research began a half century ago, multiple individuals and organizations emphasized that research was a key mission. Since the field's inception, there have been notable research successes for which family medicine organizations, researchers, and leaders-assisted by federal and state governments and private foundations-can take credit. Research is a requirement for family medicine residency programs but not individual residents, and multiple family medicine departments offer research training in various forms for learners at all levels, including research fellowships. Family physicians have developed practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to conduct investigations and generate new knowledge. The field of family medicine has seen the creation of new journals to support the publication of research relevant to practicing family physicians. Nonetheless, in spite of much growth and many successes, family physicians and their research have been underrepresented in research funding. Clinical presentations in family medicine are often complex, poorly-differentiated, and exist as one of several patient complaints and diagnoses, and are not well-covered by the narrow basic-science and specialty research that defines most of the biomedical research enterprise. Overall health in the United States would benefit from a more robust research participation and greater support for family medicine research.

  11. Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Activities at the Seperations Process Research Unit Sites, Niskayuna, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-03-15

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  12. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    and pyridostigmine bromide were examined for their impact on thermoregulation and physical performance in hot and cold environments. Wearing CB-PC... thermoregulation and the ability to perform in hot or cold environments. Military nutrition research focused on evaluating the nutri- tional adequacy of...Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism

  13. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 year in review postcard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2018-02-08

    This postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 Year in Review, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1438, now available at https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1438. In this report, you will find details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program relating to its background, fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, accolades, and professional services. You will see snapshots of CRU projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with CRU research projects at http://www.coopunits.org.

  14. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry: Development and Progress Toward National Collaboration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Donna S.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Dewald, Julius P.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

  15. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  16. Construction safety research in the United States: targeting the Hispanic workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Brunette, M

    2004-01-01

    While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all.

  17. The Need for Comparative Education Research to Concentrate on the Cultural Revolution within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M. Loretta

    Comparative education research and courses are needed to identify real revolutionary movements in the current cultural revolution in the United States. The presence of cultural revolution is indicated by, among other things, the development of microcultures. Intranational instead of cross-national studies are of importance in the next few years to…

  18. Citation Counts and the Research Assessment Exercise, Part VI: Unit of Assessment 67 (Music)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles; Summers, Mark A. C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore research assessment within the field of music and, specifically, to investigate whether citation counting could be used to replace or inform the peer review system currently in use in the UK. Method: A citation analysis of academics submitted for peer review in Unit of Assessment 67 in the 2001 Research…

  19. [Training and action research in a short-stay geriatric oncology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charniot, Christine; Berchouchi, Florence; Marchand, Claire; Gagnayre, Rémi; Sebbane, Georges; Pamoukdjian, Frédéric

    A participative action research project was undertaken in a geriatric oncology hospital unit. It resulted in the training of paramedical staff regarding the specific care to be provided to elderly people with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. THE METHODOLOGICAL UNIT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN TERMS OF CONCEPTUALISATION OF PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia F. Zakirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The contents and structure of the methodological unit ofscientific research on educational problems are defined. The present study is the continuation of methodological articles cycle appealed to support the work of newcomer researchers.Methods. The requirements to research justification are disclosed; logicstylistic and language features of the argument while designing the methodological unit are described from the standpoint of complete, panoramic and hermeneutic approaches.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristic of research hypotheses types and the functions realized by them is given. The scientific hypothesis is presented as the instrument of trans-level conceptualization of pedagogical knowledge. The author’s interpretation of a «through» stage-by-stage hypothesis-generating as process of a meaning-making and theoretical organization of research object is offered. Dual character of the hypothesis-generating is presented; it integrates logic-gnoseological and valuable-conceptual, rational and intuitively figurative principles. Typical mistakes in formation of the methodological research unit are analysed. The directions of a multiangle reflection implementation in the course of research activity are designated.Practical significance. The recommendations proposed in the study can by used by teachers-researchers, students, undergraduates, graduate students and doctoral candidates mastering practical methodology of scientific and pedagogical search; and also the materials are designed for research supervisors motivated to increase efficiency and tutorial activity content.

  1. Contributions of general hospital psychiatric units to psychiatric research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Sagar Chandra; Sood, Mamta; Chadda, R K; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-07-01

    General hospital psychiatric units (GHPUs) are one of the major service and training providers in the field of mental health in India. However, there has not been any systematic attempt at their contributions toward research. The present paper reports on contributions of the GHPUs toward the psychiatric research based on analysis of publications in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP). All the issues of IJP of the last 25 years (1989-2013) were manually searched for original research papers, brief reports, and case reports. A semi-structured performa was used to collect information on various parameters. About two-thirds of the papers were contributed by the GHPUs, most being multi-authored and from tertiary care centers. The research covered a variety of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and common mental disorders. Most of the research reported was self-funded. GHPUs have contributed significantly to psychiatric research in India in the last 25 years.

  2. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  3. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...

  4. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote... shall survey the patient or the human research subject and the remote afterloader unit with a portable...

  5. Developing nursing research in the United Arab Emirates: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreaddie, M; Kuzemski, D; Griffiths, J; Sojka, E M; Fielding, M; Al Yateem, N; Williams, J J

    2018-03-01

    This article identified, critically analysed and synthesized the literature on international nursing and midwifery research capacity building and standards. The United Arab Emirates is heavily dependent up on expatriate nurses. Only 4% of nurses working within the country are Emirati. The nation is therefore committed to developing nurses and nursing as a profession. The United Arab Emirates' Nursing and Midwifery Council was formed in 2009 and initially focused on regulation, education and specialization. This review was undertaken to inform the work of the Council's newly established Scientific Research Sub-Committee. A rapid narrative review was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature database, key words, Boolean operators, parameters and a journal-specific search. An inclusion/exclusion criterion was identified. The search provided 332 articles with 45 included in the final review. The literature on nursing research 'standards' and 'capacity building' is diverse and inconsistent across continents and in approaches. Nursing research has evolved to varying degrees across the globe. Nevertheless, irrespective of the locale, there are similar problems encountered in growing research, for example nursing faculty shortage, lack of collaborative research, funding. There are also specific challenges in the Middle East and North Africa region. The review was constrained by time and access. There are specific challenges for the United Arab Emirates. However, the country is well placed to learn from the experiences of colleagues elsewhere. Time and commitment is required to build the solid foundations necessary to ensure robust, sustained growth. Identifying research capacity as both a process and outcome at the outset may also assist. Further, it may be prudent to consider initiating a Gulf Coast Countries' collaborative approach to building research capacity to harness scare resources and create a larger critical mass. © 2017

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016–2017 Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has several strategic goals that focus its efforts on serving the American people. The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area has responsibility for the following objectives under the strategic goal of “Science to Manage and Sustain Resources for Thriving Economies and Healthy Ecosystems”:Understand, model, and predict change in natural systemsConserve and protect wildlife and fish species and their habitatsReduce or eliminate the threat of invasive species and wildlife diseaseThis report provides abstracts of the majority of ongoing research investigations of the USGS Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program and is intended to complement the 2016 Cooperative Research Units Program Year in Review Circular 1424 (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1424). The report is organized by the following major science themes that contribute to the objectives of the USGS:Advanced TechnologiesClimate ScienceDecision ScienceEcological FlowsEcosystem ServicesEndangered Species Conservation, Recovery, and Proactive StrategiesEnergyHuman DimensionsInvasive SpeciesLandscape EcologySpecies of Greatest Conservation NeedSpecies Population, Habitat, and Harvest ManagementWildlife Health and Disease

  7. A continuing success - The United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustin, Tracy P.; Clapper, Maureen; Reilly, Jill E.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, in consultation with the Department of State, adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. To date, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program, established under this policy, has completed 16 spent fuel shipments. 2,651 material test reactor (MTR) assemblies, one Slowpoke core containing less than 1 kilogram of U.S.-origin enriched uranium, 824 Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomic (TRIGA) rods, and 267 TRIGA pins from research reactors around the world have been shipped to the United States so far under this program. As the FRR SNF Acceptance Program progresses into the fifth year of implementation, a second U.S. cross country shipment has been completed, as well as a second overland truck shipment from Canada. Both the cross country shipment and the Canadian shipment were safely and successfully completed, increasing our knowledge and experience in these types of shipments. In addition, two other shipments were completed since last year's RERTR meeting. Other program activities since the last meeting included: taking pre-emptive steps to avoid license amendment pitfalls/showstoppers for spent fuel casks, publication of a revision to the Record of Decision allowing up to 16 casks per ocean going vessel, and the issuance of a cable to 16 of the 41 eligible countries reminding their governments and the reactor operators that the U.S.-origin uranium in their research reactors may be eligible for return to the United States under the Acceptance Program and urging them to begin discussions on shipping schedules. The FRR SNF program has also supported the Department's implementation of the competitive pricing policy for uranium and resumption of shipments of fresh uranium for fabrication into assemblies for research reactors. The United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program continues

  8. Troubled minds in the Gulf: mental health research in the United Arab Emirates (1989-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ossama T; Afifi, M

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to describe the characteristics of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) mental health research published from 1989 to 2008 in PubMed indexed journals to identify gaps and to suggest recommendations. Our sensitive PubMed search for general and mental health publications in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and the UAE revealed a total of 192 mental health studies published in GCC countries over the past 20 years, which constituted less than 1% of the GCC total biomedical research. Most of the studies were from the UAE University and were either epidemiologic (48.98%) or psychometric (24.49%) with no studies addressing mental health systems research. Underrepresented were studies on health promotion and interdisciplinary, cross-cultural, ethnic, and gender research. There is a need for more international collaboration and for policies that link research conducted to services provided with longitudinal studies to test the long-term impact of early preventive interventions.

  9. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2012-01-01

    There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  10. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A Fisher

    Full Text Available There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities.We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers.Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. The role of Clinical Trial Units in investigator- and industry-initiated research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Fabbro, Thomas; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Six multidisciplinary competence centres (Clinical Trial Units, CTUs) in Basel, Berne, Geneva, Lausanne, St. Gallen and Zurich provide professional support to clinical researchers in the planning, implementation, conduct and evaluation of clinical studies. Through their coordinated network, these units promote high-quality, nationally harmonised and internationally standardised clinical research conduct in Switzerland. We will describe why this network has been established, how it has been successful in stilling the growing need for clinical research support, which training and education opportunities it offers, and how it created national awareness for the still-existing hurdles towards clinical research excellence in Switzerland. Taking the CTU Basel as an example, we show that a considerable number (25%) of the studies submitted for regulatory approval in 2013 were supported by the CTU, decreasing the number of findings in ethics reviews by about one-third. We conclude that these achievements, together with a Swiss national funding model for clinical research, and improved national coordination, will be critical factors to successfully position Swiss clinical research at the international forefront.

  12. FFUSION yearbook 1996. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1997-05-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  13. Moving into the 21st century - The United States' Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.; Mustin, Tracy P.; Saris, Elizabeth C.; Reilly, Jill E.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1996, when the United States Department of Energy and the Department of State jointly adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel, twelve shipments totaling 2,985 MTR and TRIGA spent nuclear fuel assemblies from research reactors around the world have been accepted into the United States. These shipments have contained approximately 1.7 metric tons of HEU and 0.6 metric tons of LEU. Foreign research reactor operators played a significant role in this success. A new milestone in the acceptance program occurred during the summer of 1999 with the arrival of TRIGA spent nuclear fuel from Europe through the Charleston Naval Weapons Station via the Savannah River Site to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This shipment consisted of five casks of TRIGA spent nuclear fuel from research reactors in Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and Romania. These casks were transported by truck approximately 2,400 miles across the United States (one cask packaged in an ISO container per truck). Drawing upon lessons learned in previous shipments, significant technical, legal, and political challenges were addressed to complete this cross-country shipment. Other program activities since the last RERTR meeting have included: formulation of a methodology to determine the quantity of spent nuclear fuel in a damaged condition that may be transported in a particular cask (containment analysis for transportation casks); publication of clarification of the fee policy; and continued planning for the outyears of the acceptance policy including review of reactors and eligible material quantities. The United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program continues to demonstrate success due to the continuing commitment between the United States and the research reactor community to make this program work. We strongly encourage all eligible research reactors to decide as soon as possible to

  14. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

  15. The United States foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program: Proposal to modify the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. The policy was slated to expire in May 2009. However, in October 2003, a petition requesting a program extension was delivered to the United States Secretary of Energy from a group of research reactor operators from foreign countries. In April 2004, the Secretary directed DOE undertake an analysis, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to consider potential extension of the Program. On December 1, 2004, a Federal Register Notice was issued approving the program extension. This paper discusses the findings from the NEPA analysis and the potential changes in the program that may result from implementation of the proposed changes. (author)

  16. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  17. Research priorities for specialized nursing practice in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yateem, N; Al-Tamimi, M; Brenner, M; Altawil, H; Ahmad, A; Brownie, S

    2017-08-25

    Globally, nurses are undertaking expanded and more specialized roles in healthcare planning and service delivery in response to changing patterns and levels of health service demand. This means the nursing profession is increasingly considered as leaders in health service policy, research and practice. The United Arab Emirates has strengthened nursing governance and practice by establishing a Nursing and Midwifery Council and increasing the activity of nursing specialization, service leadership and research. This study aimed to identify clinically relevant research priorities to facilitate nursing contributions to evidence-based care and strengthening health services in the country. A two-stage Delphi study design was used. The first round involved 783 participants. The second round involved 1116 participants, as more clinical settings were accessed. In total, 58 research priorities across a variety of nursing specialties (paediatrics, emergency care, intensive care, labour and maternity care, operating theatre and long-term care) were identified as highly important. These identified priorities will guide a more informed programme of research in each nursing specialty, with the aim of strengthening the evidence base to improving outcomes for patients and their families in the United Arab Emirates. The findings provide guidance on key areas for nurses to focus research contributions to enhance evidence-based care and strengthen health systems. The identified priorities may also guide researchers in academic institutions to conduct research informed by current, clinically relevant issues. The findings may help inform funders and policymakers to support allocation of funding to research that has potential to contribute to enhancing nursing care in specialist areas. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  18. The Animal Welfare Act and the Conduct and Publishing of Wildlife Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M

    2017-08-10

    In the US, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and its enabling regulations (AWAR) cover all warm-blooded animals used for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition. The only exceptions, made in the enabling regulations, are for two genera of rodents and for birds, bred specifically for research (meaning even those exceptions do not apply to wild birds and wild rodents of those genera) and for farm and agricultural animals. Research using animals covered by the AWA and AWAR must be reviewed and approved by an Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) properly constituted according to AWA and AWAR. A review of Instructions to Authors and policy statements offered by 106 journals classified by their content as containing articles that were oriented largely toward disease, ecology, or general, showed that disease-oriented journals originating in the United States and those produced by professional societies and government agencies have a higher explicit requirement for ACUC review than do disease-oriented journals produced outside the United States or those produced commercially. Journals with a general orientation that are produced outside the United States or commercially had much higher rates of requiring explicit statements for ACUC review than generally-oriented journals produced in the United States or those produced by professional societies and government agencies. Ecology journals had low rates of explicit statements for ACUC review regardless of geographic origins or sources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Re-visioning the doctoral research degree in nursing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher R; Duxbury, Joy; French, Beverley; Monks, Rob; Carter, Bernie

    2009-05-01

    In the light of concerns about the wider social and economic value of the PhD training programme, this article discusses the challenges being directed primarily at the traditional doctoral programme of study. While the PhD is primarily concerned with the student making an original contribution to knowledge, the value-added component of the doctoral research degree needs to respond to the needs of a wider market of purchasers, and to meet practice and policy requirements for research leadership. The United Kingdom Research Councils (UK GRAD, 2001. Joint Skills Statement of Skills Training Requirements. Available at http://www.grad.ac.uk/downloads/documents/general/Joint%20Skills%20Statementpdf. (last accessed 1st April 2008.) suggest a range of seven skill domains over and above research design and management that should be offered to students. The seven domains are research skills and techniques, participation in the research environment, research management, personal effectiveness, communication, networking and team working, and career management. This article develops and extends these skill domains for the current healthcare context and considers how these should guide the development and evaluation of the value-added components of doctoral research degree programmes in nursing. The challenges that these issues present to academic departments are also discussed. Our conclusion is that PhD research training needs re-visioning and broadening so that the students' experience includes these value-added components.

  20. Patient and Family Member-Led Research in the Intensive Care Unit: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J; Potestio, Melissa L; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Participants described three phases in the patient/family "ICU journey"; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient's voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These "ICU journey" experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Patient and family member-led research is feasible and can

  1. An analysis of discrepancies between United Kingdom cancer research funding and societal burden and a comparison to previous and United States values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley J R; Delarosa, Beverly; Hur, Hannah

    2015-11-02

    Ideally, the allocation of research funding for each specific type of cancer should be proportional to its societal burden. This burden can be estimated with the metric 'years of life lost' (YLL), which combines overall mortality and age at death. Using United Kingdom data from 2010, we compared research funding from the National Cancer Research Institute to this YLL burden metric for 26 types of cancers in order to identify the discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden. We also compared these values to United States data from 2010 and United Kingdom data published in 2005. Our study revealed a number of discrepancies between cancer research funding and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (testicular, leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast, cervical, ovarian, prostate) while other cancers appear under-funded (gallbladder, lung, nasopharyngeal, intestine, stomach, pancreatic, thyroid, oesophageal, liver, kidney, bladder, and brain/central nervous system). United Kingdom funding patterns over the past decade have generally moved to increase funding to previously under-funded cancers with one notable exception showing a converse trend (breast cancer). The broad relationship between United Kingdom and United States funding patterns is similar with a few exceptions (e.g. leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate, testicular cancer). There are discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden in the United Kingdom. These discrepancies are broadly similar in both the United Kingdom and the United States and, while they appear to be improving, this is not consistent across all types of cancer.

  2. Characteristics and lessons learned from practice-based research networks (PBRNs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Melinda M Davis,1,2 Sara Keller,1 Jennifer E DeVoe,1,3 Deborah J Cohen11Department of Family Medicine, 2Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 3OCHIN Practice-based Research Network, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs are organizations that involve practicing clinicians in asking and answering clinically relevant research questions. This review explores the origins, characteristics, funding, and lessons learned through practice-based research in the United States. Primary care PBRNs emerged in the USA in the 1970s. Early studies explored the etiology of common problems encountered in primary care practices (eg, headache, miscarriage, demonstrating the gap between research conducted in controlled specialty settings and real-world practices. Over time, national initiatives and an evolving funding climate have shaped PBRN development, contributing to larger networks, a push for shared electronic health records, and the use of a broad range of research methodologies (eg, observational studies, pragmatic randomized controlled trials, continuous quality improvement, participatory methods. Today, there are over 160 active networks registered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's PBRN Resource Center that engage primary care clinicians, pharmacists, dentists, and other health care professionals in research and quality-improvement initiatives. PBRNs provide an important laboratory for encouraging collaborative research partnerships between academicians and practices or communities to improve population health, conduct comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research, and study health policy reform. PBRNs continue to face critical challenges that include: (1 adapting to a changing landscape; (2 recruiting and retaining membership; (3 securing infrastructure support; (4 straddling two worlds (academia and community and managing

  3. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  4. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Wilken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development The Best Practice Unit (BPU model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002, the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is used as a way of working by a group of professionals, researchers and other relevant individuals, who over a period of one to two years, work together towards a desired improvement. The model is characterized by interaction between individual and collective learning processes, the development of new or improved working methods, and the implementation of these methods in daily practice. Multiple knowledge resources are used, including experiential knowledge, professional knowledge and scientific knowledge. The research serves diverse purposes: articulating tacit knowledge, documenting learning and innovation processes, systematically describing the working methods that have been revealed or developed, and evaluating the efficacy of the new methods. Each BPU is supported by a facilitator, whose main task is to optimize learning processes. An analysis of ten different BPUs in different professional fields shows that this is a successful model. The article describes the methodology and results of this study. De Best Practice Unit: een model voor leren, onderzoek en ontwikkeling Het model van de Best Practice Unit (BPU is een unieke vorm van praktijkgericht onderzoek. De Best Practice Unit is een variant van de Community of Practice zoals ontwikkeld door Wenger, McDermott en Snyder (2002 met als specifiek doel om de professionele praktijk te verbeteren door innovatie en onderzoek te combineren. Het model wordt gebruikt om in een periode van 1-2 jaar met een groep professionals, onderzoekers en andere betrokkenen te werken aan een gewenste verbetering. Kenmerkend is de wisselwerking tussen

  5. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...

  6. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  7. Overall Assessment of Human Research and Ethics Committees in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar

    2017-04-01

    Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics. However, systems to recognize accomplishments of researchers, funding transparency, and adverse event reporting were deployed in less than 30% of all HRECs. Research was incorporated into the vision and mission statements of many (65%) organizations. Research publications, collaborations, and recognitions were used to measure research output and report key performance indicators. In spite, resources to generate research output such as dedicated budget (20%), support staff (20%), and continuous training and mentoring program for medical residents (15%) and HREC members (25%) were somehow lacking. HREC structure and operations in the UAE are similar to other regions of the world. Systems to conduct research and report outcomes are defined in the UAE. Regulatory legislation and allocation of resources to support the clinical research enterprise will not only help to meet growing demand for clinical trials but also transform the quality of patient care in the UAE. It is anticipated that the results of this study will benefit investigators, regulators, pharmaceutical sponsors, and the policy makers in the region.

  8. FFUSION yearbook 1995. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1996-03-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). All fusion related research in Finland is included in the FFUSION programme and it made it possible to establish a dialogue with the European Fusion Programme already two years before Finland joined the European Union. The process led to the founding of the Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The contract of Association was signed in Helsinki on March 13 1995, to establish the 14th Association in the EU FFusion Programme. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1995. The emphasis is on research supported by the EU Commission. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies of the reactor materials. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), and Remote handling

  9. Construction safety research in the United States: targeting the Hispanic workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, M J

    2004-08-01

    While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all. The purpose of this article was twofold. First, to propose a research agenda where topics such as surveillance, intervention research on high risk occupations, intervention effectiveness evaluation, design and development of effective and appropriate safety training and educational materials, and the socioeconomic impact of injuries and illnesses, are investigated among the Hispanic construction workforce. Second, to present relevant aspects inherent to this particular population that need to be incorporated into the design and development stages of any safety and health research initiative. They include the occupational, social, economic, and cultural background of Hispanic workers; use of a participatory approach, proper selection and use of translation methods; and conducting collaborative research. Certain limitations and challenges related to the availability of resources for conducting safety and health research on Hispanic workers are further discussed.

  10. Research ethics committees in the regulation of clinical research: comparison of Finland to England, Canada, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina

    2016-01-19

    The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized. In Finland, RECs were regulated by a medical research law, whereas in the other countries many related laws and rules guided RECs; drug trials had specific additional rules. In England and the USA, there was a REC control body. In all countries, members were voluntary and included lay-persons, and payment arrangements varied. Patient protection was the main ethics criteria, but other criteria (research advancement, availability of results, payments, detailed fulfilment of legislation) varied. In all countries, RECs had been given administrative duties. Variations by country included the mandate, practical arrangements, handling of multi-site research, explicitness of proportionate handlings, judging scientific quality, time-limits for decisions, following of projects, role in institute protection, handling conflicts of interests, handling of projects without informed consent, and quality assurance research. The division of work between REC members and secretariats varied in checking of formalities. In England, quality assurance of REC work was thorough, fairly thorough in the USA, and not performed in Finland. The work of RECs in the four countries varied notably. Various deficiencies in the system require action, for which international comparison can provide useful insights.

  11. Best practices sharing: Setting up a professional clinical research unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Divate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Drug Controller General of India has recently come up with very stringent laws to tighten the regulatory framework around clinical trials. One-way of improving the credibility of India and its researchers in the eyes of the regulators, sponsors and the general public is through professional site management team or setting up clinical research unit (CRU. The CRU acts as a bridge between the sponsor and the investigator. The CRU model has been better explained with the help of a good example of a clinical research institute. Since, a successful clinical trial needs high quality data, timeliness and clear communication between all parties, a professional CRU with a team of dedicated and trained professionals and infrastructure with written procedures and policies may be a solution to the pain and agony of poor site performance and investigator insufficiency and pressure.

  12. Current nondestructive evaluation research and development trends in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    An underlying theme present in much of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research and development occurring in the United States as well as worldwide is the application of physics and engineering principles toward understanding and optimizing NDE processes. Expanding this trend of using mathematical models for NDE processes is critical to the entire spectrum of NDE technology. In NDE research, modeling anchors the investigation in scientific, proven principles and establishes a firm technical basis to guide the design and development of inspection equipment and approaches. It also provides for understanding the capabilities and the limitations of whatever designs are selected and ultimately applied in the field. This paper reviews the status of these efforts, presents several examples where mathematical modeling is being profitably used for practical inspection work, and shows the path being taken in ongoing research.

  13. Field Research and Parametric Analysis in a Medical-Surgical Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Upali; Pati, Sipra; Nejati, Adeleh

    2015-01-01

    To study the workplace in a medical-surgical (med-surg) unit and to identify suboptimal environmental conditions that can be improved in the current unit and avoided in future design, through rapidly deployed field research and timely simulation. Literature emphasizes the importance of the healthcare workplace and the effect on patient outcomes. What is lacking are studies conducted on-site and used for immediate application in design to assess and improve workplace conditions. A rapidly deployed field research and simulation study was conducted in a 40-bed med-surg unit of a large healthcare system as part of the process of designing a new medical tower. Online surveys, systematic behavioral observations, semi-structured interviews, sound studies, and advanced spatial analysis through parametric modeling were conducted. The following created challenges for patient monitoring, care coordination, and management: (1) waste and variability in walking, (2) limited point-of-use access to supplies, (3) large distances traveled for minor tasks, and (4) low visibility and connectivity. The corridor is used as a workspace/communication hub. There is a distinct difference in beginning of day and night shift patterns and between walking "distance" and walking "sequence." There is a tendency for nurses to multitask, but a simulation exercise shows that for key tasks like medication delivery, multitasking may not always reduce walking distances. Co-location of medications, supplies, and nourishment; accommodation for work on wheels; and spatial and technological connectivity between care team and patients should be considered while designing a med-surg unit. Understanding the key activity sequences helps determine the proximity of spaces in relationship to patient rooms and each other. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Cancer nanotechnology research in the United States and China: cooperation to promote innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julie A; Grodzinski, Piotr; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to cancer research is a promising area for US-China cooperation. Cancer is a major public health burden in both countries, and progress in cancer nanotechnology research is increasing in several fields, including imaging, biomarker detection, and targeted drug delivery. The United States and China are international leaders in nanotechnology research, and have both launched national programs to support nanotechnology efforts in the recent past. The accelerating trend of co-authorship among US and Chinese nanotechnology researchers demonstrates that individual scientists already recognize the potential for cooperation, providing a strong platform for creating additional partnerships in pre-competitive research areas. Mechanisms that could help to enhance US-China cancer nanotechnology partnerships include: developing new programs for bi-directional training and exchange; convening workshops focused on specific scientific topics of high priority to both countries; and joint support of collaborative research projects by US and Chinese funders. In addition to the accelerating scientific progress, expanded cooperation will stimulate important dialog on regulatory, policy, and technical issues needed to lay the groundwork for US and Chinese scientists to move greater numbers of cancer nanotechnology applications into the clinic. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  16. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances; Storey, Mel; Porter, Alison; Snooks, Helen; Jones, Kerina; Peconi, Julie; Sánchez, Antonio; Siebert, Stefan; Thorne, Kym; Clement, Clare; Russell, Ian

    2013-02-21

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials.

  17. Agricultural research and human nutrition: a comparative analysis of Brazil, Cuba, Israel, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, N

    1983-01-01

    A tentative theoretical explanation of modern nutritional vulnerability is derived from an original study of agricultural science as part of the social process in societies distinguished by the extent to which their form of production (specifically reproduction of labor) falls within or outside the world of commodities. The selected case studies--the United States, Israel, Brazil, and Cuba--are characterized also by advanced agricultural research, remarkable agricultural productivity, and, with the exception of Brazil, a satisfactory state of public nutrition. This particular selection thus lays the basis for a holistic investigation of malnutrition which considers the mode of production as the appropriate unit of analysis. As a theoretical, not statistical, account of nutritional status variations in a variety of social environments, the study employs a two-dimensional comparison of agricultural research orientation and impact, on the one side, and of predominant modes of reproduction of labor, on the other. It is proposed that, independently of agricultural productivity effects of research, structural nutritional vulnerability prevails where the strictly capitalist commodity--labor power--is sold below its value, and because, in the framework of capitalist production, science is biased against subsistence food crops that are used restrictively in reproduction of labor. This bias is rooted not in the nature of such crops, but in their role in determining the value of labor power, which as expressed by wage, stands in inverse proportion to profit.

  18. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  19. Progress of the United States foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.G.; Clapper, M.; Thrower, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. To date, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program has completed 23 shipments. Almost 5000 spent fuel assemblies from eligible research reactors throughout the world have been accepted into the United States under this program. Over the past year, another cross-country shipment of fuel was accomplished, as well as two additional shipments in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2001. These shipments attracted considerable safeguards oversight since they occurred post September 11. Recent guidance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pertaining to security and safeguards issues deals directly with the transport of nuclear material. Since the Acceptance Program has consistently applied above regulatory safety enhancements in transport of spent nuclear fuel, this guidance did not adversely effect the Program. As the Program draws closer to its termination date, an increased number of requests for program extension are received. Currently, there are no plans to extend the policy beyond its current expiration date; therefore, eligible reactor operators interested in participating in this program are strongly encouraged to evaluate their inventory and plan for future shipments as soon as possible. (author)

  20. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buckner, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  1. Research and development activities on Three Mile Island Unit Two. Annual report for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The year 1985 was significant in the cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). Major milestones in the project included lifting the plenum assembly from the reactor vessel and the start of operations to remove the damaged fuel from the reactor. This report summarizes these milestones and other TMI-2 related cleanup, research, and development activities. Other major topics include the following: waste immobilization and management; fuel shipping cask delivery and testing; sample acquisition and evaluation; and decontamination and dose reduction. 26 figs.

  2. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  3. Foreign research reactor irradiated nuclear fuel inventories containing HEU and LEU of United States origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates of foreign research reactor inventories of aluminum-based and TRIGA irradiated nuclear fuel elements containing highly enriched and low enriched uranium of United States origin that are anticipated in January 1996, January 2001, and January 2006. These fuels from 104 research reactors in 41 countries are the same aluminum-based and TRIGA fuels that were eligible for receipt under the Department of Energy's Offsite Fuels Policy that was in effect in 1988. All fuel inventory and reactor data that were available as of December 1, 1994, have been included in the estimates of approximately 14,300 irradiated fuel elements in January 1996, 18,800 in January 2001, and 22,700 in January 2006

  4. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (farm consisted of 309 acres and 57 milking cows, on which most of the forage was homegrown but grains were purchased (73% of farms). Among the greatest challenges identified by the farmers were obtaining a steady, fair price for milk (85% respondents); determining dry matter intake for animals on pasture (76%); and controlling nuisance flies (89%). Needs for additional research included organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a

  5. Overview of feedstock research in the United States, Canada, and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Tardif, M.L. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Garca, L.R. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Florestas, Colombo (Brazil); Betters, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ashworth, J. [Meridian Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This is an overview of the current biomass feedstock efforts in Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The report from Brazil provides an historical perspective of incentive programs, the charcoal and fuelwood energy programs, the alcohol program, and other biomass energy efforts. The efforts in Brazil, particularly with the sugar cane to ethanol and the charcoal and fuelwood programs, dwarfs other commercial biomass systems in the Americas. One of the bright spots in the future is the Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine Electricity Project initially funded in 1992. The sugar cane-based ethanol industry continues to develop higher yielding cane varieties and more efficient microorganisms to convert the sugar cane carbohydrates into alcohol. In Canada a number of important institutions and enterprises taking part in the economical development of the country are involved in biomass research and development including various aspects of the biomass such as forestry, agricultural, industrial, urban, food processing, fisheries and peat bogs. Biomass feedstock research in the United States is evolving to reflect Department of Energy priorities. Greater emphasis is placed on leveraging research with the private sector contributing a greater share of funds, for both research and demonstration projects. The feedstock program, managed by ORNL, is focused on limited model species centered at a regional level using a multidisciplinary approach. Activities include a stronger emphasis on emerging environmental issues such as biodiversity, sustainability and habitat management. DOE also is a supporter of the National Biofuels Roundtable, which is developing principles for producing biomass energy in an economically viable and ecologically sound manner. Geographical Information Systems are also being developed as tools to quantify and characterize the potential supply of energy crops in various regions.

  6. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Harvested cables from operating or decommissioned nuclear power plants present an important opportunity to validate models, understanding material aging behavior, and validate characterization techniques. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant is a pressurized water reactor that was licensed to operate from 1976 to 2013. Cable segments were harvested and made available to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability research program through the Electric Power Research Institute. Information on the locations and circuits within the reactor from whence the cable segments came, cable construction, sourcing and installation information, and photographs of the cable locations prior to harvesting were provided. The cable variations provided represent six of the ten most common cable insulations in the nuclear industry and experienced service usage for periods from 15 to 42 years. Subsequently, these cables constitute a valuable asset for research to understand aging behavior and measurement of nuclear cables. Received cables harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant consist of low voltage, insulated conductor surrounded by jackets in lengths from 24 to 100 feet each. Cable materials will primarily be used to investigate aging under simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation exposure. Each cable insulation and jacket material will be characterized in its as-received condition, including determination of the temperatures associated with endothermic transitions in the material using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Temperatures for additional thermal exposure aging will be selected following the thermal analysis to avoid transitions in accelerated laboratory aging that do not occur in field conditions. Aging temperatures above thermal transitions may also be targeted to investigate the potential for artifacts in lifetime prediction from rapid accelerated aging. Total gamma doses and dose rates targeted for each material

  7. A review of ground penetrating radar research and practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  8. Contraceptive choices among women attending the fertility research unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E Shehu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most sensitive and intimate decisions made by any individual or couple is that of fertility control . The knowledge of the factors which influence contraceptive choices may increase its acceptance and uptake. This study determines the choice and reason for contraception among new clients attending the Fertility Research Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study a structured questionnaire was administered to 251 consecutive clients, who attended the Fertility Research Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto between 1 July 2008 and 31 December 2008. Results: Most (58.2% of the clients were between 21 and 30 years of age. Many (42.6% were grand multipara. Majority (76.9% of the clients were married. The main source of knowledge of contraception and referral (45.8% was the physicians. Child spacing (87.7% was the most common reason given for contraceptive use. Majority (55.8% of the clients chose Implanon and the least preferred method of contraception was the condom (2.0%. Conclusion: Our data shows that the most commonly chosen contraceptive method in the study population was the Implanon. Child spacing was the main reason for seeking family planning while the source of contraceptive knowledge was the physicians.

  9. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  10. The regulation and licensing of research reactors and associated facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.W.; Willby, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) licenses nuclear facilities, including research reactors, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The legislation, the regulatory organizations and the methods of operation that have been developed over the last 30 years result in a largely non-prescriptive form of control that is well suited to research reactors. The most important part of the regulatory system is the license and the attachment of conditions which it permits. These conditions require the licensee to prepare arrangements to control the safety of the facility. In doing so the licensee is encouraged to develop a 'safety culture' within its organization. This is particularly important for research reactors which may have limited staff resources and where the ability, and at times the need, to have access to the core is much greater than for nuclear power plants. Present day issues such as the ageing of nuclear facilities, public access to the rationale behind regulatory decisions, and the emergence of more stringent safety requirements, which include a need for quantified safety criteria, have been addressed by the NII. This paper explores the relevance of such issues to the regulation of research reactors. In particular, it discusses some of the factors associated with research reactors that should be considered in developing criteria for the tolerability of risk from these nuclear facilities. From a consideration of these factors, it is the authors' view that the range of tolerable risk to the public from the operation of new research reactors may be expected to be more stringent than similar criteria for new nuclear power plants, whereas the criteria for tolerable risk for research reactor workers are expected to be about the same as those for power reactor workers

  11. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Peter B.; Sopka, Dennis M.; Kathpal, Madeera; Haynes, Jeffrey C.; Lally, Brian E.; Li, Linna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ≥1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ≥1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  13. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M.

    2009-11-01

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  14. [Barriers and motivations of nurses for conducting research in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Medical Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó-Serra, M; Güell-Baró, R; Castanera-Duro, A; Sandalinas, I; Argilaga, E; Fortes-Del Valle, M L; Jiménez-Herrera, M F; Bordonado-Pérez, L; Fuentes-Pumarola, C

    The implementation of evidence based practice is essential in clinical practice. However, it is still a challenge in critical care patients. To identify the barriers for conducting research that nursing professionals perceive in intensive care and medical emergency departments, as well as to investigate the areas of interest and motivations to carry out research projects. Cross-sectional and multicentre study carried out in 4 intensive care units and in one Medical Emergency Department emergency pre-hospital carein Catalonia on 2014. The instrument used was The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale which had been previously validated into Spanish. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. A statistical significance of P<.05 was assumed. One hundred seventy-two questionnaires were obtained (69.9% response). Of the total, 135 were from critical care, 27 to pre-hospital care, and 10 from both. Just over half (57.3%) had research experience, although 44.4% had related training. The questionnaire dimension considered most relevant was organisational characteristics. The most important barriers were: there is not enough time at work [3.11 (SD 1.21)], physicians do not collaborate in its implementation [2.99 (SD 1.22)], and nurses are isolated with respect to other professionals [2.86 (SD 1.32)]. Significant differences were observed in the barriers according to research experience and work place. The main motivation was to be updated in critical patient care. The main barriers perceived are related to the organisation. There are differences in the barriers according to research experience and work place. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1220 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-12-0022] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would adjust the number of members on the United Soybean Board...

  16. Federal research, development, and demonstration priorities for carbon dioxide removal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L.; Amador, Giana; Funk, Jason; Mach, Katharine J.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies may be critical to achieving deep decarbonization. Yet a lack of technical and commercial maturity of CDR technologies hinders potential deployment. Needs for commercialization span research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, including development of new materials, reactors, and processes, and rigorous monitoring of a portfolio of demonstration projects. As a world leader in supporting science and engineering, the United States (US) can play an important role in reducing costs and clarifying the sustainable scale of CDR. To date, federal agencies have focused on voluntary or piecemeal CDR programs. Here, we present a synthesis of research and developement needs, relevant agency authority, barriers to coordination, and interventions to enhance RD&D across the federal government of the US. On the basis of agency authority and expertise, the Department of Energy, Department of Agriculture, Department of the Interior, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and National Science Foundation are most central to conducting research, funding projects, monitoring effects, and promulgating regulations. Key enablers for successful programs include embracing technological diversity and administrative efficiency, fostering agency buy-in, and achieving commercial deployment. Based on these criteria, the executive branch could effectively coordinate RD&D strategy through two complementary pathways: (1) renewing intra-agency commitment to CDR in five primary agencies, including both research and demonstration, and (2) coordinating research prioritization and outcomes across agencies, led by the Office of Science and Technology Policy and loosely based on the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Both pathways can be stimulated by executive order or Congressional mandate. Executive branch implementation can begin at any time; future Farm and Energy Bills provide legislative vehicles for enhancing programs.

  17. A Practical, Global Perspective on Using Administrative Data to Conduct Intensive Care Unit Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Allan; Gershengorn, Hayley B; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Wilcox, M Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Various data sources can be used to conduct research on critical illness and intensive care unit (ICU) use. Most published studies derive from randomized controlled trials, large-scale clinical databases, or retrospective chart reviews. However, few investigators have access to such data sources or possess the resources to create them. Hospital administrative data, also called health claims data, constitute an important alternative data source that can be used to address a broad range of research questions, including many that would be difficult to study in interventional studies. Such data often contain information that allows identification of ICU care, specific types of critical illness, and ICU-related procedures. The strengths of using administrative databases are that many are population-based, cover broad geographic regions, and are large enough to provide high statistical power and precise effect estimates. Linking hospital data to other databases regarding chronic care facilities, home care services, or rehabilitation services, for example, can expand the scope of research questions that can be answered. However, the limitations of administrative data must be recognized. They are not collected for research purposes; thus, data elements may vary in accuracy, and key clinical variables such as ICU-specific physiologic and laboratory data are usually lacking. Specific efforts should be made to validate the data elements used, as has been done in several world regions. As with any other research question, it is imperative that the analysis plan be carefully defined in advance and that appropriate attention be paid to potential sources of bias and confounding.

  18. Research Regarding the Anticorosiv Protection of Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Unit that Process Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morosanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to high boiling temperature, organic acids are present in the warmer areas of metal equipment from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units and determine, increased corrosion processes in furnace tubes, transfer lines, metal equipment within the distillation columns etc. In order to protect the corrosion of metal equipment from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, against acids, de authors researched solution which integrates corrosion inhibitors and selecting materials for equipment construction. For this purpose, we tested the inhibitor PET 1441, which has dialchilfosfat in his composition and inhibitor based on phosphate ester. In this case, to the metal surface forms a complex phosphorous that forms of high temperature and high fluid speed. In order to form the passive layer and to achieve a 90% protection, we initially insert a shock dose, and in order to ensure further protection there is used a dose of 20 ppm. The check of anticorrosion protection namely the inhibition efficiency is achieved by testing samples made from steel different.

  19. Software architecture for a multi-purpose real-time control unit for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing powerful output signals. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole eight bit system with very limited memory runs independently of a personal computer. The two on board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units or to connect other equipment, as required in real time. This paper describes the software architecture for the third prototype that now provides stable measurements and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. As test case a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The software architecture proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  20. Acidification research: evaluation and policy applications; a United Kingdom policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.; Wilson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The United Kingdom environmental research into the mechanisms of the atmospheric transport and deposition of acidity, to understand the impacts of that acidity on soils, surface waters, forests, crops and the built environment and the consequences for fishery status, freshwater and soil ecosystems. The Critical Loads Approach opens the possibility of more subtle and sensitive ways of tackling the problems of environmental acidification on the European scale. The United Kingdom is contributing vigorously to the Critical Loads Approach through the mapping exercises, the environmental studies that underpin them and the understanding of the driving deposition mechanisms which lead both to pollutant removal and ecosystem contamination. Future progress with the UN ECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution and the revision of the NO x , SO 2 and VOC protocols will rest in very large measure on the shared confidence within Europe in the knowledge of the underpinning environmental science. The Critical Loads Approach should provide an important policy focus within the international scientific community to set environmentally-based targets for future co-ordinated emission control programmes

  1. Oil and chemical spill research and development in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) falls within the UK Department of Transport's Marine Directorate and is the lead agency in the UK for the control of marine pollution. The MPCU assumes central government's responsibility for controlling two aspects of marine pollution: at sea response to oil and chemical spills from ships, and coordinating beach cleaning activities. All research funded by the MPCU is therefore directed at these two responsibilities. The MPCU was established in 1978 after a series of major tanker incidents in European waters (notably the AMOCO CADIZ, France) in recognition of the fact that it was not reasonable to expect the owners of tankers which operate on a world-wide basis to make arrangements for dealing with oil spills wherever they may occur. The UK Government therefore decided to set up a response unit, the MPCU, with specific responsibilities for dealing with oil and chemical spills from ships at sea. The responsibility for dealing with pollution once it comes ashore lies with the local authorities. However, to avoid expenditure by individual authorities on specialized equipment which will be rarely required, the government decided to set up stockpiles of such equipment in strategic locations to be drawn on by authorities as and when necessary. The government also provides training in the use of this equipment, offers scientific and technical advice and, for major spills, will coordinate beach cleaning activities

  2. Renewable energies in the United States: support policies and tendencies for research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Illustrated by figures, graphs and tables of data, nine articles give overviews of the present evolutions and tendencies for research and development in the energy sector in the United States of America. After a first article commenting the possible evolution of the energy model in this country, the authors are commenting the priority given to innovation for clean energies, the evolution of patents claimed by US companies, the smart-grid-based energy strategy, the evolution of the wind energy sector, the technological evolutions and decreasing prices of the solar energy, the large investments required for a large scale development of geothermal energy, the voluntary policy and the ambitious objectives in the field of bio-energies and bio-fuels, and California as a leader in the field of renewable energies

  3. Malaria in New Guinea during the Second World War: the Land Headquarters Medical Research Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F; Sweeney, A W

    1998-06-01

    In June 1943 arrangements were made to carry out experiments on malaria suppressive drugs on human volunteers in Cairns, in north Queensland, under the direction of Brigadier Neil Hamilton Fairley; early in 1944 the Land Headquarters Medical Research Unit was established to continue this work. Using 868 healthy volunteers and 317 infected soldiers and A. punctulatus mosquitoes flow in from New Guinea or bred locally, several suppressive drugs were tested. Doses of 10 grains of quinine daily failed to suppress New Guinea strains of P. falciparum and were only partially effective against P. vivax infections, whereas 100 mg of atebrin daily controlled symptoms of P. vivax infection and cured infections with most New Guinea strains of P. falciparum, however some strains of P. falciparum from Wewak were resistant to this dose, but were cured with double the daily dose.

  4. Developmental process and early phases of implementation for the United States Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Congress first called for improved coordination of human nutrition research within and among federal departments and agencies in the 1977 Farm Bill. Today, the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and commu...

  5. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Applications of RNA interference and CRISPR gene editing technologies in pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which addresses basic scientific questions and develops applied solutions to a range of agricultural problems, and in doing so protects national food security and supports ...

  6. Multi-purpose research facility: 60Co gamma irradiation unit at Centrum vyzkumu Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Namburi, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well know from 1950's till date, that the users, demand and network of gamma irradiation facility centers are growing rapidly to support industries as well as research due to its versatility. At present, its applications are in the fields of biological, chemical, solid state physics, medical, food and sterilization etc. The Gamma Irradiation Facility of the CVREZ is a dry-storage irradiator, which reached source end of life. The facility is now under refurbishment as a multi-purpose research center, fulfilling the requirements of international standards to support primarily the research sector and industries. Apart from the classical usage of gamma irradiation facility there is great scientific interest to use them to characterize the materials that are used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's). Electrical system unit in a nuclear power plants consists of several components. For instance some of them are light emitting diodes, pin-type photo-detectors and optical fibers, rubber seals, electrical insulation, thermal insulation, polymeric composites and metallic components etc. Under normal environmental conditions these materials possess good mechanical properties/chemical stability. The qualification of these materials for usage in NPPs under radiation environments and at high temperatures are desired for their better performance. Another feasibility of using gamma irradiation facility in the contest of NPP's is radiation hardening of robots that are used time-to-time in inspection of NPP's. Overall objective of our project is to support research activities aiming to understand the materials modification due to ionizing radiation. Upgraded facility will provide high-fidelity simulation of nuclear radiation environments for materials and component testing. We present our work by providing the information on (i) our objectives in utilizing the gamma facility, (ii) specific experimental test set-up under development to perform tests at elevated

  7. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  8. Estimating the returns to United Kingdom publicly funded musculoskeletal disease research in terms of net value of improved health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Matthew; Montague, Erin; Pollitt, Alexandra; Guthrie, Susan; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin; Grant, Jonathan

    2018-01-10

    Building on an approach applied to cardiovascular and cancer research, we estimated the economic returns from United Kingdom public- and charitable-funded musculoskeletal disease (MSD) research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes in the United Kingdom. To calculate the economic returns from MSD-related research in the United Kingdom, we estimated (1) the public and charitable expenditure on MSD-related research in the United Kingdom between 1970 and 2013; (2) the net monetary benefit (NMB), derived from the health benefit in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of £25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1994 to 2013; (3) the proportion of NMB attributable to United Kingdom research; and (4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain. The data collected from these four key elements were used to estimate the internal rate of return (IRR) from MSD-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using a one-way sensitivity analysis. Expressed in 2013 prices, total expenditure on MSD-related research from 1970 to 2013 was £3.5 billion, and for the period used to estimate the rate of return, 1978-1997, was £1.4 billion. Over the period 1994-2013 the key interventions analysed produced 871,000 QALYs with a NMB of £16 billion, allowing for the net NHS costs resulting from them and valuing a QALY at £25,000. The proportion of benefit attributable to United Kingdom research was 30% and the elapsed time between funding and impact of MSD treatments was 16 years. Our best estimate of the IRR from MSD-related research was 7%, which is similar to the 9% for CVD and 10% for cancer research. Our estimate of the IRR from the net health gain to public and charitable funding of MSD-related research in the United Kingdom is substantial, and justifies the research investments

  9. Research into Practice: Spatial Sense and the Construction of Abstract Units in Tiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Grayson H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a variation on tiling that offers opportunities for the construction of the fundamental mathematical concept of constructing abstract units called "unitizing." Tiling integrates geometric and numerical settings to develop spatial sense and present mathematics as constructing patterns. (MDH)

  10. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  11. Talent Development Research, Policy, and Practice in Europe and the United States: Outcomes from a Summit of International Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Rena F.; Stoeger, Heidrun; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to convey a summary of research and conversation on talent development on the part of a small group of European and American researchers who participated in the Inaugural American European Research Summit in Washington. In the final hours of the summit, participants discussed the state of research on talent development…

  12. Building visual identity of scientific and research units and the role of visualization in cooperation with business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfreda Kamińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for commercialization of scientific research leads to the necessity of changing the orientation of scientific-research units to marketing orientation, which is characterized by, among others, conducting research aimed at learning the clients’ needs and building better communication with the recipients. What is an important element of a unit’s marketing communication is its visual identity system, which the recipients use to build their opinion and their picture of the unit. The goal of this article is an attempt to define the key rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions, as well as presenting the role of visualization in their cooperation with business. In the article the notions of image, identity, corporate identity and visual identity are subject to analysis. The article also presents the significance of visualization in the functioning of research and scientific units, elements of visual identity system and the rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions. An analysis of chosen research-scientific units was carried out with regard to visualization.

  13. Transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit: a participatory action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as

  14. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development

  15. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Claire L; Thompson, Lindsay C; Murphy, Claire; Forcat, Silvia; Hanley, Bec

    2012-01-13

    We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future

  16. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  17. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program; Undergraduate Research and Outreach in Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Polar Science Program (PSP), has been very active completing its own field campaign out of Barrow, AK, sent students to the South Pole, participated in STEM activities and educated over 100 future Naval Officers about the Polar Regions. Each activity is uniquely different, but has the similar undertone of sharing the recent rapid changes in the Cryosphere to a wide range of audiences. There is further room for development and growth through future field campaigns and new collaborations. The Naval Academy Ice Experiment (NAICEX) 2013 was based out of the old Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, AK. In joint collaboration with the University of Delaware, University of Washington, and Naval Research Laboratory we successfully took multiple measurements for over a week on the fast ice just offshore. Five undergraduate students from USNA, as well as 3 graduate students from University of Delaware participated, as well as multiple professors and instructors from each institution. Data collected during the experiment will be used in capstone courses and thesis research. There was also an outreach component to the experiment, where local students from Barrow H.S. have been assigned to the USNA ice observations project for their own high school course work. Local students will be analyzing data that will contribute into the larger research effort at USNA through coordinated remote efforts and participation in future field experiments. The USNA STEM office is one of the most robust in the entire country. The USNA PSP is active within this program by developing polar specific modules that are integrated varying length outreach opportunities from a few hours to week long camps. USNA PSP also engages in educator training that is held at the Naval Academy each summer. Through this program of educating the educators, the far reaching levels of awareness are multiplied exponentially. Also, the USNA Oceanography Department has

  18. Authentic science in education: Studies in course-based research at the United States Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony M.

    This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct that many curriculum developers and instructors want to foster within their students but often lack clear definitions or evaluation plans. This study gives a definition of critical thinking and an outcome of a critical thinking test. Significant gains in critical thinking are observed by students participating in the CURE as well as significant gains in three affective factors (Interest in Science/Chemistry, Authenticity, Perceived Learning). The gains in critical thinking are then further statistically linked to students’ perceptions of how authentically they saw the research in the course. If they felt that the course was demonstrating more authentic science practices, they gained significantly more in their critical thinking scores. The second study in this dissertation adds an additional transfer focus to the instructional materials that the CURE was meant to support. The treatment group in this study received instruction that was framed expansively. The expansively framed instruction showed students ways that the material was applicable outside of the course. The assessments and instructional materials of this study were transfer assessments with contrasting cases. Instances of negative or “overzealous transfer” were also reported. Findings suggest

  19. Evaluation of public policies in Brazil and the United States: a research analysis in the last 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles David Crumpton

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compares research on evaluation of public policies in Brazil and the United States. To examine the extent to which evaluation research has been established in these countries, this article uses the methods of bibliometric and social network analysis to compare recent use of evaluation research in these countries. The results show that Brazil and the United States have focused on the same areas of research, especially the areas of health, education and social welfare. It was also observed that researchers from both countries use research methods, although American researchers make more use of quanti-quali methods, and that research networks on policy evaluation in the two country have similar characteristics, although the average size and density of networks in Brazil is less than that in the United States. On the basis of the evidence, it is concluded that evaluation research in Brazil evolved during the period investigated and is becoming consolidated as a field of study and practice.

  20. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research Unit on Reactor Safety under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized according to the following themes: behaviour of nuclear fuel under accidental conditions, core fusion accidents, fire in confined environment, and civil engineering and structure behaviour. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. Each research theme is analyzed in the same way

  1. Summary and abstracts: Applied Research Units and Projects 1996 UCETF Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-21

    The Urban Consortium (UC), created by PTI, is a network of jurisdictions with populations of over 250,000. The UC provides a platform for research and enterprise through its Energy, Environmental, Transportation, and Telecommunications and Information Task Forces. The UC provides a unique creative forum where elected and appointed officials and technical managers identify, test, and validate practical ways to improve the provision of public services and, where possible, generate new revenue opportunities. Public Technology, Inc., is the non-profit technology organization of the National League of Cities, the National Association of Counties, and the International City/County Management Association. PTI creates and advances technology-based products, services, and enterprises in cities and counties nationwide. Staffed by PTI, the UC addresses the critical needs of local governments through its Task Forces. The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF) program has, since its inception, acted as a laboratory to develop, test solutions and share the resulting products or management approaches with the wider audience of local governments. It has addressed the overlap between energy and environment and economic development policy issues, and, is the nation's most extensive cooperative local government program to improve energy management and decision-making through applied research and technology cooperation. Proposals to meet the specific objectives of the UCETF annual R and D program are solicited from major urban jurisdictions. Projects based on these proposals are then selected by the UCETF for direct conduct and management by staff of city and county governments. Projects selected for each year's program are organized in thematic units to assure effective management and ongoing peer-to-peer experience exchange, with results documented at the end of each program year.

  2. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  3. Gender Authorship Trends of Plastic Surgery Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Wu, Liza C; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of women are entering the medical profession, but plastic surgery remains a male-dominated profession, especially within academia. As academic aspirations and advancement depend largely on research productivity, the authors assessed the number of articles authored by women published in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Original articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery published during the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, and 2014 were analyzed. First and senior authors with an M.D. degree and U.S. institutional affiliation were categorized by gender. Authorship trends were compared with those from other specialties. Findings were placed in the context of gender trends among plastic surgery residents in the United States. The percentage of female authors in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery increased from 2.4 percent in 1970 to 13.3 percent in 2014. Over the same time period, the percentage of female plastic surgery residents increased from 2.6 percent to 32.5 percent. By 2014, there were more female first authors (19.1 percent) than senior authors (7.7 percent) (p plastic surgery had fewer female authors than other medical specialties including pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, general surgery, internal medicine, and radiation oncology (p plastic surgery is encouraging but lags behind advances in other specialties. Understanding reasons for these trends may help improve gender equity in academic plastic surgery.

  4. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  5. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    SummaryThe Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program had a productive year in 2016. Despite vacancies in our scientist ranks exceeding 20 percent, our research, training, and teaching portfolio was full and we graduated 93 students and published 398 manuscripts primarily focused on addressing the real conservation challenges of our cooperators. As I’ve stated before, our mission is our legacy: meeting the actionable science needs of our cooperators, providing them technical guidance and assistance in interpreting and applying new advances in science, and developing the future workforce through graduate education and mentoring. Our scientists and the manner in which they approach our mission continue to inspire me. The most rewarding part of my job is meeting and engaging with the students they recruit—the conservation professionals of the future. I cannot help but feel uplifted after discussions with and presentations by these young men and women. Personally, I owe my place in the profession today to the mentoring I received as a CRU student, and today’s CRU scientists have raised the bar. It gives me hope for the future of conservation, and added motivation to see our vacancies filled so that we can expand our portfolio.The National Cooperators’ Coalition has been active and is strategically working to build support on our behalf. Sincere thanks to the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Boone and Crockett Club, the National Association of University Fish and Wildlife Programs, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society for their efforts and those of their affiliated members.We co-sponsored a workshop at the 2016 North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference along with the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society, titled “Barriers and Bridges in Reconnecting Natural Resources

  6. Adherence: a review of education, research, practice, and policy in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown TA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the education, research, practice, and policy related to pharmacist interventions to improve medication adherence in community settings in the United States.Methods: Authors used MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (since 1990 to identify community and ambulatory pharmacy intervention studies which aimed to improve medication adherence. The authors also searched the primary literature using Ovid to identify studies related to the pharmacy teaching of medication adherence. The bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed in order to identify additional literature. We searched the tables of content of three US pharmacy education journals and reviewed the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy website for materials on teaching adherence principles. Policies related to medication adherence were identified based on what was commonly known to the authors from professional experience, attendance at professional meetings, and pharmacy journals.Results: Research and Practice: 29 studies were identified: 18 randomized controlled trials; 3 prospective cohort studies; 2 retrospective cohort studies; 5 case-controlled studies; and one other study. There was considerable variability in types of interventions and use of adherence measures. Many of the interventions were completed by pharmacists with advanced clinical backgrounds and not typical of pharmacists in community settings. The positive intervention effects had either decreased or not been sustained after interventions were removed. Although not formally assessed, in general, the average community pharmacy did not routinely assess and/or intervene on medication adherence. Education: National pharmacy education groups support the need for pharmacists to learn and use adherence-related skills. Educational efforts involving adherence have focused on students’ awareness of adherence barriers and communication skills needed to engage patients in behavioral

  7. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  8. A human dietary arachidonic acid supplementation study conducted in a metabolic research unit: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Emken, E A; Phinney, S D; Kyle, D; Ferretti, A

    1997-04-01

    While there are many reports of studies that fed arachidonic acid (AA) to animals, there are very few reports of AA feeding to humans under controlled conditions. This 130-d study was conceived as a controlled, symmetrical crossover design with healthy, adult male volunteers. They lived in the metabolic research unit (MRU) of the Western Human Nutrition Research (WHNRC) for the entire study. All food was prepared by the WHNRC kitchen. The basal (low-AA) diet consisted of natural foods (30 en% fat, 15 en% protein, and 55 en% carbohydrate), containing 210 mg/d of AA, and met the recommended daily allowance for all nutrients. The high-AA (intervention) diet was similar except that 1.5 g/d of AA in the form of a triglyceride containing 50% AA replaced an equal amount of high-oleic safflower oil in the basal diet. The subjects (ages 20 to 39) were within -10 to +20% of ideal body weight, nonsmoking, and not allowed alcohol in the MRU. Their exercise level was constant, and their body weights were maintained within 2% of entry level. Subjects were initially fed the low-AA diet for 15 d. On day 16, half of the subjects (group A) wee placed on the high-AA diet, and the other group (B) remained on the low-AA diets. On day 65, the two groups switched diets. On day 115, group B returned to the low-AA diet. This design, assuming no carryover effect, allowed us to merge the data from the two groups, with the data comparison days being 65 (low-AA) and 115 (high-AA) for group B and 130 (low-AA) and 65 (high-AA) for group A. The main indices studied were the fatty acid composition of the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and adipose tissue; in vitro platelet aggregation, bleeding times, clotting factors; immune response as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, cellular proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to various mitogens and antigens, natural killer cell activity, and response to measles/mumps/rubella and influenza vaccines; the

  9. Expanding Research Capacity at United States Universities: A Study of Academic Research and Development Investment from 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brendan; Mathies, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Growing emphasis has been placed on universities to contribute to the innovation process and as a result academic research and development expenditures have increased in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific ways in which universities have expanded their research capacity. This paper examines how universities in the United…

  10. Pre-treatment analysis of woody vegetation composition and structure on the hardwood ecosystem experiment research units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Saunders; Justin E. Arseneault

    2013-01-01

    In long-term, large-scale forest management studies, documentation of pre-treatment differences among and variability within experimental units is critical for drawing the proper inferences from imposed treatments. We compared pre-treatment overstory and large shrub communities (diameters at breast height >1.5 cm) for the 9 research cores with the Hardwood Ecosystem...

  11. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.

    2016-01-01

    proposal to the NASA Emerging Worlds solicitation for the full cost of a press, with competitive bids submitted from Sumitomo, Rockland Research, and Voggenreiter. Additional funding is currently being sought from industry sources through the Strategic Partnerships Office at NASA JSC, External Pursuits Program Office on the JETS contract, and Jacobs corporate in the United States. Internal funding is available for JETS contract personnel to travel to large press locations worldwide to study set-up and operations. We also anticipate a fortuitous cost savings in installation of the large press because plans are already underway for major renovations to the entire experimental petrology suite within the next 2 years in order to accommodate our growing user base. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this proposed facility, such as the press type and design, access management, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives.

  12. Research and photovoltaic industry at the United States; Recherche et industrie photovoltaique (PV) aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R

    2006-06-15

    For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)

  13. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  14. Confronting Ambiguity, Anarchy, and Crisis in Institutional Research: Using Student Unit Record Databases in Extra-Institutional Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoba, Glenda D.; Gross, Jacob P. K.; Hossler, Don

    2008-01-01

    The world of policymaking on the campuses of colleges and universities is messy, ambiguous, and contested. In this complex environment, which Kingdon (2003) has aptly called a "policy soup," the role of institutional research is often not only to provide answers to existing policy questions but to produce information to help transform…

  15. Selectivity of physiotherapist programs in the United States does not differ by institutional funding source or research activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Riley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to compare selectivity characteristics among institution characteristics to determine differences by institutional funding source (public vs. private or research activity level (research vs. non-research. Methods: This study included information provided by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE and the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy. Data were extracted from all students who graduated in 2011 from accredited physical therapy programs in the United States. The public and private designations of the institutions were extracted directly from the classifications from the ‘CAPTE annual accreditation report,’ and high and low research activity was determined based on Carnegie classifications. The institutions were classified into four groups: public/research intensive, public/non-research intensive, private/research intensive, and private/non-research intensive. Descriptive and comparison analyses with post hoc testing were performed to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the four groups. Results: Although there were statistically significant baseline grade point average differences among the four categorized groups, there were no significant differences in licensure pass rates or for any of the selectivity variables of interest. Conclusion: Selectivity characteristics did not differ by institutional funding source (public vs. private or research activity level (research vs. non-research. This suggests that the concerns about reduced selectivity among physiotherapy programs, specifically the types that are experiencing the largest proliferation, appear less warranted.

  16. A Model International Partnership for Community-based Research on Vaccine-preventable Diseases: the Kamphaeng Phet-AFRIMS Virology Research Unit (KAVRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Medical Units in Kuala Lumpur Malaya and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) in Bangkok; 2013. Thailand. 5 February 1987...particularly in the military populations , rates of hepatitis A disease have dropped with the use of hepatitis A vaccine. Studies of the...patients. Because the hospital is he principal focus for medical care in the province, it is well suited o serve as the headquarters for population -based

  17. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  18. International topical meeting on research reactor fuel management (RRFM) - United States foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) acceptance program: 2010 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.; Taylor, J.L.; Niehus, M.T.; Landers, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel, adopted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS) in May 1996, scheduled to expire May 12, 2016, to return research reactor fuel until May 12, 2019 to the U.S. is in its fourteenth year. This paper provides a brief update on the program, part of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and discusses program initiatives and future activities. The goal of the program continues to be recovery of U.S.-origin nuclear materials, which could otherwise be used in weapons, while assisting other countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology. The NNSA is seeking feedback from research reactor operators to help us understand ways to include eligible research reactors who have not yet participated in the program. (author)

  19. Priority research and management issues for the imperiled Great Basin of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom

    2009-01-01

    Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...

  20. US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: Looking toward the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Barbara J. Bentz; Christopher J. Fettig; Nancy Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Rick G. Kelsey; John E. Lundquist; Ann M. Lynch; Robert A. Progar; Steven J. Seybold

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles cause extensive tree mortality in coniferous forests of western North America and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems. Recently, elevated populations of bark beetles have been observed in all conifer forest types across the western United States. This has heightened public awareness of the issue and triggered legislation...

  1. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…

  2. Narrated Aspirations: A Critical Review of Selected Research Concerning Catholic Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Todd C.

    2006-01-01

    The dialectical tension between the sacred and the secular has fostered fascinating historical discussions concerning the Catholic university in the United States. Scholars such as James Turner and Philip Gleason have offered a host of narratives that provide a context for other scholars seeking to philosophically define the aspirations that will…

  3. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Victor

    2007-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies--1 on problem drinking and the…

  4. Background and Characteristics of Undocumented Hispanic Migrants to the United States: A Review of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Schnabel, Kathleen M.

    1983-01-01

    The population of undocumented Hispanic immigrants in the United States includes (1) a significant number of females; (2) a majority of labor force age (15-39); (3) Mexican migrants who are younger and comprise more males than other Latin American migrant groups; and (4) Central and South American migrants from higher social strata. (Author/MJL)

  5. Use of human specimens in research: the evolving United States regulatory, policy, and scientific landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Marianna J; Grizzle, William E

    2013-09-01

    The use of human specimens in research has contributed to significant scientific and medical advancements. However, the development of sophisticated whole genome and informatics technologies and the increase in specimen and data sharing have raised new questions about the identifiability of specimens and the protection of participants in human specimen research. In the US, new regulations and policies are being considered to address these changes. This review discusses the current and proposed regulations as they apply to specimen research, as well as relevant policy discussions. It summarizes the ways that researchers and other stakeholders can provide their input to these discussions and policy development efforts. Input from all the stakeholders in specimen research will be essential for the development of policies that facilitate such research while at the same time protecting the rights and welfare of research participants.

  6. Industry-funded dermatologic research within academia in the United States: fiscal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, I H

    1992-03-01

    Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these

  7. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000

  8. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

  9. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    OpenAIRE

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundQualitative research methods are increasingly used within trials to address broader research questions than quantitative methods can address alone. Qualitative methods enable health professionals, service users and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences when evaluating health care treatments, interventions or policies. They can influence trial design, allowing for a fuller engagement with research questions, aims and objectives and clarify the complexities of p...

  10. Disabling Knee Injury in the United States Army: Classification of Injury for Etiologic Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patnaik, P

    2000-01-01

    .... Army, and have substantial economic consequences in both direct and indirect costs. The lack of consistent, specific definitions of injuries results in misclassification bias and hinders etiologic research...

  11. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse Among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Victor

    2007-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons...

  12. Watersheds, ecoregions and hydrologic units: the appropriate use of each for research and environmental management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Glover; James Omernik; Robert Hughes; Glenn Griffith; Marc Weber

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that conditions at a point on a stream are highly dependent on conditions upgradient within the topographic watershed. The hydrologic unit (HU) system has provided a useful set of nationally consistent, hydrologically based polygons that has allowed for the generalization and tabulation of various conditions within the stream and its valley...

  13. A RESEARCH ON ACCIDENTS RISKS AND CAUSES IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Tanrıverdi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between the qualifications of neonatal intensive care units of hospitals (physical conditions, standard applications, employee qualifications and use of personal protective equipment and work related causes and risks, employee related causes and risks when occupational accidents occur. Accordingly, a survey was prepared and was made among 105 nurses working in 3 public and 3 private hospital's neonatal intensive care units, in the January of 2010. The survey consists of questions about the qualifications of neonatal intensive care units, work related causes and risks, and employee related causes and risks. From the regression analysis conducted, it has been found that confirmed hypotheses in several studies in the literature were not significant in this study. The sub-dimensions in which relationships has been found show that the improvement of the physical environment in workplace, the improvement of the employee qualifications and standard applications can reduce the rate of occupational accidents. According to the results of this study management should take care of the organizational factors besides to improvement of the physical environment in workplace, the improvement of the employee qualifications and standard applications.

  14. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-08-14

    Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research

  15. Report by the AERES on the unit: Unit of researches on neutron transport and radioactivity confinement in nuclear installations under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized in three departments: neutron transport and criticality (themes: numerical methods, maths and statistics related to the simulation of neutral particle propagation, nuclear data, uncertainty propagation and bias estimation, code qualification and associated experimental programs, neutron transport in reactors and fuel cycle, criticality accidents), radionuclide transfer in radioactive waste disposals (site identification strategy, hydro-mechanical phenomena affecting storage performance, physical-chemical evolution factors, storage modelling), and metrology and confinement of radioactive gases and aerosols. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented for each department in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  16. Turning health research into health promotion: a study of causality and 'critical insights' in a United Kingdom health campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social Movements and Educational Research: Toward a United Field of Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesz, Tricia; Korora, Aaron M.; Walkuski, Christy Burke; Foot, Rachel E.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational research addressing social movements appears to be growing rapidly but, with a few exceptions, this body of literature has remained largely isolated in pockets stretched across myriad fields of educational scholarship. Awareness and dialogue across researchers is limited because social movement-focused educational…

  18. Foreign-Born Women Faculty Work Roles and Productivity at Research Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…

  19. Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldern, Matthias V.

    Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

  20. United States Geological Survey uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Research is being conducted by the USGS for the NURE program in six fields: geochemistry and mineralogy, sedimentary environments, igneous and metamorphic environments, geophysical exploration techniques, U resource assessment, and Th resource assessment. Some FY 1979 research results are reported and discussed

  1. Survived so what? Identifying priorities for research with children and families post-paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joseph C; Hemingway, Pippa; Redsell, Sarah A

    2018-03-01

    The involvement of patients and the public in the development, implementation and evaluation of health care services and research is recognized to have tangible benefits in relation to effectiveness and credibility. However, despite >96% of children and young people surviving critical illness or injury, there is a paucity of published reports demonstrating their contribution to informing the priorities for aftercare services and outcomes research. We aimed to identify the service and research priorities for Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors with children and young people, their families and other stakeholders. We conducted a face-to-face, multiple-stakeholder consultation event, held in the Midlands (UK), to provide opportunities for experiences, views and priorities to be elicited. Data were gathered using write/draw and tell and focus group approaches. An inductive content analytical approach was used to categorize and conceptualize feedback. A total of 26 individuals attended the consultation exercise, including children and young people who were critical care survivors; their siblings; parents and carers; health professionals; academics; commissioners; and service managers. Consultation findings indicated that future services, interventions and research must be holistic and family-centred. Children and young people advisors reported priorities that focused on longer-term outcomes, whereas adult advisors identified priorities that mapped against the pathways of care. Specific priorities included developing and testing interventions that address unmet communication and information needs. Furthermore, initiatives to optimize the lives and longer-term functional and psycho-social outcomes of Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors were identified. This consultation exercise provides further evidence of the value of meaningful patient and public involvement in identifying the priorities for research and services for Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors

  2. Reflections on moral care when conducting qualitative research about suicide in the United States military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Marcela; Mancías, Saraí; LeFeber, Tirzah

    2017-09-01

    Critical suicidology (White, Marsh, Kral, & Morris, 2016 ) offers a critique of positivism as the mainstream rhetoric of scientific research. In this article, the authors add a critique to the moral detachment of scientific inquiry (Wilkinson & Kleinman, 2016 ) in suicidology. They provide a discussion at the intersection of theory and research when considering moral care of all stakeholders in the implementation of suicide research toward the development of more humanitarian policies and program alternatives. The authors reflect upon their experience of conducting an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Finlay, 2011 ) on suicide in the U.S. military.

  3. Stroke care: Experiences and clinical research in stroke units in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobindram Arjundas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: S troke is the second commonest cause of death in India with crude overall prevalence rate of 220 per 100,000. With an increasing aging population at risk, the stroke burden in India can be expected to reach epidemic proportions. Materials and Methods: The first protocol-based prospective studies, funded by private agencies was conducted in Madras Institute of Neurology in 1984-86. The results led to establishment of the first stroke unit in Tamil Nadu state, in the institute. The first all-India hospital-based studies in acute stroke was completed as INDIAN COOPERATIVE ACUTE STROKE STUDIES (ICASS I and ICASS II with WHO STEP ONE by members of the Indian Stroke Association between 2000-2005. This has generated very useful data for our country. Results: Mortality in 1984-86 was 40%. Stroke unit in the institute dropped it to 12%. About 10 years later, ICASS studies showed a further fall of mortality to 8%, which is the current international figure in the west. Morbidity pattern showed about half return to their original activities. But about one third are left totally disabled needing prolonged care, for which fiscal, social and rehab provisions have to be done on a national basis. Conclusions: The progress and success of care of Stroke in the last three decades, from treatment in medical and neurology wards to specialized stroke units is presented. The main risk factors are hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease across the country. Hypertension alone or with the other two diseases was present in 72% of cases. Prevention and treatment of these factors will reduce the stroke burden, mortality and morbidity of strokes. The Stroke-team concept can be extended to the smallest hospitals in our country.

  4. From questions to answers: Examining the role of pediatric surveillance units in eating disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Debra K; Madden, Sloane; Nicholls, Dasha; Mawjee, Karizma; Norris, Mark L

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) provide a unique model for the study of pediatric eating disorders (EDs). Australia, Britain, and Canada have surveillance programs that have generated valuable epidemiological and clinical data on early-onset eating disorders (EOED). The PSUs represent an important collaborative tool that has helped shape our understanding of EOEDs and offers potential to contribute to decisions regarding health resource allocation and public health policy. This paper reviews the role of PSUs as a unique model to study pediatric EDs and its success in translating the knowledge generated by these programs into improving the health of children and adolescents with EDs worldwide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Population Matters: Policy Brief -- Why the United States Should Fund International Demographic Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Why, some ask, should U.S. taxpayers underwrite the study of problems abroad when America has so many domestfc issues to tackle? How can research on foreign countries have any relevance to U.S. concerns?

  6. United States of America. Report 7 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, S.J.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term): Interrelationship of environmental salt concentration and concentration of dissolved radionuclides to the rate of accumulation of these nuclides by euryhaline teleosts. Objectives of this research are designed toward the definition of a function that will adequately described the rate of accumulation of selected radionuclides by euryhaline teleosts from littoral or estuarine environments. Concurrent studies are being made to determine the maximum concentration accumulated by these fish under conditions of chronic exposure to selected concentrations in the medium

  7. Mock-ups as "interactive laboratories": mixed methods research using inpatient unit room mock-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas; Myers, Donald; Villasante, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    To establish evidence-based design (EBD) guidelines for inpatient rooms at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Simulation allows clients, designers, and researchers to visualize how users might interact with a proposed design before actual construction of the design. This study used mock-ups as a simulation technique during a study of the VA inpatient room standards. The participants used the inpatient room mock-ups as "interactive laboratory" environments to maximize opportunities for participatory design, qualitative research, and quantitative research of project-specific EBD solutions. The research used questionnaires, scenarios, on-demand modifications, and observations to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions for inpatient room mock-ups. A total of 71 participants responded to a questionnaire administered across five mock-up work sessions. These 71 participants consisted of administrators, nurses, physicians, support staff, environment and maintenance staff, and patient and staff safety representatives from throughout the VA healthcare system. EBD solutions were tested, evaluated, and modified for each inpatient room type and were applicable to two or more of the inpatient room types. The latter included the location of patient beds and standard headwall position, technology and spaces for nurse charting activities, clearances (e.g., equipment, wheelchair, and bariatric patient), universal rooms, and patient and family amenities. Also, EBD solutions were tested, validated, and modified to the needs of each inpatient room. The mock-ups allowed researchers and designers to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions and strategies for the development of VA inpatient room standards. When used as a means for mixed-methods research, mock-ups can successfully integrate research and design during project-related work. EBD research using mock-ups not only addresses project- or organization-specific concerns, but it may contribute to the knowledge base of the

  8. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Management Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    1889s xiii 1988 - USAF - UES SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Air Force Office of Sientific Research Conducted by the Universal Energy...Strain 5th Edition," McGraw-Hill, 1975. 5. Rinehart, J.S. and Pearson, J., "Behavior of Metals Under Impulsive Loads," American Society for Metals...Neuron Like Circuits", Scientific American , pp. 104-114. (10] Caudill, M., "Neural Networks, Part I, II, III", AI Expert, December 1987, February 1988

  9. Unit of Analysis: Impact of Silverman and Solmon's Article on Field-Based Intervention Research in Physical Education in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Chen, Yung-Ju; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiuge; Li, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide…

  10. Quantifying the economic impact of government and charity funding of medical research on private research and development funding in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussex, Jon; Feng, Yan; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Pistollato, Michele; Hafner, Marco; Burridge, Peter; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-02-24

    Government- and charity-funded medical research and private sector research and development (R&D) are widely held to be complements. The only attempts to measure this complementarity so far have used data from the United States of America and are inevitably increasingly out of date. This study estimates the magnitude of the effect of government and charity biomedical and health research expenditure in the United Kingdom (UK), separately and in total, on subsequent private pharmaceutical sector R&D expenditure in the UK. The results for this study are obtained by fitting an econometric vector error correction model (VECM) to time series for biomedical and health R&D expenditure in the UK for ten disease areas (including 'other') for the government, charity and private sectors. The VECM model describes the relationship between public (i.e. government and charities combined) sector expenditure, private sector expenditure and global pharmaceutical sales as a combination of a long-term equilibrium and short-term movements. There is a statistically significant complementary relationship between public biomedical and health research expenditure and private pharmaceutical R&D expenditure. A 1% increase in public sector expenditure is associated in the best-fit model with a 0.81% increase in private sector expenditure. Sensitivity analysis produces a similar and statistically significant result with a slightly smaller positive elasticity of 0.68. Overall, every additional £1 of public research expenditure is associated with an additional £0.83-£1.07 of private sector R&D spend in the UK; 44% of that additional private sector expenditure occurs within 1 year, with the remainder accumulating over decades. This spillover effect implies a real annual rate of return (in terms of economic impact) to public biomedical and health research in the UK of 15-18%. When combined with previous estimates of the health gain that results from public medical research in cancer and

  11. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): A successful start to a national program in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin; Jung, Robin E.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Adams, Michael J.; Corn, P. Stephen; Dodd, C. Kenneth; Fellers, Gary M.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Walls, Susan C.; Fisher, Robert N.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, D. Earl

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  12. Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.

  13. Analyses of the transportation of spent research reactor fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. This effort represents the first comprehensive analytical evaluation of the risks of transporting high-, medium-, and low-enriched uranium spent research reactor fuel by both sea and land. Two separate shipment programs have been analyzed: the shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). In order to perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study

  14. The regulatory process, nuclear safety research and the fuel cycle in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.

    1996-01-01

    The main legislation governing the safety of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom is the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA) and the associated relevant statutory provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended). The HSWA sought to simplify and unify all industrial safety legislation and set in place the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) and its executive arm, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) regulates the nuclear activities on such sites through HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). Under the Nuclear Installations Act (NIA) no corporate body may use any site for the purpose of installing or operating any reactor, other than such a reactor comprised in a means of transport, or other prescribed installation unless the operator has been granted a nuclear site licence by the Health and Safety Executive. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities are examples of such prescribed installations. (J.P.N.)

  15. Validity of Research-Grade Actigraphy Unit for Measuring Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke-Tsung; Wang, Po-Ching

    2017-05-10

    This study was conducted in a free-living setting to investigate the measurement validity of a research-based actigraph for strolling and jogging, and to provide a reference for actual practice and research. Because inadequate physical activity (PA) or sedentary lifestyle has become the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, many countries have been vigorously promoting the concept of "active living", and the public has been investing greater effort into intensifying their PA. Although research-grade actigraphs have been widely applied to evaluate PA in routine environments, the measurement results may not accurately reflect the wearers' PA. Unlike most relevant research, which is conducted in well-controlled laboratory environments, the present study was implemented in the field to examine the sensitivity and convergent validity of the MicroMini Motionlogger ® Actigraph during strolling and jogging. The following results were revealed: (1) Although the exercise movement speed while jogging was significantly faster than that while strolling, the actigraph readings showed no significant difference between strolling and jogging; (2) The actigraph readings were (significantly or nonsignificantly) negatively correlated with metabolic heat and nonsignificantly correlated with movement speeds. Hence, the actigraph validity for measuring PA intensity while strolling and jogging remains debatable.

  16. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail: frajndli@net.ipen.br; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div.de Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail: perrotta@net.ipen.br; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail: maiorino@net.ipen.br; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail: ajsoares@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  17. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Drilling 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the second in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in drilling and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  18. Communication barriers to applying federal research in support of land management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright

    2007-01-01

    Barriers to effective communication between researchers and managers can ultimately result in barriers to the application of scientific knowledge and technology for land management. Both individual and organizational barriers are important in terms of how they affect the first three stages of the innovation-decision process: 1) knowledge, where an individual is exposed...

  19. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Exploration 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the first in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in exploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  20. History of Operations Research in the United States Army, Volume 1: 1942-1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-08

    Division also undertook operational sim- ulations of various air defense missiles, such as the Nike , Talos, and Hawk systems.349 Th e Strategy and...of ORO Work Program,” pp. 10, 13, Figure 12. 64As early as 1953, the advertisements for ORO employment in Th e Journal of the Operations Research

  1. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  2. Learning to Become Graduate Students: Japanese Women's Experience in the Research Unit in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of 16 interviews with women first-year master's students at two national engineering schools in Japan, this article examines the socialisation role of compulsory undergraduate research experience in Japanese women's decisions to pursue graduate education and choices of the programme. The findings suggest that research…

  3. United Kingdom. Report 3 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programmes: There are two current programmes, one in the Irish Sea (fission product distribution in coastal water environments) and one in the Blackwater Estuary - North Sea (effects of discharge of neutron activation radionuclides, e.g, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 54 Mn, on an estuarine environment)

  4. United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.

  5. Success in an Introductory Operations Research Course: A Case Study at the United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of a number of factors such as high school major, high school score, gender, Stat105, Maths I, Maths II grades, and grade point average (GPA) on students' academic performance in an introductory operations research (OR) course at the department of Business Administration--College of…

  6. Urban forestry research in the United State: the state of art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings include 15 papers presented during four group sessions at the IUFRO XXI World Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during August 2000. Six papers were presented during two sessions organized by IUFRO Research Group (RG) 6.01.00 'Forest recreation, landscape and nature conservation'. The first of session was titled 'Integration of...

  7. United States of America. Report 8 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.F.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Occurrence of radioactive materials in the environment with emphasis on potential exposure to people. A wide variety of substances that are most apt to transmit: radionuclides to man are (or have been) sampled and analysed. On the basis of these data, human intake of individual nuclides is estimated and the result transformed into estimates of dose

  8. Action Research as Professional Development: Its Role in Education Reform in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Conley; Dillon, Anna Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring the microsystem of teachers' experiences with education reform within the action research (AR) model for professional development (PD). Within the macrosystem of current major education reform in the UAE, it is timely to explore teachers' experiences of AR as PD to improve pedagogy. The process of engaging in…

  9. Analyses of the transportation of spent research reactor fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. Two separate shipment programs were analyzed. The shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). To perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. The risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials by all modes have been analyzed extensively. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study

  10. Validation of the "United Registries for Clinical Assessment and Research" (UR-CARE), a European online registry for clinical care and research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Gisbert, Javier P; Siegmund, Britta

    2018-01-01

    Background: The "United Registries for Clinical Assessment and Research" (UR-CARE) database is an initiative of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) to facilitate daily patient care and research studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we sought to validate the database...... by using fictional case histories of patients with IBD that were to be entered by observers of varying experience in IBD. Methods: A total of 19 observers entered 5 patient case histories into the database. After six weeks, all observers entered the same case histories again. For each case history, 20 key...... to the expected level of validity. Re-test reliability was assessed using McNemar's test. Results: For all case histories, the overall proportion of correctly entered items and their confidence intervals included the target of 90% [Case 1: 92% (88-94%); Case 2: 87% (83-91%); Case 3: 93% (90-95%); Case 4: 97% (94...

  11. Research needs and priorities for ruminant internal parasites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    The management-chemotherapy approach is currently the most applicable means of effectively and practically controlling parasites of ruminants. Knowledge of regional patterns for major ruminant parasites, especially seasonal transmission dynamics, promises to lead to major improvements in management-chemotherapy systems. This knowledge also provides the fundamental context for design of new integrated control strategies that include other approaches such as immunization, chemical and biological control, and the interaction of environmental, physiologic, and nutritional factors. Greatly needed is a change in the protracted government regulatory process that obviates the availability of new, more effective drugs until years after they are available in other developed nations and that creates a dearth of "minor species, minor use" antiparasitic compounds. It is necessary to recognize both the need for product safety and the realities of investment limitations in the pharmaceutical industry. Also needed are new formulations and better methods of mass treatment for inaccessible herds of ruminants that will allow flexibility in strategic treatment programs based on seasonal transmission and other factors. More reliable cost-benefit assessments, more sensitive diagnostic indicators, and better knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms of damage by parasites will assist greatly in identifying the economically important effects against which economical control programs can be targeted. The opportunities for development and evaluation of novel prophylactic, diagnostic, and management approaches for animal parasitism are close at hand if the spectacular advances in molecular biology, immunology, computer science, and ecologic methodologies are assimilated in present research efforts. Although the emphasis of this report is on applied research and identification of approaches for the immediate future, the importance of more basic research on animal parasites and discoveries in

  12. Hazardous waste landfill research: U. S. E. P. A. (United States Environmental Protection Agency) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1984-06-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full-scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the RCRA Guidance Documents. These documents will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of the work.

  13. Sectoral risk research about input-output structure of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao

    2018-02-01

    There exist rare researches about economic risk in sectoral level, which is significantly important for risk prewarning. This paper employed status coefficient to measure the symmetry of economic subnetwork, which is negatively correlated with sectoral risk. Then, we do empirical research in both cross section and time series dimensions. In cross section dimension, we study the correlation between sectoral status coefficient and sectoral volatility, earning rate and Sharpe ratio respectively in the year 2015. Next, in the perspective of time series, we first investigate the correlation change between sectoral status coefficient and annual total output from 1997 to 2015. Then, we divide the 71 sectors in America into agriculture, manufacturing, services and government, compare the trend terms of average sectoral status coefficients of the four industries and illustrate the causes behind it. We also find obvious abnormality in the sector of housing. At last, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the federal government.

  14. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Management Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    home institution or modify my plan. Governmental "red tape " Made it impossible to purchase the items within the 10 week research period. A small...of bone formation ( osteogenesis ). Z/.’ Histology and light microscopy were used to assay the cytological - effects. Labeling with the fluorochromes...tetracxcline, calcein, xylenol orange, and histomorphometry were used to assay the effects upon osteogenesi s. ve K The putative preosteoblast

  15. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqi Sheng; Lei Zhang; Hualong Xie; Changchun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to as...

  16. United Kingdom. Report 5 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauchline, J.

    1967-01-01

    Four research programmes are suggested: Physical/chemical states of radionuclides in sea water related to their absorption rates by marine organisms; Studies of sea-water/ fresh-water interphases; To discover effects of raising the levels of background radiation by small amounts over long periods; Special studies of neutron-induced radioisotopes of elements such as chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt,, zinc, antimony, beryllium and iodine

  17. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1984). Program Management Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Dept. of Ind. & Mgmt. Syst. Eng. University Park, PA 16802 (814) 863-2353 . Dr. John Erdei ee: Ph. D., Physics, 1983 Assistant Professor Specialty: Many...Louis Chow 8. Paavo Sepri 4. John Erdei 9. Richard Tankin 5. Dennis Flentge 10. Albert Tong AEI"SPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (Wright-Patterson Air...Associate 39 Characterization of Turbulence Dr. John E. Erdei Through Methods of Field Theory 40 Issues in High Throughput Dr. Adly T. Fa,. Signal

  18. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1983). Technical Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    with a physiological study of the respiratory rates of these animals. Gammarus is well suited to studies using small chamber, Warburg-like... consumption and filtering rate of Daphnia pulex after exposure to water soluble fractions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No.2 fuel oil, and coal tar creosote...Short Term Exposure and the Amphi pod, Gammarus Tigrinut Research Associate Dr. Donald L. Michelsen Dr. George K. Miner Dr. Don Mittleman Dr

  19. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D.; Channon, Keith M.; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Background Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country’s international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) a...

  20. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1984). Program Management Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    thank Drs. Von Gierke and Kaleps for suggesting this area of research, and acknowledge Capt Thomas Gardner for his many helpful 4iscussions. Finally, he...polyurethane foam as a desirable material. After the development of lumped parameter dynamic models independently by von Gierke , Kornhauser 8 and Payne,9...34Protein Metabo- lism", Animal Nutrition, 5th Edition, pp. 85-112 (1962). 28. Sclye, H., "The Diseases Of Adaptation," Recent Progress In Hormone

  1. Technical activities report for June 1953 physics unit - applied research sub-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, J.E.; Devenport, D.E.; Duvall, G.E.

    1953-07-03

    This report describes work within the applied research section of the physics group at Hanford during June 1953, both experimental and theoretical. It includes work on carbon 12 thermal neutron cross sections, tritium conversion efficiency, critical mass studies, fission cross sections of Pu-239 and U-235, studies of exponential piles and slug buckling, theoretical studies of lattice experiments to study neutron fluxes, and studies of radiation damage effects on thermal conductivity of graphite.

  2. Reflexivity and the "Acting Subject": Conceptualizing the Unit of Analysis in Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James A

    2016-07-06

    The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

    2011-03-01

    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program.

  4. Research of Coalbed Methane Development Well-Type Optimization Method Based on Unit Technical Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqun Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coalbed Methane (CBM is a high-quality unconventional energy resource. The successful development and utilization of a CBM resource needs to consider technical feasibility and economic viability. These factors are also necessary for the improvement of production safety in coal mines, reducing carbon emission, and optimizing energy structure. Because of its unique resource characteristics, surface drilling is the prevailing development approach all over the world. Directional and horizontal wells are generally the two major well-types for CBM development. Development well-type is an important factor affecting CBM efficient development, as it is a key factor in the process of the economic and effective development of CBM resource. In this paper, a method based on Unit Technical Cost (UTC will be constructed from the perspective of economic viability, and will be used for more simple and accurate optimization of CBM. This method is used for practical well-type optimization in two major CBM development basins in China, and the application results prove that this method is scientifically accurate and feasible.

  5. Research on Dynamic Facility Layout Problem of Manufacturing Unit Considering Human Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As many said, industry 4.0 is an epoch-making revolution which brought the manufacturing market much faster changes and severer competitions. As an important part of the manufacturing system, facility layout has direct impact on business benefit; at the same time, despite the intelligent factory, intelligent production has its own characteristics. However, there is one point on which industry and academia have basically formed a consensus: it is not true that industry 4.0 does not need human beings; on the contrary, human initiative plays an unabated role in the development of industry 4.0. This paper will focus on the dynamic facility layout of the manufacturing unit. Based on the system above and the traditional optimization model, a mathematic model is built to find the best solution combining safety, sustainability, high efficiency, and low cost. And penalty function with adaptive penalty factor and advanced artificial bee colony algorithm is used to solve the constrained model. In the end, by studying few cases, the model is proved to be effective in both efficiency improvement and the implementation of safe and comfort human-machine interaction.

  6. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  7. The millstone industry a summary of research on quarries and producers in the United States, Europe and elsewhere

    CERN Document Server

    Hockensmith, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Since prehistoric times, the process of cutting rock to make millstones has been one of the most important industries in the world. The first part of this book compiles information on the millstone industry in the United States, which dates between the mid-1600s and the mid-1900s. Primarily based on archival research and brief accounts published in geological and historical volumes, it focuses on conglomerate, granite, flint, quartzite, gneiss, and sandstone quarries in different regions and states. The second part focuses on the millstone quarrying industry in Europe and other areas.

  8. RINGOs. Research and Independent Non-governmental Organisations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    RINGOs are organizations engaged in independent research and analysis aimed at developing sound strategies to address both the causes and consequences of global climate change. They form a constituency in their own right to contribute to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in a parallel way to ENGOs (Environment), BINGOs (Business and Industry), LGMAs (Local governments and municipal authorities) and the IPOs (Indigenous peoples organizations). During the COP and SB meetings of the UNFCCC the RINGOs organize meetings to discuss the developments of the negotiations. RINGOs have also been represented at workshops organized by the UNFCCC Secretariat. RINGO activities are co-ordinated by a steering committee

  9. Three essays on productivity and research and development in United States investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Haru

    Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the

  10. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  11. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research unit for man radiation protection under the supervision of establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, whose activity is dedicated to man radiation protection, and is organized about four main themes: means to determine in any circumstances the dose received by a victim of an external irradiation or internal contamination, characterization of the biological effects ionizing radiations may create in a sane tissue, epidemiological approaches to the assessment of the exceeding risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation on different populations, and experimental toxicology for the identification of biological effects induced par long duration and low dose exposures to some radionuclides. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme: dosimetry, ionizing radiation pathology and experimental therapies, epidemiology of ionizing radiations, experimental and post-accidental radio-toxicology

  12. Public Health, Population Health, and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, B L; Chester, K G

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To survey advances in public and population health and epidemiology informatics over the past 18 months. Methods: We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public and population health informatics and published in MEDLINE or Web of Science between January 2015 and June 2016 where information technology or informatics was a primary subject or main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were presented using a thematic analysis based on the 2011 American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) Public Health Informatics Agenda tracks as a typology. Results: Results are given within the context developed by Dixon et al., (2015) and key themes from the 2011 AMIA Public Health Informatics Agenda. Advances are presented within a socio-technical infrastructure undergirded by a trained, competent public health workforce, systems development to meet the business needs of the practice field, and research that evaluates whether those needs are adequately met. The ability to support and grow the infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Conclusions: The fields of public health and population health informatics continue to grow, with the most notable developments focused on surveillance, workforce development, and linking to or providing clinical services, which encompassed population health informatics advances. Very few advances addressed the need to improve communication, coordination, and consistency with the field of informatics itself, as identified in the AMIA agenda. This will likely result in the persistence of the silos of public health information systems that currently exist. Future research activities need to aim toward a holistic approach of informatics across the enterprise. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  13. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Rowland, R. L., II; Draper, D. S.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Large sample volume 5000 ton multi-anvil presses have contributed to the exploration of deep Earth and planetary interiors, synthesis of ultra-hard and other novel materials, and serve as a sample complement to pressure and temperature regimes already attainable by diamond anvil cell experiments. However, no such facility exists in the Western Hemisphere. We are establishing an open user facility for the entire research community, with the unique capability of a 5000 ton multi-anvil and deformation press, HERA (High pressure Experimental Research Apparatus), supported by a host of extant co-located experimental and analytical laboratories and research staff. We offer wide range of complementary and/or preparatory experimental options. Any required synthesis of materials or follow up experiments can be carried out controlled atmosphere furnaces, piston cylinders, multi-anvil, or experimental impact apparatus. Additionally, our division houses two machine shops that would facilitate any modification or custom work necessary for development of CETUS, one for general fabrication and one located specifically within our experimental facilities. We also have a general sample preparation laboratory, specifically for experimental samples, that allows users to quickly and easily prepare samples for ebeam analyses and more. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this facility, such as experimental assembly design, module modifications, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives. We've built a cooperative network of 12 (and growing) collaborating institutions, including COMPRES. CETUS is a coordinated effort leveraging HERA with our extant experimental, analytical, and planetary process modelling instrumentation and expertise in order to create a comprehensive model of the origin and evolution of our solar system and beyond. We are looking to engage

  14. United States Air Force Academy, Department of Chemistry Research: AY 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Techni- cal Information Service. This research report has been reviewed and is approved...Taubenhaus and A.P. Johnson, Phytopathology , 7, 59 (1917). 2. H.N. Hansen, Science, 64, 525 (1926). 3. H.N. Hansen, Phytopathology , 19, 691 (1929). 4. H.N...Hansen, Phytopathology , 19, 1135 (1929). 5. A.M. Gorenz, A.C. Walker, and R.H. Larson, Phytopathology , 38, 381 (1948). 6. W.A. Kreutzer, Phytopathology

  15. United Kingdom. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: 1.1. The biology of the Solway Firth in relation to the movement and accumulation of radioactive materials. 1.2. To determine the maximum capacity of the Solway Firth for the receipt of radioactive effluent. 1.3. The work has included study of the estuarine currents, using drifters; study of the relationship between deposition of radioactivity and soil by means of transects; studies of the nature and variation, with season and position in the estuary, of fish feeding; and studies of the flora and fauna of the estuary (including some minor studies of how they are affected by climatic changes)

  16. United States of America. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, R.E.

    1967-01-01

    Biology Department's aquatic research activities are primarily in freshwater radioecology and not in marine radioecology. The major reason for this lack of marine work is geographical location of our laboratory on the banks of the Columbia River, roughly 300 miles from the ocean. Recently, however, we have completed some preliminary work with 65 Zn metabolism in Anonyx sp., a marine benthic amphipod. Lake some inland laboratories, we have found that limited marine work can be done by hauling in sea water. We have been able to maintain the amphipods in a reasonably healthy state in our laboratory for about four weeks

  17. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    i * 64-12 I% I[ " REFERENCES 1. WITKIN , S. G., ൦MM Operable Prototype Diverter", AFATL-TR-84- 40, 19824. - ~ -2. Ranum, G. L., Evaluation of the...Researcher: Dr. Joel E. Michalek DATE : September 10, 1987 Contract No. • F49620-85-C-013 ..., "° I i- , • -- °-.P Statistical Methodology for...to do this work. I am especially grateful to Dr. Joel E. Michalek, chief of the Biometrics Branch of the Epidemiology Division for his energetic

  18. Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)

  19. Substance use disorders among immigrants in the United States: A research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Clark Goings, Trenette T; Córdova, David; Schwartz, Seth J

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need for the most current information available on the prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) among immigrants vis-à-vis that of individuals born in the United States (US). We report the prevalence of SUDs among immigrants from major world regions and top immigrant-sending countries, and assess key moderators (i.e., age, gender, family income, age of migration, time in US) of the relationship between immigrant status and SUD risk. The data source used for the present study is the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III, 2012-2013), a nationally representative survey of 36,309 civilian, non-institutionalized adults ages 18 and older in the US. Logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and SUD risk. Immigrants were found to be substantially less likely than US-born individuals to be diagnosed with a past-year or lifetime SUD, including alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opioid use disorders. These findings held across major world region and among immigrants from the top-ten immigrant sending nations, and across differences in age, gender, family income, age of migration, and time spent in the US. Results from the present study provide up-to-date and cogent evidence that immigrants use alcohol and drugs, and meet criteria for SUDs, at far lower rates than do US-born individuals. Moreover, we provide new evidence that the protective effect of nativity holds for immigrants from an array of global regions and sending countries, and across key demographic and migration-related differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis on Quaternary aeolian research in the unglaciated eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Litwin, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-06-01

    Late-middle and late Pleistocene, and Holocene, inland aeolian sand and loess blanket >90,000 km2 of the unglaciated eastern United States of America (USA). Deposits are most extensive in the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) and Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP), areas presently lacking significant aeolian activity. They provide evidence of paleoclimate intervals when wind erosion and deposition were dominant land-altering processes. This study synthesizes available data for aeolian sand deposits in the LMV, the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain (EGCP) and the ACP, and loess deposits in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP). Data indicate: (a) the most recent major aeolian activity occurred in response to and coincident with growth and decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS); (b) by ∼40 ka, aeolian processes greatly influenced landscape evolution in all three regions; (c) aeolian activity peaked in OIS2; (d) OIS3 and OIS2 aeolian records are in regional agreement with paleoecological records; and (e) limited aeolian activity occurred in the Holocene (EGCP and ACP). Paleoclimate and atmospheric-circulation models (PCMs/ACMs) for the last glacial maximum (LGM) show westerly winter winds for the unglaciated eastern USA, but do not resolve documented W and SW winds in the SEACP and WNW and N winds in the MACP. The minimum areal extent of aeolian deposits in the EGCP and ACP is ∼10,000 km2. For the LMV, it is >80,000 km2. Based on these estimates, published PCMs/ACMs likely underrepresent the areal extent of LGM aeolian activity, as well as the extent and complexity of climatic changes during this interval.

  1. Psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care: the first adolescent forensic psychiatric service in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahila, K; Kilkku, N; Kaltiala-Heino, R

    2004-04-01

    Finland does not have a history of providing forensic adolescent psychiatric units although the need for this kind of service has been established. According to legislation patients who are minors have to be treated separately from adults, however, this has not been possible in practice. Also, adolescent psychiatric wards have not always been able to admit the most severely ill patients, those with impulsive and aggressive behaviours, because of lack of staff resources, problems associated with protecting other vulnerable patients and a shortage of secure environments. A previous report demonstrated the significant increase in adolescent's involuntary treatment within adult psychiatric wards. Data from this report were acknowledged as an important starting point in the planning process for the psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care. This paper describes the background, development process, plan of action, tailor-made education programme and supporting evidence for the first Finnish adolescent forensic service opened in April 2003 in the Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital. The tool used for planning the unit's activities and staff education programme was the Balanced Score Card approach, the structure and development of which is also outlined within the paper.

  2. Religion and the public ethics of stem-cell research: Attitudes in Europe, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, Nick; Allansdottir, Agnes; Gaskell, George; Hampel, Jürgen; Jackson, Jonathan; Moldovan, Andreea; Priest, Susanna; Stares, Sally; Stoneman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We examine international public opinion towards stem-cell research during the period when the issue was at its most contentious. We draw upon representative sample surveys in Europe and North America, fielded in 2005 and find that the majority of people in Europe, Canada and the United States supported stem-cell research, providing it was tightly regulated, but that there were key differences between the geographical regions in the relative importance of different types of ethical position. In the U.S., moral acceptability was more influential as a driver of support for stem-cell research; in Europe the perceived benefit to society carried more weight; and in Canada the two were almost equally important. We also find that public opinion on stem-cell research was more strongly associated with religious convictions in the U.S. than in Canada and Europe, although many strongly religious citizens in all regions approved of stem-cell research. We conclude that if anything public opinion or 'public ethics' are likely to play an increasingly important role in framing policy and regulatory regimes for sensitive technologies in the future.

  3. Impact of Subspecialty Fellowship Training on Research Productivity Among Academic Plastic Surgery Faculty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors' aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P research fellowship or at least 2 subspecialty fellowships had increased academic productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery.

  4. Proposal for coordinated health research in PFAS-contaminated communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Thomas A; Blum, Arlene

    2017-11-14

    The drinking water of more than six million Americans in numerous communities has been found to contain highly fluorinated chemicals at concentrations of concern. Certain of these chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative, and associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and animal models. The possible health impacts of exposure to highly fluorinated chemicals are of great concern to communities whose water has been impacted. Community members want information, and are asking for biomonitoring, exposure pathway analysis, and health studies. Governmental agencies are striving to deal with these multiple concerns in the face of information and resource constraints. We propose the development of a high-level research strategy to maximize what can be learned about health effects of highly fluorinated chemicals and methods to reduce or eliminate exposure. We suggest coordinating the research across multiple communities for greater statistical power. If implemented, such a strategy could help to generate information and evidence integration to enable regulatory decision making and contribute to reducing future exposures.

  5. Undocumented immigration in the United States: some thoughts about research challenges, impacts and recent policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1988-01-01

    The author concludes that the US legalization program is not accomplishing as much of its goals as intended by the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. This can be attributed to restrictive Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) implementation regulations; the decentralized management structure of the INS, which allows local district directors considerable latitude in interpreting the legalization regulation; the different perceptions of the INS by different ethnic communities; the different levels of preparedness and cooperation by service providers which assist immigrants; and the different modes of entry and different levels of social incorporation of different ethnic groups in various parts of the country. Without a well-funded and effective immigrant data management system, the controversy surrounding numbers of immigrants will continue well beyond the end of the legalization program. INS' decision not to data-enter key variables from the legalization applications and INS' apparent failure to tap its own data resources are 2 problems contributing to the confusion. When all questions for the legalization applications are keypunched and become available, and the statutorily required survey research on a large statistically valid sample of the legalized is completed, the research community can hope to have more reliable information about the undocumented population.

  6. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, B E; Kharrazi, H; Lehmann, H P

    2015-08-13

    To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, "Monitor Health," "Diagnose & Investigate," and "Evaluate." Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice.

  7. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  8. Cultural Continuity as a Determinant of Indigenous Peoples’ Health: A Metasynthesis of Qualitative Research in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Auger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a strengths-based alternative to Western notions of enculturation and acculturation theory, cultural continuity describes the integration of people within their culture and the methods through which traditional knowledge is maintained and transmitted. Through reviewing relevant, original research with Indigenous Peoples in Canada and the United States, the purpose of this metasynthesis is to describe and interpret qualitative research relating to cultural continuity for Indigenous Peoples in North America. This metasynthesis was conducted through the selection, appraisal, and synthesis of 11 qualitative studies. Across the selected studies, five key themes arose: the connection between cultural continuity and health and well-being, conceptualizations of cultural continuity and connectedness, the role of knowledge transmission, journeys of cultural (discontinuity, and barriers to cultural continuity.

  9. Unite research with what citizens do for fun: "recreational monitoring" of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Pensa, Francesco; Neri, Patrizia; Orlandi, Antonio; Gagliardi, Maria Scola; Velardi, Angela; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Institutes often lack funds and manpower to perform large-scale biodiversity monitoring. Citizens can be involved, contributing to the collection of data, thus decreasing costs. Underwater research requires specialist skills and SCUBA certification, and it can be difficult to involve volunteers. The aim of this study was to involve large numbers of recreational divers in marine biodiversity monitoring for increasing the environmental education of the public and collecting data on the status of marine biodiversity. Here we show that thousands of recreational divers can be enrolled in a short time. Using specially formulated questionnaires, nonspecialist volunteers reported the presence of 61 marine taxa encountered during recreational dives, performed as regular sport dives. Validation trials were carried out to assess the accuracy and consistency of volunteer-recorded data, and these were compared to reference data collected by an experienced researcher. In the majority of trials (76%) volunteers performed with an accuracy and consistency of 50-80%, comparable to the performance of conservation volunteer divers on precise transects in other projects. The recruitment of recreational divers involved the main diving and tour operators in Italy, a popular scientific magazine, and mass media. During the four-year study, 3825 divers completed 18757 questionnaires, corresponding to 13539 diving hours. The volunteer-sightings-based index showed that in the monitored area the biodiversity status did not change significantly within the project time scale, but there was a significant negative correlation with latitude, suggesting improved quality in the southernmost areas. This trend could be related to the presence of stressors in the northern areas and has been supported by investigations performed by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. The greatest limitation with using volunteers to collect data was the uneven spatial distribution of samples. The benefits were the

  10. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges.To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs, for marine turtles globally.The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework--including maps and supporting metadata

  11. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Hurley, Brendan J; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2010-12-17

    Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework--including maps and supporting metadata--will be an

  12. United States of America. Report 3 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skauen, D.H.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals by marine organisms. The objective is to determine the concentration of certain stable and radioactive metals in certain organisms in Fishers' Island Sound and its Estuaries. This serves as a prelude to any studies in this area since any changes in the environment due to reactor pollution must be related to some pre-pollution studies. At present, studies have been conducted to determine gross beta activities on numerous marine organisms since 1959. Additional studies have been conducted on zinc-65 and total zinc levels by gamma spectroscopy and by wet chemical analysis. Future work will probably be in the area of heavy metal analysis with absorption spectrometry, with the hope of ultimately acquiring data by neutron activation analysis

  13. Cooperative earthquake research between the United States and the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, D.P.; Johnson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes cooperative research by scientists of the US and the People's Republic of China (PRC) which has resulted in important new findings concerning the fundamental characteristics of earthquakes and new insight into mitigating earthquake hazards. There have been over 35 projects cooperatively sponsored by the Earthquake Studies Protocol in the past 5 years. The projects are organized into seven annexes, including investigations in earthquake prediction, intraplate faults and earthquakes, earthquake engineering and hazards investigation, deep crustal structure, rock mechanics, seismology, and data exchange. Operational earthquake prediction experiments are currently being developed at two primary sites: western Yunnan Province near the town of Xiaguan, where there are several active faults, and the northeast China plain, where the devastating 1976 Tangshan earthquake occurred.

  14. Factors affecting ewe performance in a crossbred dairy sheep research flock in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T W; Berger, Y M; Holman, P W; Baldin, M; Burgett, R L; Thomas, D L

    2017-05-01

    The Spooner Agricultural Research Station operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America through 2016. The original nondairy ewe flock was "bred up" to a crossbred dairy flock through the use of rams and semen of the East Friesian (EF) and Lacaune (LA) dairy breeds. The objective of this study was to determine the environmental and nonadditive genetic effects that influence performance of dairy ewes. The traits analyzed were 180 d adjusted milk (180d MY), fat (180d FY), and protein (180d PY) yields, percentage fat (%F) and protein (%P) in milk, lactation average somatic cell score (LSCS), and number of lambs born per ewe lambing (NLB). The univariate repeatability models included the fixed effects of year of lambing, age, weaning system (except for the trait of NLB), individual breed composition, and individual retained heterosis along with the random additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects. Estimates of heritability were moderate for 180d MY (0.32 ± 0.04), 180d FY (0.26 ± 0.04), and 180d PY (0.29 ± 0.04), high for %F (0.54 ± 0.04) and %P (0.61 ± 0.04), and low for LSCS (0.12 ± 0.03) and NLB (0.08 ± 0.02). Ewes that reared their lambs had lower ( ewes that had their lambs removed shortly after parturition. Relative to nondairy breeding, EF and LA breeding had positive ( ewes were predicted to have lower ( ewes. Purebred LA ewes were predicted to have a higher ( ewes. Purebred EF ewes were expected to be more ( ewes. Individual retained heterosis had a favorable ( ewe performance are important for dairy sheep producers to make more informed husbandry and breeding decisions.

  15. The Trident Scholar Program: Year-Long Undergraduate Research Projects at the United States Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Stone, D. M.; Campbell, D. T.

    2000-05-01

    The Trident Scholar Program allows undergraduate students at the U.S. Naval Academy to carry out advanced-level research in their senior year. This program was begun in 1963 and has provided an important opportunity for the most elite students, with five to fifteen students out of a class of a thousand participating each year. The program gives students the opportunity to explore all aspects of scientific research. First, the prospective scholar must write a proposal for the project. The student defends the proposal in front of two committees: a division-level committee as well as an academy-wide committee. Finally, the project must gain approval from the Academic Dean and Provost. Once approved, the Trident Scholar may be awarded a small budget and is released from some course credits. In addition, the academy-wide committee makes on-sight inspections midyear. At the end of the year, each Trident Scholar must write a professional-quality paper, create a display presentation and give an oral presentation to the whole Academy. With these goals in mind, MIDN Campbell decided to pursue a hands-on project using the newly renovated observatory. He found a project that was both scientifically interesting and doable on a short timescale. An Earth impact with an asteroid has potentially devastating consequences. In order to avoid global destruction, astronomers have been attempting to map out the orbits of all possibly hazardous Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) for the past two decades. Although there are a number of astronomers devoted to discovering new NEAs, there are very few who are tracking these discoveries, therefore many recently identified NEAs are routinely lost. Therefore, a Trident Scholar Project tracking NEAs is both a service to the astronomy community as well as an important experience for the student. MIDN Campbell completed his scientific goals, and along the way he improved the observatory at the U. S. Naval Academy. Most importantly, this experience has

  16. AIDS prevention research in Chile and implications for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, L H; Mullin, M

    1996-01-01

    Chile holds interest for researchers due to the relatively low but increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and existence of an extensive infrastructure for implementing an affordable acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy. To facilitate the development of a pragmatic, affordable AIDS intervention plan for Chile, the following data sources were reviewed: mandatory case reporting data collected by the Chilean Ministry of Health, findings of the Chilean version of the World Health Organization AIDS general population survey, studies of the validity of the official HIV transmission classification system used for national planning purposes, interviews with people with AIDS, and a study of HIV testing in Santiago's health care system. By June 1994, 1016 cases of AIDS had been reported and 1627 people had been identified as HIV-positive. 93% of those with AIDS were men; homosexual/bisexual transmission accounted for 66.2% of cases and heterosexual transmission another 19.4%. In-depth interviews with AIDS patients revealed they were a well-defined population subgroup with few linkages to other sectors. This finding calls into question the current government strategy of broad-based mass media campaigns. Preferable would be campaigns that target homosexual men. A strength of the Chilean primary health care system is its effective utilization of nurses. Nurses manage about 1/3 of clinic visits, with no input from physicians, and their involvement in AIDS prevention should be strengthened.

  17. Strategic Academic Unit as a Synergy between Education, Research and Innovations and Its Position in Knowledge Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryakhin, A.; Tikhomirov, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The strategic goal of MEPhI is to become a global leader in education, science and innovations. Influence of the world development and current trends imply flexibility of the university to respond to today’s challenges and ability to introduce new forms and organizational structures for effective and efficient education. Strategic Academic Unit (SAE) is a new academic and scientific entity engaging nuclear industry partners in processes related to knowledge breeding, handling, and transfer through education and experience. The new SAE is titled as Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering (INPhE). SAE comprises objects belonging to three kinds or classes: education, research, and innovations. Education objects are education programs, teachers, students. Research objects are scientific teams and related mega-science laboratories working for fundamental and applied research. Innovations are typically knowledge assets created in research groups together with industrial partners and customers, recognized by the market, and used by all involved players for the next generations in the knowledge breeding chains. The key elements representing capacity of the SAE and maturity of the university are knowledge assets which are outputs of the intellectual activity and intellectual property itself, that they create. (author

  18. The impact of clinical research activities on communities in rural Africa: the development of the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (CRUN) in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Tahita, Marc Christian; Traore, Maminata; Bihoun, Biébo; Guiraud, Issa; Kpoda, Hervé; Rouamba, Jérémi; Ouédraogo, Sayouba; Lompo, Palpouguini; Yara, Sandrine; Kabore, William; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Robert Tinga; Binka, Fred N; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2014-03-22

    The opportunities for developing new drugs and vaccines for malaria control look brighter now than ten years ago. However, there are few places in sub-Saharan Africa with the necessary infrastructure and expertise to support such research in compliance to international standards of clinical research (ICH-GCP). The Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (CRUN) was founded in 2008 to provide a much-needed GCP-compliant clinical trial platform for an imminent large-scale Phase 3 malaria vaccine trial. A dynamic approach was used that entailed developing the required infrastructure and human resources, while engaging local communities in the process as key stakeholders. This provided a better understanding and ownership of the research activities by the local population. Within five years (2008-2013), the CRUN set up a fully and well-equipped GCP-compliant clinical trial research facility, which enabled to attract 25 grants. The research team grew from ten health workers prior to 2008 to 254 in 2013. A Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), which covers a total population of about 60,000 people in 24 villages was set up in the district. The local community contributed to the development of the facility through the leadership of the king and the mayor of Nanoro. As a result of their active advocacy, the government extended the national electrical grid to the new research center, and later to the entire village. This produced a positive impact on the community's quality of life. The quality of health care improved substantially, due to the creation of more elaborate clinical laboratory services and the acquisition of state-of-the-art equipment. Involving the community in the key steps of establishing the centre provided the foundation for what was to become the CRUN success story. This experience demonstrates that when clinical trials research sites are carefully developed and implemented, they can have a positive and powerful impact on local communities in

  19. Incentives for orphan drug research and development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Monguio Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orphan Drug Act (1983 established several incentives to encourage the development of orphan drugs (ODs to treat rare diseases and conditions. This study analyzed the characteristics of OD designations, approvals, sponsors, and evaluated the effective patent and market exclusivity life of orphan new molecular entities (NMEs approved in the US between 1983 and 2007. Methods Primary data sources were the FDA Orange Book, the FDA Office of Orphan Drugs Development, and the US Patent and Trademark Office. Data included all orphan designations and approvals listed by the FDA and all NMEs approved by the FDA during the study period. Results The FDA listed 1,793 orphan designations and 322 approvals between 1983 and 2007. Cancer was the main group of diseases targeted for orphan approvals. Eighty-three companies concentrated 67.7% of the total orphan NMEs approvals. The average time from orphan designation to FDA approval was 4.0 ± 3.3 years (mean ± standard deviation. The average maximum effective patent and market exclusivity life was 11.7 ± 5.0 years for orphan NME. OD market exclusivity increased the average maximum effective patent and market exclusivity life of ODs by 0.8 years. Conclusion Public programs, federal regulations, and policies support orphan drugs R&D. Grants, research design support, FDA fee waivers, tax incentives, and orphan drug market exclusivity are the main incentives for orphan drug R&D. Although the 7-year orphan drug market exclusivity provision had a positive yet relatively modest overall effect on effective patent and market exclusivity life, economic incentives and public support mechanisms provide a platform for continued orphan drug development for a highly specialized market.

  20. Incentives for orphan drug research and development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Szeinbach, Sheryl L; Visaria, Jay

    2008-12-16

    The Orphan Drug Act (1983) established several incentives to encourage the development of orphan drugs (ODs) to treat rare diseases and conditions. This study analyzed the characteristics of OD designations, approvals, sponsors, and evaluated the effective patent and market exclusivity life of orphan new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in the US between 1983 and 2007. Primary data sources were the FDA Orange Book, the FDA Office of Orphan Drugs Development, and the US Patent and Trademark Office. Data included all orphan designations and approvals listed by the FDA and all NMEs approved by the FDA during the study period. The FDA listed 1,793 orphan designations and 322 approvals between 1983 and 2007. Cancer was the main group of diseases targeted for orphan approvals. Eighty-three companies concentrated 67.7% of the total orphan NMEs approvals. The average time from orphan designation to FDA approval was 4.0 +/- 3.3 years (mean +/- standard deviation). The average maximum effective patent and market exclusivity life was 11.7 +/- 5.0 years for orphan NME. OD market exclusivity increased the average maximum effective patent and market exclusivity life of ODs by 0.8 years. Public programs, federal regulations, and policies support orphan drugs R&D. Grants, research design support, FDA fee waivers, tax incentives, and orphan drug market exclusivity are the main incentives for orphan drug R&D. Although the 7-year orphan drug market exclusivity provision had a positive yet relatively modest overall effect on effective patent and market exclusivity life, economic incentives and public support mechanisms provide a platform for continued orphan drug development for a highly specialized market.

  1. Advanced competencies mapping of critical care nursing: a qualitative research in two Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Emanuela; Mori, Marina; Barbui, Valentina; Sarli, Leopoldo

    2017-07-18

    Nowadays, in Italy, the nursing profession has suffered important changes in response to the needs of citizens' health and to improve the quality of the health service in the country.  At the basis of this development there is an increase of the nurses' knowledge, competencies and responsibilities. Currently, the presence of nurses who have followed post-basic training paths, and the subsequent acquisition of advanced clinical knowledge and specializations, has made it essential for the presence of competencies mappings for each specialty, also to differentiate them from general care nurses. The objective is to get a mapping of nurse's individual competencies working in critical care, to analyze the context of the Parma Hospital and comparing it with the Lebanon Heart Hospital in Lebanon. The survey has been done through a series of interviews involving some of the hospital staff, in order to collect opinions about the ICU nurses' competencies. What emerged from the data allowed us to get a list of important abilities, competencies, character traits and  intensive care nurse activities. Italians and Lebanese nurses appear to be prepared from a technical point of view, with a desire for improvement through specializations, masters and enabling courses in advanced health maneuvers. By respondents nurses can seize a strong desire for professional improvement. At the end of our research we were able to draw a list of different individual competencies, behavioral and moral characteristics. The nurse figure has a high potential and large professional improvement prospects, if more taken into account by the health system.

  2. Review of extended burnup research, development and implementation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the results to date of the various research and development projects on burnup extension of LWR fuel being sponsored by the author's organizations. These projects include a large number of test assembly irradiations in power reactors, both of current-design fuel and of several advanced designs. The burnups attained to date are tabulated and the status of postirradiation examination of these assemblies is reviewed. Current U.S. thinking on the implications of these results on possible fuel life limiting phenomena is presented, together with discussion and prioritization of further work to be done. The further work under discussion includes, in addition to other advanced designs and life limiting effects, economic studies to determine optimum burnups under present and projected future cost structures and the design of desirable extended burnup fuel cycles for power reactors. These include low leakage fuel management, improved burnable absorbers to control power distributions, extended cycle lengths, and practical transitions toward extended burnup. Results of recent studies on the impacts of extended burnup on the external fuel cycle operations of fuel fabrication, fresh fuel storage, spent fuel storage, and spent fuel transportation are briefly reviewed. The majority of U.S. utilities have already made positive decisions to implement at least a first step of burnup extension in their operating reactors. The results of a recent survey of such implementation are presented, with estimates of percentage of reactors going to burnup extension and of average and maximum increases in burnups now committed. The discussion of these results includes review of various utility motivations, both for restraint and for pressing forward with burnup extension. A summary of burnup extensions already achieved is also included. (author)

  3. Public Health System Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States (2009-2015): Actionable Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Bernard, Dottie; Klein, Noah; James, Lyndon P; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research. Search Methods and Selection Criteria. We reviewed and included the titles and abstracts of 1584 articles derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and gray literature databases that focused on the organizational or financial aspects of public health emergency preparedness activities and were grounded on empirical studies. We included 156 articles. We appraised the quality of the studies according to the study design. We identified themes during article analysis and summarized overall findings by theme. We determined level of confidence in the findings with the GRADE-CERQual tool. Thirty-one studies provided evidence on how to enhance the usefulness of training. Results demonstrated the utility of drills and exercises to enhance decision-making capabilities and coordination across organizations, the benefit of cross-sector partnerships for successfully implementing training activities, and the value of integrating evaluation methods to support training improvement efforts. Thirty-six studies provided evidence on how to improve timely communications. Results supported the use of communication strategies that address differences in access to information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices across segments of the population as well as evidence on specific

  4. Gender-Based Violence Against Transgender People in the United States: A Call for Research and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Poteat, Tonia C; Malik, Mannat; Glass, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person's will and that results from power inequalities based on gender roles. Most global estimates of GBV implicitly refer only to the experiences of cisgender, heterosexually identified women, which often comes at the exclusion of transgender and gender nonconforming (trans) populations. Those who perpetrate violence against trans populations often target gender nonconformity, gender expression or identity, and perceived sexual orientation and thus these forms of violence should be considered within broader discussions of GBV. Nascent epidemiologic research suggests a high burden of GBV among trans populations, with an estimated prevalence that ranges from 7% to 89% among trans populations and subpopulations. Further, 165 trans persons have been reported murdered in the United States between 2008 and 2016. GBV is associated with multiple poor health outcomes and has been broadly posited as a component of syndemics, a term used to describe an interaction of diseases with underlying social forces, concomitant with limited prevention and response programs. The interaction of social stigma, inadequate laws, and punitive policies as well as a lack of effective GBV programs limits access to and use of GBV prevention and response programs among trans populations. This commentary summarizes the current body of research on GBV among trans populations and highlights areas for future research, intervention, and policy.

  5. A Research-Informed Instructional Unit to Teach the Nature of Science to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the foundations and process of design of a research-informed instructional unit aimed for pre-service science teacher education. The unit covers some key ideas on the nature of science (around methodology, theory change, scientific inference and explanation, values, gender issues) anchoring them in a well-known episode from the history of science—the ‘discovery’ of radium by the Curies. Such episode is mainly examined as reconstructed in the 1997 French commercial film ‘Les Palmes de Monsieur Schutz’. Pre-service science teachers are required to solve three tasks, individually and in small groups; those tasks are respectively centred around: (1) the distinction between ‘discovering’ and ‘inventing’; (2) scientific modelling via abduction; and (3) the extended hagiographic treatment of the figure of Madame Curie. Plenary debates around the tasks aim at acquainting pre-service science teachers with some powerful concepts of twentieth century philosophy of science.

  6. Successful aging in the United States and China: a theoretical basis to guide nursing research, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong; Ling, Jiying; McCarthy, Valerie Lander

    2015-03-01

    Successful aging is gaining increasing attention given the growth in the older adult population. Criteria and definitions within multiple disciplines vary greatly in Western literature, with no consensus on its meaning. Sociocultural, economic, and political differences between the Western view of successful aging and its view in China add to the confusion. Similarities and differences in the meaning of successful aging in the United States and China are examined, and potential for a common definition useful to nursing in both countries is explored. Using concept analysis, shared criteria for successful aging were the following: decreased incidence of disease and disability, life satisfaction, meaning and purpose in life, and ability to cope effectively to achieve goals based on personal values and priorities. A comprehensive, multidimensional definition of successful aging for nursing and a midrange nursing theory of successful aging were identified that may be useful to guide nursing research, practice, and policy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Heterogeneity of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Control Community Size, Research Productivity, and Arboviral Diseases Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Gabriel L

    2016-05-01

    Multiple factors lead to extensive variation in mosquito and mosquito-borne virus control programs throughout the United States. This variation is related to differences in budgets, number of personnel, operational activities targeting nuisance or vector species, integration of Geographical Information Systems, and the degree of research and development to improve management interventions through collaboration with academic institutions. To highlight this heterogeneity, the current study evaluates associations among the size of a mosquito control community, the research productivity, and the mosquito-borne virus human disease burden among states within the continental United States. I used the attendance at state mosquito and vector control meetings as a proxy for the size of the mosquito control community in each state. To judge research productivity, I used all peer-reviewed publications on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses using data originating in each state over a 5- and 20-yr period. Total neuroinvasive human disease cases caused by mosquito-borne viruses were aggregated for each state. These data were compared directly and after adjusting for differences in human population size for each state. Results revealed that mean meeting attendance was positively correlated with the number of publications in each state, but not after correcting for the size of the population in each state. Additionally, human disease cases were positively correlated with the number of publications in each state. Finally, mean meeting attendance and human disease cases were only marginally positively associated, and no correlation existed after correcting for human population size. These analyses indicated that the mosquito control community size, research productivity, and mosquito-borne viral human disease burden varied greatly among states. The mechanisms resulting in this variation were discussed and the consequences of this variation are important given the constantly

  8. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    against organisms such as barnacles, tubeworms, algae , hydroids, sponges and bac- teria (Dyckman et al., 1973). The polymers containing trialky- ltin have...Publishers New York, Draize, J. H., (1959), "Dermal Toxicity", in Appraisal of the Safety of Chemicals in Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics , The Staff of the

  9. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Carcinomas 2/373 4/357 4/357 14/363b DUODENUM ADENOMA 1/310 5/303 7 / 3 0 9 a 5/308 HEMANGIOMA 5/387 9/371 5/368 22/371b HEMANGIOSARCOMA 1/387 4/371...JP-5 Unexposed 150 mg/m 3 750 mg/m3 Controls Exposed Exposed Liver: Fatty Change 34 30 32 Necrosis 5 2 0 Adenoma 1 4 0 Hemangiosarcoma 1 0 0 Kidney

  10. Making Social Work Count: A Curriculum Innovation to Teach Quantitative Research Methods and Statistical Analysis to Undergraduate Social Work Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teater, Barbra; Roy, Jessica; Carpenter, John; Forrester, Donald; Devaney, John; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Students in the United Kingdom (UK) are found to lack knowledge and skills in quantitative research methods. To address this gap, a quantitative research method and statistical analysis curriculum comprising 10 individual lessons was developed, piloted, and evaluated at two universities The evaluation found that BSW students' (N = 81)…

  11. Treatment Recommendations for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S.; Louis, David R.; Litaker, Mark S.; Minyé, Helena M.; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V.; Marshall, Don G.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Objectives were to: (1) quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown; and (2) test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are significantly associated with this likelihood. Methods Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In four clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. These responses were used to calculate a dentist-specific “Crown Factor” (CF; range 0–12). A higher score implies a higher likelihood to recommend a crown. Certain characteristics were tested for statistically significant associations with the CF. Results 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists responded (83%). Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, endodontically-treated, or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, Southwest practitioners, and practitioners with a balanced work load were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who use optical scanners for digital impressions. Conclusions There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. While consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied by type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Practical Implications Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture -- whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations -- prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. PMID:27492046

  12. Treatment recommendations for single-unit crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S; Louis, David R; Litaker, Mark S; Minyé, Helena M; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V; Marshall, Don G; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown and test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are associated significantly with this likelihood. Dentists in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In 4 clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. The authors used these responses to calculate a dentist-specific crown factor (range, 0-12). A higher score implied a higher likelihood of recommending a crown. The authors tested certain characteristics for statistically significant associations with the crown factor. A total of 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists (83%) responded. Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, or endodontically treated or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, practitioners in the Southwest, and practitioners with a balanced workload were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who used optical scanners for digital impressions. There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. Although consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied according to type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture-whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations-prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. External validation of the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) risk prediction model in critical care units in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Lone, Nazir I; Haddow, Catriona; MacGillivray, Moranne; Khan, Angela; Cook, Brian; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Risk prediction models are used in critical care for risk stratification, summarising and communicating risk, supporting clinical decision-making and benchmarking performance. However, they require validation before they can be used with confidence, ideally using independently collected data from a different source to that used to develop the model. The aim of this study was to validate the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) model using independently collected data from critical care units in Scotland. Data were extracted from the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group (SICSAG) database for the years 2007 to 2009. Recoding and mapping of variables was performed, as required, to apply the ICNARC model (2009 recalibration) to the SICSAG data using standard computer algorithms. The performance of the ICNARC model was assessed for discrimination, calibration and overall fit and compared with that of the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II model. There were 29,626 admissions to 24 adult, general critical care units in Scotland between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009. After exclusions, 23,269 admissions were included in the analysis. The ICNARC model outperformed APACHE II on measures of discrimination (c index 0.848 versus 0.806), calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic 18.8 versus 214) and overall fit (Brier's score 0.140 versus 0.157; Shapiro's R 0.652 versus 0.621). Model performance was consistent across the three years studied. The ICNARC model performed well when validated in an external population to that in which it was developed, using independently collected data.

  14. A systematic review of the relationship between acculturation and diet among Latinos in the United States: implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Klinger, Sylvia

    2008-08-01

    Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship between acculturation and diet by examining national, quantitative, and qualitative studies involving Latinos living in the United States. Studies of diet included those that examined dietary intake using one of several validated measures (eg, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, or dietary screener) and/or dietary behaviors (eg, away-from-home-eating and fat avoidance). Articles were identified through two independent searches yielding a final sample of 34 articles. Articles were abstracted by two independent reviewers and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Analyses examined the extent to which various measures of acculturation (ie, acculturation score, years in the United States, birthplace, generational status, and language use) were associated with macronutrient intake, micronutrient intake, and dietary behaviors. Several relationships were consistent irrespective of how acculturation was measured: no relationship with intake of dietary fat and percent energy from fat; the less vs more acculturated consumed more fruit, rice, beans, and less sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages. Additional observed relationships depended on the measure of acculturation used in the study. These findings suggest a differential influence of acculturation on diet, requiring greater specificity in our dietary interventions by acculturation status.

  15. Zero sequence blocking transformers for multi-pulse rectifier in aerospace applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    The power electronics technology plays an even more important role in the aerospace applications of More Electric Aircrafts (MEA). AutoTransformer Rectifier Units (ATRU) have been widely adopted in aircrafts due to its simplicity and reliability. In this paper, Zero Sequence Blocking Transformers...

  16. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM.

  17. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  18. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit report: UK nuclear decommissioning policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. These issues are addressed in this RWMAC report. (author)

  19. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO's engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O’Connor, Ben L.

    2014-10-21

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface–groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  1. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit Report: UK Nuclear Decommissioning Policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is an independent body which advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales, on civil radioactive waste management issues. Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. (author)

  2. Cancer survivorship research in Europe and the United States: where have we been, where are we going, and what can we learn from each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Julia H; Kent, Erin E; Forsythe, Laura P; Loge, Jon Håvard; Hjorth, Lars; Glaser, Adam; Mattioli, Vittorio; Fosså, Sophie D

    2013-06-01

    The growing number of cancer survivors worldwide has led to of the emergence of diverse survivorship movements in the United States and Europe. Understanding the evolution of cancer survivorship within the context of different political and health care systems is important for identifying the future steps that need to be taken and collaborations needed to promote research among and enhance the care of those living after cancer. The authors first review the history of survivorship internationally and important related events in both the United States and Europe. Lessons learned from survivorship research are then broadly discussed, followed by examination of the infrastructure needed to sustain and advance this work, including platforms for research, assessment tools, and vehicles for the dissemination of findings. Future perspectives concern the identification of collaborative opportunities for investigators in Europe and the United States to accelerate the pace of survivorship science going forward. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: current status, challenges, and priorities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Hisham; ElHady, Mohamed; Alcivar-Warren, Acacia; Allen, Standish; Al-Tobasei, Rafet; Bao, Lisui; Beck, Ben; Blackburn, Harvey; Bosworth, Brian; Buchanan, John; Chappell, Jesse; Daniels, William; Dong, Sheng; Dunham, Rex; Durland, Evan; Elaswad, Ahmed; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Gosh, Kamal; Guo, Ximing; Hackett, Perry; Hanson, Terry; Hedgecock, Dennis; Howard, Tiffany; Holland, Leigh; Jackson, Molly; Jin, Yulin; Khalil, Karim; Kocher, Thomas; Leeds, Tim; Li, Ning; Lindsey, Lauren; Liu, Shikai; Liu, Zhanjiang; Martin, Kyle; Novriadi, Romi; Odin, Ramjie; Palti, Yniv; Peatman, Eric; Proestou, Dina; Qin, Guyu; Reading, Benjamin; Rexroad, Caird; Roberts, Steven; Salem, Mohamed; Severin, Andrew; Shi, Huitong; Shoemaker, Craig; Stiles, Sheila; Tan, Suxu; Tang, Kathy F J; Thongda, Wilawan; Tiersch, Terrence; Tomasso, Joseph; Prabowo, Wendy Tri; Vallejo, Roger; van der Steen, Hein; Vo, Khoi; Waldbieser, Geoff; Wang, Hanping; Wang, Xiaozhu; Xiang, Jianhai; Yang, Yujia; Yant, Roger; Yuan, Zihao; Zeng, Qifan; Zhou, Tao

    2017-02-20

    marker-assisted selection, causal gene/mutation-assisted selection, genome selection, and genome editing using CRISPR and other technologies must be developed, demonstrated with applicability, and application to aquaculture industries.Major progress has been made in aquaculture genomics for dozens of fish and shellfish species including the development of genetic linkage maps, physical maps, microarrays, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, transcriptome databases and various stages of genome reference sequences. This paper provides a general review of the current status, challenges and future research needs of aquaculture genomics, genetics, and breeding, with a focus on major aquaculture species in the United States: catfish, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, tilapia, striped bass, oysters, and shrimp. While the overall research priorities and the practical goals are similar across various aquaculture species, the current status in each species should dictate the next priority areas within the species. This paper is an output of the USDA Workshop for Aquaculture Genomics, Genetics, and Breeding held in late March 2016 in Auburn, Alabama, with participants from all parts of the United States.

  4. Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Kussmaul, Michael; Casciani, Michael; Brown, Gregory; Wiser, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Future NASA missions could include establishing Lunar or Martian base camps, exploring Jupiters moons and travelling beyond where generating power from sunlight may be limited. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide a dependable power source for missions where inadequate sunlight or operational requirements make other power systems impractical. Over the past decade, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting the development of RPSs. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) utilized a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). While flight development of the ASRG has been cancelled, much of the technology and hardware continued development and testing to guide future activities. Specifically, a controller for the convertor(s) is an integral part of a Stirling-based RPS. For the ASRG design, the controller maintains stable operation of the convertors, regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified direct current output voltage for the spacecraft, synchronizes the piston motion of the two convertors in order to minimize vibration as well as manage and maintain operation with a stable piston amplitude and hot end temperature. It not only provides power to the spacecraft but also must regulate convertor operation to avoid damage to internal components and maintain safe thermal conditions after fueling. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies has designed, developed and tested an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit (ACU) to support this effort. GRC used the ACU EDU as part of its non-nuclear representation of a RPS which also consists of a pair of Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), and associated support equipment to perform a test in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The RSIL was designed and built to evaluate hardware utilizing RPS technology. The RSIL provides insight into the electrical

  5. Policy across the Pond: British Researcher Talks about Professional Learning's Impact in the United Kingdom and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Just as in the United States, political changes in the United Kingdom and other nations affect education policy. Louise Stoll, professor at the London Centre for Leadership in Learning, Institute of Education, University of London, offers a different view on policy in these excerpts from a conversation with Tracy Crow, Learning Forward's associate…

  6. 22 CFR 63.6 - Assignment of United States Government employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.6 Assignment of United States... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of United States Government...

  7. Speaking the right language: the scientific method as a framework for a continuous quality improvement program within academic medical research compliance units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt B; Stewart, Douglas M; O'Hair, Kevin C; Gannon, William L; Briggs, Michael S; Barron, A Marie; Pointer, Judy; Larson, Richard S

    2008-10-01

    The authors developed a novel continuous quality improvement (CQI) process for academic biomedical research compliance administration. A challenge in developing a quality improvement program in a nonbusiness environment is that the terminology and processes are often foreign. Rather than training staff in an existing quality improvement process, the authors opted to develop a novel process based on the scientific method--a paradigm familiar to all team members. The CQI process included our research compliance units. Unit leaders identified problems in compliance administration where a resolution would have a positive impact and which could be resolved or improved with current resources. They then generated testable hypotheses about a change to standard practice expected to improve the problem, and they developed methods and metrics to assess the impact of the change. The CQI process was managed in a "peer review" environment. The program included processes to reduce the incidence of infections in animal colonies, decrease research protocol-approval times, improve compliance and protection of animal and human research subjects, and improve research protocol quality. This novel CQI approach is well suited to the needs and the unique processes of research compliance administration. Using the scientific method as the improvement paradigm fostered acceptance of the project by unit leaders and facilitated the development of specific improvement projects. These quality initiatives will allow us to improve support for investigators while ensuring that compliance standards continue to be met. We believe that our CQI process can readily be used in other academically based offices of research.

  8. Lansoprazole use and tuberculosis incidence in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink: A population based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Yates

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent in vitro and animal studies have found the proton pump inhibitor (PPI lansoprazole to be highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Omeprazole and pantoprazole have no activity. There is no evidence that, in clinical practice, lansoprazole can treat or prevent incident tuberculosis (TB disease.We studied a cohort of new users of lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink to determine whether lansoprazole users have a lower incidence of TB disease than omeprazole or pantoprazole users. Negative control outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI and herpes zoster were also studied. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounding by a wide range of factors. We identified 527,364 lansoprazole initiators and 923,500 omeprazole or pantoprazole initiators. Lansoprazole users had a lower rate of TB disease (n = 86; 10.0 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 8.1-12.4 than omeprazole or pantoprazole users (n = 193; 15.3 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 13.3-17.7, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 0.68 (0.52-0.89. No association was found with MI (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.08 or herpes zoster (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06. Limitations of this study are that we could not determine whether TB disease was due to reactivation of latent infection or a result of recent transmission, nor could we determine whether lansoprazole would have a beneficial effect if given to people presenting with TB disease.In this study, use of the commonly prescribed and cheaply available PPI lansoprazole was associated with reduced incidence of TB disease. Given the serious problem of drug resistance and the adverse side effect profiles of many TB drugs, further investigation of lansoprazole as a potential antituberculosis agent is warranted.

  9. Lansoprazole use and tuberculosis incidence in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink: A population based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Langan, Sinead; Thomas, Sara; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-11-01

    Recent in vitro and animal studies have found the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole to be highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Omeprazole and pantoprazole have no activity. There is no evidence that, in clinical practice, lansoprazole can treat or prevent incident tuberculosis (TB) disease. We studied a cohort of new users of lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink to determine whether lansoprazole users have a lower incidence of TB disease than omeprazole or pantoprazole users. Negative control outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and herpes zoster were also studied. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounding by a wide range of factors. We identified 527,364 lansoprazole initiators and 923,500 omeprazole or pantoprazole initiators. Lansoprazole users had a lower rate of TB disease (n = 86; 10.0 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 8.1-12.4) than omeprazole or pantoprazole users (n = 193; 15.3 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 13.3-17.7), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68 (0.52-0.89). No association was found with MI (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.08) or herpes zoster (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06). Limitations of this study are that we could not determine whether TB disease was due to reactivation of latent infection or a result of recent transmission, nor could we determine whether lansoprazole would have a beneficial effect if given to people presenting with TB disease. In this study, use of the commonly prescribed and cheaply available PPI lansoprazole was associated with reduced incidence of TB disease. Given the serious problem of drug resistance and the adverse side effect profiles of many TB drugs, further investigation of lansoprazole as a potential antituberculosis agent is warranted.

  10. Citation Impact Analysis of LIS Post-Graduate Course Reading Lists in the United State: Proposing a Methodology to Access Educational Impact of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Sadeghiani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to answer this question whether the course reading lists in online syllabuses can be used as a valuable source for research evaluation. The Research population included 8043 citations from 350 online syllabuses from departments of library and information science in the United State during 2000-2009.The results of correlation tests showed that there were significant and direct relationships between Scopus, ISI (WOS, Google Scholar and Google Book citations at article journals and books levels. The results indicated that the methodology applied in this study can be used as a new and applied approach to access the impact of research on education.

  11. Revised Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Activities At The Separations Process Research Unit Sites, Niskayuna, New York - DCN 0496-SR-06-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpeneau, Evan

    2011-01-01

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  12. REVISED FINAL REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT SITES, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK – DCN 0496-SR-06-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-10-10

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  13. Review and evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Research Program for fiscal year 1985. A report to the Congress of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This is the seventh report by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) in response to the Congressional requirement for an annual report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Reactor Safety Research Program. As previously requested by the Congress, the timing of this report has been adjusted to enable the ACRS to address the proposed budget for FY 1985 that has been submitted to the Congress by the President. Part I is a compilation of our comments and recommendations regarding the NRC Safety Research Program budget for FY 1985. It is intended to serve as an Executive Summary. Part II is divided into eight chapters, each of which represents a Decision Unit of the NRC research program. In each chapter, specific comments are included on the research involved in the Decision Unit, an assessment of priorities, and recommendations regarding new directions and levels of funding

  14. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  15. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  16. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting: A review of structure, governance, and measures of performance of organizations outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    Located in 23 countries, 40 forest-products research and development organizations outside the United States were reviewed in 2004 and 2005. The intent was to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered and their performance judged. Investing over $600 million annually, the 40 organizations employed 7,000 to 7,500 scientists...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-18

    Sep 18, 2015 ... Chile. 3.96. Iceland. 15.65. Canada. 14.62. New Zealand. 11.05. Canada. 1.2. Israel. 3.68. Ireland. 14.18. France. 13.52. Canada. 8.83. New Zealand. 1.13. SA private. 2.63. Chile. 14.08. OECD Average. 13.3. Slovenia. 8.75. SA private. 0.59. United Kingdom. 1.06. United Kingdom. 8.76. Chile. 11.21.

  18. Mapping the Field of Teacher Education Research: Methodology and Issues in a Research Capacity Building Initiative in Teacher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jean; Campbell, Anne; Hextall, Ian; Hulme, Moira; Jones, Marion; Mahony, Pat; Menter, Ian; Procter, Richard; Wall, Karl

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the first stages of the work of the Teacher Education Group (TEG) in building research capacity in teacher education research and identifies the potential of the model adopted for future European initiatives in the field. The TEG work is part of the second phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP), based…

  19. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... use research defined as life sciences research that, based on current understanding, can be reasonably... process of regular federal review of USG-funded or -conducted research with certain high- consequence.... Finally, and importantly, research that meets the definition of DURC often increases our understanding of...

  20. Validation of Surgical Intensive Care-Infection Registry: a medical informatics system for intensive care unit research, quality of care improvement, and daily patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Joseph F; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Kan, Justin A; Patel, Nilam P; Yowler, Charles J; Claridge, Jeffrey A

    2008-08-01

    We developed a prototype electronic clinical information system called the Surgical Intensive Care-Infection Registry (SIC-IR) to prospectively study infectious complications and monitor quality of care improvement programs in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to validate SIC-IR as a successful health information technology with an accurate clinical data repository. Using the DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success as a framework, we evaluated SIC-IR in a 3-month prospective crossover study of physician use in one of our two surgical and trauma intensive care units (SIC-IR unit versus non SIC-IR unit). Three simultaneous research methodologies were used: a user survey study, a pair of time-motion studies, and an accuracy study of SIC-IR's clinical data repository. The SIC-IR user survey results were positive for system reliability, graphic user interface, efficiency, and overall benefit to patient care. There was a significant decrease in prerounding time of nearly 4 minutes per patient on the SIC-IR unit compared with the non SIC-IR unit. The SIC-IR documentation and data archiving was accurate 74% to 100% of the time depending on the data entry method used. This accuracy was significantly improved compared with normal hand-written documentation on the non SIC-IR unit. SIC-IR proved to be a useful application both at individual user and organizational levels and will serve as an accurate tool to conduct prospective research and monitor quality of care improvement programs.

  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity in Pediatric Cancer between 2008 and 2014 in the United States: A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Pooja; Millard, Heather R; Thiel, Elizabeth; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Abraham, Allistair A; Auletta, Jeffery J; Boulad, Farid; Brown, Valerie I; Camitta, Bruce M; Chan, Ka Wah; Chaudhury, Sonali; Cowan, Morton J; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Gale, Robert Peter; Hale, Gregory; Kasow, Kimberly A; Keating, Amy K; Kitko, Carrie L; MacMillan, Margaret L; Olsson, Richard F; Page, Kristin M; Seber, Adriana; Smith, Angela R; Warwick, Anne B; Wirk, Baldeep; Mehta, Parinda A

    2017-08-01

    This Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research report describes the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with cancer, 4408 undergoing allogeneic (allo) and3076 undergoing autologous (auto) HSCT in the United States between 2008 and 2014. In both settings, there was a greater proportion of boys (n = 4327; 57%), children reports of transplant practices in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research concerning the evaluation of the connection forces in the joints of the sucker rod pumping units mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădoiu, D.; Petrescu, M. G.; Antonescu, N. N.; Toma, G.

    2018-01-01

    At present, the sucker rod pumping installations are the most used in the case of the wells in production, when an eruptive exploitation is not possible. The practice has demonstrated that an important role in increasing safety in the operation of the pumping units has the design of the various component bearings because of the extremely high values of the connection forces to which they are loaded. That is why it is necessary to establish as accurately as possible the values of these connecting forces. In the paper is analyzed the dynamics of a conventional pumping unit mechanism. The dynamic study which allows establishing the values of the connecting forces in the joints is performed within the Assur structural groups. The dynamic analysis was implemented into a computer program using Maple programming environment and finally it has been presented some simulation results in the case of a C-320D-256-100 pumping unit.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman, Turkey,3Department of Orthopedics and. Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 Istanbul, Turkey, 4Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Umraniye. Research and Education ...

  4. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT) module tests.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, United Kingdom visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests with Dr Joleen Pater, SCT (Manchester). Photo 02: PPARC Council Members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests. L.t to r.: Mrs Judith Scott, Chief Executive, British Computer Society, Prof. George Efstathiou, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, Prof. Martin Ward, Director X-Ray Astronomy, of Leicester, Prof. James Stirling, Director, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham and Prof. Brian Foster, University of Bristol.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research methodology module was reviewed as part of the overall revision of the undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum of ... Structuring the research methodology module using an EBP teaching framework prepares students to formulate a research question, effectively ... manage, and organise bibliographic citations.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... this program provided short-term and long-term research training to. US infectious disease fellows who would work on collaborative research projects with Kenyan trainees. Since the program began in. 1988, there have been 56 US trainees, and 13 of these continue to collaborate with Kenyan researchers.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... The epidemiology and treatment of femur fractures at a northern Tanzanian referral centre. Alexander Conor Hollis1, &, Samuel Robert Ebbs1, Faiton Ndesanjo Mandari2. 1College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom, 2Kilimanjaro ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... Methods: Data of patients diagnosed with otitis externa between January 2009 and. March 2013 were extracted from the recorded ... Demographic data (age, sex/gender), presenting symptoms and the ... In a study of by Rowland et al [2], in United Kingdom, referral of otitis externa to secondary care was ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... The United States Centers for Disease Control and prevention. (CDC) estimates that antibiotic ..... antibiotics occurred when they were applied in the management of common viral infections that do not need ... the drug supply chain, seasonality of diseases and the influence of the National Health Insurance ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... Conclusion: Paediatric cardio-thoracic services in Nigeria suffer from the problems of inadequate funding and manpower flight to better paying jobs. Government should invest in their people by introducing insurance schemes for cardiac patients. Training programmes for members of cardio-thoracic units in ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    27 sept. 2017 ... cardiac surgery and postoperative treatment in the post-operative intensive care unit in the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at the Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Sfax. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged 18 years and older who had undergone scheduled cardiac surgery and ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United. States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... gangrenous ileum (48/54, 89%) and gangrenous sigmoid colon (34/46, 74%), while resection and stoma was performed in 8 patients with gangrenous colon. Death occurred in 7 (11.5%) .... to the intensive care unit for continued resuscitation, with a planned second look laparotomy in 24-48 hours, but they ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: This study was conducted to identify the enzymatic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolated from intensive care units of 2 teaching hospitals (Charles Nicolle hospital of Tunis and University hospital of Annaba). Methods: Twenty seven non repetitive.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-08

    May 8, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs).However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly.

  17. Measurement of qualitative data, a trend in social research: The case of the school of accounting and administration, Cualiacan unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bernardo Medina-Castillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to study the problems of social research from the new trends and paradigms more widespread and accepted today. The development of research techniques and analysis in search of objective criteria, quantification and coherence in social research where quantitative research whose epistemological, interactionist and dialectical raise the launching of a process that takes into account more widely complex situations, contradictions, the dynamics of the processes and points of view of the social partners.

  18. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States experience a disproportionately high burden of harms from substance misuse. Research is therefore required to improve our understanding of substance use in Indigenous populations and provide evidence on strategies effective for reducing harmful use. A search of 13 electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2014 focusing on substance use and Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Relevant abstracts were classified as data or non-data based research. Data-based studies were further classified as measurement, descriptive or intervention and their trends examined by country and drug type. Intervention studies were classified by type and their evaluation designs classified using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. There was a statistically significant increase from 1993 to 2014 in the percentage of total publications that were data-based (P Indigenous drug and alcohol field are required. The dominance of descriptive research in the Indigenous drug and alcohol field is less than optimal for generating evidence to inform Indigenous drug and alcohol policy and programs. [Clifford A, Shakeshaft A. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:509-522]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, J.

    1960-01-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [fr

  20. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 63.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.7 Grants to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to consult...

  1. Social, technological, and research responses to potential erosion and sediment disasters in the western United States, with examples from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1985-01-01

    Examples from California are used to illustrate typical responses to erosion and debris flow disasters in the United States. Political institutions leave virtually all responsibility for disaster prevention to the lowest levels of government or to individuals. Three circumstances in which disasters occur are discussed: urbanized debris cones, urbanized unstable...

  2. "Social, technological, and research responses to potential erosion and sediment disasters in the western United States, with examples from California"

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1985-01-01

    Synopsis - Examples from California are used to illustrate typical responses to erosion and debris flow disasters the United States. Political institutions leave virtually all responsibility for disaster prevention to the lowest levels of government or to individuals. Three circumstances in which disasters occur are discussed: urbanized debris cones, urbanized unstable...

  3. Profiting from Education. Japan-United States International Educational Ventures in the 1980s. IIE Research Report Number Twenty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gail S.; Cummings, William K.

    The Institute of International Education outlines the forces behind the new wave of international cooperative ventures in higher education and the challenges they pose through a systematic focus on the Japan-United States transactions. Focus is placed on two prototypes: (1) U.S. accredited institutions setting up a cooperative venture in Japan to…

  4. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Dubé

    Full Text Available Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists.We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory.We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1 Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2 Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3 Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4 PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders.Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers

  5. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Taylor, Jeff; Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Dee, Lynda; Burton, Alasdair; Willenberg, Loreen; Rennie, Stuart; Skinner, Asheley; Tucker, Joseph D; Weiner, Bryan J; Greene, Sandra B

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory. We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1) Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2) Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3) Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4) PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders. Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers, clinicians

  6. The use of Global Positioning System units and ArcGIS Online to engage K-12 Students in Research Being Done in their Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, C. E.; Sparrow, E. B.; Clucas, T.

    2015-12-01

    Incorporating K-12 students in scientific research processes and opportunities in their communities is a great way to bridge the gap between research and education and to start building science research capacity at an early age. One goal of the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) Alaska Adapting to Changing Environments project is to engage the local community in the research as well as to share results with the people. By giving K-12 students Global Positioning System (GPS) units, and allowing them to collect and map their own data, they are being exposed to some of the research methods being used by scientists in the Alaska ACE project. This hands-on, minds-on method has been successfully used in formal education settings such as a Junior High School classroom in Nuiqsut, Alaska as well as in informal education settings such as summer camps in Barrow, Alaska and Kenai, Alaska. The students progress from mapping by hand to collecting location data with their GPS units and cameras, and imputing this information into ArcGIS Online to create map products. The data collected were from sites ranging from important places in the community to sites visited during summer camps, with students reflecting on data and site significance. Collecting data, using technology, and creating map products contribute to science skills and practices students need to conduct research of their own and to understand research being done around them. The goal of this education outreach implementation is to bring students closer to the research, understand the process of science, and have the students continue to collect data and contribute to research in their communities. Support provided for this work from the Alaska EPSCoR NSF Award #OIA-1208927 and the state of Alaska is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... 1Laboratoire de Biochimie-Biologie Moléculaire Unité de formation et de recherche (UFR), Santé Université Gaston Berger, Saint Louis,. Sénégal, 2Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie, CHU Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar, Sénégal, 3Laboratoire de Biochimie-Biologie Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine, de ...

  8. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-11-01

    263 Pathogenicity 266 Defensive Research 269 IX BRUCELLOSIS 276 General 276 Selection of Strain 277 Simulant.. m ^ -78 Nutrition ; 2S0...Safety Precautions *. sg^, Production of Inactivated Bovine Tissue Vaccines... 362 Production of Inactivated Egg-Cultivated Virus 365...Serrisc M » C •« e li t\\ a .. 0LU21L. liar Research Service Project # 3 Subject for Research: Brucellosis (Code "US") Location

  9. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  10. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  11. Host society acculturation and health practices and outcomes in the United States: public health policy and research implications worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Unger, Jennifer B

    2014-08-01

    The unprecedented ethnocultural diversity in the United States and other Western countries likely changes the social norms for various health practices in the host populations, thus impacting prevalence of such practices and leading to the need for modification of public health policies. However, application of host acculturation (HA) principles in the public health domain remains underdeveloped. We conducted a narrative review of theoretical and empirical information about the association between HA and health practices or outcomes, drawing on evidence from health-care services, complementary and alternative medicine, diet, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological well-being. Given the experience of different countries with large immigrant populations, future multidisciplinary studies are needed both to supply additional empirical evidence and to identify ubiquitous HA processes, and thus inform public health promotion initiatives in the United States and worldwide.

  12. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. ... Despite a wealth of research on youth, little research has been done on the sexual ..... Behavior, and Mental Health: a study of University Students in. Uganda.

  14. researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review, 7, (2), 2003, pp.149-161. RESEARCH REPORTS. Revisiting “insiders' and 'outsiders' as social researchers. Marlize Rabe .... use of knowledgeable fieldworkers is then examined by focussing on the work ... A study by Russell (1995:p.95–97) on the long-term effects of incestuous abuse.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-depth telephonic interviews were voice recorded and transcribed. Through an inductive ... Two research assistants conducted the research to ..... Assistant Nutritionist. 1.25. M. 30.5. Single. BSc Food Science and Technology. Dietitian. 6. M. 25.6. Single. BSc Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Dietitian. 1. M. 29.6. Single.

  17. Proceedings of the 11th United States-Japan natural resources panel for earthquake research, Napa Valley, California, November 16–18, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane; Pollitz, Fred

    2017-10-18

    The UJNR Panel on Earthquake Research promotes advanced research toward a more fundamental understanding of the earthquake process and hazard estimation. The Eleventh Joint meeting was extremely beneficial in furthering cooperation and deepening understanding of problems common to both Japan and the United States.The meeting included productive exchanges of information on approaches to systematic observation and modeling of earthquake processes. Regarding the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku and the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, the Panel recognizes that further efforts are necessary to achieve our common goal of reducing earthquake risk through close collaboration and focused discussions at the 12th UJNR meeting.

  18. A survey of working conditions within biomedical research in the United Kingdom [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Riddiford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent articles have presented a bleak view of career prospects in biomedical research in the US. Too many PhDs and postdocs are trained for too few research positions, creating a “holding-tank” of experienced senior postdocs who are unable to get a permanent position. Coupled with relatively low salaries and high levels of pressure to publish in top-tier academic journals, this has created a toxic environment that is perhaps responsible for a recently observed decline in biomedical postdocs in the US, the so-called “postdocalypse”. Methods: To address the gulf of information relating to working habits and attitudes of UK-based academic biomedical researchers, a link to an online survey was included in an article published in the Guardian newspaper. Survey data were collected between 21st March 2016 and 6th November 2016 and analysed to examine discrete profiles for three major career stages: PhD, postdoc and principal investigator. Results: Overall, the data presented here echo trends observed in the US: The 520 UK-based biomedical researchers responding to the survey reported feeling disillusioned with academic research, due to the low chance of getting a permanent position and the long hours required at the bench. Also like the US, large numbers of researchers at each distinct career stage are considering leaving biomedical research altogether. Conclusions: There are several systemic flaws in the academic scientific research machine – for example the continual overproduction of PhDs and the lack of stability in the early-mid stages of a research career - that are slowly being addressed in countries such as the US and Germany. These data suggest that similar flaws also exist in the UK, with a large proportion of respondents concerned about their future in research. To avoid lasting damage to the biomedical research agenda in the UK, addressing such concerns should be a major priority.

  19. Comparing research investment to United Kingdom institutions and published outputs for tuberculosis, HIV and malaria: a systematic analysis across 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Derrick, Gemma; Wurie, Fatima B; Meldrum, Jonathan; Kumari, Nina; Beattie, Benjamin; Counts, Christopher J; Atun, Rifat

    2015-11-04

    The "Unfinished Agenda" of infectious diseases is of great importance to policymakers and research funding agencies that require ongoing research evidence on their effective management. Journal publications help effectively share and disseminate research results to inform policy and practice. We assess research investments to United Kingdom institutions in HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, and analyse these by numbers of publications and citations and by disease and type of science. Information on infection-related research investments awarded to United Kingdom institutions across 1997-2010 were sourced from funding agencies and individually categorised by disease and type of science. Publications were sourced from the Scopus database via keyword searches and filtered to include only publications relating to human disease and containing a United Kingdom-based first and/or last author. Data were matched by disease and type of science categories. Investment (United Kingdom pounds) and publications were compared to generate an 'investment per publication' metric; similarly, an 'investment per citation' metric was also developed as a measure of the usefulness of research. Total research investment for all three diseases was £1.4 billion, and was greatest for HIV (£651.4 million), followed by malaria (£518.7 million) and tuberculosis (£239.1 million). There were 17,271 included publications, with 9,322 for HIV, 4,451 for malaria, and 3,498 for tuberculosis. HIV publications received the most citations (254,949), followed by malaria (148,559) and tuberculosis (100,244). According to UK pound per publication, tuberculosis (£50,691) appeared the most productive for investment, compared to HIV (£61,971) and malaria (£94,483). By type of science, public health research was most productive for HIV (£27,296) and tuberculosis (£22,273), while phase I-III trials were most productive for malaria (£60,491). According to UK pound per citation, tuberculosis (£1,797) was the

  20. Towards an Understanding of the Place of Ethics in School-Based Action Research in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Sue; Bowker, Anne

    2013-01-01

    As school-based action research has taken a higher profile in UK schools, the place of ethics warrants particular attention. This paper draws on evidence from a taught online Master of Education course collated via chat room discussion where 53 researching teachers were asked to explore policy within their own institution regarding school-based…

  1. Culturally Relevant Human Subjects Protection Training: A Case Study in Community-Engaged Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha

    2018-02-01

    Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.

  2. Driving forces of biomedical science education and research in state-of-the arts academic medical centres: the United States as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T A

    2011-06-01

    Basic science departments in academic medical centres are influenced by changes that are commonly directed at medical education and financial gain. Some of such changes may have been detrimental to or may have enhanced basic science education. They may have determined basic science research focus or basic science research methods. However, there is lack of research on the educational process in the basic sciences including training of PhD's while there is ample research on medical education pertaining to training of medical doctors. The author here identifies, from university websites and available literature, some forces that have driven teaching and research focus and methods in state-of-the-arts academic medical centres in recent times with a view of seeing through their possible influences on basic science education and research, using the United States of America as an example. The "forces" are: Changes in medical schools; Medical educational philosophies: problem based learning, evidence based medicine, cyberlearning and self-directed learning; Shifting impressions of the value of basic sciences in medical schools; Research trends in Basic Sciences: role of antivivisectionists, alternative experimentations, explosion of molecular and cell biology; Technological advancements; Commercialization of research; and Funding agencies. The author encourages African leaders in academia to pay attention to such forces as the leadership seeks to raise African Universities as centres of knowledge that have a major role in acquiring, preserving, imparting, and utilizing knowledge.

  3. Setting a research agenda for interprofessional education and collaborative practice in the context of United States health system reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara; Delaney, Connie; Pechacek, Judith; Cerra, Frank

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice (CP) have been prolific areas of inquiry exploring research questions mostly concerned with local program and project assessment. The actual sphere of influence of this research has been limited. Often discussed separately, this article places IPE and CP in the same conceptual space. The interface of these form a nexus where new knowledge creation may be facilitated. Rigorous research on IPE in relation to CP that is relevant to and framed by health system reform in the U.S. is the ultimate research goal of the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota. This paper describes the direction and scope for a focused and purposive IPECP research agenda linked to improvement in health outcomes, contextualized by health care reform in the U.S. that has provided a revitalizing energy for this area of inquiry. A research agenda articulates a focus, meaningful and robust questions, and a theory of change within which intervention outcomes are examined. Further, a research agenda identifies the practices the area of inquiry is interested in informing, and the types of study designs and analytic approaches amenable to carrying out the proposed work. PMID:26230379

  4. Bringing Community and Academic Scholars Together to Facilitate and Conduct Authentic Community Based Participatory Research: Project UNITED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C.; Fifolt, Matthew M.; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B.; Bissell, Kimberly L.; Lucky, Felecia L.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings. PMID:26703675

  5. Bringing Community and Academic Scholars Together to Facilitate and Conduct Authentic Community Based Participatory Research: Project UNITED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C; Fifolt, Matthew M; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B; Bissell, Kimberly L; Lucky, Felecia L; Higginbotham, John C

    2015-12-22

    Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Research Team in Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition, Mohammed V. University, Rabat, Morocco. Key words: Breast cancer, risk factor, case-control study. Received: 04/01/2016 - Accepted: 17/03/2016 - Published: 06/05/2016. Abstract.

  7. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their academic performance, capabilities and functionings. At a tertiary educational level ... Research indicates that academic stressors, living circumstances, working conditions and where students undertake leisure activities affect academic performance .... Insufficient sleep, mild exhaustion, poor eating habits and little ...

  9. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  10. Final report on research project: Soil liquefaction testing and evaluation for Kozloduy nuclear power plant units 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, S.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this study is the region of the channels of additional technical water supply of Kozloduy NPP, Units 5 and 6. This region is chosen because there are enough data for water saturated sands, necessary for the analysis, including data from cyclic triaxial tests and standard penetration tests. Three kinds of procedures for estimation of liquefaction potential of water saturated sands are used in the study. The results obtained by different procedures were compared, analyzed and conclusions drawn about the liquefaction potential of water saturated sands in the area of the channels of additional technical water supply

  11. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: Current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...

  12. Research on a Power Management System for Thermoelectric Generators to Drive Wireless Sensors on a Spindle Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  13. United States transuranium and uranium registries - 25 years of growth, research, and service. Annual report, April 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Russell, J.J.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.; Hunacek, M.M.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Registries originated in 1968 as the National Plutonium Registry with the name changed to the United States Transuranium Registry the following year to reflect a broader concern with the heavier actinides as well. Initially, the scientific effort of the USTR was directed towards study of the distribution and dose of plutonium and americium in occupationally exposed persons, and to assessment of the effects of exposure to the transuranium elements on health. This latter role was reassessed during the 1970`s when it was recognized that the biased cohort of the USTR was inappropriate for epidemiologic analysis. In 1978, the administratively separate but parallel United States Uranium Registry was created to carry out similar work among persons exposed to uranium and its decay products. A seven member scientific advisory committee provided guidance and scientific oversight. In 1992, the two Registries were administratively combined and transferred from the purview of a Department of Energy contractor to Washington State University under the provisions of a grant. Scientific results for the first twenty-five years of the Registries are summarized, including the 1985 publication of the analysis of the first whole body donor. Current scientific work in progress is summarized along with administrative activities for the period.

  14. Subjective control and health among Mexican-origin elders in Mexico and the United States: structural considerations in comparative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ronald J; Angel, Jacqueline L; Hill, Terrence D

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the joint impact of psychological and structural factors on Mexican and Mexican American elders' sense of personal control over important aspects of their lives and health in Mexico and the United States. We employ the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) and the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) to explore patterns of association among structural factors, personal characteristics, indicators of material and physical vulnerability, and expressed locus of control. The results suggest that an older individual's sense of personal control over important aspects of his or her life, including health, reflects real material and social resources in addition to individual predispositions. In Mexico, only the most privileged segment of the population has health insurance, and coverage increases one's sense of personal control. In the United States, on the other hand, Medicare guarantees basic coverage to the vast majority of Mexican Americans over 65, reducing its impact on one's sense of control. Psychological characteristics affect older individuals' sense of personal control over aspects of their health, but the effects are mediated by the economic and health services context in which they are expressed.

  15. Nonfermentative gram-negative microorganisms isolated from intensive care units and their resistance profiles in a training and research hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bayındır Bilman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic agents, which have been isolated in ICUs and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility in the first two years of our hospital. Methods: A total 368 strains (194 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 174 Acinetobacter baumannii that were considered as an infectious agent and isolated from different clinical samples of hospitalized patients in intensive care units between January 2011 and December 2012 were included in the study. Conventional methods and automatized system were used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates with according to guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standarts Institute (CLSI. Imipenem and meropenem resistance has been confirmed by the E test method and interpreted according to CLSI. Results: Resistance rates of P.aeruginosa strains were as follows: Meropenem 35%, imipenem 36%, cefepim 21%, ceftazidim and ciprofloxacin 29%, gentamicin 33%, piperacilin/tazobactam 35%, amikacin 37%. Resistance rates of A.baumannii strains were as follows: Meropenem 85%, imipenem 87%, amikacin 22%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 25%, gentamicin 46%, piperacilin/tazobactam 54%, ampicilin/sulbactam 59%, cefepim 64%, ciprofloxacin 71%, ceftazidim 83%. Conclusion: Increased carbapenem resistance in our ICUs demonstrates importance of antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antibiotic susceptibility tests should be surveyed continuously to avoid the spread of intensive care unit isolates carrying high level antibiotic resistance for better achievement of treatment regimens. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 391-396

  16. Research on a power management system for thermoelectric generators to drive wireless sensors on a spindle unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-16

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  17. United States transuranium and uranium registries - 25 years of growth, research, and service. Annual report, April 1992--September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Russell, J.J.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.; Hunacek, M.M.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Registries originated in 1968 as the National Plutonium Registry with the name changed to the United States Transuranium Registry the following year to reflect a broader concern with the heavier actinides as well. Initially, the scientific effort of the USTR was directed towards study of the distribution and dose of plutonium and americium in occupationally exposed persons, and to assessment of the effects of exposure to the transuranium elements on health. This latter role was reassessed during the 1970's when it was recognized that the biased cohort of the USTR was inappropriate for epidemiologic analysis. In 1978, the administratively separate but parallel United States Uranium Registry was created to carry out similar work among persons exposed to uranium and its decay products. A seven member scientific advisory committee provided guidance and scientific oversight. In 1992, the two Registries were administratively combined and transferred from the purview of a Department of Energy contractor to Washington State University under the provisions of a grant. Scientific results for the first twenty-five years of the Registries are summarized, including the 1985 publication of the analysis of the first whole body donor. Current scientific work in progress is summarized along with administrative activities for the period

  18. Research on a Power Management System for Thermoelectric Generators to Drive Wireless Sensors on a Spindle Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle. PMID:25033189

  19. Summer Research Program - 1997 Summer Faculty Research Program Volume 6 Arnold Engineering Development Center United States Air Force Academy Air Logistics Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Fracture Analysis of the F-5, 15%-Spar Bolt DR Devendra Kumar SAALC/LD 6- 16 CUNY-City College, New York, NY A Simple, Multiversion Concurrency Control...Program, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH. [3]AFGROW, Air Force Crack Propagation Analysis Program, Version 3.82 (1997) 15-8 A SIMPLE, MULTIVERSION ...Office of Scientific Research Boiling Air Force Base, DC and San Antonio Air Logistic Center August 1997 16-1 A SIMPLE, MULTIVERSION CONCURRENCY

  20. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; Artrip, D; Baller, B; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Carls, B; Chen, H; Deptuch, G; Epprecht, L; Dharmapalan, R; Foreman, W; Hahn, A; Johnson, M; Jones, B J P; Junk, T; Lang, K; Lockwitz, S; Marchionni, A; Mauger, C; Montanari, C; Mufson, S; Nessi, M; Back, H Olling; Petrillo, G; Pordes, S; Raaf, J; Rebel, B; Sinins, G; Soderberg, M; Spooner, N J C; Stancari, M; Strauss, T; Terao, K; Thorn, C; Tope, T; Toups, M; Urheim, J; Van de Water, R; Wang, H; Wasserman, R; Weber, M; Whittington, D; Yang, T

    2015-01-01

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: $i)$ Argon Purity and Cryogenics, $ii)$ TPC and High Voltage, $iii)$ Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, $iv)$ Scintillation Light Detection, $v)$ Calibration and Test Beams, and $vi)$ Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  1. [Epistemology in the intensive care unit-what is the purpose of a definition? : Paradigm shift in sepsis research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, P; Scherag, A; Coldewey, S M; Sponholz, C; Brunkhorst, F M; Bauer, M

    2017-08-01

    The adoption of the new sepsis definition in early 2016 introduced a new paradigm for the clinical picture of sepsis. Up until now, sepsis was defined as a systemic inflammatory reaction (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS) to an infection. Based on a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms, the focus of the new definition is no longer the inflammatory response, but rather the tissue damage and impairment of organ function which this induces. The paradigm thus moves away from the infection and the systemic inflammatory response, and toward that which makes sepsis so dangerous in terms of both disease dynamics and outcome: organ failure due to a dysregulated host response to an infection. This change of perspective or paradigm enables patients with an increased risk of developing sepsis to be recognized and treated earlier in clinical routine, even outside of the intensive care unit. The new definition also promotes development of new treatment strategies with improved ability to treat sepsis causally.

  2. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-04-21

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  3. Neutron research on condensed matter: a study of the facilities and scientific opportunities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An in-depth review of the present status and future potential of the applications of low-energy neutron scattering to research in the condensed-matter sciences, including physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy is presented. The study shows that neutron scattering technology has proven to be of enormous importance to research in the above areas and especially to those of solid-state physics and chemistry. The main emphasis is on the scattering of low-energy neutrons by condensed matter. Since the same type of neutron source facilities can be used for the study of radiation damage, this related topic has also been included

  4. Neutron research on condensed matter: a study of the facilities and scientific opportunities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    An in-depth review of the present status and future potential of the applications of low-energy neutron scattering to research in the condensed-matter sciences, including physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy is presented. The study shows that neutron scattering technology has proven to be of enormous importance to research in the above areas and especially to those of solid-state physics and chemistry. The main emphasis is on the scattering of low-energy neutrons by condensed matter. Since the same type of neutron source facilities can be used for the study of radiation damage, this related topic has also been included. (GHT)

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... national non-governmental organization (NGO) ”Arc en Ciel„. This. NGO, which is familiar with research activities, identified the MSM community leaders in the .... whom there is an emotional attachment) in both homosexual and heterosexual populations [14, 19]. Like other reports from. Cameroon [19] and ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-11

    Jan 11, 2012 ... 1MPH Programme, Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe, 2Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control,. Ministry ... Pan African Medical Journal. 2012; 11: ..... Mufuta Tshimanga: Had oversight of all the stages of the research and critically reviewed the final draft for.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... euthanasia were also queried. Data was analyzed using Epidata, SPSS 16.0 and Microsoft Excel. Results: Thirty-eight (97.4%) of thirty-nine institutions reported using animals for education and/or research. Thirty (76.9%) institutions reported using analgesics or anesthetics on a regular basis. Thirteen ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... skills through hands-on application of epidemiology to real public health issues. For the most part, residents carry out research projects in priority areas of the districts they are attached, often under direct supervision of the local or provincial health leaders [2]. In Africa, these programs formed a networking ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-21

    Mar 21, 2014 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research ... were intervention strategies for primary health care delivery at the district and community levels ..... to be a gap between policy formation and implementation as only immunization services are.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... food market) [10]. There are few studies that provide data on NCDs from Africa and these are mainly from South Africa [11]. In the same vein, research efforts in The .... males, in view of the relationships between obesity, physical inactivity and .... pronged intervention strategies-epidemiological surveillance,.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... 1Amref Health Africa, P.O Box 2773 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Kilimanjaro Reproductive Health Program, Moshi, Tanzania, 3Population Services. International, Nairobi .... testing, HIV testing history and HIV test results. ..... due to differences in the research designs, nature of population and sample size ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Methods. Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] was employed. Settings: The study was based on data from the midterm evaluation that was conducted between August-December 2012 involving ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study followed a qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews with full-time SA- or foreign-qualified specialists at. Kimberley Hospital ... average number of weekly hours spent on undergraduate student training ... The best place to learn is at the bedside; a student should see the patient, read up and ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the importance of the learning setting (curriculum context), a capability approach to learning (the process), and the production of expert generalists. (the outcome) .... including communication, learning transfer, teamwork, self-confidence, and reciprocal and effective practice.[6-8] Research also shows that PAL provides a.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Data were collected between February and March 2010 using a questionnaire, designed by the researcher. It comprised two sections; the ..... Bazant ES, Koenig MA, Fotso J-C, Mills S. Women's Use of Private and Government Health Facilities for Childbirth in Nairobi's Informal. Settlements. Stud Fam Plann ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. This article provides a detailed description of the development of an evaluation matrix that represents the organising structure for evaluating the impact of the interdisciplinary health-promotion course on multiple stakeholders. The evaluation was designed to answer the questions relating to the perceptions and ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-18

    Mar 18, 2017 ... promote CPD by working in partnership with employers, academic institutions ... SORK, employers and institutions of higher education all have a responsibility towards the culture of lifelong learning. As the ... further approved by the Higher Degrees and Research Ethics Committees of the University of ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-08-29

    Aug 29, 2014 ... Page number not for citation purposes ... Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com). Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research .... and education, hence a higher risk of morbidity and mortality and a.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions as their reality.[14]. Research context. At Stellenbosch University (SU), Cape Town,. SA, final-year physiotherapy students each spend. 6 weeks at a community site learning to integrate and apply the principles of PHC and community- based rehabilitation. Approximately 5 - 10 clients are seen in their homes per week.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the classroom.[9] Cognitive learning is achieved when students can make connections among and interpret different aspects of a subject to apply what they have learned in other fields of ... the effect of the field trips on the students' perceptions. ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data-.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining ... or a trained research assistant for those who could neither read nor write. Consenting individuals above this age who have ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Authors' contributions. All the authors have read and agreed to the final manuscript. Acknowledgments. The author was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship awarded by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). The content of this manuscript does not necessarily represent the official views.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... work is properly cited. Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 ... an unfinished business as dozens of studies reveal millions of children worldwide have not yet benefited from the .... regions included in the research site [24]. Results. In the final analysis, three working themes were generated.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workshop on {topic}; research project; clinical practical experience. Outputs. Tangible products/by-products of activities (but not whether students learned anything). Certificates of completion; records of actions by participants (i.e. log books); number of students at clinical site. Intermediate outcomes Learning connected to ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-18

    May 18, 2014 ... Research. Practice within the clinical arena is recognised as the best means of socialising students into the physiotherapy profession[1-5] and is known to ..... A ect. Intervention. Overall preparedness. Fig. 1. Means and 95% CIs of the mean scores of each component (n=58; 9 missing). There is a significant ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YouTube, TED and other podcast websites. Other researchers have also documented their procedures. Corl et al.[5] describe the basic process of producing a podcast, and Jham et al.[6] list a number of universities actively doing podcasts. Besides the lecture podcasts, we have also captured numerous clinical.

  12. Perceptions and Attitudes towards Medical Research in the United Arab Emirates: Results from the Abu Dhabi Cohort Study (ADCS) Focus Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Obaid, Yusra; Al Hamiz, Aisha; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Hayes, Richard B; Sherman, Scott; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    In developing medical research, particularly in regions where medical research is largely unfamiliar, it is important to understand public perceptions and attitudes towards medical research. In preparation for starting the first cohort study in the United Arab Emirates, the Abu Dhabi Cohort Study (ADCS), we sought to understand how we could improve the quality of the research process for participants and increase public trust and awareness of research. We conducted six focus groups (FG), consisting of Emirati men and women aged above 18 years to resemble the target population for the ADCS. Sampling was purposive and convenient. Data collection was an iterative process until saturation was reached with no new themes identified. Text from each FG was analyzed separately by identifying emerging issues and organizing related concepts into categories or themes. A coding tree was developed, consisting of the main concepts, themes, subthemes and corresponding quotes. Both themes and main ideas were identified using inductive analysis. Forty-two participants enrolled at 3 academic centers (New York University Abu Dhabi, UAE University, Zayed University) and the Abu Dhabi blood bank. Focus group participants described lack of awareness of research as a challenge to participation in clinical research studies. Altruism, personal relevance of the research, and the use of role models were commonly identified motivators. Participants were generally satisfied with the informed consent process for the ADCS, but would be disappointed if not provided test results or study outcomes. Fear of a breach in confidentiality was a frequently expressed concern. Participants join research studies for varied, complex reasons, notably altruism and personal relevance. Based on these insights, we propose specific actions to enhance participant recruitment, retention and satisfaction in the ADCS. We identified opportunities to improve the research experience through improved study materials and

  13. United States Air Force Summer Research Program - 1991. Summer Faculty Research Program (SFRP) Reports. Volume 2. Armstrong Laboratory, Wilford Hall Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    or, if large, do not change the patterns shown by the first order partial derivatives. These assumptions can be relaxed by adopting a Monte Carlo... dysphonia in two speaker groups. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 34:534-543, 1991. 99. Kitajima, K. and Gould, W. Vocal shimmer in sustained...frequency domain permittivity is given by C - C c(w) = + C o (9) 1 + jWt 0 where c = DC permittivity S t = relaxation time of media 0 = radian frequency

  14. Processfolio: Uniting Academic Literacies and Critical Emancipatory Action Research for Practitioner-Led Inquiry into EAP Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the design and implementation of an alternative form of writing assessment in a UK English for Academic Purposes (EAP) pre-sessional course. The assessment, termed processfolio, was a response to research inquiry into how writing assessment in a local context negated student agency and inculcated disempowering models of…

  15. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippmann, Marcelo J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Majer, Ernest L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Peter E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Adams, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Roberston-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Moller, Nancy [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Weare, John [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Clutter, Ted [ArtComPhoto (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report, the third in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in reservoir engineering and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  16. Vocational Psychology and Assessment with Immigrants in the United States: Future Directions for Training, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Hsieh, Catherine; Chiao, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants are vital members of U.S. society and are essential contributors to the U.S. labor force. Today, immigrants comprise a significant portion of the U.S. population, however, career assessment research has largely ignored their work experiences, and career counselors are not trained on the intricacies on the delivery of career counseling…

  17. Research Activities in Support of High-Resolution Land Cover Mapping in the North Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Agroforestry Strategic Framework and the 2014 Farm Bill call for inventory and monitoring of agroforestry practices; however, collecting such data over very large non-forested areas is costly. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station has addressed this challenge by forming a targeted task team whose primary purpose is to...

  18. Using Films in Teaching Intercultural Concepts: An Action Research Project at Two Universities in India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Satish; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Films are used as a tool for teaching cross-cultural and intercultural concepts in higher education and in corporate settings. However, the processes and outcomes of using films in intercultural training and education have not been systematically researched. This paper discusses the results of a collaborative project involving faculty and students…

  19. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mines, Gregory L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report, the last in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in energy conversion and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  20. Research Universities and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Competition, Resource Concentration, and the "Great Recession" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the U.S. federal government's response to the "Great Recession" as a "natural experiment" whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow…

  1. The Role of Demographic Factors of International Students on Teaching Preferences: An Empirical Research from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research was conducted in a medium-sized private university located in the north-eastern region of the USA. The purpose of this paper was to understand whether demographic attributes (age, gender, country of origin and years of stay in the USA) of international students will predict any preferences for specific teaching…

  2. An Integrative Review of Empirical Research on Perceptions and Behaviors Related to Prescribed Burning and Wildfire in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéy, Lauren Nicole; Smith, Jordan W

    2018-03-23

    Social science research from a variety of disciplines has generated a collective understanding of how individuals prepare for, and respond to, the risks associated with prescribed burning and wildfire. We provide a systematic compilation, review, and quantification of dominant trends in this literature by collecting all empirical research conducted within the U.S. that has addressed perceptions and behaviors surrounding various aspects of prescribed burning and wildfire. We reviewed and quantified this literature using four thematic categories covering: (1) the theory and methods that have been used in previous research; (2) the psychosocial aspects of prescribed burning and wildfire that have been studied; (3) the biophysical characteristics of the fires which have been studied; and (4) the types of fire and management approaches that have been examined. Our integrative review builds on previous literature reviews on the subject by offering new insight on the dominant trends, underutilized approaches, and under-studied topics within each thematic category. For example, we found that a select set of theories (e.g., Protection Motivation Theory, Attribution Theory, etc.) and approaches (e.g., mixed-methods) have only been used sparingly in previous research, even though these theories and approaches can produce insightful results that can readily be implemented by fire-management professionals and decision makers. By identifying trends and gaps in the literature across the thematic categories, we were able to answer four questions that address how future research can make the greatest contribution to our understanding of perceptions and behaviors related to prescribed burning and wildfire.

  3. Report by the AERES on the unit: Unit of researches on neutron transport and radioactivity confinement in nuclear installations under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: IRSN; Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Unite de recherches en neutronique et confinement de la radioactivite dans les installations nucleaires sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: IRSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized in three departments: neutron transport and criticality (themes: numerical methods, maths and statistics related to the simulation of neutral particle propagation, nuclear data, uncertainty propagation and bias estimation, code qualification and associated experimental programs, neutron transport in reactors and fuel cycle, criticality accidents), radionuclide transfer in radioactive waste disposals (site identification strategy, hydro-mechanical phenomena affecting storage performance, physical-chemical evolution factors, storage modelling), and metrology and confinement of radioactive gases and aerosols. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented for each department in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  4. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  5. Biomedical Research Priorities for Modern Syphilis Clinical Management, Diagnosis, and Vaccines: Overview and Commentary for Unit 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2018-03-09

    The first session at the 2016 Syphilis Summit provided an opportunity for laboratory researchers and clinicians to comment on gaps in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Predominant themes in the presentations and discussion included the need for optimization of existing diagnostic tests, commercial availability and FDA approval of nucleic acid amplification tests for primary and secondary syphilis, development of sensitive and specific new blood tests for diagnosis of active (vs. treated) syphilis infection, clarification of the best measures for adequacy of response to treatment, continued study of complications of syphilis including neuro- and ocular syphilis, and development of a safe and effective vaccine that will protect against transmission and complications of disseminated infection (including congenital and neurosyphilis). Renewed and sustained support of biomedical syphilis research and an influx of talent could move the needle in the fight against this re-emerging ancient disease.

  6. A comparison of critical care research funding and the financial burden of critical illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Craig M; Wunsch, Hannah; Fink, Mitchell P; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T; Olsen, Keith M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tchorz, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2012-04-01

    To estimate federal dollars spent on critical care research, the cost of providing critical care, and to determine whether the percentage of federal research dollars spent on critical care research is commensurate with the financial burden of critical care. The National Institutes of Health Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects database was queried to identify funded grants whose title or abstract contained a key word potentially related to critical care. Each grant identified was analyzed by two reviewers (three if the analysis was discordant) to subjectively determine whether it was definitely, possibly, or definitely not related to critical care. Hospital and total costs of critical care were estimated from the Premier Database, state discharge data, and Medicare data. To estimate healthcare expenditures associated with caring for critically ill patients, total costs were calculated as the combination of hospitalization costs that included critical illness as well as additional costs in the year after hospital discharge. Of 19,257 grants funded by the National Institutes of Health, 332 (1.7%) were definitely related to critical care and a maximum of 1212 (6.3%) grants were possibly related to critical care. Between 17.4% and 39.0% of total hospital costs were spent on critical care, and a total of between $121 and $263 billion was estimated to be spent on patients who required intensive care. This represents 5.2% to 11.2%, respectively, of total U.S. healthcare spending. The proportion of research dollars spent on critical care is lower than the percentage of healthcare expenditures related to critical illness.

  7. United States Air Force Personalized Medicine and Advanced Diagnostics Program Panel: Representative Research at the San Antonio Military Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) LACKLAND AIR FORCE BASE TEXAS MEMORANDUMFORSGVT ATTN: DEBRA M NIEMEYER FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU... Dato of Mooting) 181 PLATFORM PRESENTATION (At c ivilian lnstitulionsfNamo of Meeting, State, Dato of Mooting) University of Texas at San Antonio...SAMHS & Universities Research Forum {SURF2016). TX, 05-20-2016 D OTHER (Describe: Name of Mooting, City, State, and Dato of Meeting) 6. WHAT IS THE

  8. Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-22

    public health expenditure, the psychosocial impact on affected individuals, families and communities, the economic impact on travel, tourism and the...disease emergence. In J. E. Childs, J. S. Mackenzie, & J. A. Richt (Eds.), Wildlife and emerging zoonotic diseases: the biology, circumstances and...of messages.” xviii Given that both Cambodia and Indonesia are in Asia, the addition of a case study on Egypt or Kenya in future research will

  9. Adding value in additive manufacturing: researchers in the United Kingdom and Europe look to 3D printing for customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Having already made a big impact in the medical sector, three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology continues to push the boundaries of cost efficiency, convenience, and customization. It has transformed some aspects of medical device production. However, expectations of the technology are often exaggerated in the media, so we spoke to leading researchers in the field about its practical applications and what can be expected in the near future.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acculturation and Diet among Latinos in the United States: Implications for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    AYALA, GUADALUPE X.; BAQUERO, BARBARA; KLINGER, SYLVIA

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship be...

  11. Ballisticians in War and Peace. A History of the United States Army Ballistic Research Laboratories. Volume 1. 1914-1956,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    Colonel Zornig became the Director of the Laboratory, Captain L. E. Simon was made the Assistant Director, and Lieutenant P. N . Gillon was named the...Integrator Machine. Bush Di(ftrential A nalyzer i . n operati on 17 the period from 1914 to 1940 THE EXPANSION OF BALLISTIC RESEARCH, 1919 TO 1940...Mr. Hitchcock, Dr. Charters, CAPT Simon, Dr. Hodge, Mr. Beeman, Mr. Tolch. Mr. Gay, LT Steele. Third row, from left: Mr. Moerman , Mr. Dickinson, Mr

  12. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: A human tissue research program. USTUR annual report for October 1, 1997 through January 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    1999-10-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) are a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This annual report covers October 1, 1997, through January 31, 1999; the reporting period has been extended so that future annual reports will coincide with the period covered by the grant itself.

  14. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia K Smith

    Full Text Available Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed.Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions.Survey respondents (n = 179 valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001. Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non-patient group respondents (all p < .05. Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01. Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non-patient group respondents (all p< .01.Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with patient groups among the

  15. An Evaluation of the Quality of the Desinfection Process in Inanimated Surfaces of Basic Health Units by Biomarkers Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bandeira Fucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection Related Health Care – IRHC may occur by exogenous transmission through the contamination of contaminated surfaces. This study aimed at verifying the quality of the process of disinfecting inanimate surfaces of Basic Health Units – BHU in a northeastern city in São Paulo state, through the presence of biomarkers, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We evaluated 7 UBS in random times and days, covering the following areas: dressing-room doorknob, drinking fountains and faucets, office desk, reception counter. Sterile swabs were rubbed on a 20 cm2 surface and transported to the laboratory in Stuart medium to the Clinical Analyses Didactic Laboratory of UNIFEV. The samples were cultured on Blood agar and MacConkey agar at 35 ± 1oC for 24 hours in aerobic and microaerophilic jar, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by the production of hemolysin, catalase and coagulase. Escherichia coli was identified using the biochemical tests: TSI, citrate, urease, indole, lysine, ornithine and arginine. Of the 105 samples analyzed, 6.66% of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to 2.85%. The Areas which showed the presence of biomarkers were: the reception booth, booth pharmacy, handles of the dressing room, dressing room faucet and drinking fountain. These results corroborate other studies that show that inanimate surfaces are important sources of contamination in the healthcare environment, contributing to crosscontamination and, consequently, to the increase of infection to the patient who is subjected to procedures in this environment. Within this context, government, by means of public health policies, is responsible for the training of health professionals, contributing to the promotion and prevention of public health

  16. Implementing health promotion in schools: protocol for a realist systematic review of research and experience in the United Kingdom (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Mark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based interventions and campaigns are used to promote health and address a wide variety of public health problems. Schools are considered to be key sites for the implementation of health promotion programmes for their potential to reach the whole population in particular age-groups and instil healthy patterns of behavior early in life. However, evidence for the effectiveness of school-based health promotion interventions is highly variable. Systematic reviews of the evidence of school-based interventions tend to be highly problem- or intervention- specific, thereby missing potential generic insights into implementation and effectiveness of such programmes across problems. Methods/design A realist systematic review will be undertaken to explain how, why and in what circumstances schools can provide feasible settings for effective health promotion programmes in the United Kingdom (UK. The review will be conducted in two phases. Phase 1 will identify programme theories about implementation (ideas about what enables or inhibits effective health promotion to be delivered in a school setting. Phase 2 will test the programme theories so that they can be challenged, endorsed and/or refined. A Review Advisory Group of education and health professionals will be convened to help identify and choose potential programme theories, provide a ‘reality check’ on the clarity and explanatory strength of the mechanisms to be tested, and help shape the presentation of findings to be usable by practitioners and decision-makers. Review findings will be disseminated through liaison with decision-makers, and voluntary and professional groups in the fields of education and health.

  17. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society's alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-02-01

    There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007-10. Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society’s alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. Methods We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007–10. Results Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Conclusions Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. PMID:24261642

  19. The Mircen project, neuro-degenerative disease: mechanisms, therapeutics and imaging research Unit URA Cea Cnrs 2210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantraye, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    During the post-genomic era, significant advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disease have been made. The power of functional and molecular imaging in translating this knowledge into effective therapy is now being more and more recognized. Thus, molecular imaging plays a vital role in the early identification of disease-related molecular markers, in the development of molecular-targeted therapies, and in monitoring phenotypic response to therapy both in experimental animals and in human patients. In this context, MIRCen (acronym for Molecular Imaging Research Center ) provides a comprehensive resource available to empower basic, translational, and clinical research through the application of imaging and drug, cell, and gene based technologies. The MIR center will be dedicated to the development of pre-clinical trials for the treatment of various seriously debilitating diseases such as neuro-degenerative diseases, cardiac and hepatic disorders, and infectious diseases (AIDS). Despite the fact that many of these pathologies are still incurable, recent advances in drug, cell and gene therapy point to the feasibility of new therapeutic approaches. The long term goals of MIRCen are therefore to develop and validate: - pertinent animal models for neuro-degenerative, hepatic, cardiac and infectious diseases in rodents as well as non-human primates, - novel technologies for in vivo sensing and imaging of disease-related molecular events,- drug, gene and cell based palliative and or curative therapeutic strategies aiming at protecting and /or restoring damaged or lost functions. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Aqua MODIS Collection 6 AOD Parameters for Air Quality Research over the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Belle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD has become an important predictor of ground-level particulate matter (PM and greatly empowered air pollution research worldwide. We evaluated the AOD parameters included in the Collection 6 aerosol product of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for two key factors affecting their applications in air quality research—coverage and accuracy—over the continental US. For the high confidence retrievals (QAC 3, the 10 km DB-DT combined AOD has the best coverage nationwide (29.7% of the days in a year in any given 12 km grid cell. While the Eastern US generally had more successful AOD retrievals, the highest spatial coverage of AOD parameters were found in California (>55% and other vegetated parts of the Western US. If lower QAC retrievals were included, the coverage of the 10 km DB AOD was dramatically increased to 49.6%. In the Eastern US, the QAC 3 retrievals of all four AOD parameters are highly correlated with AERONET observations (correlation coefficients between 0.80 and 0.92. In the Western US, positive retrieval errors existed in all MODIS AOD parameters, resulting in lower correlations with AERONET. AOD retrieval errors showed significant dependence on flight geometry, land cover type, and weather conditions. To ensure appropriate use of these AOD values, air quality researchers should carefully balance the needs for coverage and accuracy, and develop additional data screening criteria based on their study design.

  1. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  2. [Research of 24-hour dynamic sleep monitoring and melatonin changes in patients with delirium in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Han, Fang; Sun, Yunliang; Liu, Jianghua; Yang, Jiabin; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2014-10-01

    To dynamic monitor and analyze the characteristic of polysomnography (PSG) and melatonin levels of delirium patients in intensive care unit (ICU). A prospective observational study was performed from December 2013 to April 2014. The patients admitted to ICU of Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College for more than 72 hours were evaluated with confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU), and were divided into delirium group and non-delirium group. Sleep patterns of all the patients underwent continuous PSG for up to 24 hours were evaluated. Melatonin levels were determined every 4 hours with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) duration sleep monitoring. Eighteen patients were enrolled, and 9 were delirium patients. All the patients had sleep disorders: a decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep [(5.91 ± 5.26)%], an increase in the sleep fragmentations [arousal index was (15.40 ± 12.79) times/h], and the N3 sleep stage was on the lower limit of normal [(14.67 ± 11.10)%]. Compared with non-delirium group, the REM sleep was significantly decreased in delirium group [(0.10 ± 0.20)% vs. (8.83 ± 3.81)%, t=4.782, P=0.001]. Melatonin levels lost rhythm between day and night, and there was no difference in melatonin between delirium group and non-delirium group(time effect: F=1.370, P=0.287; between-group effect: F=1.646, P=0.250; interaction effect: F=1.558, P=0.247). The peak of melatonin levels of delirium group appeared on 06:00 [(137.84 ± 62.21) ng/L] and 14:00 [(148.24 ± 58.8) ng/L], the minimum value on 22:00 [(64.47 ± 26.97) ng/L]. But in non-delirium group, the peak of melatonin levels appeared on 02:00 [(63.52 ± 39.75) ng/L], the minimum value on 10:00 [(44.87 ± 11.19) ng/L]. ICU patients have sleep disorders, and the delirium patients have less REM stage. Normal rhythmic melatonin secretion changes of ICU patients were lost. The delirium peak of patients appears in the daytime.

  3. Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science research institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal...... articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during the five-year period 2004-09 (February) by the two...... publication types, the citation distributions over the individual sample publications and observed years as well as over external, institutional and personal self-citations. The institute concerned is the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Copenhagen. The results demonstrate that the open...

  4. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol brand sponsorship of events, organizations and causes in the United States, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Olivia; Stamatakos, Korene; Ayers, Amanda J; Fryer, Victoria A; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    There has been insufficient research attention to the alcohol industry's use of corporate sponsorship as a marketing tool. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the nature and extent of alcohol sponsorship-at the brand level-in the United States. The study examined sponsorship of organizations and events in the United States by alcohol brands from 2010 to 2013. The top 75 brands of alcohol consumed by underage drinkers were identified based on a previously conducted national internet-based survey. For each of these brands, a systematic search for sponsorships was conducted using Google. The sponsorships were coded by category and type of sponsorship. We identified 945 sponsorships during the study period for the top 75 brands consumed by underage drinkers. The most popular youth brands were far more likely to engage in sponsorship and to have a higher number of sponsorships. The identified sponsorships overwhelmingly associated alcohol brands with integral aspects of American culture, including sports, music, the arts and entertainment, and drinking itself. The most popular brands among underage drinkers were much more likely to associate their brands with these aspects of American culture than brands that were less popular among underage drinkers. Alcohol brand sponsorship must be viewed as a major alcohol marketing strategy that generates brand capital through positive associations with integral aspects of culture, creation of attractive brand personalities, and identification with specific market segments. Alcohol research, practice and policy should address this highly prevalent form of alcohol marketing. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. If I were a band-aid, where would I be? Researching the use and location of supplies on two patient units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuin, Doug; Martinez, Jessica; Harper, Kathy; Okland, Kathy; Bergquist, Patricia; Kumar, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the use and storage of supplies in the neonatal intensive care and women's health units of Parkland Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Construction of a new Parkland Hospital is underway, with completion of the 862-bed, 2.5-million square feet hospital in 2014. Leaders from the hospital and representatives from one of its major vendors collaborated on a research study to evaluate the hospital's current supply management system and develop criteria to create an improved system to be implemented at the new hospital. Approach includes qualitative and quantitative methods, that is, written survey, researcher observations, focus groups, and evaluation of hospital supply reports. Approaching the ideal location of supplies can be best approached by defining a nurse's activity at the point of care. Determining an optimal supply management system must be approached by understanding the "what" of caregivers' activities and then determining the "where" of the supplies that support those activities. An ideal supply management system locates supplies as close as possible to the point of use, is organized by activity, and is standardized within and across units. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. [The experience of the EPM (Ergonomics of Posture and Movement) Research Unit in risk analysis and the prevention of work-related musculo-skeletal diseases (WMSDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, Daniela; Molteni, G

    2003-01-01

    The twenty-year experience of the "Ergonomics of Posture and Movement (epm)" Research Unit for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) is briefly summarized. The epm research unit is the outcome of an agreement between Milan University (Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto), Milan Polytechnic, Don Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS (Bioengineering Centre) and the Regional Health Service (CEMOC of ICP Hospital). Early activities of epm (1985-1993) are first outlined: they are characterized by a wide range of laboratory studies allowing the development of original methods and criteria for on-site analysis of fixed postures and awkward movements and for ad hoc clinical examination of the musculoskeletal apparatus in working populations. Epm contributions are reviewed for the analysis of working activity involving manual load handling (adapted NIOSH method) and hospital patients (MAPO method) as well as for standardization of health surveillance protocols of spinal diseases. Updated contributions are reported on analysis and prevention of upper limb MSDs connected with upper limb repetitive movements (OCRA method). Finally epm's main collaborations with national and international Authorities are summarized as well as the major technical (health promotion) publications addressed to operators and workers, in different working situations, for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders due to biomechanical overload.

  7. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  8. Adjusting Health Expenditures for Inflation: A Review of Measures for Health Services Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Abe; Grosse, Scott D; Zuvekas, Samuel H

    2018-02-01

    To provide guidance on selecting the most appropriate price index for adjusting health expenditures or costs for inflation. Major price index series produced by federal statistical agencies. We compare the key characteristics of each index and develop suggestions on specific indexes to use in many common situations and general guidance in others. Price series and methodological documentation were downloaded from federal websites and supplemented with literature scans. The gross domestic product implicit price deflator or the overall Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) index is preferable to the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U) to adjust for general inflation, in most cases. The Personal Health Care (PHC) index or the PCE health-by-function index is generally preferred to adjust total medical expenditures for inflation. The CPI medical care index is preferred for the adjustment of consumer out-of-pocket expenditures for inflation. A new, experimental disease-specific Medical Care Expenditure Index is now available to adjust payments for disease treatment episodes. There is no single gold standard for adjusting health expenditures for inflation. Our discussion of best practices can help researchers select the index best suited to their study. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Summary of proceedings of the first meeting of the executive committee on building and community systems. Electricity council Research Centre, Capenhurst, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) meeting on Building and Community Systems was conducted in three phases. First, participants toured the Electricity Council Research Centre (ECRC) research facilities to observe the ECRC's building research activities and to receive information on their ongoing research into energy usage in buildings. The final meeting of the Experts Group on Building and Community Systems was then held on May 4. During this meeting, analysts discussed the progress of their analysis of office buildings that has been conducted since the October, 1976, Experts Group meeting in Stockholm. In accordance with IEA rules, this Experts Group was then abolished and an Executive Committee on Buildings and Community Systems created to direct further work in this project area. This action reflects the signing in March of the Implementing Agreement on Building and Community Systems and Annex I on Thermal Characteristics by the United States, Canada, and Italy. The discussion of study activities, begun by the Experts Group, was continued at this Executive Committee meeting. Sections I and II describe the meetings of the Experts Group and Executive Committee. Section III describes the field trip at the ECRC.

  10. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research; Changement climatique et santeaux Etats-Unis: impacts, adaptations et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M

    2009-11-15

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  11. Systematic thematic review of e-health research in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Arabian Gulf): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  13. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  14. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research unit for man radiation protection under the supervision of establishments and bodies: IRSN; Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Unite de recherche pour la protection radiologique de l'homme sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: IRSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, whose activity is dedicated to man radiation protection, and is organized about four main themes: means to determine in any circumstances the dose received by a victim of an external irradiation or internal contamination, characterization of the biological effects ionizing radiations may create in a sane tissue, epidemiological approaches to the assessment of the exceeding risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation on different populations, and experimental toxicology for the identification of biological effects induced par long duration and low dose exposures to some radionuclides. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme: dosimetry, ionizing radiation pathology and experimental therapies, epidemiology of ionizing radiations, experimental and post-accidental radio-toxicology

  15. A report from the second US/Japan workshop on global change research: Environmental response technologies (mitigation and adaptation). United States-Japan Science and Technology Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgerton, S. [comp.] [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States). Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences; Mizuno, Tateki [comp.] [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, MITI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Second US - Japan Workshop on Global Change: Environmental Response Technologies for Global Change was hosted by the Program on Resources at the East-West Center, in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 1--3, 1993, on behalf of the United States Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). This workshop brought together over fifty leading scientists from the two countries to review existing technologies and to identify needed research on the development of new technologies for mitigation and adaptation of global change. The Workshop was organized around three areas of research: (1) capture, fixation/utilization, and disposal of CO{sub 2} (e.g. CO{sub 2}, separation and capture technologies, ocean and land disposal of CO{sub 2}; (2) energy production and conservation technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. combustion efficiency, non-carbon based energy technologies, energy conservation technologies); and (3) adaptation technologies and practices related to global climate change (e.g., adaptation responses of crops to climate change, adapting urban infrastructure for climate change). Priorities for joint research in each of these areas were discussed. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. A cooperative agreement for research on radioactive waste management between the United States Department of Energy and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Levich, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) have a history of more than ten years of bilateral cooperation in the management of high level radioactive waste. In 1982, the USDOE and AECL executed a five year information-exchange agreement, for open-quotes Cooperation in Radioactive Waste Managementclose quotes. Since that time, this bilateral umbrella agreement has been renewed twice and the third renewal is currently being processed. International cooperation in high level radioactive waste management is highly beneficial to all concerned. Each nation involved in high level waste disposal has a single coordinated program for developing, testing, and evaluating approaches, hardware, and techniques for high level waste disposal. Thus there is limited opportunity for researchers in each country to exchange views regarding disposal technology with experienced researchers external to their own program, and to share research and development activities. The international arena, however, provides a host of organizations who have similar responsibilities and therefore similar interests and needs

  17. Procedure for Market Analysis in the Research, Development and Innovation Management Unit (R+D+I of the University of Mindelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Dias−da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research, development and innovation (R + D + i is a competitive factor in organizations and refers to a set of specificities that determine the need for efficient and efficient management. The objective of this scientific paper was to show the application of a procedure for the market analysis of the R & D & I management unit of the University of Mindelo, Republic of Cape Verde. The results achieved by the application of the procedure allowed to perfect the decision-making process in response to the needs of the clients represented by the companies ENAPOR, ELECTRA, among others. In the same way strengthen projects related to the development of software to support business management and its financing from external sources, as well as the competitiveness of the organization.

  18. Toxic Hazards Research Unit 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    National Cancer Institute NTE - Neurotoxic esterase NZW New Zealand white ODC Ornithine decarboxylase OP Organophosphorus OPIDN Organophosphate-induced...liver, right kidney, perirenal fat, right testicle , muscle, and brain. Animals sacrificed at the conclusion of the inhalation study were sampled for...I.A. Poop 1989. D;fferences between the promoting activities of the peroxisome * pr’,, ’o,3or Wy- 14,643 and phenobarbital in rat liver. Cancer Res

  19. Toxic Hazards Research Unit - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    as follows, lungs, liver, right kidney, perirenal fat , right testicle, and brain Each tissue was weighed A sample of about 1 g was sectioned from each...and feces were collected for CTFE analysis from each animal group Kidney, lung, liver, testes, brain, and fat were taken at sacrifice for CTFE...concentrated sample below 500 pg/mL for calibration purposes Lung, liver, testes, and brain extracts were diluted 1:20, kidney 1󈧶, and fat 1.1000 49 Gas

  20. The Definition of a Prolonged Intensive Care Unit Stay for Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients: An Application with National Health Insurance Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lung Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Length of stay (LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH patients is one of the most important issues. The disease severity, psychosocial factors, and institutional factors will influence the length of ICU stay. This study is used in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD to define the threshold of a prolonged ICU stay in sICH patients. Methods. This research collected the demographic data of sICH patients in the NHIRD from 2005 to 2009. The threshold of prolonged ICU stay was calculated using change point analysis. Results. There were 1599 sICH patients included. A prolonged ICU stay was defined as being equal to or longer than 10 days. There were 436 prolonged ICU stay cases and 1163 nonprolonged cases. Conclusion. This study showed that the threshold of a prolonged ICU stay is a good indicator of hospital utilization in ICH patients. Different hospitals have their own different care strategies that can be identified with a prolonged ICU stay. This indicator can be improved using quality control methods such as complications prevention and efficiency of ICU bed management. Patients’ stay in ICUs and in hospitals will be shorter if integrated care systems are established.

  1. Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States: Findings Related to Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David E.; Becker, Henry J.; Bransford, John D.; Davidson, Jan; Hawkins, Jan; Malcom, Shirley; Molina, Mario; Ride, Sally K.; Sharp, Phillip; Tinker, Robert F.; Vest, Charles; Young, John; Allen, Richard; Bakia, Marianne; Bryson, Rebecca; Chen, C. Samantha; Costello, Caroline M.; Deckel, Garrett M.; Dial, Marjorie R.; Kealey, Edith M.; Lehoczky, Sandor

    1998-06-01

    The Panel on Educational Technology was organized in April 1995 under the auspices of the President's Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST) to provide advice to the President on matters related to the application of information technologies to K-12 education in the United States. Its findings and recommendations were set forth in March 1997 in the Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States. This report was based on a review of the research literature and on written submissions and oral briefings from a number of academic and industrial researchers, practicing educators, software developers, governmental agencies, and professional and industry organizations involved in various ways with the application of technology to education. Its most important finding is that a large-scale program of rigorous, systematic research on education in general and educational technology in particular will ultimately prove necessary to ensure both the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of technology use within our nation's K-12 schools. Finding that less than 0.1 percent of our nation's expenditures for elementary and secondary education are currently invested to determine which educational techniques actually work, and to find ways to improve them—an extremely low level relative to comparable ratios within the private sector—the Panel recommended that this figure be increased over a period of several years to at least 0.5 percent, and sustained at that level on an ongoing basis. Further, because no one state, municipality, or private firm could hope to capture more than a small fraction of the benefits associated with a significant advance in our understanding of how best to educate K-12 students, the Panel concluded that such funding will have to be provided largely at the federal level in order to avoid a systematic underinvestment (attributable to a classical form of economic externality) relative to the

  2. Knowledge Globalization within and across the People's Republic of China and the United States: A Cross-National Study of Internationalization of Educational Research in the Early 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Robert J.; Kan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study examines globalization within and across China and the United States in conjunction with a portrayal of the nature of the scholarly endeavors over the past 10 years in the two preeminent educational research journals of these countries. By extensive analyses of topics, methodology, and citations the research clarifies the global and…

  3. Recent advances on glass-forming systems driven far from equilibrium. Special issue marking the completion of the Research Unit FOR 1394 `Nonlinear response to probe vitrification'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    The nature of the glass transition is one of the frontier questions in Statistical Physics and Materials Science. Highly cooperative structural processes develop in glass-forming melts exhibiting relaxational dynamics which is spread out over many decades in time. While considerable progress has been made in recent decades towards understanding dynamical slowing-down in quiescent systems, the interplay of glassy dynamics with external fields reveals a wealth of novel phenomena yet to be explored. This special issue focuses on recent results obtained by the Research Unit FOR 1394 `Nonlinear response to probe vitrification' which was funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). In the projects of the research unit, strong external fields were used in order to gain insights into the complex structural and transport phenomena at the glass transition under far-from-equilibrium conditions. This aimed inter alia to test theories of the glass transition developed for quiescent systems by pushing them beyond their original regime. Combining experimental, simulational, and theoretical efforts, the eight projects within the FOR 1394 measured and determined aspects of the nonlinear response of supercooled metallic, polymeric, and silica melts, of colloidal dispersions, and of ionic liquids. Applied fields included electric and mechanic fields, and forced active probing (`micro-rheology'), where a single probe is forced through the glass-forming host. Nonlinear stress-strain and force-velocity relations as well as nonlinear dielectric susceptibilities and conductivities were observed. While the physical manipulation of melts and glasses is interesting in its own right, especially technologically, the investigations performed by the FOR 1394 suggest to use the response to strong homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields as technique to explore on the microscopic level the cooperative mechanisms in dense melts of strongly interacting constituents. Questions considered concern the

  4. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.

  5. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B monitoring and research program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongzhao; Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Gao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring satellite instrument, and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely. The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, confirms the consistency between them. The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD, the AERONET AOD, and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products. The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased. However, the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°, while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals. The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.

  6. Research Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2014, Vol. 6, No. 1 AJHPE 33. Research. Currently, radiography students are faced with the challenge of having to learn factual information, while ... A descriptive exploratory research design was used to collect both ..... Creswell J. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches.

  7. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... Army Alaska, will be the first Army unit manned under the Unit Manning Initiative. The Army's intent for unit manning is to improve combat readiness and cohesion while setting conditions for improved soldier and family well...

  8. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  9. The contemporary management of prostate cancer in the United States: lessons from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (CapSURE), a national disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Broering, Jeanette M; Litwin, Mark S; Lubeck, Deborah P; Mehta, Shilpa S; Henning, James M; Carroll, Peter R

    2004-04-01

    The epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer have changed dramatically in the prostate specific antigen era. A large disease registry facilitates the longitudinal observation of trends in disease presentation, management and outcomes. The Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) is a national disease registry of more than 10000 men with prostate cancer accrued at 31 primarily community based sites across the United States. Demographic, clinical, quality of life and resource use variables are collected on each patient. We reviewed key findings from the data base in the last 8 years in the areas of disease management trends, and oncological and quality of life outcomes. Prostate cancer is increasingly diagnosed with low risk clinical characteristics. With time patients have become less likely to receive pretreatment imaging tests, less likely to pursue watchful waiting and more likely to receive brachytherapy or hormonal therapy. Relatively few patients treated with radical prostatectomy in the database are under graded or under staged before surgery, whereas the surgical margin rate is comparable to that in academic series. CaPSURE data confirm the usefulness of percent positive biopsies in risk assessment and they have further been used to validate multiple preoperative nomograms. CaPSURE results strongly affirm the necessity of patient reported quality of life assessment. Multiple studies have compared the quality of life impact of various treatment options, particularly in terms of urinary and sexual function, and bother. The presentation and management of prostate cancer have changed substantially in the last decade. CaPSURE will continue to track these trends as well as oncological and quality of life outcomes, and will continue to be an invaluable resource for the study of prostate cancer at the national level.

  10. The State of Evaluation Research on Food Policies to Reduce Obesity and Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Franzosa, Emily; Sohler, Nancy; Li, Rui; Devlin, Heather; Albu, Jeanine

    2015-10-29

    Improvements in diet can prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although policy changes provide a foundation for improvement at the population level, evidence for the effectiveness of such changes is slim. This study summarizes the literature on recent efforts in the United States to change food-related policies to prevent obesity and diabetes among adults. We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the impact of food policies. Websites of government, academic, and nonprofit organizations were scanned to generate a typology of food-related policies, which we classified into 18 categories. A key-word search and a search of policy reports identified empirical evaluation studies of these categories. Analyses were limited to strategies with 10 or more reports. Of 422 articles identified, 94 met these criteria. Using publication date, study design, study quality, and dietary outcomes assessed, we evaluated the strength of evidence for each strategy in 3 assessment categories: time period, quality, and study design. Five strategies yielded 10 or more reports. Only 2 of the 5 strategies, menu labeling and taxes on unhealthy foods, had 50% or more studies with positive findings in at least 2 of 3 assessment categories. Most studies used methods that were rated medium quality. Although the number of published studies increased over 11 years, study quality did not show any clear trend nor did it vary by strategy. Researchers and policy makers can improve the quality and rigor of policy evaluations to synthesize existing evidence and develop better methods for gleaning policy guidance from the ample but imperfect data available.

  11. Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (≤1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P

  12. The Effect of Group Research and Cooperative Reading-Writing-Application Techniques in the Unit of "What Is the Earth's Crust Made Of?" on The Academic Achievements of the Students and the Permanent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the group research technique and cooperative reading-writing application technique in the science and technology course in the unit of "what is the Earth's crust made of" on the academic achievement of the students and whether the change observed in the student achievement is permanent…

  13. Comparison of the dimensions of electrical resistance units, supported on the basis of the Hall quantum effect, in the all-Russia research institute of metrological service and the Czech metrological institute

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semenchinsky, S. G.; Chrobok, P.; Svoboda, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 12 (2008), s. 1351-1356 ISSN 0543-1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : resistance unit * quantum Hall effect * comparison * standards Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.151, year: 2008

  14. Radiological consequences of ship collisions that might occur in U.S. Ports during the shipment of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel to the United States in break-bulk freighters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Massey, C.D.; Yoshimura, R.; Johnson, J.D.; Reardon, P.C.; Ebert, M.W.; Gallagher D.W.

    1996-08-01

    Accident source terms, source term probabilities, consequences, and risks are developed for ship collisions that might occur in U.S. ports during the shipment of spent fuel from foreign research reactors to the United States in break-bulk freighters

  15. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

  16. The text of the Agreement of 2 December 1983 concerning the Agency's assistance to Morocco for the transfer of enriched uranium from the United States for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The full text of the Project and Supply Agreement of 2 December 1983 between the Agency and the Government of the Kingdom of Morocco and the United States of America for the transfer of moderately enriched uranium for a research reactor in Morocco is presented

  17. Radiological consequences of ship collisions that might occur in U.S. Ports during the shipment of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel to the United States in break-bulk freighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Massey, C.D.; Yoshimura, R. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.D. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reardon, P.C. [PCRT Technologies, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebert, M.W.; Gallagher D.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accident source terms, source term probabilities, consequences, and risks are developed for ship collisions that might occur in U.S. ports during the shipment of spent fuel from foreign research reactors to the United States in break-bulk freighters.

  18. Proceedings of the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, tech. coord. Hertel; Gerard Hertel

    1988-01-01

    Includes 66 papers presented at the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, which was held October 19-23, 1987, in Burlington, Vermont.

  19. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  20. 26th May 2011 -Delegate to CERN Open Council sessions and European Commission Head of Unit for Joint Programming European Research Area, DG Research and Innovation R. Lečbychová visiting the CERN Control Centre with M. Pojer, accompanied by CERN S. Stavrev.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    26th May 2011 -Delegate to CERN Open Council sessions and European Commission Head of Unit for Joint Programming European Research Area, DG Research and Innovation R. Lečbychová visiting the CERN Control Centre with M. Pojer, accompanied by CERN S. Stavrev.