Hidy, G M
Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form
ingredient or are in combination with other antibiotics or corticosteroids. Community pharmacy have a variety of topical antibacterial agents which are available for potential use in; acne vulgaris, pyoderma including impetigo, folliculitis, rosacea, infected eczema, secondarily infected traumatic skin lesions, prevention of.
Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lolas, Fernando
Present article narrates the experience of trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for studies on bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile on the topic of research integrity in Latin America. The following problems are covered: integrity of publications, reporting of scientific research misconduct, definitions of research integrity, scientific ethical review committees functioning, international multi-centric clinical trials monitoring and norms for scientific integrity and ethical oversight.
Hidy, G M
Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t
initial assessment framework developed under this research proposal, there a number of important assumptions. These assumptions are as follows: • A...https://www.cybercompex.org/topic/cyber-9-12-project 8 0.1% 8 0.8% 536 0.3% 97. https://www.cybercompex.org/event/2016-cyber-security- brainstorm 8 0.1
Inubushi, Masayuki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Oku, Naohiko
Last year in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, we introduced some recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan. This was favorably received by European readers in the main. This year we wish to focus on the Annals of Nuclear Medicine on some of the fine nuclear medicine research work executed in Europe recently. In the current review article, we take up five topics: prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging, recent advances in radionuclide therapy, [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) for dementia, quantitative PET assessment of myocardial perfusion, and iodine-124 ( 124 I). Just at the most recent annual meeting of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine 2016, Kyoto was selected as the host city for the 2022 Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. We hope that our continuous efforts to strengthen scientific cooperation between Europe and Japan will bring many European friends and a great success to the Kyoto meeting.
Rader, Martha H.; Wilhelm, William J.
Using an affinity diagram, business educators generated 110 research topics. In a two-round modified Delphi, 15 business educators aggregated, categorized, and rank ordered the topics. Topics related to workplace soft skills, business communication, technology, and distance learning ranked highest. Topics related to traditional business education…
Carey M. Noland
Full Text Available When conducting research on sensitive topics, it is challenging to use new methods of data collection given the apprehensions of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs. This is especially worrying because sensitive topics of research often require novel approaches. In this article a brief personal history of navigating the IRB process for conducting sex communication research is presented, along with data from a survey that tested the assumptions long held by many IRBs. Results support some of the assumptions IRBs hold about sex communication research, but do not support some other assumptions.
Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.
The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail,
Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.
The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are found in clinker, slag, fly ashes etc., is designated as mineral oxide engineering. It re...
Traditional epistemological concerns in qualitative research focus on the effects of researchers' values and emotions on choices of research topics, power relations with research participants, and the influence of researcher standpoints on data collection and analysis. However, the research process also affects the researchers' values, emotions, and standpoints. Drawing on reflexive journal entries of assistant researchers involved in emotionally demanding team research, this article explores issues of emotional fallout for research team members, the implications of hierarchical power imbalances on research teams, and the importance of providing ethical opportunities for reflexive writing about the challenges of doing emotional research. Such reflexive approaches ensure the emotional safety of research team members and foster opportunities for emancipatory consciousness among research team members.
Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.
Angelo A. Salatino
Full Text Available The ability to promptly recognise new research trends is strategic for many stakeholders, including universities, institutional funding bodies, academic publishers and companies. While the literature describes several approaches which aim to identify the emergence of new research topics early in their lifecycle, these rely on the assumption that the topic in question is already associated with a number of publications and consistently referred to by a community of researchers. Hence, detecting the emergence of a new research area at an embryonic stage, i.e., before the topic has been consistently labelled by a community of researchers and associated with a number of publications, is still an open challenge. In this paper, we begin to address this challenge by performing a study of the dynamics preceding the creation of new topics. This study indicates that the emergence of a new topic is anticipated by a significant increase in the pace of collaboration between relevant research areas, which can be seen as the ‘parents’ of the new topic. These initial findings (i confirm our hypothesis that it is possible in principle to detect the emergence of a new topic at the embryonic stage, (ii provide new empirical evidence supporting relevant theories in Philosophy of Science, and also (iii suggest that new topics tend to emerge in an environment in which weakly interconnected research areas begin to cross-fertilise.
. Thus, two important aspects are near real-time data telemetry and data assimilation modeling. It is evident that marine technologies face challenges not only in the natural scales of coastal environmental variability, but also in par ticular... fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phy toplankton blooms associated with incipient seasonal stratification, and frontal- and eddy-trapped inertial waves. Measurements of nitrate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pC0 2 ), and dissolved oxygen (DO) have...
Michael-Luna, Sara, Ed.
This section presents brief synopses of empirical research and theoretical discussions in peer reviewed journals. The aim is to disseminate findings and perspectives in fields related to TESOL and to provide access to the diverse conversations among scholars in the field.
Full Text Available Background: Stroke may result in aphasia, an acquired language disorder which affects receptive and expressive language. The symptoms are observed in the auditory-verbal processing, oral expression, written expression and written language processing. As spoken language is the strongest tool of human communication, loss of it may cause great destructive consequences in the social and personal life of the affected individual. People with aphasia (PWA and their carers seek rehabilitation in an effort to remove or reduce the effects. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs are professional in offering such service. This paper aims at addressing new approaches and current research questions about the factors affecting the therapy. Main points: The issues which aphasia therapy research and reviews have addressed are the ones that are asked frequently in clinical settings and research areas. These include the intensity of treatment, the best post-onset time to start, quality of individualized treatment, efficacy of newly-introduced interventions, and the interventions based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model with emphasis on activity/participation. Findings: The results of studies have revealed that compact therapy in a short period of time might result in better recovery of aphasia. Studies also indicated that starting treatments very early with intensive programs leads to the best therapy results. Chronic stage is good for some intervention strategies as well; however, the effectiveness of these interventions requires further investigations. Moreover, better treatment results could be attained by tailoring the program to match with individual needs. Manipulation of word frequency, personal relevance, and considering reaction time are among important factors in tailor-made therapies. Besides, the conceptual model of ICF which incorporates impairment (body structure and function, activity and participation
Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John
a comprehensive approach to sustainable consumption.3 However, a number of useful overviews of the eld, both conceptual as well as speci cally covering consumption areas such as food, energy, housing, transport, nance and others have been published recently and the report should not be read as a thoroughgoing...... “shall promote the development of strong research environments of the highest international class with importance for Sweden’s future competitiveness. The research shall be of importance for finding solutions to important environmental problems and for a sustainable development of society. Opportunities...... for achieving industrial applications shall be taken advantage of.” The funding application call to be developed by Mistra is to be based on an analysis of the current state of the art of research and of society’s knowledge needs regarding sustainable consumption. Mistra commissioned a committee of four...
This book represents papers from a 1990 conference 'The environment, Development and Economic Research'. The focus of the book is the environmental and natural resource use problems, though economic development is a strong co-theme. Chapters cover the following topic areas: international issues; macroeconomic policies; natural resource degradation; urban problems; social dimensions; bio-diversity; energy; economic valuation
Full Text Available This themed issue of Social Inclusion provides a timely opportunity to reflect on how contemporary research is addressing the multi-dimensional issue of homelessness around the world. The papers presented here provide a wide range of new evidence on homelessness including theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions. They draw on a range of national experiences in Europe and beyond, and addressing the issue of social inclusion and social exclusion of homeless or previously homeless people from a range of perspectives and approaches. It is hoped that the contributions to this themed issue will prove influential in terms of both scholarship and potential to enhance policy making and service delivery to some of our most excluded citizens.
Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lolas, Fernando
Present article narrates the experience of trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for studies on bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile on the topic of research integrity in Latin America. The following problems are covered: integrity of publications, reporting of scientific research misconduct, definitions of research integrity, scientific ethical review committees functioning, international multi-centric clinical trials monitoring and norms for scientific integrity and ethical oversight. PMID:22679532
Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...
Sayama, Hiroki; Akaishi, Jin
Researchers' networks have been subject to active modeling and analysis. Earlier literature mostly focused on citation or co-authorship networks reconstructed from annotated scientific publication databases, which have several limitations. Recently, general-purpose web search engines have also been utilized to collect information about social networks. Here we reconstructed, using web search engines, a network representing the relatedness of researchers to their peers as well as to various research topics. Relatedness between researchers and research topics was characterized by visibility boost-increase of a researcher's visibility by focusing on a particular topic. It was observed that researchers who had high visibility boosts by the same research topic tended to be close to each other in their network. We calculated correlations between visibility boosts by research topics and researchers' interdisciplinarity at the individual level (diversity of topics related to the researcher) and at the social level (his/her centrality in the researchers' network). We found that visibility boosts by certain research topics were positively correlated with researchers' individual-level interdisciplinarity despite their negative correlations with the general popularity of researchers. It was also found that visibility boosts by network-related topics had positive correlations with researchers' social-level interdisciplinarity. Research topics' correlations with researchers' individual- and social-level interdisciplinarities were found to be nearly independent from each other. These findings suggest that the notion of "interdisciplinarity" of a researcher should be understood as a multi-dimensional concept that should be evaluated using multiple assessment means.
Detecting emerging research topics is essential, not only for research agencies but also for individual researchers. Previous studies have created various bibliographic indicators for the identification of emerging research topics. However, as indicated by Rotolo et al. (Research Policy 44, 1827......, evaluation tests are conducted by demonstration of the proposed approach and comparison with previous studies. The strength of the present methodology lies in the fact that it is fully transparent, straightforward, and flexible.......–1843, 2015), the most serious problems are the lack of an acknowledged definition of emergence and incomplete elaboration of the linkages between the definitions that are used and the indicators that are created. With these issues in mind, this study first adjusts the definition of an emerging technology...
Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu
Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)
A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2003), s. 355-372 ISSN 0354-8724 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086903; GA AV ČR IAA3086301 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK4-CT-2002-00086; OSI -HESP(XE) 347/1996 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : settlement systems * post-socialist countries * regional geography Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography
Fulmer, Sara M.; Frijters, Jan C.
This study explored the influence of an excessively challenging reading task on middle school students' motivation, attributions for failure, and persistence. In particular, the authors considered the possibility that relative topic interest might function as a buffer against the negative outcomes of excessive challenge. Students ranging from 10…
Full Text Available After 100 years of research, the definition of the field is still inadequate. The biggest challenge we see is moving away from a de-factor definition of intelligence in terms of test scores, but at the same time making clear what the boundaries of the field are. We then present four challenges for the field, two within a biological and two within a social context. These revolve around the issues of the malleability of intelligence and its display in everyday life, outside of a formal testing context. We conclude that developments in cognitive neuroscience and increases in the feasibility of monitoring behavior outside of the context of a testing session offer considerable hope for expansion of our both the biological and social aspects of individual differences in cognition.
This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.
Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kwon, Sang Ki; Kim, Jin Sub
The status of 11 foreign underground research laboratories (URLs) for the study on high-level waste disposal in the 8 countries including USA has been investigated. The research topics of in-situ study which have been conducted and are planed to do in the URLs have been investigated and analyzed based on the Korean situation. Using the results, the essential in-situ research topics that should be carried out in KURT(KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) are suggested. These topics are classified into two groups, namely the field on engineered barriers and the field on natural barriers
Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E
Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.
Rieder, Gernot; Simon, Judith
With its promise to transform how we live, work, and think, Big Data has captured the imaginations of governments, businesses, and academia. However, the grand claims of Big Data advocates have been accompanied with concerns about potential detrimental implications for civil rights and liberties,...... considerations on how TA might contribute to more responsible data-based research and innovation.......With its promise to transform how we live, work, and think, Big Data has captured the imaginations of governments, businesses, and academia. However, the grand claims of Big Data advocates have been accompanied with concerns about potential detrimental implications for civil rights and liberties...... and implications of Big Data practices. However, the relationship between Big Data as a socio- technical phenomenon and TA as a discipline assessing such phenomena is a peculiar one: Big Data may be the first topic TA deals with that is not only an object of inquiry, but also a major competitor, rivaling TA...
Alcala-Ruiz, F.; Ferraz-Bastos, J.L.; Kim, S.C.; Voth, M.; Boeck, H.; Dimeglio, F.; Litai, D.
topic is timely and important because a large number of research reactors currently face not only these concerns but also the problem of spent fuel disposal following completion of the current US take-back programme, and the Russian take-back programme which is expected to commence in the near future. Many countries will need to make decisions soon concerning the future of their reactors to take advantage of these spent fuel options
Opollo, Jackline Gloria; Opollo, Diana Alaka; Gray, Jennifer; Spies, Lori
To describe practical experiences before, during and after gaining entry into research fields in Kenya and Uganda. Planning, conducting and implementing international research can be an arduous task. Novice researchers need practical guides to accessing international fields and mitigating challenges met in the field. The researchers conducted three different studies in two developing nations. This paper reviews challenges encountered when conducting international research. Solutions used to overcome these challenges are discussed. Establishing and maintaining effective partnerships is critical to the success of international research efforts. Researchers must be tactful, flexible and creative when handling methodological, ethical and logistical challenges encountered in settings poor in resources. International research provides opportunities for increasing dedication, building cross-cultural competence and advancing health professional practice globally. This paper contributes to nursing scholarship by highlighting the practical challenges of conducting international research. Illustrations aimed at lending insight and encouraging others to expand their dedication to conducting international research are offered.
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....
Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina
This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…
Thomas J. Whitmore
Full Text Available Paleolimnology combines the disciplines of limnology, geology and ecology, but because of challenges that separate investigators from direct knowledge about past lake conditions, the field is multidisciplinary by necessity. As a result, paleolimnology is influenced continuously by advances in many disciplines. As with limnological studies in recent decades, paleolimnology has diverged largely from the ecological and theoretical focuses of early investigators, but recent studies demonstrate the need for more integration of ecological and paleolimnological research. This paper provides a brief overview of recent paleolimnological investigations that have addressed questions related to theoretical ecology, as well as applied lake-management and climate research issues. We examine the use of transfer function models for estimating past water-quality conditions, and important caveats expressed by investigators about limitations in the development and use of such models. Paleolimnological research has contributed new insights about biological, physical and chemical processes in lakes that have been subject to change because of climate drivers and anthropogenic influences. These findings are relevant to predicting how lakes will respond to climate change, and will require new management approaches in the future. As the range of paleolimnological studies expands, there will be greater need for basic limnological research in order for paleolimnological investigators to better understand how sediments reflect lake processes of those regions.
Al-Ayat, R; Holzrichter, J
In 1984, Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE) established the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program to enable the director of a national laboratory to foster and expedite innovative research and development (R and D) in mission areas. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continually examines these mission areas through strategic planning and shapes the LDRD Program to meet its long-term vision. The goal of the LDRD Program is to spur development of new scientific and technical capabilities that enable LLNL to respond to the challenges within its evolving mission areas. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies and enables the Laboratory to attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The FY98 LDRD portfolio described in this annual report has been carefully structured to continue the tradition of vigorously supporting DOE and LLNL strategic vision and evolving mission areas. The projects selected for LDRD funding undergo stringent review and selection processes, which emphasize strategic relevance and require technical peer reviews of proposals by external and internal experts. These FY98 projects emphasize the Laboratory's national security needs: stewardship of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, responsibility for the counter- and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, development of high-performance computing, and support of DOE environmental research and waste management programs
vom Brocke, Jan; Hofmann, Sara; Tumbas, Sanja
This book examines how information systems research and education can play a major role in contributing to solutions to the Societal Grand Challenges formulated in "The Millennium Project" (millenium-project.org). Individual chapters focus on specific challenges, review existing approaches and contributions towards solutions in information systems research and outline a research agenda for these challenges. The topics considered in this volume range from climate change, population growth, global ICT availability, breakthroughs in science and technology and energy demand to ethical decision-making, policymaking, gender status and transnational crime prevention. It is the first book to present ideas on how the Information Systems discipline can contribute to the solution on this wide spectrum of grand societal challenges.
Rinto, Erin; Bowles-Terry, Melissa; Santos, Ariel J.
This study applied a content analysis methodology in two ways to evaluate first-year students' research topics: a rubric to examine proposed topics in terms of scope, development, and the "researchability" of the topic, as well as textual analysis, using ATLAS.ti, to provide an overview of the types of subjects students select for a…
Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva
Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others.
Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva
Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245
Arbaugh, J. B.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Hwang, Alvin
Although the volume of business and management education (BME) research has expanded substantially, concerns remain about the field's legitimacy and its ability to attract new and dedicated scholars. An obstacle that may impede field development is lack of knowledge about influential works and authors to frame topical areas of inquiry and future…
Davis, Jeffrey R.
This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.
Kimura, Itsuro; Cong, Zhebao
These are the proceedings of an academic seminar on research reactors and related research topics held at the Southwest Centre for Reactor Engineering Research and Design in Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China in September 24-26 in 1985. Included are the chairmen's addresses and 10 papers presented at the seminar in English. The titles of these papers are: (1) Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, (2) General Review of Thorium Research in Japanese Universities, (3) Comprehensive Utilization and Economic Analysis of the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor, (4) Present States of Applied Health Physics in Japan, (5) Neutron Radiography with Kyoto University Reactor, (6) Topics of Experimental Works with Kyoto University Reactor, (7) Integral Check of Nuclear Data for Reactor Structural Materials, (8) The Reactor Core, Physical Experiments and the Operation Safety Regulation of the Zero Energy Thermal Reactor for PWR Nuclear Power Plant, (9) HFETR Core Physical Parameters at Power, (10) Physical Consideration for Loads of Operated Ten Cycles in HFETR. (author)
Aug 6, 2014 ... Understanding the performance of innovation strategies: How effective have efforts been to encourage closer links between science and industry through large ... progress at IDRC, its regional offices, or other academic and professional forums. The Awardee is expected to finalize their research paper in the ...
Martin, David S.; Craft, Anna R.; Tillema, Harm
Reseachers collaborating with international colleagues should consider cultural, structural, and interpersonal/interprofessional factors that impinge on the process. Before embarking on collaboration, researchers should understand each other's interests, seek funding for face-to-face meetings, and learn about each other's culture. (SK)
Blake, R O
The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together.
Clark, Mary Jo
Increasing globalization, population diversity and health disparities among non-dominant cultures necessitate cross-cultural research. Research with other cultures is fraught with challenges that must be addressed by the competent cross-cultural researcher. Areas for consideration include choice of research foci, ethical concerns, cultural adaptation of research measurements and interventions, participant recruitment and retention, strategies for data collection and analysis, dissemination of findings and perspectives of time. Approaches to dealing with these challenges are addressed, with an emphasis on community-based participatory research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Transcultural Experience and Multiple Biographies as a Research Topic Transculturality refers to the traditional understanding of culture as self-contained, concentrated around its own center and producing clear borders. “Trans” signifies the act of crossing; it signifies overcoming such borders. It looks at phenomena, people, and notions that are not limited to one communicational environment, but are represented in multiple locations, or contexts. Or rather—they cannot be fully ascribed to one “culture,” because they exhibit, traits of both (or more cultures. Culture studies often describe, also, people with “trans” life stories; it is not a matter of simple crossing of borders, living a bit in one environment and a bit in another. The point is that their sense of belonging is of a mixed, ambiguous character, and their identity is blurred. It is a question of practices that they draw from two or more sources, creating a peculiar amalgam characteristic of living “in between.” Transculturality, just like multiple biographies, means both partial belonging and dual belonging, which is very well illustrated by the case studies presented in the volume: they have in a way, varied roots, which means they bear unique, hybrid fruit. Doświadczenie transkulturowe i biografie wielorakie jako temat badawczy Transkulturowość odnosi się do tradycyjnego pojmowania kultury jako samowystarczalnej, skoncentrowanej na sobie i wytwarzającej wyraźne granice. Przyrostek „trans” oznacza akt przekraczania tak wytyczonych granic. Kategoria transkulturowości skłania do patrzenia na zjawiska, biografie i pojęcia jako coś, co nie ogranicza się do jednego środowiska komunikacyjnego, lecz występuje bądź przejawia się w wielu miejscach i kontekstach. Można też powiedzieć, że nie można ich przypisać do jednej „kultury”, ponieważ reprezentują cechy dwóch (lub więcej wspólnot kulturowych. Studia kulturowe często zajmuj
Huey, Mark C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aidun, John Bahram [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
We summarize the presentations and break out session discussions from the in-house workshop that was held on 11 July 2013 to acquaint a wider group of Sandians with the Beyond Moore Computing research challenge.
Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J
Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.
Apa, Zoltán L; Bai, RuoYu; Mukherejee, Dhritiman V; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Koenigsmann, Carl; Lowy, Franklin D; Larson, Elaine L
In this article, we discuss some of the challenges encountered while conducting research in two maximum security prisons and approaches we found helpful to facilitate the research process through the development of collaborative relationships, the establishment of prison contacts, and the implementation of rigorous research methods. As a result of our experiences, we have been successful at maintaining a high rate of inmate participation (>80%) and a well-functioning multidisciplinary team. The approaches described may be useful to other investigators planning to conduct research in a challenging setting such as prisons. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rieder, Gernot; Simon, Judith
With its promise to transform how we live, work, and think, Big Data has captured the imaginations of governments, businesses, and academia. However, the grand claims of Big Data advocates have been accompanied with concerns about potential detrimental implications for civil rights and liberties...... and implications of Big Data practices. However, the relationship between Big Data as a socio- technical phenomenon and TA as a discipline assessing such phenomena is a peculiar one: Big Data may be the first topic TA deals with that is not only an object of inquiry, but also a major competitor, rivaling TA...... in several of its core functions, including the assessment of public views and visions, means and methods for exploring the future, and the provision of actionable knowledge and advice for political decision-making. Our paper explores this dual relationship between Big Data and TA before concluding with some...
van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel
The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the
Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA, a common musculoskeletal disorder, is projected to affect about 60 million people of total world population by 2020. The associated pain and disability impair the quality of life and also pose economic burden to the patient. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely prescribed in OA, while diclofenac is the most prescribed one. Oral NSAIDs are not very patient friendly, as they cause various gastrointestinal adverse effects like bleeding, ulceration, and perforation. To enhance the tolerability of diclofenac and decrease the common side effects, aceclofenac (ACE was developed by its chemical modification. As expected, ACE is more well-tolerated than diclofenac and possesses superior efficacy but is not completely devoid of the NSAID-tagged side effects. A series of chemical modifications of already planned drug is unjustified as it consumes quanta of time, efforts, and money, and this approach will also pose stringent regulatory challenges. Therefore, it is justified to deliver ACE employing tools of drug delivery and nanotechnology to refine its safety profile. The present review highlights the constraints related to the topical delivery of ACE and the various attempts made so far for the safe and effective topical delivery employing the novel materials and methods.
Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I.
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic. PMID:27226905
Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic.
Full Text Available Purpose: Based on the weak tie theory, this paper proposes a series of connection indicators of weak tie subnets and weak tie nodes to detect research topics, recognize their connections, and understand their evolution. Design/methodology/approach: First, keywords are extracted from article titles and preprocessed. Second, high-frequency keywords are selected to generate weak tie co-occurrence networks. By removing the internal lines of clustered sub-topic networks, we focus on the analysis of weak tie subnets' composition and functions and the weak tie nodes' roles. Findings: The research topics' clusters and themes changed yearly; the subnets clustered with technique-related and methodology-related topics have been the core, important subnets for years; while close subnets are highly independent, research topics are generally concentrated and most topics are application-related; the roles and functions of nodes and weak ties are diversified. Research limitations: The parameter values are somewhat inconsistent; the weak tie subnets and nodes are classified based on empirical observations, and the conclusions are not verified or compared to other methods. Practical implications: The research is valuable for detecting important research topics as well as their roles, interrelations, and evolution trends. Originality/value: To contribute to the strength of weak tie theory, the research translates weak and strong ties concepts to co-occurrence strength, and analyzes weak ties' functions. Also, the research proposes a quantitative method to classify and measure the topics' clusters and nodes.
van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.
Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...
Yang, Yu-Hsiang; Bhikshu, Huimin; Tsaih, Rua-Huan
The purpose of this study was to propose a multi-layer topic map analysis of palliative care research using co-word analysis of informetrics with Growing Hierarchical Self-Organizing Map (GHSOM). The topic map illustrated the delicate intertwining of subject areas and provided a more explicit illustration of the concepts within each subject area. We applied GHSOM, a text-mining Neural Networks tool, to obtain a hierarchical topic map. The result of the topic map may indicate that the subject area of health care science and service played an importance role in multidiscipline within the research related to palliative care.
The Conference covers topics in the area of research reactor fuel handling, performance, properties, core conversion, accident analysis etc. Different types of fuels for research reactors and their behaviour are presented in details
de Rijke, Simon; Colstee, Jan-Willem
Waste collection is an important volume in city logistics today. In the LEVV-LOGIC project the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (NL) performed research on waste and the potential use of light commercial vehicles for waste collection in cities.
Guilherme, Viviane A; Ribeiro, Ligia N M; Tofoli, Giovana Radomille; Franz-Montan, Michelle; de Paula, Eneida; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo
Topical drug administration offers an attractive route with minimal invasiveness. It also avoids limitations of intravenous administration such as the first pass metabolism and presystemic elimination within the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, topical drug administration is safe, have few side effects, is easy to apply, and offers a fast onset of action. However, the development of effective topical formulations still represents a challenge for the desired effect to be reached, locally or systemically. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers are particular candidates to overcome the problem of topical drug administration. The nanometric particle size of lipid nanoparticles favors the physical adhesion to the skin or mucosal, what can also be attained with the formation of hybrid (nanoparticles/polymer) systems. In this review, we discuss the major challenges for lipid nanoparticles formulations for topical application to oral mucosa, skin, and eye, highlighting the strategies to improve the performance of lipid nanoparticles for topical applications. Next, we critically analyzed the in vitro and in vivo approaches used to evaluate lipid nanoparticles performance and toxicity. We addressed some major drawbacks related to lipid nanoparticle topical formulations and concluded the key points that have to be overcome to help them to reach the market in topical formulations to oral mucosa, skin and eye. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Maria McNulty Ferri
Full Text Available Introduction: Preservice teachers identify topics and formulate research questions in action research under the guidance of advisors in the teaching practicum of an undergraduate foreign languages teaching program in Colombia. Objective: To examine preservice teachers' and advisors' beliefs about useful methodological strategies to identify the topics and formulate the research questions, and the roles they assumed. Method: In this case study, structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used with the participants. Results: This study shows that journal writing, collaborative dialogue, exploring and expanding one's theoretical base, delimiting topics, and demonstrating work were useful strategies. Though preservice teachers took ownership of choosing topics and formulating questions, some shared roles led advisors to participate more actively in this process. Conclusions: The methodological process used to identify the topics and formulate the research questions is associated with a reflective professional development endeavour with individual and group reflection.
Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Reactors: A Review of a Few Scientific Challenges and of Related Recommended Research Topics Réacteur de pyrolyse rapide de la biomasse : une revue de quelques verrous scientifiques et d’actions de recherches recommandées
Full Text Available The use of biomass as an alternative energy resource requires its prior processing. Many options are possible. The present paper focuses on thermochemical routes and more specifically on fast pyrolysis carried out for the preparation of so called bio-oils. The optimization and scaling up of fast pyrolysis processes for improving bio oils yields and properties come up against several difficulties. The aim of the paper is to show that some of them are related to the lack of several basic scientific knowledges, more specifically at the level of the high temperature fast pyrolysis reactor. The analysis of these challenges (biomass sample thermal decomposition, biomass-reactor interactions, secondary reactions suggests the development of several research topics. L’utilisation de la biomasse en tant que ressource énergétique de substitution nécessite sa transformation préalable. De nombreuses options sont possibles. Cet article s’intéresse aux voies thermochimiques et plus spécifiquement à la pyrolyse rapide mise en oeuvre pour la préparation d’huiles de pyrolyse. L’optimisation et l’extrapolation des procédés de pyrolyse rapide pour améliorer les rendements et propriétés des huiles de pyrolyse se heurtent à plusieurs difficultés. Le but de cet article est de montrer que certaines sont liées au manque de certaines connaissances scientifiques de base, plus précisément au niveau du réacteur haute température. L’analyse de ces verrous (décomposition thermique d’un grain de biomasse, interactions biomasse-réacteur, réactions secondaires suggère le développement de plusieurs axes de recherche.
Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
In this report, recent research status for major developed countries in the high-level radioactive waste disposal including international organizations was investigated and analyzed in research topics for the radionuclide migration and retardation in natural barriers. Besides, recent research trends and future prospects were investigated for selected major 10 topics about the radionuclide migration and retardation processes. Based upon these investigations and analyses, future research goals and topics to be concentrated were presented. This report will be helpful for understanding our current research status and technical position and establishing future research direction and topics by analyzing domestic and foreign research status and trends. The results will also be utilized as basic information for establishing future policy and plans of the government for the high-level radioactive waste disposal.
Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang
In this report, recent research status for major developed countries in the high-level radioactive waste disposal including international organizations was investigated and analyzed in research topics for the radionuclide migration and retardation in natural barriers. Besides, recent research trends and future prospects were investigated for selected major 10 topics about the radionuclide migration and retardation processes. Based upon these investigations and analyses, future research goals and topics to be concentrated were presented. This report will be helpful for understanding our current research status and technical position and establishing future research direction and topics by analyzing domestic and foreign research status and trends. The results will also be utilized as basic information for establishing future policy and plans of the government for the high-level radioactive waste disposal
Full Text Available A critical element to the successful globalization of business requires the ability to cooperate across cultural borders. Thus, people of different cultural backgrounds are increasingly faced with the challenge of managing unfamiliar situations with unfamiliar people. Exactly this situation is where the ability to establish trusting relationships becomes a critical factor. Despite of the importance of the topic, little research exists on developing trust in intercultural settings. This article analyses the specific conditions of researching trusting relationships across cultures. Etic and emic research designs will be compared and discussed with respect to the specific conditions in cross-cultural and intercultural situations. A discussion is directed at to which extent different research approaches support our understanding of trust as a dynamic concept. The analyses will be used to identify implications relevant for further empirical research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901486
Richard J. Murnane
Full Text Available This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvantaged children. I will make the case that research provides encouraging evidence on several policy approaches. At the same time, the research reveals puzzles that I believe we need to take seriously in thinking about future research to inform the design of the next round of policies. Finally, I suggest some directions for policy research that come from taking seriously puzzles in the evidence.
Zhang, Fusheng; Liu, Guoliang; Ma, Junhan; Ouyang, Jian; Yi, Xiaoling; Su, Huimin
Main challenges in demulsifier research, such as demulsification of ASP flooding produced liquid, demulsification of heavy oil produced liquid, low temperature demulsification and fast demulsification, are summarized. Some importance technology routes to solve the challenges are proposed according to demulsification mechanisms and emulsion characteristics. The proposed routes include increasing aromaticity, molecular weight and branch degree of demulsifiers, and introducing double-function groups to demulsifiers for W/O and O/W emulsions, or groups with alkyl matching with alkyl carbon number of the crude oil into demulsifier molecule. The demulsification mechanisms of the above-mentioned research routes are described in detail.
Full Text Available The emergence of the opportunities opened by the internet raises also questions of interest for research regarding the extent to which these have an impact on the formations of non heterosexual life and on the experience of marginalised sexual identities. There have been different approaches in this regard and answers vary from optimistic and utopian appraisals concerning cyberspace in the early 90s to the more moderate and sceptic visions in the 2000s. Starting from this framework of debates, the present paper aims to explore the meaning of the term “cyberqueer”, including the theoretical context of its occurrence, to briefly highlight some critical considerations relating to cyberqueer research and to look over the main recurrent themes linked up with this concept, such as queer and cyberqueer identity, body and (disembodied practices and the forthcoming process of blurring the dividing boundaries between real/virtual, online/offline and public/private
Luschikov, V.I.; Pikelner, L.B.; Popov, Yu.P.; Frank, I.M.; Sharapov, E.I.; Yazvitskii, Yu.S.
The physical parameters of the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor and research programs carried out on the reactor are described. Design values for an instantaneous thermal neutron fluxes are: 10 17 and 10 16 cm -2 s -1 inside and from the surface of the moderator respectively. In combination with the heavy current, short pulse injector (electron induction accelerator LIU-30 being under construction now) it will become a unique neutron source for the time-of-flight investigations in the energy range from 10 -7 to 10 6 eV. The characteristics of the complex IBR-2 + LIU-30 are described. The neutron beams are numbered and their use in the condensed matter and applied research is mentioned. The program for the experiments on the IBR-2 connected with nα, nγ and nf cross section measurements as well as neutron cross section study for few nucleon systems are reported. The prospects for nuclear physics research on the LIU-30 nonmultiplying target facility are outlined using as examples the experiments with polarized neutrons and nuclei and some others. The description is illustrated with the results obtained recently on the IBR-30 operating pulsed reactor
Wilson, Elena; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Ethical challenges in community-based participatory research (CBPR) are of increasing interest to researchers; however, it is not known how widespread these challenges are or how extensively the topic has been explored. Using Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review method, studies on ethical challenges in CBPR were mapped. Findings indicate that researchers continue to raise questions about ethics associated with CBPR. Our purpose in this article is to present a thematic summary of international ethical challenges as a guide for researchers interested in community participatory approaches and to better prepare them for qualitative health research with communities.
Full Text Available The world is faced with the challenge to feed an estimated 9 billion population of the Earth by 2050. To address the scientific evidence for the safety of food, I searched the Web of Science bibliographical and citation database for most cited articles from this research area. The topics with greatest impact on the research community, judged by their annual rate of citations during the last decade, were foodborne pathogens and toxins, with emerging genetic studies and new methods of visualising toxins on surfaces. Epidemiological and survey studies demonstrated that there was systematic effort to document, rapidly detect and control epidemic spread of disease and that these measures decreased the threat to food safety in developed countries, but that there is still much room for improvement. Research relevant for developing countries included the potential molecular targets to alleviate accumulation of arsenic in rice. As in other areas of research and life, human factor seems to be the most important one for the safety of food. The five keys to safer food of the WHO – keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials – are thus still very relevant for the developed as much as the developing world.
Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…
Braam, G P A
There is much research into problems of the elderly in The Netherlands. It seems however that studies from a macro-sociological perspective are scarce. This is discussed in greater detail focusing on the concept of power. Using a well-known definition of Max Weber, it is assumed that the dependency of many older people gives rise to serious powerlessness. Firstly this is reflected in the usual problem representation, with shows a heavy emphasis on "dangers" of the burden of the babyboom-generation and on the "leisure class-life" of old people. Second, considering the policy measures with the pensions and the care system, the question can be raised if a countervailing power is actually present. In most cases a comparison with younger cohorts is lacking, and there is not much insight in the processes underlying the decision making processes and the networks involved.
Black, Donald W.
Summary Responding to the survey of 5580 college students in South India in the study of George et al, the author discusses the universality of addictive gambling and its stereotyped nature. This study, together with work in North America and elsewhere, argues for more research that targets prevalence, risk factors, course, and treatment. The author points out the challenge of conducting research when funding is hard to obtain. Declaration of interests None. Copyright and usage ? The Royal Co...
Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans
This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....
The benefits and impacts of enhanced cellulosic ethanol (CE) production, the major features of existing production processes, and some current research challenges of major pretreatment processes are presented. The prospects of enhanced CE production, especially in developing economies like Nigeria are highlighted.
Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lehner, Wolfgang
This panel paper aims at initiating discussion at the Second International Workshop on Energy Data Management (EnDM 2013) about the important research challenges within Energy Data Management. The authors are the panel organizers, extra panelists will be recruited before the workshop...
Ji, Li Li; Diffee, Gary; Schrage, William
Similar to other subdisciplines in kinesiology, exercise physiology (EP) as a field is facing challenges in both research (creation and dissemination of new knowledge) and education (classroom instruction and student mentoring). In the current communication, we will learn from the history, analyze the current status of the field, and provide some…
Full Text Available Most Muslim theologians have argued on the basis of the ḥadīth-literature that tattooing is ḥarām (forbidden, but it is nonetheless possible to find both historical and contemporary examples indicating that, at different times and in different places, this art was practiced by certain Islamic groups. With specific reference to washm,or tattooing, it has been well documented that certain Muslim groups (e.g., the Berbers and the Bedouins in places such as Africa, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iran and West Pakistan have used tattoos for beautification, prophylaxis and the prevention of disease. Among Islam’s lay populations, tattooing has been considered significant as a healing practice for a very long time despite the formal opinions of Islamic scholars and theologians. And while in more recent times these Muslim groups appear to have abandoned past notions about the function of tattoos, which had caused a certain waning of the practice, of late it has had a resurgence—although for reasons that differ from those of distant times. The rise of interest in tattoos among Muslims has been directly observed by a handful of contemporary researchers, and is indirectly indicated by the fact that many contemporary Muslim authorities have expressed growing concern about the practice.This development has been further spurred on by the fact that many Muslims are actively seeking advice and clarification about where Islam stands on the matter of tattoos. The aim of of this article is to sketch the background of the more formal theological discussion on tattooing (especially in the ḥadīth-literature. It also aims to examine a number of contemporary religious texts that specifically deal with Muslim theological opinions about this practice: what is considered to be the problem; and what types of arguments are employed by the selected theologians in their attempts to provide answers. Is it possible to see the renewed interest in tattoos as an example of the
Anke van Gorp
Full Text via Link. Programmes to address non- or pre -violent radicalisation can be justified if the programmes focus on helping adolescents in their quest for a good life. At this moment research is necessary to evaluate what types of programmes work in this regard. Research in this sensitive
Full Text Available As the product-service system (PSS is considered a promising business model that can create more value for customers, PSS research has enjoyed remarkable growth in its volume and coverage over the last decade. This study aims to delineate the thematic landscape of PSS research by identifying latent topics from a large amount of scholarly data. Ten topics of PSS research are identified by applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model to 1229 PSS publications published between 2000 and 2016. The ten PSS topics are briefly reviewed to provide an overview of what has previously been studied in PSS research. We also investigate which topics rise or fall in popularity by identifying hot and cold topics of PSS research. It is observed that the focus of discussions on the benefits of PSS has shifted from sustainability to value creation. Also, increasing attention has been paid to more practical topics such as PSS implementation. The areas of subspecialty of the top ten PSS journals are also examined to explore the interdisciplinary nature of PSS research and thematic differences across disciplines. The findings of this study can provide rich implications for both academia and practice in the field of PSS.
Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat
In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.
Accelerators are key instruments for fundamental research, health and industry applications. International collaboration is very important for their continued optimisation. To address this oPAC is organising this two-day international workshop on Grand Challenges in Accelerator Optimisation. The workshop will provide an overview of the current state of the art in beam physics, numerical simulations and beam instrumentation and highlight existing limitations. It will discuss research and development being undertaken and ambitions to further improve the performance of existing and future facilities. In addition to invited talks, there will be industry displays and a special seminar covering recent LHC discoveries. All participants will have an opportunity to contribute a poster.
Black, Donald W
Responding to the survey of 5580 college students in South India in the study of George et al , the author discusses the universality of addictive gambling and its stereotyped nature. This study, together with work in North America and elsewhere, argues for more research that targets prevalence, risk factors, course, and treatment. The author points out the challenge of conducting research when funding is hard to obtain. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.
Weaver, Connie M; Miller, Joshua W
Clinical nutrition research has played a pivotal role in establishing causality between diet or nutrient intake and health outcome measures and in the determination of dietary requirements and levels of supplementation to achieve specific outcomes. Because the studies are performed with humans, clinical nutrition research can be readily translated into public health messages. However, there are many challenges and considerations unique to the field, such as the baseline nutritional status of study participants, defining appropriate control groups, effective blinding of participants and investigators, the evolving ethics of randomized control trials, and a tension in a priori decisions regarding inclusion of nutritionally vulnerable participants versus representative samples of general populations. Regulatory approvals that place increasing burdens on the ability of investigators to carry out and complete research protocols have grown dramatically in recent years. There is much room for improved efficiency in the approval and reporting processes aimed at protecting volunteers and providing transparency to the public. Decreased redundancy would have a direct benefit to clinical nutrition research and investigators. Despite these challenges, the information to be gained and the rewards of clinical nutrition research remain high. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available In recent years, learning analytics (LA has attracted a great deal of attention in technology-enhanced learning (TEL research as practitioners, institutions, and researchers are increasingly seeing the potential that LA has to shape the future TEL landscape. Generally, LA deals with the development of methods that harness educational data sets to support the learning process. This paper provides a foundation for future research in LA. It provides a systematic overview on this emerging field and its key concepts through a reference model for LA based on four dimensions, namely data, environments, context (what?, stakeholders (who?, objectives (why?, and methods (how?. It further identifies various challenges and research opportunities in the area of LA in relation to each dimension.
This paper will address the translation of basic stem cell research into clinical research. While "stem cell" trials are sometimes used to describe established practices of bone marrow transplantation or transplantation of primary cells derived from bone marrow, for the purposes of this paper, I am primarily focusing on stem cell trials which are far less established, including use of hESC derived stem cells. The central ethical challenges in stem cell clinical trials arise in frontier research, not in standard, well-established areas of research.
Full Text Available Linkage of population-based administrative data is a valuable tool for combining detailed individual-level information from different sources for research. While not a substitute for classical studies based on primary data collection, analyses of linked administrative data can answer questions that require large sample sizes or detailed data on hard-to-reach populations, and generate evidence with a high level of external validity and applicability for policy making. There are unique challenges in the appropriate research use of linked administrative data, for example with respect to bias from linkage errors where records cannot be linked or are linked together incorrectly. For confidentiality and other reasons, the separation of data linkage processes and analysis of linked data is generally regarded as best practice. However, the ‘black box’ of data linkage can make it difficult for researchers to judge the reliability of the resulting linked data for their required purposes. This article aims to provide an overview of challenges in linking administrative data for research. We aim to increase understanding of the implications of (i the data linkage environment and privacy preservation; (ii the linkage process itself (including data preparation, and deterministic and probabilistic linkage methods and (iii linkage quality and potential bias in linked data. We draw on examples from a number of countries to illustrate a range of approaches for data linkage in different contexts.
Full Text Available As a new antioxidant, nanoceria is of significant importance in applications of medical and biological fields. In comparison with conventional organic antioxidants, nanoceria has multienzyme mimetic activity by Ce4+/Ce3+ redox cycle. This unique regenerative/autocatalytic property has been widely used in the aspects of free-radical scavenger, radiation protection, oxidative-stress-related disease, drug delivery, biosensor, tissue engineering, cancer biomarker, and anti-inflammatory. This paper reviews the latest breakthrough of nanoceria as an antioxidant in applications of medical and biological fields on the base of the authors’ research works on resistance to oxidation and cytotoxicity. The challenges of nanoceria encountered in applications in medical and biological fields are commented as well.
Gautam, Ujjal K.; Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Bando, Yoshio; Fang, Xiaosheng; Li, Liang; Imura, Masataka; Golberg, Dmitri
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.
Georgiopoulos, M.; DeMara, R. F.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Wu, A. S.; Mollaghasemi, M.; Gelenbe, E.; Kysilka, M.; Secretan, J.; Sharma, C. A.; Alnsour, A. J.
This paper presents an integrated research and teaching model that has resulted from an NSF-funded effort to introduce results of current Machine Learning research into the engineering and computer science curriculum at the University of Central Florida (UCF). While in-depth exposure to current topics in Machine Learning has traditionally occurred…
Full Text Available The main driver for this special issue was a profound concern about prison research and its future. The development of penal policy these days seems to be driven by levers such as increasing ‘law and order’ discourse which claims that the use of imprisonment is legitimate and that ‘prison works’; neo-liberal punitiveness in the implementation of imprisonment; and a managerial focus on ‘what works’ in prisons. This situation carries the risks that statutory agencies and academic researchers are drifting apart, which might jeopardise both the future of prison research and the evidence base of penal policy.The focus of this special issue is not on the ‘findings’ of prison research but, more importantly, on ‘how’ we do it and ‘why’ we do it certain ways, including the many legitimate concerns around access, choice of method, managing field work and communicating results, as well as ethical dilemmas that arise in all of these situations. We provide space for this very important discussion, reflecting not only the practical challenges of researching a total institution but also the politics which permeates every stage of such research. We invite you, the reader, to join us in this conversation.Download the PDF file from this page to find out more about this special edition.
de Toledo, Renata Ferraz; Giatti, Leandro Luiz
In order to understand and take action in complex health and environmental issues, we intend to analyse the conditions that are needed for those at risk to participate in research and intervention projects. In this study, we describe and discuss an action research experience carried out with an indigenous community in the Brazilian Amazon that suffers from serious sanitary problems, where cultural aspects in the relationship with the environment and health are particularly relevant. Different types of tools were deployed and combined and were subsequently classified according to their dialectic efficacy and ability to both conduct and steer the research and encourage the participation of social actors within a process of feedback. Even tools that were considered to be non-dialectic proved to be important sources of feedback. We present a research flow as a model of analysis and a framework for implementing action research, in which challenges to the participation of social actors are classified according to their priority through a critical review of the methodology developed. These challenges are social mobilization, co-operation, appropriation and a proactive stance. We conclude that a cyclic combination of dialectic and non-dialectic tools can increase participation, which though difficult to achieve is nevertheless necessary. During the development of this process, social mobilization is a prerequisite, whereas a proactive stance, the highest level of participation, requires continuous effort and the successive deployment of a variety of tools. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kiing, Jennifer S H; Rajgor, Dimple; Toh, Teck-Hock
Translation of developmental-behavioral screening tools for use worldwide can be daunting. We summarize issues in translating these tools. METHODS: Instead of a theoretical framework of "equivalence" by Pena and International Test Commission guidelines, we decided upon a practical approach used by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS). We derived vignettes from the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status manual and published literature and mapped them to AAOS. RESULTS: We found that a systematic approach to planning and translating developmental-behavioral screeners is essential to ensure "equivalence" and encourage wide consultation with experts. CONCLUSION: Our narrative highlights how translations can result in many challenges and needed revisions to achieve "equivalence" such that the items remain consistent, valid, and meaningful in the new language for use in different cultures. Information sharing across the community of researchers is encouraged. This narrative may be helpful to novice researchers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lai, J; Maibach, H I
What are efficient screening models for improved topical antifungals? The use of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as one such parameter is discussed; we focus on the use of animal membranes for in vitro testing while highlighting the pros and cons of each model, exploring alternatives and discussing the importance of data transferability to humans and the influence of penetration kinetics in topical antifungal efficacy. Ultimately, the gold standard of testing is in vivo in humans; however, initiating with human testing, especially for novel topical antifungal agents, may be impractical, which is why we seek the ideal experimental model that most closely mimics human skin. We conclude that the pig may be an appropriate model membrane for topical antifungal testing based on its similarities in anatomical structure, physiology and permeation to human skin. Most importantly, pig and human skins appear equally permeable to several antifungals in prior in vitro and in vivo work. We do not discuss all prior work but highlight important issues in designing the protocol and parameters of the ideal experimental model for topical antifungals. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The ENS topical meeting on research reactor fuel management is an annual conference launched successfully in 1997. It has since then grown into well established international forum for the exchange and expertise on all significant aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle of research reactors. Oral presentations at this meeting were divided in the following four sessions: International Topics; Fuel Development, Qualification, Fabrication and Licensing; Reactor Operation, Fuel Safety and Core Conversion; Spent Fuel Management, Back-end Options, Transportation. The three poster sessions were devoted to fuel development, qualification, fabrication and licensing; reactor operation, fuel safety, core conversion, spent fuel; spent fuel management, fuel cycle back-end options, transportation
In this contribution we discuss the conceptual and methodological challenges with which participation research must deal to achieve long-term success. It is not the aim of this paper to identify solutions to those problems, but rather to facilitate their discussion by enhancing the awareness of the complexity of implementing high-quality participation research.1. It is important that studies on participation research specify which aspects of the concept "participation" are being addressed, in other words, how the term is being interpreted. This would improve interdisciplinary communication beyond one's immediate research field while increasing cumulative knowledge.2. Fully-developed participation research is generally only conceivable when carried out in an interdisciplinary manner. Its current status can be considered a transition between pre-interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary efforts requiring further development. The key factor to the success of any interdisciplinary activity is each researcher's attitude, that is, interdisciplinary projects must be "carried" by the readiness of the entire team to share as well as question their individual knowledge and expertise and to show a willingness to learn from others. The research's prevailing conditions can make this easier when the functioning, communicative relationships among participation researchers are set up to construct and incorporate an acknowledged repertoire of methodology and knowledge and when participation researchers design specific promotion and career structures.3. Another main element of such shared knowledge would be methods and theories addressing the integrated consideration of personal and environmental characteristics. Social-ecological models, especially those used in the preventive sciences and public health field, would provide a good basis for integrating theories. These models aim to define personal factors in conjunction with aspects of the social and attitudinal environment of an
Timraz, Shahrazad M; Alhasanat, Dalia I; Albdour, Maha M; Lewin, Linda; Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen
Recruiting minority groups such as Arab Americans (Ar-Am) for research studies has been challenging. To date no studies were found that explicitly addressed challenges to recruit Ar-Am for sensitive research. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges across three pilot studies that involved Ar-Am samples and the strategies that were implemented to overcome these challenges. The challenges faced with conducting studies with Ar-Am included difficulty for participants to express emotions, influence of male/female authority to consent for the study, lack of trust to disclose sensitive information, language barrier, and slow recruitment. Having bilingual female recruiters of Arabic descent, engaging the women's family members in the consent process, and addressing the sensitive topics in culturally appropriate language were effective strategies to overcome these challenges. These strategies might be helpful for other researchers who recruit Ar-Am for sensitive research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sialve, Bruno; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz
Integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) with microalgae processes has become a key topic to support economic and environmental development of this resource. Compared with other substrates, microalgae can be produced close to the plant without the need for arable lands and be fully integrated within a biorefinery. As a limiting step, anaerobic hydrolysis appears to be one of the most challenging steps to reach a positive economic balance and to completely exploit the potential of microalgae for biogas and fertilizers production. This review covers recent investigations dealing with microalgae AD and highlights research opportunities and needs to support the development of this resource. Novel approaches to increase hydrolysis rate, the importance of the reactor design and the noteworthiness of the microbial anaerobic community are addressed. Finally, the integration of AD with microalgae processes and the potential of the carboxylate platform for chemicals and biofuels production are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Operational research (OR) is the discipline of using models, either quantitative or qualitative, to aid decision-making in complex implementation problems. The methods of OR have been used in healthcare since the 1950s in diverse areas such as emergency medicine and the interface between acute and community care; hospital performance; scheduling and management of patient home visits; scheduling of patient appointments; and many other complex implementation problems of an operational or logistical nature. To date, there has been limited debate about the role that operational research should take within implementation science. I detail three such roles for OR all grounded in upfront system thinking: structuring implementation problems, prospective evaluation of improvement interventions, and strategic reconfiguration. Case studies from mental health, emergency medicine, and stroke care are used to illustrate each role. I then describe the challenges for applied OR within implementation science at the organisational, interventional, and disciplinary levels. Two key challenges include the difficulty faced in achieving a position of mutual understanding between implementation scientists and research users and a stark lack of evaluation of OR interventions. To address these challenges, I propose a research agenda to evaluate applied OR through the lens of implementation science, the liberation of OR from the specialist research and consultancy environment, and co-design of models with service users. Operational research is a mature discipline that has developed a significant volume of methodology to improve health services. OR offers implementation scientists the opportunity to do more upfront system thinking before committing resources or taking risks. OR has three roles within implementation science: structuring an implementation problem, prospective evaluation of implementation problems, and a tool for strategic reconfiguration of health services. Challenges facing OR
The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.
Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.
Burgos, D. (2006). IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization. Presentation at the 8th International Simposio of Educational Computer Science. October, 24-27, 2006, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology.
Malavolta, Ivano; Capilla, Rafael
This summary reports the workshops accepted in the 1st International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA 2017), held by Chalmers University at Gothenburg (Sweden). We gather the description of current and new research trends in different software architecture topics to provide a wide view to
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted “global” in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted "global" in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on
The RRFM Conference is organized by the European Nuclear Society (ENS) with co-operation of the IAEA. It includes detailed scientific and technical reports reports on the following main topics: Fuel development, qualification, fabrication and licensing; Spent fuel management, back-end options and transportation; Reactor operation, fuel safety and core conversion; Innovative methods in research reactor analysis; Global Treat Reduction Initiative
Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.; Durach, Christian F.
The purpose of this article is to identify research topics that are emerging in the field of supply chain management [SCM]. The analysis is based on survey data collected from leading SCM researchers. It is found that big data analytics, sustainability, risk management, health care, emerging...... markets and networks are expected to become important research areas. It is further found that not enough attention will be paid to internal integration, transparency/visibility, ethical issues and the “people dimension” of SCM. This research is intended to help editors, researchers, students and managers...
Yacobi, Avraham; Shah, Vinod P; Bashaw, Edward D
methods for evaluation of BE was discussed. The outcome of the workshop emphasized both a need for greater attention to quality, possibly, via a Quality-By-Design (QBD) approach and a need to develop a "whole toolkit" approach towards the problem of determination of rate and extent in the assessment...... topical products. The methods currently available for assessment of BE were reviewed as well as alternatives and the advantages and disadvantages of each method were considered. Guidance on quality and performance of topical products was reviewed and a framework to categorise existing and alternative...... industry and regulators work together to evaluate and validate alternative methods that are based on both the underlying science and are adapted to the drug product itself instead of single "universal" method....
Pattison, Morgan [Solid State Lighting Services, Inc. SSLS (United States)
A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.
Digital heritage comprises a broad variety of approaches and topics and involves researchers from multiple disciplines. While the use of digital methods in the text-oriented disciplines dealing with cultural heritage is widely discussed and canonized, an up-to-date investigation on cultural heritage as a scholarly field is currently missing. The extended abstract is about a three-stage investigation on standards, publications, disciplinary cultures as well as scholars in the field of digital heritage, carried out in 2016 and 2017. It includes results of a workshop-based survey involving 44 researchers, 15 qualitative interviews as well as an online survey with nearly 1000 participants. As an overall finding, a community is driven by researchers from European countries and especially Italy with a background in humanities, dealing with topics of data acquisition, data management and visualization. Moreover, conference series are most relevant for a scientific discourse, and especially EU projects set pace as most important research endeavours.
Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A
This article draws attention to the limited amount of scholarship on what constitutes fairness and equity in resource allocation to health research by individual funders. It identifies three key decisions of ethical significance about resource allocation that research funders make regularly and calls for prioritizing scholarship on those topics - namely, how health resources should be fairly apportioned amongst public health and health care delivery versus health research, how health research resources should be fairly allocated between health problems experienced domestically versus other health problems typically experienced by disadvantaged populations outside the funder's country, and how domestic and non-domestic health research funding should be further apportioned to different areas, e.g. types of research and recipients. These three topics should be priorities for bioethics research because their outcomes have a substantial bearing on the achievement of health justice. The proposed agenda aims to move discussion on the ethics of health research funding beyond its current focus on the mismatch between worldwide basic and clinical research investment and the global burden of disease. Individual funders' decision-making on whether and to what extent to allocate resources to non-domestic health research, health systems research, research on the social determinants of health, capacity development, and recipients in certain countries should also be the focus of ethical scrutiny. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…
Gallagher, Austin J; Hammerschlag, Neil; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J
For centuries, the primary manner in which humans have interacted with sharks has been fishing. A combination of their slow-growing nature and high use-values have resulted in population declines for many species around the world, and to date the vast majority of fisheries-related work on sharks has focused on the commercial sector. Shark recreational fishing remains an overlooked area of research despite the fact that these practices are popular globally and could present challenges to their populations. Here we provide a topical overview of shark recreational fisheries, highlighting their history and current status. While recreational fishing can provide conservation benefits under certain circumstances, we focus our discourse on the relatively understudied, potentially detrimental impacts these activities may have on shark physiology, behavior, and fitness. We took this angle given the realized but potentially underestimated significance of recreational fishing for shark conservation management plans and stock assessments, in hopes of creating a dialogue around sustainability. We also present a series of broad and focused research questions and underpin areas of future research need to assist with the development of this emergent area of research.
Full Text Available The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, “isolate, inactivate, and inject” the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.
Fabrizio Maria Maggi
Full Text Available Business informatics research bridges management and engineering domains and facilitates communication between scientific and practical applications. The sixth issue of the journal of Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly contains four publications that present the extended papers from the workshops of the 14th International Conference on Perspectives in Business Informatics Research (BIR 2015 that was organized in Tartu, Estonia, 26-28 August, 2015. The BIR 2015 workshops captured important and novel topics on information logistics and knowledge supply, security and compliance in business processes, and use of ontologies in information systems. Within this context the fifth publication included in this issue complements the topic of the business informatics research with the investigation of a model-driven approach on the gesture-based interaction in information systems.
To reflect on the author's personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. When discussing care at the end of life, researchers must accept that some participants may become distressed or emotional, depending on their previous experiences. Interviews that involve sensitive topics require careful planning. The semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the author's PhD study examining the experiences of advance care planning among family caregivers of people with advanced dementia. A reflection on my personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. The frustration and tragedy of dementia, as experienced by the family caregivers, were powerful and required the author to exert self-control to avoid being overly sympathetic and offering words of reassurance, agreement and comfort. This blurring of roles between researcher and nurse has implications for all nurse researchers who undertake qualitative interviews, particularly when an intense emotional response is likely. Nurse researchers should plan and prepare for potential blurring of roles during emotional interviews and should never automatically assume that they are sufficiently prepared as a result of their previous experience and nurse training.
Simpson, Kerri L.; Wilson-Smith, Kevin
This research explored the experience of five undergraduates who engaged with qualitative research as part of their final dissertation project. There have been concerns raised over the emotional safety of researchers carrying out qualitative research, which increases when researchers are inexperienced making this a poignant issues for lectures…
Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, policy makers and professionals who provide services to older adults with chronic conditions and impairments have placed greater emphasis on conceptualizing aging in place as an attainable and worthwhile goal. Little is known, however, of the changes in how this concept has evolved in aging research. To track trends in aging in place, we examined scholarly articles published from 1980 to 2010 that included the concept in eleven academic gerontology journals. We report an increase in the absolute number and proportion of aging-in-place manuscripts published during this period, with marked growth in the 2000s. Topics related to the environment and services were the most commonly examined during 2000–2010 (35% and 31%, resp., with a substantial increase in manuscripts pertaining to technology and health/functioning. This underscores the increase in diversity of topics that surround the concept of aging-in-place literature in gerontological research.
competitiveness, measured in terms of scientific yield and citations, primarily affects fields where articles and citations are not the traditional outputs, such as the humanities and social sciences in general and planning-related disciplines in particular. When discussing planning, it has to be stressed out that research has a merely societal value and is not aimed at developing products that can foster economic growth or delivering scientific articles that profoundly change the theoretical perspectives. Simply put, research in planning aims at increasing the safety and welfare of people. As a consequence, planning research topics have shifted from providing scientific grounds to regional development policies, to addressing research quality and social responsibility or producing research guidelines. This article looks at the particular case of Romanian planning research based on SCImago data, in an attempt to assess whether this field is able to meet these global challenges, especially after the consistent, albeit uneven, in terms of goal and pace, application of new research policies designed after joining the European Union, which were aimed at increasing its article output and its international visibility. The findings indicate that the numerical growth of articles and publications is spectacular in Romania for most fields, and even more so within the humanities, the social sciences and planning. However, the question remains whether this impressive growth is supported by an increase in quality. We have therefore left aside matters such as the globalization of authors, topics or citations. These aspects require a more in-depth research effort.
Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.
This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.
Full Text Available Academic publication metadata can be used to analyze the collaboration, productivity and hot topic trends of a research community. In this paper, we study a specific group of authors, namely the top active authors. They are defined as the top 1% authors with uninterrupted and continuous presence in scientific publications over a time window. We take the top active authors in the Computer Science (CS community over different time windows in the past 50 years, and use them to analyze collaboration, productivity and topic trends. We show that (a the top active authors are representative of the overall population; (b the community is increasingly moving in the direction of Team Research, with increased level and degree of collaboration; and (c the research topics are increasingly inter-related. By focusing on the top active authors, it helps visualize these trends better. Besides, the observations from top active authors also shed light on design of better evaluation framework and resource management for policy makers in academia.
Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong
This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…
APOPO) recent use of specially trained African giant pouched rats as detectors of pulmonary tuberculosis in people living in Tanzania. It summarizes the achievements and challenges encountered over the years and outlines future prospects.
Maria Jesus Monteagudo
Full Text Available Leisure itineraries are part of the new research topics associated with Leisure Studies. Its knowledge brings us closer to the processes related to the birth, development and decline of our hobbies and interests. It helps us understand our leisure and its impact on life satisfaction, but also sheds light on the role of practices that have to do with our self-identification and health habits associated with the quality of life. The article focuses on the accuracy of the concept and discusses the main directions of research, enabling an approach to the current knowledge about itineraries. The authors referred to, mainly Americans, question the impact of continuity and change and, on the other hand, analyze the impact of interpersonal differences in the evolution of itineraries.From a strictly academic approach, one of the main contributions of the application of the concept of leisure itineraries to the study of consolidation lies in the treatment of leisure as a process. This point of view moves us away from the study of purely objective aspects and leads us to personal implications, without which the meaning of leisure experience is difficult to understand. At the end of the paper, the challenges the study opens and the contributions involving both the orientation of the educational offer and the pedagogy of leisure are presented. The study of leisure itineraries allows us to reinforce the importance of leisure as a factor of human development throughout life and legitimizes its support through specific policies, management models and intervention actions.
Shen, Shi; Cheng, Changxiu; Yang, Jing; Yang, Shanli
This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015) are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. "Prediction model", "social vulnerability", and "landslide inventory map" are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI) and an attractive index (AAI) to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts.
Full Text Available This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015 are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. "Prediction model", "social vulnerability", and "landslide inventory map" are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI and an attractive index (AAI to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts.
Rintamaa, R.; Aho-Mantila, I.
The NULIFE (Nuclear plant life prediction) European network of excellence is described in detail. The following topics are highlighted: Vision; Consortium; Organization and working methods; Research and development planning; Research project portfolio (pilot projects, umbrella projects); Strategic research planning; and Conclusions. (P.A.)
The agricultural sustainability challenge is often formulated in terms of meeting the increasing demand for food of a growing and wealthier world population while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. Strategies to meet this challenge include increasing agricultural yields, saving land and
Full Text Available Given the research interest on Big Data in Marketing, we present a research literature analysis based on a text mining semi-automated approach with the goal of identifying the main trends in this domain. In particular, the analysis focuses on relevant terms and topics related with five dimensions: Big Data, Marketing, Geographic location of authors’ affiliation (countries and continents, Products, and Sectors. A total of 1560 articles published from 2010 to 2015 were scrutinized. The findings revealed that research is bipartite between technological and research domains, with Big Data publications not clearly aligning cutting edge techniques toward Marketing benefits. Also, few inter-continental co-authored publications were found. Moreover, findings show that research in Big Data applications to Marketing is still in an embryonic stage, thus making it essential to develop more direct efforts toward business for Big Data to thrive in the Marketing arena.
Slater, M.D.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Cohen, E.L.
Messages pose fundamental challenges and opportunities for empirical communication research. To address these challenges and opportunities, we distinguish between message variability (the defined and operationalized features of messages in a given study) and message heterogeneity (all message
Zheng, Lanqin; Huang, Ronghuai; Yu, Junhui
This study aims to identity the emerging research trends in the field of computed-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) so as to provide insights for researchers and educators into research topics and issues for further exploration. This paper analyzed the research topics, methods and technology adoption of CSCL from 2003 to 2012. A total of 706…
Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
Complex societal issues, related to health and sustainability, provide major challenges to scientists, business managers, and policy makers alike. Despite their diversity, these issues have in common that effective solutions to public health (e.g., reducing prevalence of overweight and obesity) and
This paper explores the challenges, opportunities and achievements that nursing students face when supervised across culture, language borders and distance. A qualitative, exploratory, single descriptive case study was used in the city of Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 18 participants took part ...
Wu, Ying; Jin, Xing; Xue, Yunzhen
With the rapid increase in the incidence of mental disorders and mental issues, psychiatry has become one of the fastest growing clinical medical disciplines. Development priorities and research foci in this field have evolved over different periods.All the articles in 10 psychiatric journals with the highest impact factors were selected from the Science Citation Index (SCI) in Web of Science from 2001 to 2015. The information visualization software Sci was used to conduct co-word and clustering analyses on these articles. The articles were divided into 3 periods: 2001 to 2005, 2006 to 2010, and 2011 to 2015. Each bibliographic record contained a title, author names, abstract, keywords, references, and other information.During the 3 periods between 2001 and 2015, child and adolescent psychiatry, major depression, schizophrenia, and prefrontal cortex were constant research foci. The brain and meta-analysis gradually became new research foci, although research on symptoms slowly decreased. Molecular genetics was also an area of interest.Using scientometrics technology to visualize research foci can provide us with new ideas and research methods. Co-word analysis for the preliminary exploration of research foci and developmental trends in psychiatry is helpful in finding developmental rules, choices of topics, and innovative research. Our study had some limitations. In the future, we should expand our research scope and use a variety of research methods to enrich our results.
Hood, R.R.; Wiggert, J.D.; Naqvi, S.W.A.
has created new opportunities for carrying out biogeochemical and ecological research. International research efforts should be motivated to exploit these opportunities for addressing the questions identified in this chapter...
Clark, P. D.; Dowling, N. I.; Marriott, R.A.; Primak, A.; Davis, P.M. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd (Canada)
This conference presentation is a combined effort by Alberta Sulfur Research, Ltd (ASRL) and the University of Calgary; it focuses on sulfur production technology and the ongoing research behind it. This presentation deals mainly with the use of sulfur in the oil sand industry, sulfur recovery in Claus systems, and sulfur management issues. Sulfur formation, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, and the use of liquid sulfur in bitumen coking in the petrochemical industries were discussed first. This was later followed by an illustration of how sulfur recovery efficiency is greatly enhanced by catalytic tail gas incineration and improved liquid sulfur degassing technologies. A comparative scheme between the current process and the new research in utilizing sulfur in nickel metal production was also presented, showing how the new research results in less waste. In conclusion, the effects of polymeric sulfur on the strength of the solid were discussed, showing a linear relationship between the two parameters.
Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P
In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.
Applications of particle accelerators cover a number of areas, from strategic and applied research, safety and security, environmental applications, materials research and analytical sciences, to radioisotope production and radiation processing. Accelerator based techniques and pulsed neutron sources are expected to lead to new initiatives in materials research of relevance for both the nuclear and non-nuclear fields. Material science studies with the use of accelerators, neutron beams and other nuclear analytical methods are relevant to the development of advanced reactors, nuclear fuel cycle needs and fusion research. In this regard, a better understanding of the irradiation effects in materials for energy and non-energy applications is needed, and is reflected in accelerator techniques for modification and analysis of materials for nuclear technologies. Accelerator applications for innovative nuclear systems aiming at rad-waste transmutation (e.g., accelerator driven systems) are being pursued in many countries. Research and development using accelerators involves a broad spectrum of skills to build a cadre of trained experts in nuclear techniques in IAEA Member States, and to generate knowledge for innovative methodologies and tools. The present conference is also being held in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society (ANS), which successfully organized the series of accelerator applications conferences known as AccApp. The ANS series of topical meetings has provided a forum for the global exchange of scientific and technical knowledge on a wide variety of related topics since the first AccApp took place in 1997 in Albuquerque, USA. The last conference which was held in 2007 in Pocatello, USA, was jointly organized by the ANS and the IAEA. The main objectives of the conference are to promote exchange of information among IAEA Member States representatives/delegates and to discuss new trends in accelerator applications including nuclear materials research
Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana
Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...... of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence...
Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Carbine, Kaylie M; Kirwan, C Brock
This review aims to provide a brief introduction of the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in pediatric psychology research, describe several exemplar studies that highlight the unique benefits of MRI techniques for pediatric psychology research, and detail methods for addressing several challenges inherent to pediatric MRI research. Literature review. Numerous useful applications of MRI research in pediatric psychology have been illustrated in published research. MRI methods yield information that cannot be obtained using neuropsychological or behavioral measures. Using MRI in pediatric psychology research may facilitate examination of neural structures and processes that underlie health behaviors. Challenges inherent to conducting MRI research with pediatric research participants (e.g., head movement) may be addressed using evidence-based strategies. We encourage pediatric psychology researchers to consider adopting MRI techniques to answer research questions relevant to pediatric health and illness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Bowden, Stephen C; Harrison, Elise J; Loring, David W
Meehl's (1973, Psychodiagnosis: Selected papers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) distinction between statistical and clinical significance holds special relevance for evidence-based neuropsychological practice. Meehl argued that despite attaining statistical significance, many published findings have limited practical value since they do not inform clinical care. In the context of an ever expanding clinical research literature, accessible methods to evaluate clinical impact are needed. The method of Critically Appraised Topics (Straus, Richardson, Glasziou, & Haynes, 2011, Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone) was developed to provide clinicians with a "toolkit" to facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice. We illustrate the Critically Appraised Topics method using a dementia screening example. We argue that the skills practiced through critical appraisal provide clinicians with methods to: (1) evaluate the clinical relevance of new or unfamiliar research findings with a focus on patient benefit, (2) help focus of research quality, and (3) incorporate evaluation of clinical impact into educational and professional development activities.
Blythe, Stacy; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra; Halcomb, Elizabeth
To describe the challenges related to being an 'insider' researcher in a study that uses a feminist-informed storytelling research design and to discuss practical strategies to manage these challenges. The positioning of the researcher in qualitative research has numerous methodological implications. Often, qualitative researchers share similar experiences or characteristics with their participants. Such an 'insider' position provides challenges for the researcher in conducting the research. Understanding these challenges and planning how to manage them is beneficial for the researcher and for the conduct of the project. This paper is based on the research team's experience of undertaking a feminist-informed storytelling study exploring the experiences of Australian women providing long-term foster care. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology used in the investigation. Four challenges resulting from the insider status of the primary researcher were identified as affecting the research: assumed understanding, ensuring analytic objectivity, dealing with emotions and participants' expectations. Strategies to address these challenges include: 'participant probing', 'researcher reflexivity', review by an 'outsider' researcher, identifying the risk, debriefing, making the aims and use of study outcomes clear, and acknowledging participants' expectations. Methods to implement these strategies are described. The use of an insider researcher was beneficial to our study design and helped with recruitment and rapport, enabling collaboration and the generation of stories rich in content. By identifying the challenges associated with insider research and using strategies to mitigate them, researchers can effectively use an insider position in conjunction with a storytelling research design. ImplicaTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Further investigation of the insider in different qualitative research designs would be useful in identifying challenges and benefits
Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.
Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V
Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bernard, John A.; Hu Linwen
University research reactors are underutilized and, as a result, are being decommissioned. The reason for the lack of utilization is shown to be a chronic inability to generate sufficient funds to procure and maintain state-of-the-art instrumentation for prospective researchers. The role of these reactors in nuclear science/engineering education is explored and the rationale for their continued operation is presented. It is argued that base financial support for both reactor operations and the technical support staff needed to interface with experimenters is necessary if these research facilities are not to be irretrievably lost from the educational infrastructure of the United States
Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.
Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.
Sing, David C; Metz, Lionel N; Dudli, Stefan
Retrospective review. To identify the top 100 spine research topics. Recent advances in "machine learning," or computers learning without explicit instructions, have yielded broad technological advances. Topic modeling algorithms can be applied to large volumes of text to discover quantifiable themes and trends. Abstracts were extracted from the National Library of Medicine PubMed database from five prominent peer-reviewed spine journals (European Spine Journal [ESJ], The Spine Journal [SpineJ], Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques [JSDT], Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine [JNS]). Each abstract was entered into a latent Dirichlet allocation model specified to discover 100 topics, resulting in each abstract being assigned a probability of belonging in a topic. Topics were named using the five most frequently appearing terms within that topic. Significance of increasing ("hot") or decreasing ("cold") topic popularity over time was evaluated with simple linear regression. From 1978 to 2015, 25,805 spine-related research articles were extracted and classified into 100 topics. Top two most published topics included "clinical, surgeons, guidelines, information, care" (n = 496 articles) and "pain, back, low, treatment, chronic" (424). Top two hot trends included "disc, cervical, replacement, level, arthroplasty" (+0.05%/yr, P < 0.001), and "minimally, invasive, approach, technique" (+0.05%/yr, P < 0.001). By journal, the most published topics were ESJ-"operative, surgery, postoperative, underwent, preoperative"; SpineJ-"clinical, surgeons, guidelines, information, care"; Spine-"pain, back, low, treatment, chronic"; JNS- "tumor, lesions, rare, present, diagnosis"; JSDT-"cervical, anterior, plate, fusion, ACDF." Topics discovered through latent Dirichlet allocation modeling represent unbiased meaningful themes relevant to spine care. Topic dynamics can provide historical context and direction for future research for aspiring investigators and trainees
Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia
participating RIs regarding each GC. Moreover, it is expected that the outcomes of this work will encourage and promote project participants and stakeholders, as well as the general public to take action with regard to the challenges and solutions outlined by the GC descriptions. This task of describing GCs is an open initiative: all input is welcome. To input with any suggestions, please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. This contribution presents the preliminary results obtained during the description of the selected GC's under the point of view of RIs: - Template used to describe all GC in a standardized way. It contains several sections regarding topics such as: rationale of the challenge, identification of scientific/technical/social needs, role of RIs in the GC, tasks to be done (data collection, experimental research, modelling, dissemination), etc. - Configuration of working teams designed to describe the GCs. Each GC has a person in charge who is responsible of coordinating the writing process. The working team is composed by scientists experts in each challenge, experts in thematic RIs (within EU and abroad), policy makers and other stakeholders. The results obtained by this description task will be published in a special issue in a Geoscience journal. The writing teams are expected to become project consortia willing to participate in specific calls to address GCs.
Petrella, John K; Jung, Alan P
Developing and maintaining undergraduate research programs benefits students, faculty mentors, and the university. Incorporating a research component along with a sound academic foundation enables students to develop independent critical thinking skills along with oral and written communication skills. The research process impacts valuable learning objectives that have lasting influence as undergraduates prepare for professional service. Faculty members at teaching intensive institutions can enhance learning experiences for students while benefiting from a productive research agenda. The university in turn benefits from presentations and publications that serve to increase visibility in the scientific community. Whether projects are derived through student-generated or mentor-generated means, students benefit from completion of exposure to the hypothesis-driven scientific method.
Font Fábregas, Joan; Porta, Donatella della; Sintomer, Yves
Participation is a well-established subject in the social sciences. Individual participation, non-governmental organizations, interest groups, and social movements have all been important fields of research for years, at least among sociologists and political scientists. Each of these areas has also developed its own methodological traditions and debates, permitting new researchers entering the field to have a clear idea of the choices offered them if they want to study the identities of part...
Anu Bask; Mervi Lipponen; Markku Tinnilä
E-commerce has attracted increasing interest at the beginning of the 21st century, in both academia and practice. Today, the Internet is commonly used by both consumers and businesses as a means of purchasing goods. The authorsâ€™ study focuses on e-commerce logistics, focusing on the physical delivery of goods sold over the Internet. Based on a systematic review of articles, the authors will summarize and analyze the main findings of academic literature and highlight certain research issues ...
Asarta, Carlos J.
Carlos Asarta comments here that Arbaugh, Fornaciari, and Hwang (2016) are to be commended for their work ("Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory" "Journal of Management Education," Dec 2016, see EJ1118407). Asarta says that they make several…
Progress in the Legitimacy of Business and Management Education Research: Rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory"
Bacon, Donald R.
In this rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory," published in the "Journal of Management Education," Dec 2016 (see EJ1118407), Donald R. Bacon discusses the similarities between Arbaugh et al.'s (2016) findings and the scholarship…
Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul
Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.
This paper focuses on the current state of art in mindfulness research on workplace and identifies some of the necessary steps and risks in the creation of mindful leadership theory. Mindfulness has the potential to effectively address three topical organizational challenges of growing demands on adaptability, prevailing issues of work-related stress and the necessity to raise the moral level in organizations. Current studies seem to suitably respond to the issues of work-related stress; howe...
This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.
van Bon, A.C.
The first attempts for automated glucose control were made in the seventies of the last century. Nowadays several prototypes for closed-loop glucose control are being tested, most of them in clinical research centers. Systems for automated glucose control, also named ‘artificial pancreas’ or
W. Bos (Wendy)
markdownabstractPaediatric research ethics evolves around a central dilemma. Either one has to accept that many childhood diseases cannot be (properly) treated and that many children receive treatments that are not (properly) tested in children, or one has to accept that children, i.e. vulnerable
Grimsson, Olafur Ragnar
A Northern research forum of scholars from universities in Arctic countries will study issues raised by the end of the Cold War, including new political institutions and relationships instituted in Northern regions, the relationship between environmental protection and sustainable economic growth, the relevance of traditional international…
Bulow, A. V.
Research and technology in Germany are discussed. The rapid transfer of scientific knowledge and techniques from the laboratory to the manufacturing and industrial communities is identified as a priority. It is recommended that the government give maximum support to the aviation and space flight industries.
Nuclear research and test reactors have been in operation for over 60 years, over 270 research reactors are currently operating in more than 50 countries. This meeting is dedicated to different aspects of research reactor fuels: new fuels for new reactors, the conversion to low enriched uranium fuels, spent fuel management and computational tools for core simulation. About 80 contributions are reported in this document, they are organized into 7 sessions: 1) international topics and overview on new projects and fuel, 2) new projects and upgrades, 3) fuel development, 4) optimisation and research reactor utilisation, 5) innovative methods in research reactors physics, 6) safety, operation and research reactor conversion, 7) fuel back-end management, and a poster session. Experience from Australian, Romanian, Libyan, Syrian, Vietnamese, South-African and Ghana research reactors are reported among other things. The Russian program for research reactor spent fuel management is described and the status of the American-driven program for the conversion to low enriched uranium fuels is presented. (A.C.)
Korec, M.; Liska, P.
In this lecture authors present research and development in which VUJE, a. s. has participated. Authors concluded that resume as soon as possible the short-term research and development tasks for the existing SE reactors, both, operational reactors of SE and for shut-downed reactors - JAVYS. (Financing with the contribution from the state but major part from the industry). In cooperation with state institutions, regulatory authorities and investor (would-be operator) and supplier (suppliers) define and prepare tasks focused on issues of new-built Generation III reactors (Financing split between the state and industry in accordance with the characteristics of the tasks). Begin preparing tasks for resolving development problems of Generation IV reactors: - Persuade politicians abut the inevitability of state participation in the process, including financing; - Involve in the process institutions that can significantly contribute to the problems resolving (mainly on technical level, but also on organization and potentially financial level); - Prepare international cooperation agreements in this field (based on the existing agreements, preparation of new agreements); - Define technical areas of cooperation (research infrastructure, experimental and development facilities, simulation tools).
Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob
The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies.
In a study by Onyancha and Minishi-Majanja (2009), it was reported that throughout the entire period from 1971 to 2007, research in library and information science (LIS) in sub-Saharan Africa (countries south of the Sahara desert) largely focused on topics such as information technology, information resources management ...
This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...
Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.
Background Evidence mapping describes the quantity, design and characteristics of research in broad topic areas, in contrast to systematic reviews, which usually address narrowly-focused research questions. The breadth of evidence mapping helps to identify evidence gaps, and may guide future research efforts. The Global Evidence Mapping (GEM) Initiative was established in 2007 to create evidence maps providing an overview of existing research in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Methods The GEM evidence mapping method involved three core tasks: 1. Setting the boundaries and context of the map: Definitions for the fields of TBI and SCI were clarified, the prehospital, acute inhospital and rehabilitation phases of care were delineated and relevant stakeholders (patients, carers, clinicians, researchers and policymakers) who could contribute to the mapping were identified. Researchable clinical questions were developed through consultation with key stakeholders and a broad literature search. 2. Searching for and selection of relevant studies: Evidence search and selection involved development of specific search strategies, development of inclusion and exclusion criteria, searching of relevant databases and independent screening and selection by two researchers. 3. Reporting on yield and study characteristics: Data extraction was performed at two levels - 'interventions and study design' and 'detailed study characteristics'. The evidence map and commentary reflected the depth of data extraction. Results One hundred and twenty-nine researchable clinical questions in TBI and SCI were identified. These questions were then prioritised into high (n = 60) and low (n = 69) importance by the stakeholders involved in question development. Since 2007, 58 263 abstracts have been screened, 3 731 full text articles have been reviewed and 1 644 relevant neurotrauma publications have been mapped, covering fifty-three high priority questions. Conclusions GEM
Jia Li Huang
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.
Adebamowo, Sally N; Francis, Veronica; Tambo, Ernest; Diallo, Seybou H; Landouré, Guida; Nembaware, Victoria; Dareng, Eileen; Muhamed, Babu; Odutola, Michael; Akeredolu, Teniola; Nerima, Barbara; Ozumba, Petronilla J; Mbhele, Slee; Ghanash, Anita; Wachinou, Ablo P; Ngomi, Nicholas
There is exponential growth in the interest and implementation of genomics research in Africa. This growth has been facilitated by the Human Hereditary and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, which aims to promote a contemporary research approach to the study of genomics and environmental determinants of common diseases in African populations. The purpose of this article is to describe important challenges affecting genomics research implementation in Africa. The observations, challenges and recommendations presented in this article were obtained through discussions by African scientists at teleconferences and face-to-face meetings, seminars at consortium conferences and in-depth individual discussions. Challenges affecting genomics research implementation in Africa, which are related to limited resources include ill-equipped facilities, poor accessibility to research centers, lack of expertise and an enabling environment for research activities in local hospitals. Challenges related to the research study include delayed funding, extensive procedures and interventions requiring multiple visits, delays setting up research teams and insufficient staff training, language barriers and an underappreciation of cultural norms. While many African countries are struggling to initiate genomics projects, others have set up genomics research facilities that meet international standards. The lessons learned in implementing successful genomics projects in Africa are recommended as strategies to overcome these challenges. These recommendations may guide the development and application of new research programs in low-resource settings.
Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma
In the US, where registration of lobbyists is mandatory, the pharmaceutical industry and private health-care providers spend huge amounts of money seeking to influence health policies and government decisions. In Brazil, where lobbying lacks transparency, there is virtually no data on drug industry expenditure to persuade legislators and government officials of their viewpoints and to influence decision-making according to commercial interests. Since 1990, however, the Associação da Indústria Farmacêutica de Pesquisa (Interfarma - Pharmaceutical Research Industry Association), Brazilian counterpart of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), main lobbying organization of the US pharmaceutical industry, has played a major role in the advocacy of interests of major drug companies. The main goals of Interfarma lobbying activities are: shortening the average time taken by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) to approve marketing authorization for a new drug; making the criteria for incorporation of new drugs into SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) more flexible and speeding up technology incorporation; changing the Country's ethical clearance system and the ethical requirements for clinical trials to meet the need of the innovative drug industry, and establishing a National Policy for Rare Diseases that allows a prompt incorporation of orphan drugs into SUS. Although lobbying affects community health and well-being, this topic is not in the public health research agenda. The impacts of pharmaceutical lobbying on health policies and health-care costs are of great importance for SUS and deserve to be investigated.
Loya Villalpando, Alvaro; Daal, Miguel; Phipps, Arran; Speller, Danielle; Sadoulet, Bernard; Winheld, Rachel; Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Collaboration
Topics in Current Science Research (TCSR) is a five-week summer course offered at the University of California, Berkeley through a collaboration between the Level Playing Field Institute's Summer Math and Science Honors Academy (SMASH) Program and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) group at UC Berkeley. SMASH is an academic enrichment program geared towards under-resourced, high school students of color. The goals of the course are to expand the students' conception of STEM, to teach the students that science is a method of inquiry and not just a collection of facts that are taught in school, and to expose the scholars to critical thinking within a scientific setting. The course's curriculum engages the scholars in hands-on scientific research, project proposal writing, and presentation of their scientific work to their peers as well as to a panel of UC Berkeley scientists. In this talk, we describe the course and the impact it has had on previous scholars, we discuss how the course's pedagogy has evolved over the past 10 years to enhance students' perception and understanding of science, and we present previous participants' reflections and feedback about the course and its success in providing high school students a genuine research experience at the university level.
Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching
Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…
Full Text Available There have been advances in the understanding of supply chain management (SCM since its inception in the early-1980s. However, there are still some basic issues of SCM that remain unresolved. Much of the research that has been conducted takes one or more of the following three perspectives: (1 development of methods and techniques to study SCM and its components/processes; (2 developing solutions or answers to specific supply chain-related problems or challenges; and/or (3 measuring the results or outcomes of supply chain strategies and tactics. Each of these three perspectives is briefly examined, with selected examples from the literature cited to illustrate the type of research that has been conducted. Some potential areas of research exploration are presented. The areas examined include: theory development, and SCM processes and functions.
Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.
The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…
Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Aksenov, Viktor L.
A magnetic fluid (MF) is a liquid dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles coated by surfactants for stabilization. The MF research reviewed in this paper is primarily aimed at investigating the atomic and magnetic structure of MF particles and the way they interact under various conditions by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The presence of a liquid carrier in the structure and the magnetic properties of MFs, which are very close to those of an ideal superparamagnetic system, allow the effective use of the major neutron scattering features: the strong effect of hydrogen-deuterium isotopic substitution and magnetic scattering. An extension of the contrast variation technique to the structure research on polydisperse and superparamagnetic systems is proposed. The cases of noninteracting and interacting particles, the latter with cluster formation taken into account, are considered for non-magnetized and magnetized MFs. The polarized neutron scattering analysis of the structure of magnetized MFs is illustrated by examples. Topical problems in further developing the method to study multiparameter systems are identified.
Full Text Available This systematic review looks at thematic trends in clinical research publications on dental implants. For this purpose, MEDLINE electronic searches as well as additional hand searches of six main journals in the field were conducted. A total of 2875 clinical studies published between 2001 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to statistical analysis. Hot topics in dental implant literature included immediate loading (14.3%, bone substitutes (11.6%, cross-arch full bridges (8.0%, and immediate implant placement (7.5%. A significant increase in scientific interest for immediate loading (+6.3%, p = 0.001, platform switching (+2.9%, p = 0.001, guided implant surgery (+1.9%, p = 0.011, growth factors (p = 0.014, +1.4%, piezoelectric surgery (+1.3%, p = 0.015, and restorative materials (+0.7%, p = 0.011 was found. A declining scientific interest in onlay grafting (−0.3%, p = 0.042 was recorded. The findings regarding current clinical oral implants research tie in with better-informed consumers and increased patient demands. Our results demonstrate an increasing interest in techniques that avoid complicated procedures such as bone grafting and that reduce treatment duration.
Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine; Berliner, Peter
community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying......Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated...
Full Text Available Participatory action research is a quite new approach to research in Lithuania. The aim of an article was to disscuss the potential and challenges of participatory action research while implementing it in Lithuanian organizations. The qualitative approach was chosen for the study using the method of Focus groups. 20 researchers from social and biomedicine sciences from six institutions of High education in Lithuania participated in the study. The results of the study showed that participatory action reasearch is seen as an approach with many possibilities because of a wide range of used methods, constant interactions with research participants and the lenght of the research process. Researchers value the possibility to access organization at the begining, during research process and evaluate the effectiveness of the changes after the process. The research challenges are associated with the competence of a researcher including his/her sensitivity during process, ability to involve active participation of organization members in the ongoing process by creating safe and trusting environment. Some specific challenges associated with Lithuanian organizations are organizations‘ tiredness of researches and lack of faith of the benefits of researches because of some previous experiences. Keywords: Participatory Action Research, Organization, Lithuania.
Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna
, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...
Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their ageing are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimisation of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to non-destructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections; basemat; and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to ageing management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. (author)
Research on disability issues in countries of the South is primarily dominated by a focus on generating large scale quantitative data sets. This paper discusses the many challenges, opportunities and dilemmas faced in designing and undertaking a qualitative research study in one district in India. The Disability, Education and Poverty Project…
Gombe, Sani Yakubu; Bin Suandi, Turiman; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Omar, Zohara
Research in extension education is a serious and challenging task facing Nigeria today because of new trends that keeps on emerging continuously. This paper seeks to examine some of the common research techniques used in extension education and describe their applicability and workability in helping people to help themselves. Most of the…
Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew
This whitepaper describes the major IT challenges in scientific research at CERN and several other European and international research laboratories and projects. Each challenge is exemplified through a set of concrete use cases drawn from the requirements of large-scale scientific programs. The paper is based on contributions from many researchers and IT experts of the participating laboratories and also input from the existing CERN openlab industrial sponsors. The views expressed in this document are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates.
Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D
Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.
Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
Background: There are challenging methodological issues in obtaining valid and reliable results on which to base occupational therapy interventions for ethnic minorities. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the methodological problems within occupational therapy research, when ethnic...... research and interventions, development of methods for the entire research process is needed. It is a costly and time-consuming process, but the results will be valid and reliable, and therefore more applicable in clinical practice...
This brief commentary investigates whether article topic, author profile, or journal rank significantly influence an article's citation levels. Anne-Wil Harzing's regression analysis shows that, when all factors are taken into account at the same time, it is "what" is published (topic) and "who" has published it (author) that…
VanderKaay, Sandra; Moll, Sandra E; Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Jindal, Pranay; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Packham, Tara L; Lim, Chun Y
Qualitative research has had a significant impact within rehabilitation science over time. During the past 20 years the number of qualitative studies published per year in Disability and Rehabilitation has markedly increased (from 1 to 54). In addition, during this period there have been significant changes in how qualitative research is conceptualized, conducted, and utilized to advance the field of rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon the progress of qualitative research within rehabilitation to date, to explicate current opportunities and challenges, and to suggest future directions to continue to strengthen the contribution of qualitative research in this field. Relevant literature searches were conducted in electronic data bases and reference lists. Pertinent literature was examined to identify current opportunities and challenges for qualitative research use in rehabilitation and to identify future directions. Six key areas of opportunity and challenge were identified: (a) paradigm shifts, (b) advancements in methodology, (c) emerging technology, (d) advances in quality evaluation, (e) increasing popularity of mixed methods approaches, and (f) evolving approaches to knowledge translation. Two important future directions for rehabilitation are posited: (1) advanced training in qualitative methods and (2) engaging qualitative communities of research. Qualitative research is well established in rehabilitation and has an important place in the continued growth of this field. Ongoing development of qualitative researchers and methods are essential. Implications for Rehabilitation Qualitative research has the potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing some of the most pervasive concerns in the field such as practitioner-client interaction, the subjective and lived experience of disability, and clinical reasoning and decision making. This will serve to better inform those providing rehabilitation services thereby benefiting
Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc
Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.
Ethical challenges to certain aspects of research on human subjects are not uncommon; examples include challenges to first-in-human trials (Chapman in J Clin Res Bioethics 2(4):1-8, 2011), certain placebo controlled trials (Anderson in J Med Philos 31:65-81, 2006; Anderson and Kimmelman in Kennedy Inst Ethics J 20(1):75-98, 2010) and "sham" surgery (Macklin in N Engl J Med 341:992-996, 1999). To date, however, there are few challenges to research when the subjects are competent and the research is more than minimal risk with no promise of direct benefit. The principal reason given for allowing research that is more than minimal risk without benefit is that we should respect the autonomy of competent subjects. I argue that though the moral intuitions informing respect for autonomy are sound, there is another set of intuitions regarding what we take to be just treatment of another when one agent knowingly causes or allows suffering on another agent. I argue that concerns generated by commutative justice serve as limitations on permissible research. I highlight our intuitions informing this notion of justice by appealing to work done on theodicy; what counts as a morally sufficient reason for God to allow suffering in humans is applicable also to the researcher-subject relationship. I conclude that all human subjects who are exposed to more than minimal risk research should enjoy the same actual protections (e.g., subpart D) as those given subjects who cannot consent.
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M
Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...
Over the last two decades there has been an expansion of activity and substantial progress in research on dyslexia and research on bilingualism and multilingualism. But the study of dyslexia has generally focused on monolingual learners and the study of bilingualism has tended to focus on speakers who do not have special educational needs. This paper will review the strands of research to date that have a bearing on multilingualism and dyslexia and attempt to identify the major challenges that face researchers and teachers. A satisfactory response cannot be developed without a full understanding of the impact that dyslexia has on language learning and the impact that multilingualism has on literacy learning.
Jonathan M Samet
Full Text Available his commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.
Full Text Available This research is motivated by the striking gap between the ever increasing number of corruption scandals in Serbian politics and the lack of academic research on this topic. The article, firstly, presents an overview of the theoretical approaches, conceptualisations and definitions of scandals in scholarly literature. The second part of the study outlines preliminary findings based on 25 interviews conducted with Serbian state officials, academics and members of the NGO sector between 2012 and 2013. The findings indicate that two types of scandals can be differentiated in Serbian public discourse on corruption - afera and mafija. The author suggests that researchers of corruption scandals in Serbia can benefit from the wide variety of the existing theoretical approaches and the large number of case studies that Serbian media are offering.
This essay was written in response to an invitation by the editors of NSS issued after the author had reviewed the paper entitled 'Methodological challenges of trans-disciplinary research' submitted by Christian Pohl and Gertrude Hirsch-Hadorn (see Pohl and Hirsch Hadorn, 2008). The essay provides an accounting for the transformation in my emotioning as I read the submitted paper by introducing three sets of distinctions: (i) a model of research practice; (ii) an explication of the nature of ...
Background: Africa accounts for 14% of world's population, and the economies of most African countries are considered to be growing, but this is not reflected in the amount of research published by Africans. This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development.
Groenewegen, P.; Moser, C.; Brass, D.; Labianca, G.; Mehra, A.; Halgin, D; Borgatti, S
Online communities form a challenging and still-evolving field for social network research. We highlight two themes that are at the core of social network literature: formative processes and structures, and discuss how these might be relevant in the context of online communities. Processes of tie
HEAD OFFICE / SIÈGE : 150 Kent Street / 150, rue Kent PO Box / CP 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Phone / Tél. : +1 613 236 6163 Email / Courriel : email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org. Research Award: IDRC Challenge Fund. Deadline: 12 September 2012. Please note that all applications must be sent electronically.
Jordan, N.; Schut, M.; Graham, S.; Barney, J.N.; Childs, D.Z.; Christensen, S.B.; Cousens, R.D.; Davis, A.S.; Eizenberg, H.; Ervin, D.E.; Fernandez-Quintanilla, C.; Harrison, L.J.; Harsch, M.A.; Heijting, S.; Liebman, M.; Loddo, D.; Mirsky, S.B.; Riemens, M.; Neve, P.; Peltzer, D.A.; Renton, M.; Williams, M.; Recasens, J.; Sønderskov, M.
Transdisciplinary weed research (TWR) is a promising path to more effective management of challenging weed problems. We define TWR as an integrated process of inquiry and action that addresses complex weed problems in the context of broader efforts to improve economic, environmental and social
Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth
Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...
Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang
In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.
Vonk, R.; Nijman, V.
We provide a brief overview of the history of the journal Contributions to Zoology and analyse the papers published in the last 27 years by topic. Founded in 1848 as ‘Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde’, 160 years and 76 volumes later it is one of the oldest zoological journals that is still regularly
Vonk, R.; Nijman, V.
We provide a brief overview of the history of the journal Contributions to Zoology and analyse the papers published in the last 27 years by topic. Founded in 1848 as ‘Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde’, 160 years and 76 volumes later it is one of the oldest zoological journals that is still regularly
Full Text Available With the intention of keeping the status of educational research Forming Schools teachers in Tlaxcala, has initiated an diagnosis to define the challenges facing these institutions, mainly the Rural Normal School Lic Benito Juarez. This research is documentary, quantitative and qualitative, is still in process. area systematized information. Statistics of the Educational Services Unit of the State of Tlaxcala, the PEFEN 2011-2012 and Curriculum 2012 and also various policy documents, research data at national level and normal schools were reviewed. The first approach suggests that teacher training institutions face major challenges, which they can no longer delay therefore involves a reorganization of the activities developed by teachers and institutions.
Malavolta, Marco; Caraceni, Daniele; Olivieri, Fabiola; Antonicelli, Roberto
The field of geriatric cardiology reflects the evolving medical approaches tailored to address the needs of the growing population of oldest old with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The burden of CVD is expected to increase particularly for the most common types of chronic heart disease of the elderly including coronary artery disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In this context of dramatic demographic changes, geriatric cardiologists are facing important challenges. In this review, we outline the basic concepts of geriatric cardiology and describe these challenges as well as the unmet needs around this discipline with also a focus on the translation from basic research. PMID:28663759
Gambheera, Harischandra; Williams, Shehan
The need for good research in psychiatry has never been more important than in this era of 'Evidence-based medicine' (EBM). The countries in south Asia have to rise to the challenge and abandon the emphasis placed on 'Experiencebased medicine', as was popular in the traditional systems of medicine - the art was handed down from father to son or guru to shishya (student).Evidence-based medicine does not abandon clinician experience, skills, and judgment, but rather complements it with the best available evidence and patient choice. This article explores the challenges in obtaining the best available evidence in the south Asian context.
Alexander, Lewis; Das, Sanjiv R; Ives, Zachary; Jagadish, H V; Monteleoni, Claire
Significant research challenges must be addressed in the cleaning, transformation, integration, modeling, and analytics of Big Data sources for finance. This article surveys the progress made so far in this direction and obstacles yet to be overcome. These are issues that are of interest to data-driven financial institutions in both corporate finance and consumer finance. These challenges are also of interest to the legal profession as well as to regulators. The discussion is relevant to technology firms that support the growing field of FinTech.
Antonacopoulou, Elena P.
In "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory," authors J.B. Arbaugh, Charles J. Fornaciari, and Alvin Hwang ("Journal of Management Education," December 2016 vol. 40 no. 6 p654-691, see EJ1118407) used citation analysis to track the development of…
Kammen, Daniel M.
Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major
Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergent international practice of involving consumers in health research is driven, in part, by the growing share of health research that can only be applied in and emerge from knowledge that is shaped by human values and societal contexts. This is the first investigation of its kind to identify the current prevalence, challenges, enabling factors and range of approaches to consumer involvement in health and medical research in Australia. Methods A nation-wide survey of research funding organisations and organisations that conduct research was performed during 2008-2009. Results Marked variation in consumer involvement experience and perceptions exists between research funders and researchers. Research funders were over eight times more likely than organisations conducting research to involve consumers in identifying research needs and prioritising research topics. Across both groups, practical and time constraints were reported as key challenges to involving consumers, while guidelines on consumer involvement and evidence of effect were the most important potential enablers. More than a third of research organisations indicated that when consumer involvement was a condition of research funding, it was an important facilitator of involvement. Conclusion It is no longer simply enough to keep society informed of important scientific breakthroughs. If Australian health research is to take into account important social contexts and consequences, it must involve consumers. A set of minimum consumer involvement standards and associated guidelines, that are agreed and routinely adopted, could ensure that consumers and the Australian community they represent, are given an opportunity to shed light on experiences and local circumstance, and express views and concerns relevant to health research.
Fredman, Amy J.; Schultz, Nicole J.; Hoffman, Mary F.
Scholars have become more attentive to lesbian/gay/bisexual/transsexual/queer/questioning (LGBTQ) topics as queer perspectives become increasingly prevalent in middle and high school environments. This study examines how educators navigate social and academic environments in order to incorporate inclusive pedagogical practices and cultivate safe…
Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia
ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials.
Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin
The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942
Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin
The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services.
Rasmus Kleis Nielsen
Full Text Available The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008. In this article, I argue that parts of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media and communication studies and embrace a broader and more diverse agenda. I discuss audience research and journalism studies as examples of adjacent fields that use a more diverse range of theoretical and methodological tools that might help political communication research engage with new media and the new challenges and new opportunities for research that they represent.
Wang, Yinying; Bowers, Alex J.; Fikis, David J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the underlying topics and the topic evolution in the 50-year history of educational leadership research literature. Method: We used automated text data mining with probabilistic latent topic models to examine the full text of the entire publication history of all 1,539 articles published in…
Lola, Magda; Meyer, Dagmar M.; Maggio, Gian Mario
From the introduction: In March 2003, a series of brainstorming meetings took place at the European Commission, addressing many different aspects of the profession/career of a researcher within the European Research Area. Given the vital importance that the MCFA attaches to this topic, the association was represented in Brussels by three of its current Board members, Magda Lola, Dagmar M. Meyer and Gian Mario Maggio. During the weeks following the brainstorming meetings, the issues that had b...
McPherson, Amy C; Ball, Geoff D C; Maltais, Désirée B; Swift, Judy A; Cairney, John; Knibbe, Tara Joy; Krog, Kim
Pediatric obesity is a world-wide challenge. Children with physical disabilities are particularly at risk of obesity, which is worrisome because obesity can result in serious secondary conditions that decrease health status, reduce independence, and increase impact on healthcare systems. However, the determinants of obesity and the health promotion needs of children with physical disabilities are relatively unexplored compared with their typically developing peers. This white paper describes a Canadian multi-stakeholder workshop on the topic of obesity and health in children with physical disabilities and provides recommendations for future research in this understudied area. Seventy-one knowledge gaps identified by attendees using a modified nominal group technique clustered into six themes: (1) early, sustained engagement of families; (2) rethinking determinants of obesity and health; (3) maximizing impact of research; (4) inclusive integrated interventions; (5) evidence-informed measurement and outcomes; and (6) reducing weight biases. Attendees worked together to develop research plans in more detail for three areas identified through consensus as high priority: "early, sustained engagement of families;" "rethinking determinants of obesity and health;" and "evidence informed measurement and outcomes." Using the workshop described here as a call to action, Canadian researchers are now well positioned to work toward a greater understanding of weight-related topics in children with physical disabilities, with the aim of developing evidence-based and salient obesity prevention and treatment approaches.
Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew; Rademakers, Fons
Throughout its 16-year history, CERN openlab has worked to develop and test new ICT technologies and techniques that help to make the ground-breaking physics discoveries at CERN possible. CERN openlab runs in three-year phases, with around 20 projects — addressing a wide range of IT topics — being run in its current, fifth phase. With CERN openlab’s sixth three-year phase set to begin at the start of 2018, work has been carried out throughout the first half of 2017 to identify key areas for future collaboration. A series of workshops and discussions was held to discuss the ICT challenges faced by the LHC research community — and other ‘big science’ projects over the coming years. This white paper is the culmination of these investigations, and sets out specific challenges that are ripe for tackling through collaborative R&D; projects.
Alexander Jeffrey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on
This book discusses the following topics: expert systems and knowledge engineering-I; verification and validation of software; methods for modeling UMAN/computer performance; MAN/computer interaction problems in producing procedures -1-2; progress and problems with automation-1-2; experience with electronic presentation of procedures-2; intelligent displays and monitors; modeling user/computer interface; and computer-based human decision-making aids
To discuss the opportunities derived, challenges faced, and lessons learned in the research process, including recruiting and retaining nurse practitioner (NP) participants, obtaining institutional approval, and solving research team issues in a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Nursing Research (NIH/NINR)-funded study of communication between NPs and their older patients in managed care and non-managed care settings. The video-taped interactions between 30 NPs and 150 patients, research team experiences in conducting the research, and a review of relevant literature. Key factors in NP study participation included recognizing the importance of research in demonstrating the effectiveness of the NP role and for advancing the profession, having participated in previous research, enjoying the research process, employer incentives, membership in NP professional organizations, relationships with the university and the school of nursing conducting the research, and knowledge of the coinvestigator's work. NP recruitment was facilitated by word of mouth, professional organization assistance, and articles in a widely distributed, free nursing journal. Data collection was significantly delayed by attrition of NP participants, logistical problems with scheduling and travel, and varied approval procedures by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at study sites. The pace of nursing research could be much more efficient if IRB processes involved fewer bureaucratic entanglements. Preliminary study findings, however, show positive outcomes for older patients after NP care. To demonstrate positive patient outcomes and move the NP profession forward, NPs must be willing to commit to participation in research on their effectiveness as providers in today's healthcare environment.
Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services was originally developed to illustrate the benefits that natural ecosystems generate for society and to raise awareness for biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. In this article we identify major challenges and opportunities for ecologists involved in empirical or modeling ecosystem service research. The first challenge arises from the fact that the ecosystem service concept has not been generated in the context of managed systems. Ecologists need to identify the effect of anthropogenic interventions in order to propose practices to benefit service-providing organisms and associated services. The second challenge arises from the need to evaluate relationships between indicators of ecosystem services that are collected in ecological studies while accounting for uncertainties of ecological processes that underlie these services. We suggest basing the assessment of ecosystem services on the utilization of sets of indicators that cover aspects of service-providing units, ecosystem management and landscape modification. The third challenge arises from our limited understanding of the nature of relationships between services and a lack of a general statistical framework to address these links. To manage ecosystem service provisioning, ecologists need to establish whether services respond to a shared driver or if services are directly linked to each other. Finally, studies relating biodiversity to ecosystem services often focus on services at small spatial or short temporal scales, but research on the protection of services is often directed towards services providing benefits at large spatial scales. Ecological research needs to address a range of spatial and temporal scales to provide a multifaceted understanding of how nature promotes human well-being. Addressing these challenges in the future offers a unique opportunity for ecologists to act as promoters for the understanding about how to conserve benefits
Bagarić, Dario; Zivković, Maja; Curković, Marko; Radić, Krešimir; Brečić, Petrana
Research involving vulnerable population of mentally impaired persons is raising considerable controversies from its very beginnings. These controversies are created around everlasting tensions between two positive duties: the duty to protect vulnerable subjects, and the duty not to deny them potential benefits. Most of the contemporary ethical guidelines and regulations, including most recent revision of the Declaration of Helsinki, permit these researches under certain ethical conditions. The notion of informed consent as a cornerstone of bioethics emerges as essential requisite of moral research. We are presenting some key concepts and safeguards regarding informed consent that researcher needs to be aware off when conducting a research involving mentally impaired persons. Theoretical and practical challenges that are arising from these safeguards are discussed with an overview of most recent scientific data. Lastly, we briefly address the most important legal standings that will be introduced in 2015, by new Croatian Law on the Protection of Persons with Mental Disorders.
Fei Wang PhD
Full Text Available Writing qualitative research is a complex activity. Yet there is relatively little research about novices' experiences in learning to write this genre. The purpose of this multiple case study is to explore the challenges students face when they first encounter the qualitative research paradigm. Drawing upon interviews with students, think-aloud protocols, class observations, and students' written artifacts, this article reveals that major problems new students have include: understanding the qualitative research paradigm, especially the concepts of validity and subjectivity, determining how to carry out a systematic data analysis, becoming familiar with genre knowledge of presenting qualitative findings, and meanwhile, expanding their disciplinary knowledge. Pedagogical implications are also discussed to help student researchers learn better.
Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Kim, Dongkyun
This book introduces Content-Centric Networking (CCN), a networking paradigm that provides a simple and effective solution to the challenging demands of future wired and wireless communications. It provides an overview of the recent developments in the area of future internet technologies, bringing together the advancements that have been made in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) in general, with a focus on CCN. It begins with an introduction to the basics of CCN is followed by an overview of the current internet paradigm and its challenges. Next, an application perspective has been included, where the authors encompass the selected applications for CCN with recent refereed research and developments. These applications include Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Grid, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The book is a useful reference source for practising researchers, and can be used as supporting material for undergraduate and graduate level courses in computer science and...
Decker, Summer J; Grajo, Joseph R; Hazelton, Todd R; Hoang, Kimberly N; McDonald, Jennifer S; Otero, Hansel J; Patel, Midhir J; Prober, Allen S; Retrouvey, Michele; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Roth, Christopher G; Ward, Robert J
Between 2004 and 2012, US funding for the biomedical sciences decreased to historic lows. Health-related research was crippled by receiving only 1/20th of overall federal scientific funding. Despite the current funding climate, there is increased pressure on academic radiology programs to establish productive research programs. Whereas larger programs have resources that can be utilized at their institutions, small to medium-sized programs often struggle with lack of infrastructure and support. To address these concerns, the Association of University Radiologists' Radiology Research Alliance developed a task force to explore any untapped research productivity potential in these smaller radiology departments. We conducted an online survey of faculty at smaller clinically funded programs and found that while they were interested in doing research and felt it was important to the success of the field, barriers such as lack of resources and time were proving difficult to overcome. One potential solution proposed by this task force is a collaborative structured research model in which multiple participants from multiple institutions come together in well-defined roles that allow for an equitable distribution of research tasks and pooling of resources and expertise. Under this model, smaller programs will have an opportunity to share their unique perspective on how to address research topics and make a measureable impact on the field of radiology as a whole. Through a health services focus, projects are more likely to succeed in the context of limited funding and infrastructure while simultaneously providing value to the field. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peltokoski, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Miettinen, M
This study aimed to describe the research on registered nurses' orientation processes in specialized hospital settings in order to illustrate directions for future research. The complex healthcare environment and the impact of nursing shortage and turnover make the hospital orientation process imperative. There is a growing recognition regarding research interests to meet the needs for evidence-based, effective and economically sound hospital orientation strategies. An integrative literature review was performed on publications from the period 2000 to 2013 included in the CINAHL and PubMed databases. English-language studies were included. Themes guiding the analysis were definition of the hospital orientation process, research topics, data collection and instruments and research evidence. Narrative synthesis was used. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. The conceptualization of orientation process reflected the complexity of the phenomenon. Less attention has been paid to designs to establish correlations or relationships between selected variables and hospital orientation process. The outcomes of hospital orientation programmes were limited primarily to retention and job satisfaction. The research evidence therefore cannot be evaluated as strong. The lack of an evidence-based approach makes it difficult to develop a comprehensive orientation process. Further research should explore interventions that will enhance the quality of hospital orientation practices to improve nurses' retention and job satisfaction. To provide a comprehensive hospital orientation process, hospital administrators have to put in place human resource development strategies along with practice implications and research efforts. Comprehensive hospital orientation benefits and outcomes should be visible to policy makers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Smirnov, Kirill S; Maier, Tanja V; Walker, Alesia; Heinzmann, Silke S; Forcisi, Sara; Martinez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
The review highlights the role of metabolomics in studying human gut microbial metabolism. Microbial communities in our gut exert a multitude of functions with huge impact on human health and disease. Within the meta-omics discipline, gut microbiome is studied by (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics and metabolomics. The goal of metabolomics research applied to fecal samples is to perform their metabolic profiling, to quantify compounds and classes of interest, to characterize small molecules produced by gut microbes. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are main technologies that are applied in fecal metabolomics. Metabolomics studies have been increasingly used in gut microbiota related research regarding health and disease with main focus on understanding inflammatory bowel diseases. The elucidated metabolites in this field are summarized in this review. We also addressed the main challenges of metabolomics in current and future gut microbiota research. The first challenge reflects the need of adequate analytical tools and pipelines, including sample handling, selection of appropriate equipment, and statistical evaluation to enable meaningful biological interpretation. The second challenge is related to the choice of the right animal model for studies on gut microbiota. We exemplified this using NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of cross-species comparison of fecal metabolite profiles. Finally, we present the problem of variability of human gut microbiota and metabolome that has important consequences on the concepts of personalized nutrition and medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Leske, Jane S; McAndrew, Natalie S; Evans, Crystal-Rae Dawn; Garcia, Annette E; Brasel, Karen J
Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) is an option occurring in clinical practice. National clinical guidelines on providing the option of FPDR are available from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, American Heart Association, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society of Critical Care Medicine. The FPDR option currently remains controversial, underutilized, and not the usual practice with trauma patients. This article is based on the methodological and practical research challenges associated with an ongoing study to examine the effects of the FPDR option on family outcomes in patients experiencing critical injury after motor vehicle crashes and gunshot wounds. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of the FPDR option on family outcomes of anxiety, stress, well-being, and satisfaction and compare those outcomes in families who participate in FPDR to those families who do not participate in FPDR. Examples of real clinical challenges faced by the researchers are described throughout this article. Research challenges include design, sampling, inclusion/exclusion criteria, human subjects, and procedures. Recruitment of family members who participated in the FPDR option is a complex process, especially after admission to the critical care unit.
Bloom, Leslie Rebecca; Sawin, Patricia
For those who seek to conduct qualitative research that makes a positive difference in the lives of women in poverty, feminist research methodologies offer the most productive guide. Researchers must partner with those we study and foreground participants' own perceptions of their challenges, while analyzing structural discrimination and…
Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N
In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research.
Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N
In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research. PMID:22972972
Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.
Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.
Gardner, P.L.; Verma, V.
R and D today is a large industry that consumes vast amounts of public and private funds in most countries. It is becoming increasingly evident that technology transfer and the commercialization of research done at universities and government funded research laboratories must be a key element of their comprehensive strategic plan. It involves using a verified and organized knowledge and research to develop commercially viable products. It requires a visionary leader with effective project management skills to manage and motivate a team of scientists and engineers, otherwise even a top rated researcher will enervate and wither within the walls of research laboratories. This paper will highlight the importance, challenges and techniques of commercializing technology from accelerator research laboratories. It will provide an overview of the requirements of scientific leadership for both commercialization of research and technology, together with some case studies based on the experience at TRIUMF - Canada's national sub-atomic research facility in Vancouver. TRIUMF's experience with both research and commercial developments involving innovative technologies, along with some of the important leadership and management factors that lead to successful projects will be described. (author)
Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L
This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...
Niedhammer, Isabelle; Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Klingelschmidt, Justine; Khireddine-Medouni, Imane; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Toivanen, Susanna; Chastang, Jean-François; LaMontagne, Anthony D
Shiri. Indeed, the study of the contribution of underlying factors in explaining social inequalities in health outcomes is a fully-fledged topic of research (12-15), but this is relevant research to conduct after demonstrating that inequalities exist between social or occupational groups. Several of Shiri's comments were about statistical aspects of our analyses. First, it was suggested that we did not correctly extract the confidence intervals for the estimates of several studies. We disagree. We used the STATA metan suite of commands using log-transformed effect sizes and standard errors. Our figure 1 and the values of effect sizes and confidence intervals were provided by STATA, this explains why there may be small differences in these values compared with the results published in some studies. Using log-transformed effect sizes and confidence intervals, the analysis provided the same results. Second, our subgroup comparison was based on subsamples that were independent. As not all studies provided information for these subgroups, each subgroup was treated as a unit of analysis. This strategy allows the use of all relevant subgroups and comparisons between them (16). Third, we were also criticized for the use of random-effects models. Random-effects models are generally more plausible for meta-analysis based on studies from the published literature, because the fixed-effect model assumed that the entire corpus of literature has been obtained, ie, that every study has been or ever will be written on the topic has been included, which is an implausible assumption. We also assumed differences in effect size between studies and between subgroups, and the use of random-effects models was consistent with such an assumption. However, random-effects models produce wider confidence intervals compared to fixed-effect models (16). These models are thus more conservative, making our results all the more robust. One of Shiri's comments related to the reference group used in the
Vadeboncoeur, Claudia; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick
The recruitment is an integral part of most research projects in medical sciences involving human participants. In health promotion research, there is increasing work on the impact of environments. Settings represent environments such as schools where social, physical and psychological development unfolds. In this study, we investigated weight gain in students within a university setting. Barriers to access and recruitment of university students within a specific setting, in the context of health research are discussed. An online survey on health behaviours of first year students across 101 universities in England was developed. Ethics committees of each institutions were contacted to obtain permission to recruit and access their students. Recruitment adverts were standardized and distributed within restrictions imposed by universities. Three time points and incentives were used. Several challenges in recruiting from a university setting were found. These included (i) ethics approval, (ii) recruitment approval, (iii) navigating restrictions on advertisement and (iv) logistics of varying university academic calendars. We also faced challenges of online surveys including low recruitment, retention and low eligibility of respondents. From the 101 universities, 28 allowed dissemination of adverts. We obtained 1026 responses at T1, 599 at T2 and 497 at T3. The complete-case sample represented 13% of those originally recruited at T1. Conducting research on students within the university setting is a time consuming and challenging task. To improve research-based health promotion, universities could work together to increase consistency as to their policies on student recruitment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Dongus, Heide; Meyer, Leon; Armstrong, Rob
Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs and cats providing immediate and persistent flea- and tick-control after a single topical dose. Prescribing directions recommend waiting 72 h following topical administration before immersing dogs in water. The objective of this study was to determine whether water immersion immediately prior to treatment or earlier than 72 h post-treatment reduced subsequent treatment efficacy. Forty (n = 40) dogs were blocked on tick carrying capacity into 5 experimental groups and all but one of the groups (untreated control) were treated topically with fluralaner (Bravecto® Spot-On Solution, Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) at the commercial dose. Three of the four remaining groups were immersed in 38-40 °C water for a 5 min bath - either 1 h before treatment; 12 h after treatment; or 24 h after treatment. Seven days after treatment all dogs were challenged with 50 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks and after 24 h attached ticks were counted and removed. Efficacies (compared to the untreated control group) were: 99.3% for no water immersion; 99.6% for immersion 1 h before treatment; 99.3% for immersion 12 h after treatment; and, 100% for immersion 24 h after treatment. Water immersion of dogs around the time of topical fluralaner administration did not reduce subsequent systemic acaricidal efficacy.
Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo
ABSTRACT Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. PMID:28381596
Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won
A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.
Gyanendra Prasad Joshi
Full Text Available A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.
Hallinger, Philip; Chen, Junjun
Over the past two decades scholars have called for a more concerted effort to develop an empirically grounded literature on educational leadership outside of mainstream "Western" contexts. This paper reports the results of a review of research topics and methods that comprise the literature on educational leadership and management in…
Moore, David M., Ed.; Lockee, Barbara B., Ed.; Moore, David R., Ed.
This report focuses on the nature, use, and challenges of educational technology. The following articles are included: "Technology and Change for the Information Age" (James B. Ellsworth); "Education in a Digital Democracy: Leading the Charge for Learning about, with, and beyond Technology" (Mark David Milliron and Cindy L.…
Choo, Esther K; Emery, Sherry L
As states increasingly liberalize marijuana laws, high-quality research is needed that will inform the public and policymakers about the health and societal impact of these laws. However, there are many challenges to studying marijuana policy, including the heterogeneity of the drug and its use, the variability in the laws and their implementation from state to state, the need to capture a wide variety of relevant outcomes, and the poorly understood influence of marijuana commercialization. Furthermore, current instruments generally fail to distinguish between types of users and lack accurate and detailed measures of use. This review provides a background on marijuana laws in the United States and an overview of existing policy research, discusses methodological considerations when planning analysis of state marijuana laws, and highlights specific topics needing further development and investigation. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
This book describes the trends, challenges and solutions in computing use for scientific research and development within different domains in Africa, such as health, agriculture, environment, economy, energy, education and engineering. The benefits expected are discussed by a number of recognized, domain-specific experts, with a common theme being computing as solution enabler. This book is the first document providing such a representative up-to-date view on this topic at the continent level. • Discusses computing for scientific research and development on the African continent, addressing domains such as engineering, health, agriculture, environment, economy, energy, and education; • Describes the state-of-the-art in usage of computing to address problems in developing countries pertaining to health, productivity, economic growth, and renewable energy; • Offers insights applicable to all developing countries on the use of computing technologies to address a variety of societal issues.
Van Dam, Nicholas T; van Vugt, Marieke K; Vago, David R; Schmalzl, Laura; Saron, Clifford D; Olendzki, Andrew; Meissner, Ted; Lazar, Sara W; Gorchov, Jolie; Fox, Kieran C R; Field, Brent A; Britton, Willoughby B; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A; Meyer, David E
In response to our article, Davidson and Dahl offer commentary and advice regarding additional topics crucial to a comprehensive prescriptive agenda for future research on mindfulness and meditation. Their commentary raises further challenges and provides an important complement to our article. More consideration of these issues is especially welcome because limited space precluded us from addressing all relevant topics. While we agree with many of Davidson and Dahl's suggestions, the present reply (a) highlights reasons why the concerns we expressed are still especially germane to mindfulness and meditation research (even though those concerns may not be entirely unique) and (b) gives more context to other issues posed by them. We discuss special characteristics of individuals who participate in mindfulness and meditation research and focus on the vulnerability of this field inherent in its relative youthfulness compared to other more mature scientific disciplines. Moreover, our reply highlights the serious consequences of adverse experiences suffered by a significant subset of individuals during mindfulness and other contemplative practices. We also scrutinize common contemporary applications of mindfulness and meditation to illness, and some caveats are introduced regarding mobile technologies for guidance of contemplative practices.
Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B
To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.
Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Medical Research Council (MRC have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS. It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society.
Raji, C A; Eyre, H; Wei, S H; Bredesen, D E; Moylan, S; Law, M; Small, G; Thompson, P M; Friedlander, R M; Silverman, D H; Baune, B T; Hoang, T A; Salamon, N; Toga, A W; Vernooij, M W
Preventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multimodal brain imaging toward early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of modifiable risk factors. An insightful example of this is in the area of age-related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia with potentially modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diet, sleep, hypertension, diabetes, depression, supplementation, smoking, and physical activity. In studying this link between lifestyle and cognitive decline, brain imaging markers may be instrumental as quantitative measures or even indicators of early disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the major studies reflecting how lifestyle factors affect the brain and cognition aging. In this hot topics review, we will specifically focus on obesity and physical activity. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.
Mohammed, Mohammed A; Moles, Rebekah J; Chen, Timothy F
Synthesis of qualitative studies is an emerging area that has been gaining more interest as an important source of evidence for improving health care policy and practice. In the last decade there have been numerous attempts to develop methods of aggregating and synthesizing qualitative data. Although numerous empirical qualitative studies have been published about different aspects of health care research, to date, the aggregation and syntheses of these data has not been commonly reported, particularly in pharmacy practice related research. This paper describes different methods of conducting meta-synthesis and provides an overview of selected common methods. The paper also emphasizes the challenges and opportunities associated with conducting meta-synthesis and highlights the importance of meta-synthesis in informing practice, policy and research.
Rajput, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Vipin; Bhardwaj, Anshu
Over 300 million people are affected by about 7000 rare diseases globally. There are tremendous resource limitations and challenges in driving research and drug development for rare diseases. Hence, innovative approaches are needed to identify potential solutions. This review focuses on the resources developed over the past years for analysis of genome data towards understanding disease biology especially in the context of mitochondrial diseases, given that mitochondria are central to major cellular pathways and their dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of diseases. Platforms for collaboration of research groups, clinicians and patients and the advantages of community collaborative efforts in addressing rare diseases are also discussed. The review also describes crowdsourcing and crowdfunding efforts in rare diseases research and how the upcoming initiatives for understanding disease biology including analyses of large number of genomes are also applicable to rare diseases.
... Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures ... more than 20 cancers using state-of-the art genomic analysis technologies. Recent findings suggest that there ...
David B. Pisoni
Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance. In this paper, we discuss three challenges for future research on CIs. First, we consider the issue of individual differences and variability in outcomes following implantation. At the present time, we still do not have a complete and satisfactory account of the causal underlying factors that are responsible for the enormous individual differences and variability in outcomes. Second, we discuss issues related to the lack of preimplant predictors of outcomes. Very little prospective research has been carried out on the development of preimplant predictors that can be used to reliably identify CI candidates who may be at high risk for a poor outcome following implantation. Other than conventional demographics and hearing history, there are no prognostic tools available to predict speech recognition outcomes after implantation. Finally, we discuss the third challenge — what to do with a CI-user who has a poor outcome. We suggest that new research efforts need to be devoted to studying this neglected clinical population in greater depth to find out why they are doing poorly with their CI and what novel interventions and treatments can be developed to improve their speech recognition outcomes. Using these three challenges as objectives for future research on CIs, we suggest that the field needs to adopt a new narrative grounded in theory and methods from Cognitive Hearing Science and information processing theory. Without knowing
Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.; Durach, Christian F.
markets and networks are expected to become important research areas. It is further found that not enough attention will be paid to internal integration, transparency/visibility, ethical issues and the “people dimension” of SCM. This research is intended to help editors, researchers, students and managers...
Burt, Tal; Sharma, Pooja; Dhillon, Savita; Manchanda, Mukul; Mittal, Sanjay; Trehan, Naresh
India has compelling need and keen aspirations for indigenous clinical research. Notwithstanding this need and previously reported growth the expected expansion of Indian clinical research has not materialized. We reviewed the scientific literature, lay press reports, and ClinicalTrials.gov data for information and commentary on projections, progress, and impediments associated with clinical trials in India. We also propose targeted solutions to identified challenges. The Indian clinical trial sector grew by (+) 20.3% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) between 2005 and 2010 and contracted by (-) 14.6% CAGR between 2010 and 2013. Phase-1 trials grew by (+) 43.5% CAGR from 2005-2013, phase-2 trials grew by (+) 19.8% CAGR from 2005-2009 and contracted by (-) 12.6% CAGR from 2009-2013, and phase-3 trials grew by (+) 13.0% CAGR from 2005-2010 and contracted by (-) 28.8% CAGR from 2010-2013. This was associated with a slowing of the regulatory approval process, increased media coverage and activist engagement, and accelerated development of regulatory guidelines and recuperative initiatives. We propose the following as potential targets for restorative interventions: Regulatory overhaul (leadership and enforcement of regulations, resolution of ambiguity in regulations, staffing, training, guidelines, and ethical principles [e.g., compensation]).Education and training of research professionals, clinicians, and regulators.Public awareness and empowerment. After a peak in 2009-2010, the clinical research sector in India appears to be experiencing a contraction. There are indications of challenges in regulatory enforcement of guidelines; training of clinical research professionals; and awareness, participation, partnership, and the general image amongst the non-professional media and public. Preventative and corrective principles and interventions are outlined with the goal of realizing the clinical research potential in India.
Full Text Available The completion of a master’s thesis requires the advisor’s guidance on topic selection, data collection, analysis, interpretation and writing. The advisory committee’s input also contributes to the work. This study conducted content analysis and network analysis on a sample of 547 master’s theses from eight departments of the College of Journalism and Communications of Shih Hsin University to examine the relationships between the advisors and committee members as well as the connections of research topics. The results showed that the topic “lifestyle” have attracted cross-department research interests in the college. The academic network of the college is rather loose, and serving university administration duties may have broadened a faculty member’s centrality in the network. The Department of Communications Management and the Graduate Institute of Communications served as the bridges for the inter-departmental communication in the network. One can understand the interrelations among professors and departments through study on network analysis of thesis as to identify the characteristics of each department, as well as to reveal invisible relations of academic network and scholarly communication. [Article content in Chinese
Kneipp, Shawn M; Gilleskie, Donna; Sheely, Amanda; Schwartz, Todd; Gilmore, Robert M; Atkinson, Daryl
Increasingly, scientific funding agencies are requiring that researchers move toward an integrated, transdisciplinary team science paradigm. Although the barriers to and rewards of conducting this type of research have been discussed in the literature, examples of how nurse investigators have led these teams to reconcile the differences in theoretical, methodological, and/or analytic perspectives that inevitably exist are lacking. In this article, we describe these developmental trajectory challenges through a case study of one transdisciplinary team, focusing on team member characteristics and the leadership tasks associated with successful transdisciplinary science teams in the literature. Specifically, we describe how overcoming these challenges has been essential to examining the complex and potentially cumulative effects that key intersections between legal, social welfare, and labor market systems may have on the health of disadvantaged women. Finally, we discuss this difficult but rewarding work within the context of lessons learned and transdisciplinary team research in relation to the future of nursing science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) shares many of the core values of health education and related fields, the outside researcher embracing this approach to inquiry frequently is confronted with thorny ethical challenges. Following a brief review of the conceptual and historical roots of CBPR, Kelly's ecological principles for…
Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Pruitt, Basil A; Suman, Oscar; Mlcak, Ronald; Wolf, Steven E; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Herndon, David N
Smoke inhalation injury is a serious medical problem that increases morbidity and mortality after severe burns. However, relatively little attention has been paid to this devastating condition, and the bulk of research is limited to preclinical basic science studies. Moreover, no worldwide consensus criteria exist for its diagnosis, severity grading, and prognosis. Therapeutic approaches are highly variable depending on the country and burn centre or hospital. In this Series paper, we discuss understanding of the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, the best evidence-based treatments, and challenges and future directions in diagnostics and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Latif Ullah Khan
Full Text Available The Radio Frequency (RF communication suffers from interference and high latency issues. Along with this, RF communication requires a separate setup for transmission and reception of RF waves. Overcoming the above limitations, Visible Light Communication (VLC is a preferred communication technique because of its high bandwidth and immunity to interference from electromagnetic sources. The revolution in the field of solid state lighting leads to the replacement of florescent lamps by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs which further motivates the usage of VLC. This paper presents a survey of the potential applications, architecture, modulation techniques, standardization and research challenges in VLC.
Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams) will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”). Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data). Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research. PMID:22928979
Full Text Available Abstract Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”. Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data. Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research.
Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya
This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.
This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.
D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana
frequent comment was the invitation to repeat more frequently such events. With no doubt, the visit to seismic surveillance room contributes to give more information and clarification about seismicity of the territory, dispel the myth or deepen the debate on deterministic earthquake prediction and regain at least part of the reputational damage following both the earthquake and the L'Aquila trial (Amato et al., EGU2013-12140). Nevertheless, it remains challenging to measure effects of such initiatives on middle terms, and performance indicators are desirable. It is worth noting that, while INGV organizes this kind of events for several years, it seem that researchers who take active part in this organization are still a limited number. In fact, participants where mainly technician and fixed-term position personnel, mostly women. Is this unavailability related to weak curricular evaluation of third-mission activity in research careers? This require a reflection. Moreover, a video realized by INGV Osservatorio Etneo dealing with working conditions of women in research, presented during the 2012 edition, allows to reflect about the need for more family friendly practices to balance family care and work as well as to promote participation of female researchers to decision making bodies.
This paper presents our recent work in regard to building Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVCSR) systems for the Thai, Indonesian, and Chinese languages. For Thai, since there is no word boundary in the written form, we have proposed a new method for automatically creating word-like units from a text corpus, and applied topic and speaking style adaptation to the language model to recognize spoken-style utterances. For Indonesian, we have applied proper noun-specific adaptation to acoustic modeling, and rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping to solve the problem of large variation in proper noun and English word pronunciation in a spoken-query information retrieval system. In spoken Chinese, long organization names are frequently abbreviated, and abbreviated utterances cannot be recognized if the abbreviations are not included in the dictionary. We have proposed a new method for automatically generating Chinese abbreviations, and by expanding the vocabulary using the generated abbreviations, we have significantly improved the performance of spoken query-based search.
Full Text Available (Post-Yugoslav anti-war contention has remained an under-theorised topic almost twenty years after the end of the wars of Yugoslav succession. Rather than focusing on the “ontogenesis” of individual pacifist enterprises, this paper examines the reasons for which (post-Yugoslav anti-war activisms have been marginalised in recent East European sociological scholarship. I argue that a thorough appreciation of these phenomena requires a Yugoslav/regional approach which has not been favoured by post-Yugoslav social science scholars. This article also offers a critical reading of the existing attempts to theorise (post- Yugoslav anti-war activisms. It criticises their failure to draw upon the rich conceptual apparatus of social movement theories developed within Western political sociology over the last couple of decades. In spite of the fact that the concept of “social movement” may be contested in the context of post-Yugoslav anti-war engagement on the basis of its quantitative marginality, this should not deter (post-Yugoslav social scientists from applying and refining Anglo-Saxon social movement theories in a culturally sensitive manner. Specific dynamics of anti-war activism occurring within an armed conflict has not been sufficiently studied. This is an important knowledge lacuna where regional sociologists could offer a substantive contribution.
Gilliss, Geraldine; Moll, Marita
This 723-item bibliography lists materials on teacher effectiveness research published from 1978 to early 1984. Reference to some earlier works of significance is also included. Teacher effectiveness research is here defined to include principally studies conducted in the presage-context-process-product tradition in an attempt to determine…
Georg F. Bauer
Full Text Available
Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.
Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.
Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.
Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.
Kutsch, Werner Leo
The mission of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS RI) is to enable research to understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and perturbations. The ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and GHG emissions. Technological developments and implementations, related to GHGs, will be promoted by the linking of research, education and innovation. In order to provide this data ICOS RI is a distributed research infrastructure. The backbones of ICOS RI are the national measurement stations such as ICOS atmosphere, ecosystem and ocean stations. ICOS Central Facilities are the European level ICOS RI Centres, which have the specific tasks in collecting and processing the data and samples received from the national measurement networks. During the establishment of ICOS RI ethical guidelines were developed. These guidelines describe principles of ethics in the research activities that should be applied within ICOS RI. They should be acknowledged and followed by all researchers affiliated to ICOS RI and should be supported by all participating institutions. The presentation describes (1) the general challenge to develop ethical guidelines in a complex international infrastructure and (2) gives an overview about the content that includes different kinds of conflicts of interests, data ethics and social responsibility.
Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad
Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research.
Cole, Donald C.; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, (María) Soledad
ABSTRACT Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research. PMID:26234691
Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.
Srinivasan, Krishnan; Maruthy, K N; Venugopal, Vidhya; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi
Occupational heat stress is a major health burden with several potential negative health and well-being outcomes. It is only in the recent years medical research has addressed this risk factor. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of studies in the area of occupational heat stress and its health impacts. Research in occupational heat stress in developing countries like India is limited because of several challenges and constraints. Few challenges are permission from industries to publish the data, resistance for change from employers and workers, improper record of heat/any occupational disease by the employer or worker, study design, and paucity in number of studies. Proper education and guidelines can help to overcome some of the constraints. Proper and correct guidelines will help in mitigating the effects of excessive heat exposure on the health of workers. The studies in this area are limited, and the association between occupational heat exposure and health impacts is not clearly established. Hence, carefully designed studies are required to examine this association and thereby provide valuable information to protect worker's health.
Pilgrim, Randy; Hilton, Joshua A; Carrier, Emily; Pines, Jesse M; Hufstetler, Greg; Thorby, Suzette; Milling, T J; Cesta, Beth; Hsia, Renee Y
In 2006, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) advanced the concept of "coordinated, regionalized, and accountable emergency care systems" to address significant problems with the delivery of emergency medical care in the United States. Achieving this vision requires the thoughtful implementation of well-aligned, system-level structures and processes that enhance access to emergency care and improve patient outcomes at a sustainable cost. Currently, the delivery of emergency medical care is supported by numerous administrative systems, including economic; reimbursement; legal and regulatory structures; licensure, credentialing, and accreditation processes; medicolegal systems; and quality reporting mechanisms. In addition, many regionalized systems may not optimize patient outcomes because of current administrative barriers that make it difficult for providers to deliver the best care. However, certain administrative barriers may also threaten the sustainability of integration efforts or prevent them altogether. This article identifies significant administrative challenges to integrating networks of emergency care in four specific areas: reimbursement, medical-legal, quality reporting mechanisms, and regulatory aspects. The authors propose a research agenda for indentifying optimal approaches that support consistent access to quality emergency care with improved outcomes for patients, at a sustainable cost. Researching administrative challenges will involve careful examination of the numerous natural experiments in the recent past and will be crucial to understand the impact as we embark on a new era of health reform. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
One significant issue to come before the public in recent years is recombinant DNA research or genetic engineering and its applications. An important spokesman on this issue is Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin is of rhetorical interest because of his strategies to sustain the dialogue and define the parameters in which it occurs. This dissertation analyzes a broad range of Rifkin's rhetorical artifacts and those of scientists engaged in recombinant DNA research. They are examined against criteria developed to identify and understand heresy. The five areas of analysis are: the nearness/remoteness phenomenon, the social construction of heresy, the social consequences of heresy, the doctrinal consequences of heresy, and the heresy-hunt ritual. The first two criteria focus on the rhetorical strategies of the heretic. The last three concentrate on the rhetorical strategies of the defenders of the institutional orthodoxy. This dissertation examines the rhetorical strategies of a heretical challenge to the scientific establishment and the consequences of that challenge. This dissertation also analyzes the rhetorical strategies employed by the defenders of the scientific orthodoxy. Although an understanding of the rhetorical strategies employed on both sides of this conflict is important, the implications for the role of rhetoric in highly controversial issues such as recombinant DNA are even more critical.
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Chu, Peter C; Li, Rongfeng
.... Funds increase rapidly for education and scientific research. From 1993 to 2006, enrollment of full time students in universities and colleges grew from 924,000 to 5,400,000, total number of students (including part-time...
Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert
Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…
Flávio Antônio Camargo Porcello
Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretical reflection on the challenges, limits and possibilities of network research, with emphasis on the case of the Telejournalism Researchers Network of the Brazilian Association of Journalism Researchers (SBPJor. In addition to a brief historical account of the network´s years of existence, we will deal here with the publications already accomplished, the evolution of the empirical research works, the courses adopted and also the future plans for the amplification, in quantity and quality, of the commitments undertaken. The interaction between theory and practice has always been a basic milestone in the advancement of the group, composed of professors who have had professional activity in television broadcasting stations. TV enters into people´s lives and cannot be seen as a mere support for electronic communication. Telejournalism is an interdisciplinary field which should be studied in its discursive and enunciative aspects. This article will offer some theoretical contributions from authors such as Castells, Bauman, Chauraudeau, Thompson, Gomes and Mattos, among others, to help in shedding light on this path and stimulate the amplification of the theoretical debate proposed.
James, Jack E
Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subki, I.R.; Soentono, S.
Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of
De Mauro, Andrea; Greco, Marco; Grimaldi, Michele
Although Big Data is a trending buzzword in both academia and the industry, its meaning is still shrouded by much conceptual vagueness. The term is used to describe a wide range of concepts: from the technological ability to store, aggregate, and process data, to the cultural shift that is pervasively invading business and society, both drowning in information overload. The lack of a formal definition has led research to evolve into multiple and inconsistent paths. Furthermore, the existing ambiguity among researchers and practitioners undermines an efficient development of the subject. In this paper we have reviewed the existing literature on Big Data and analyzed its previous definitions in order to pursue two results: first, to provide a summary of the key research areas related to the phenomenon, identifying emerging trends and suggesting opportunities for future development; second, to provide a consensual definition for Big Data, by synthesizing common themes of existing works and patterns in previous definitions.
Preventing unauthorized intrusions on pipeline Right of Ways (ROWs) and mechanical damage due to third party strikes by machinery is a constant challenge for the pipeline industry. Equally important for safety and environmental protection is the dete...
Martinuzzi, André; Blok, Vincent; Brem, Alexander
empirical and conceptual contributions that explore corporate motivations to adopt RRI, the state of implementation of concrete RRI practices, the role of stakeholders in responsible innovation processes, as well as drivers and barriers to the further diffusion of RRI in industry. Overall......The responsibility of industry towards society and the environment is a much discussed topic, both in academia and in business. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has recently emerged as a new concept with the potential to advance this discourse in light of two major challenges industry...... is facing today. The first relates to the accelerating race to innovate in order to stay competitive in a rapidly changing world. The second concerns the need to maintain public trust in industry through innovations that generate social value in addition to economic returns. This Special Issue provides...
Becker, Stephen P
To summarize recent research on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and consider the potential relevance of SCT for the field of pediatric psychology. Literature review. Recent empirical evidence shows SCT symptoms consisting of sluggish/sleepy and daydreamy behaviors to be distinct from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents, including internalizing symptoms, social withdrawal, and, possibly, academic impairment. The recent findings reviewed suggest that SCT is an important construct for pediatric psychologists to be aware of and may also be directly useful for the research and practice of pediatric psychology.
Larsen, M. C.; Glynn, P. D.
For the past century, Federal mission science agencies (eg. USFS, NRCS, ARS, USGS) have had the long- term agency goals, infrastructure, and research staff to conduct research and data collection in small watersheds as well as support these activities for non-Federal partners. The National Science Foundation has been a strong partner with the Federal mission science agencies, through the LTER network, which is dependent on Federally supported research sites, and more recently with the emerging CUAHSI, WATERS, CZEN, and NEON initiatives. Much of the NSF-supported research builds on the foundations provided by their Federally supported partners, who sustain the long-term, extensive monitoring activity and research sites, including making long-term data available to all users via public interfaces. The future of these programs, and their enhancement/expansion to face the intensifying concurrent challenges of population growth, land-use change, and climate change, is dependent on a well-funded national commitment to basic science. Such a commitment will allow the scientific community to advance our understanding of these scientific challenges and to synthesize our understanding among research sites and at the national scale. Small watersheds serve as essential platforms where hypotheses can be tested, as sentinels for climate change, and as a basis for comparing and scaling up local information and syntheses to regional and continental scales. The science guides resource management and mitigation decisions and is fundamental to the development of predictive models. Furthermore, small-watershed research and monitoring programs are generally undervalued because many research questions that can be addressed now or in the future were not anticipated when the sites were initiated. Some examples include: 1) the quantification, characterization, and understanding of how emerging contaminants, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors affect organisms - substances that
This article describes how the author engaged a group of high school drama students, in a rural Alberta community of majority Aboriginal population, in doing Popular Theatre as a form of participatory research. Popular Theatre is a process by which members of a community identify issues of concern, analyze conditions and causes, and search for…
Klievink, B.; Zomer, G.
This paper is the introduction to the fourth Workshop on IT-enabled Resilient, Seamless and Secure Global Supply Chains (WITNESS 2015). In the paper, we present a synthesis of the innovation agendas of a series of international research, development and demonstration projects that seek to make
Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda
Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five
Arbaugh, J. B.; Asarta, Carlos J.; Hwang, Alvin; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Bento, Regina F.; Dean, Kathy Lund
Previous studies of author productivity in business and management education (BME) research have focused on single disciplinary areas, and even single journals. This study is the first to examine the productivity of BME scholars across multiple disciplinary areas (i.e., accounting, economics, finance, information systems, management, marketing,…
Lekwa, Adam; Ysseldyke, Jim
Eighty school psychology programs offering training at the doctoral level were contacted with a request for lists of authors, titles, and abstracts of dissertations completed between the years 2000 and 2007. Titles and abstracts from 1119 dissertations were reviewed to assess the interests and experiences of new researchers and practitioners in…
Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Lee, Hyung-Sool
Increasing energy demand has been a big challenge for current society, as the fossil fuel sources are gradually decreasing. Hence, development of renewable and sustainable energy sources for the future is considered one of the top priorities in national strategic plans. Bioenergy can meet future energy requirements - renewability, sustainability, and even carbon-neutrality. Bioenergy production from wastes and wastewaters is especially attractive because of dual benefits of energy generation and contaminant stabilization. There are several bioenergy technologies using wastes and wastewaters as electron donor, which include anaerobic digestion, dark biohydrogen fermentation, biohydrogen production using photosynthetic microorganisms, and bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Among them BES seems to be very promising as we can produce a variety of value-added products from wastes and wastewaters, such as electric power, hydrogen gas, hydrogen peroxide, acetate, ethanol etc. Most ofthe traditional BES uses a membrane to separate the anode and cathode chamber, which is essential for improving microbial metabolism on the anode and the recovery of value-added products on the cathode. Performance of BES lacking a membrane can be seriously deteriorated, due to oxygen diffusion or substantial loss of synthesized products. For this reason, usage of a membrane seems essential to facilitate BES performance. However, a membrane can bring several technical challenges to BES application compared to membrane-less BES. These challenges include poor proton permeability, substrate loss, oxygen back diffusion, pH gradient, internal resistance, biofouling, etc. This paper aims to review the major technical barriers associated with membranes and future research directions for their application in BESs.
Jones, Richard N.; Manly, Jennifer; Glymour, M. Maria; Rentz, Dorene M.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Stern, Yaakov
Cognitive reserve, broadly conceived, encompasses aspects of brain structure and function that optimize individual performance in the presence of injury or pathology. Reserve is defined as a feature of brain structure and/or function that modifies the relationship between injury or pathology and performance on neuropsychological tasks or clinical outcomes. Reserve is challenging to study for two reasons. The first is: reserve is a hypothetical construct, and direct measures of reserve are not available. Proxy variables and latent variable models are used to attempt to operationalize reserve. The second is: in vivo measures of neuronal pathology are not widely available. It is challenging to develop and test models involving a risk factor (injury or pathology), a moderator (reserve) and an outcome (performance or clinical status) when neither the risk factor nor the moderator are measured directly. We discuss approaches for quantifying reserve with latent variable models, with emphasis on their application in the analysis of data from observational studies. Increasingly latent variable models are used to generate composites of cognitive reserve based on multiple proxies. We review the theoretical and ontological status of latent variable modeling approaches to cognitive reserve, and suggest research strategies for advancing the field. PMID:21411036
Zheleznyakova, Galina Y; Piket, Eliane; Marabita, Francesco; Pahlevan Kakhki, Majid; Ewing, Ewoud; Ruhrmann, Sabrina; Needhamsen, Maria; Jagodic, Maja; Kular, Lara
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS likely results from a complex interplay between predisposing causal gene variants (the strongest influence coming from HLA class II locus) and environmental risk factors such as smoking, infectious mononucleosis, and lack of sun exposure/vitamin D. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying MS development and progression. Moreover, the clinical heterogeneity and variable response to treatment represent additional challenges to a comprehensive understanding and efficient treatment of disease. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications, integrate influences from the genes and the environment to regulate gene expression accordingly. Studying epigenetic modifications, which are stable and reversible, may provide an alternative approach to better understand and manage disease. We here aim to review findings from epigenetic studies in MS and further discuss the challenges and clinical opportunities arising from epigenetic research, many of which apply to other diseases with similar complex etiology. A growing body of evidence supports a role of epigenetic processes in the mechanisms underlying immune pathogenesis and nervous system dysfunction in MS. However, disparities between studies shed light on the need to consider possible confounders and methodological limitations for a better interpretation of the data. Nevertheless, translational use of epigenetics might offer new opportunities in epigenetic-based diagnostics and therapeutic tools for a personalized care of MS patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Williams, Spencer T; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (PSCs) are poised to push toward technology translation, but significant challenges complicating commercialization remain. Though J-V hysteresis and ecotoxicity are uniquely imposing issues at scale, CH3NH3PbI3 degradation is by far the sharpest limitation to the technology's potential market contribution. Herein, we offer a perspective on the practical market potential of PSCs, the nature of fundamental PSC challenges at scale, and an outline of prospective solutions for achieving module scale PSC production tailored to intrinsic advantages of CH3NH3PbI3. Although integrating PSCs into the energy grid is complicated by CH3NH3PbI3 degradation, the ability of PSCs to contribute to consumer electronics and other niche markets like those organic photovoltaics have sought footing in rests primarily upon the technology's price point. Thus, slot die, roll-to-roll processing has the greatest potential to enable PSC scale-up, and herein, we present a perspective on the research necessary to realize fully printable PSCs at scale.
Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose
The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... and creativity, with skillful and innovative handling of constraints seen as a prerequisite for apt creative performance. Based on a brief review of current disparate conceptualizations of constraints as both enablers and restrainers of creative activities, we begin by proposing the unifying concept ‘creativity...... the salient situations where the creative practitioner can be said to experience the ‘right’ level of constrainedness conducive to optimum creative performance. We then proceed to consider how the sweet spot can be attained by balancing constraints, i.e., by manipulating the intensity of constrainedness. More...
Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose
The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... constraints’ to help establish common terminological ground. Since the presence of constraints change over time, we suggest the term ‘constrainedness’ to articulate this total constraint intensity at a given time. This allows us to introduce our main contribution, the concept ‘the sweet spot’, to address...... the salient situations where the creative practitioner can be said to experience the ‘right’ level of constrainedness conducive to optimum creative performance. We then proceed to consider how the sweet spot can be attained by balancing constraints, i.e., by manipulating the intensity of constrainedness. More...
Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.
Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Univ. of California, San Diego
This presentation provides a high level summary of current research activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-University of California Jacobs School of Engineering (UCSD) Engineering Institute that will be presented at Korea's Agency for Defense Development (ADD). These research activities are at the basic engineering science level with different level of maturity ranging from initial concepts to field proof-of-concept demonstrations. We believe that all of these activities are appropriate for collaborative research activities with ADD subject to approval by each institution. All the activities summarized herein have the common theme that they are multi-disciplinary in nature and typically involved the integration of high-fidelity predictive modeling, advanced sensing technologies and new development in information technology. These activities include: Wireless Sensor Systems, Swarming Robot sensor systems, Advanced signal processing (compressed sensing) and pattern recognition, Model Verification and Validation, Optimal/robust sensor system design, Haptic systems for large-scale data processing, Cyber-physical security for robots, Multi-source energy harvesting, Reliability-based approaches to damage prognosis, SHMTools software development, and Cyber-physical systems advanced study institute.
Highlights: • IDPSA contributes to robust risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety. • IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among component failures and system process. • Also, IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among control and operator actions. • Computational efficiency by advanced Monte Carlo and meta-modelling simulations. • Efficient post-processing of IDPSA output by clustering and data mining. - Abstract: Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is conceived as a way to analyze the evolution of accident scenarios in complex dynamic systems, like nuclear, aerospace and process ones, accounting for the mutual interactions between the failure and recovery of system components, the evolving physical processes, the control and operator actions, the software and firmware. In spite of the potential offered by IDPSA, several challenges need to be effectively addressed for its development and practical deployment. In this paper, we give an overview of these and discuss the related implications in terms of research perspectives
Zio, Enrico, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Ecole Centrale Paris and Supelec, Chair on System Science and the Energetic Challenge, European Foundation for New Energy – Electricite de France (EDF), Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)
Highlights: • IDPSA contributes to robust risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety. • IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among component failures and system process. • Also, IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among control and operator actions. • Computational efficiency by advanced Monte Carlo and meta-modelling simulations. • Efficient post-processing of IDPSA output by clustering and data mining. - Abstract: Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is conceived as a way to analyze the evolution of accident scenarios in complex dynamic systems, like nuclear, aerospace and process ones, accounting for the mutual interactions between the failure and recovery of system components, the evolving physical processes, the control and operator actions, the software and firmware. In spite of the potential offered by IDPSA, several challenges need to be effectively addressed for its development and practical deployment. In this paper, we give an overview of these and discuss the related implications in terms of research perspectives.
Choo, Jimmy; Blundell, Sally; McGinnis, Elizabeth
This paper explores the issues faced by research nurses in pressure ulcer research through reflection on our own practice and subsequently addresses these issues through critical appraisal of the existing literature. A critical reflection framework which provided an opportunity for group reflection and reflexivity was adopted to guide our reflection. Focus questions were formulated based on our reflections and used to inform our literature review. Keywords used in the literature review search included 'research nurse', ethical principles, ethical issues and reflection. A formal tool was used to appraise normative ethics articles. Reflection on our practice in pressure ulcer research identified four main issues: informed consent, confidentiality, methodological uncertainties and more generally the ethical dilemma of the conflict between our accountability and responsibility to the patients and obligations to the research studies. The notion of 'power relations' was found to permeate our practice as research nurses at all level. Six normative ethics papers were retrieved and critically appraised to aid our personal and professional learning and development in the conduct of ethical practice as research nurses in pressure ulcer research through the theory of practice which other research nurses and/or nurse researchers used in other disciplines. Four main ethical challenges and the issue of power relation were highlighted. Our reflection and the appraisal of the literature provided us the necessary knowledge and skills to better navigate these ethical challenges in the future. Copyright © 2012 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fullerton, A.H.; Burnett, K.M.; Steel, E.A.; Flitcroft, R.L.; Pess, G.R.; Feist, B.E.; Torgersen, C.E.; Miller, D.J.; Sanderson, B.L.
1. In this review, we first summarize how hydrologic connectivity has been studied for riverine fish capable of moving long distances, and then identify research opportunities that have clear conservation significance. Migratory species, such as anadromous salmonids, are good model organisms for understanding ecological connectivity in rivers because the spatial scale over which movements occur among freshwater habitats is large enough to be easily observed with available techniques; they are often economically or culturally valuable with habitats that can be easily fragmented by human activities; and they integrate landscape conditions from multiple surrounding catchment(s) with in-river conditions. Studies have focussed on three themes: (i) relatively stable connections (connections controlled by processes that act over broad spatio-temporal scales >1000 km2 and >100 years); (ii) dynamic connections (connections controlled by processes acting over fine to moderate spatio-temporal scales -1-1000 km2 and role of connectivity in riverine fish ecology, organized under three foci: (i) addressing the constraints of river structure; (ii) embracing temporal complexity in hydrologic connectivity; and (iii) managing connectivity for riverine fishes. Challenges include the spatial structure of stream networks, the force and direction of flow, scale-dependence of connectivity, shifting boundaries, complexity of behaviour and life histories and quantifying anthropogenic influence on connectivity and aligning management goals. As we discuss each challenge, we summarize relevant approaches in the literature and provide additional suggestions for improving research and management of connectivity for riverine fishes. 3. Specifically, we suggest that rapid advances are possible in the following arenas: (i) incorporating network structure and river discharge into analyses; (ii) increasing explicit consideration of temporal complexity and fish behaviour in the scope of analyses; and
Palaszewski, Bryan A.
Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.
Khodyakov, Dmitry; Grant, Sean; Meeker, Daniella; Booth, Marika; Pacheco-Santivanez, Nathaly; Kim, Katherine K
Little evidence exists about effective and scalable methods for meaningful stakeholder engagement in research. We explored patient/caregiver experiences with a high-tech online engagement approach for patient-centered research prioritization, compared their experiences with those of professional stakeholders, and identified factors associated with favorable participant experiences. We conducted 8 online modified-Delphi (OMD) panels. Panelists participated in 2 rating rounds with a statistical feedback/online discussion round in between. Panels focused on weight management/obesity, heart failure, and Kawasaki disease. We recruited a convenience sample of adults with any of the 3 conditions (or parents/guardians of Kawasaki disease patients), clinicians, and researchers. Measures included self-reported willingness to use OMD again, the panelists' study participation and online discussion experiences, the system's perceived ease of use, and active engagement metrics. Out of 349 panelists, 292 (84%) completed the study. Of those, 46% were patients, 36% were clinicians, and 19% were researchers. In multivariate models, patients were not significantly more actively engaged (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-3.05) but had more favorable study participation (β = 0.49; P ≤ .05) and online discussion (β = 0.18; P ≤ .05) experiences and were more willing to use OMD again (β = 0.36; P ≤ .05), compared to professional stakeholders. Positive perceptions of the OMD system's ease of use (β = 0.16; P ≤ .05) and favorable study participation (β = 0.26; P ≤ .05) and online discussion (β = 0.57; P ≤ .05) experiences were also associated with increased willingness to use OMD in the future. Active engagement was not associated with online experience indices or willingness to use OMD again. Online approaches to engaging large numbers of stakeholders are a promising and efficient adjunct
Debortoli, Stefan; Müller, Oliver; Junglas, Iris
t is estimated that more than 80 percent of today’s data is stored in unstructured form (e.g., text, audio, image, video);and much of it is expressed in rich and ambiguous natural language. Traditionally, the analysis of natural languagehas prompted the use of qualitative data analysis approaches......, such as manual coding. Yet, the size of text data setsobtained from the Internet makes manual analysis virtually impossible. In this tutorial, we discuss the challengesencountered when applying automated text-mining techniques in information systems research. In particular, weshowcase the use of probabilistic...
Rintamaa, R.; Aho-Mantila, I.
The European network of excellence NULIFE (nuclear plant life prediction) has been launched with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonised lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate safe and economic long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants. In addition, NULIFE will help in the development of design criteria for future generations of nuclear power plant. NULIFE was kicked-off in October 2006 and will work over a 5-year period to create a single organization structure, capable of providing harmonised research and development (R and D) at European level to the nuclear power industry and the related safety authorities. Led by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), the project has a total budget in excess of 8 million euros, with over 40 partners drawn from leading research institutions, technical support organizations, electric power utilities and manufacturers throughout Europe. NULIFE also involves many industrial organizations and, in addition to their R and D contributions, these take part in a dedicated End User Group. Over the last 15 years the European Commission has sponsored a significant number of R and D projects under the Euratom Framework Programme and its Joint Research Centre has developed co-operative European Networks for mutual benefits on specific topics related to plant life management. However, their overall impact has been reduced due to fragmentation. These networks are considered forerunners to NULIFE. The importance of the long-term operation of the plants has been recognized at European level, in the strategic research agenda of SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform). In NULIFE, the joint EU
Patrícia Morellato, Leonor
Detecting plant responses to environmental changes across the Southern Hemisphere is an important question in the global agenda, as there is still a shortage of studies addressing phenological trends related to global warming. Here I bring a fresh perspective on the current knowledge of South America's phenology, and discusss the challenges and future research agendas for one of the most diverse regions of the world. I will syntethize: (i) What is the current focus of contemporany phenological research in South America? (ii) Is phenology contributing to the detection of trends and shifts related to climate or antropogenic changes? (iii) How has phenology been integrated to conservation, restoration, and management of natural vegetation and endangered species? (iv) What would be the main challenges and new avenues for South American phenological research in the 21st century? (v) Can we move towards phenology monitoring networks, linked to citizen science and education? My perspective is based on recent reviews addressing the Southeastern Hemisphere, South America, and Neotropical phenology; and on reviews and essays on the contribution of phenological research to biodiversity conservation, management, and ecological restoration, emphasizing tropical, species-rich ecosystems. Phenological research has grown at an unprecedented rate in the last 20 years, surpassing 100 articles per year after 2010. There is still a predominance of short-term studies (2-3 years) describing patterns and drivers for reproduction and leaf exchange. Only 10 long-term studies were found, based on direct observations or plant traps, and this number did not add much to the previous surveys. Therefore, we remain in need of more long-term studies to enhance the contribution of phenology to climate change research in South America. It is also mandatory to bring conservation issues to phenology research. The effects of climatic and antropogenic changes on plant phenology have been addressed
Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Egloff, Matthieu; Snykers, Sarah; Salinas, Gabriella Franco; Thomas, Robert; Girling, Alan; Lilford, Richard; Clermont, Gaelle; Kemp, Paul
The Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society-Europe (TERMIS-EU) Industry Committee as well as its TERMIS-Americas (AM) counterpart intend to address the specific challenges and needs facing the industry in translating academic research into commercial products. Over the last 3 years, the TERMIS-EU Industry Committee has worked with commercial bodies to deliver programs that encourage academics to liaise with industry in proactive collaborations. The TERMIS-EU 2013 Industry Symposium aimed to build on this commercial agenda by focusing on two topics: Operations Management (How to move a process into the good manufacturing practice [GMP] environment) and Clinical Translation (Moving a GMP process into robust trials). These topics were introduced by providing the synergistic business perspective of partnering between the multiple regenerative medicine stakeholders, throughout the life cycle of product development. Seven industry leaders were invited to share their experience, expertise, and strategies. Due to the complex nature of regenerative medicine products, partnering for their successful commercial development seems inevitable to overcome all obstacles by sharing experiences and expertise of all stakeholders. When ideally implemented, the "innovation quotient" of a virtual team resulting from the combination of internal and external project teams can be maximized through maximizing the three main dimensions: core competences, technology portfolio, and alliance management.
Full Text Available This contribution discusses the integration processes of immigrants and minorities with a recent immigrant background, and the policies related to the process of settlement of these newcomers in European societies at all relevant levels: from the local level of municipalities and cities, to the national level of states, and the international level of the European Union. Within this general approach, however, a strong emphasis is put on the local level, since that is the level where such policies have to be implemented and are primarily felt, both by the immigrants themselves and by those parts of society that are most affected by immigration. To describe the current state of integration research and policies, this paper will explore in the first section the nature of integration processes, their conceptualisation and lessons from empirical studies. The reason for devoting some space to these topics is the assertion that any integration policy should be based on a thorough, scientifically-based knowledge of the processes of integration and exclusion: if a policy wants to steer such a process, it should have a clear idea of what instruments it can use possibly to intervene, in which part of the process, and at what particular moment. Such knowledge is a solid starting point for policy-making, but it is not enough. Processes of policy-making and implementation follow their own set course, which do not necessarily run parallel to the process of integration. That is why, in the following section, the author attempts to explain some of these processes. At the end of this paper he returns to the core questions of immigration and integration policies on the one hand, and the relationship between local, national and international integration policies on the other.
Rindahl, G.; Johnsen, T.; Mark, N. K. F.; Meyer, G.
During the last decade of research and development on advanced visualization systems for the nuclear industry, the available technology has evolved significantly. In the same period, nuclear companies have entered a more competitive environment due to the increasingly open electricity market, resulting in strong demands on cost effective operations. This paper reports on some of the 3D applications developed by Inst. for Energy Technology in this time period, and on the emerging possibilities for practical applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality. Finally the paper proposes that well-considered deployment of recent and on-going technological advances in this field can be a contribution to improving economy and efficiency without compromising safety. (authors)
Interest in sleep and dreams has existed since the dawn of history. Despite intensive steep research in recent years, the exact function of sleep is yet to be determined. Nevertheless, several breakthrough discoveries have led to substantial improvement in the quality of sleep medicine. This issue of "Harefuah" is dedicated to the current knowledge in steep research and sleep medicine, to novel discoveries in this field, and to some challenges for the future. One paper discusses the concept of tolerance to hypnotics, while another article provides a review, summarizing the development and cLinicaL potential usage of stow release meLatonin in the treatment of insomnia. The issue provides novel data regarding the effect of steep posture on the severity of apnea in children and adults, as well as data regarding obstructive sleep disorders in children younger than two years old. Encouraging data are presented regarding the potential treatment of obstructive sleep apnea utilizing eLectricaL stimulation of the genioglossus muscle to prevent its' collapse during sleep. SeveraL additional articLes in the issue shed further light on recent discoveries in the field of steep medicine.
Kidd, Pamela; Parshall, Mark; Wojcik, Susan; Struttmann, Tim
Recruiting workers in small construction companies and securing their participation in voluntary safety programs or safety research poses unique challenges. Worker turnover and worksite changes contribute to difficulties in locating and enrolling participants. Economic pressures and time demands potentially threaten ongoing participation. Six simulation exercises designed to reduce back and fall injuries in small construction companies were developed based on data from focus groups of workers and company owners. Working with a workers' compensation insurer, we had access to owner-operators of general, heavy, and special trade construction companies reporting less than $10,000 in payroll expenses. Recruitment methods included a participation incentive, mailed invitations followed by phone contacts, and follow-up reminders. Despite using recruitment methods recommended in the literature, participation rates were low over a 2-year intervention period. Because of these difficulties, factors affecting participation or nonparticipation became an additional research focus. Owners' perceptions of already having a good safety record and of the time demands of participation were the most commonly cited reasons for not participating. Literature on recruitment emphasizes processes and procedures under investigator control rather than understanding potential participants' judgments about the adequacy of their existing practices and the potential benefits of intervention participation relative to potential time and productivity trade-offs. Greater attention to such judgments may enhance recruitment and participation in under-studied and difficult to access populations. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey
A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490
Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey
A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.
Kapp, Julie M; Peters, Colleen; Oliver, Debra Parker
To our knowledge, ours is the first study to report on Facebook advertising as an exclusive mechanism for recruiting women ages 35-49 years residing in the USA into a health-related research study. We directed our survey to women ages 35-49 years who resided in the USA exclusively using three Facebook advertisements. Women were then redirected to our survey site. There were 20,568,960 women on Facebook that met the eligibility criteria. The three ads resulted in 899,998 impressions with a reach of 374,225 women. Of the women reached, 280 women (0.075 %) clicked the ad. Of the women who clicked the ad, nine women (3.2 %) proceeded past the introductory page. Social networking, and in particular Facebook, is an innovative venue for recruiting participants for research studies. Challenges include developing an ad to foster interest without biasing the sample, and motivating women who click the ad to complete the survey. There is still much to learn about this potential method of recruitment.
Semken, S. C.; St John, K. K.; Teasdale, R.; Ryker, K.; Riggs, E. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Petcovic, H. L.; McNeal, K.; McDaris, J. R.; Macdonald, H.; Kastens, K.; Cervato, C.
Fourteen ago the Wingspread Project helped establish geoscience education research (GER) as an important research field and highlighted major research questions for GER at the time. More recently, the growth and interest in GER is evident from the increase in geoscience education research articles, the establishment of the NAGT GER Division, the creation of the GER Toolbox, an increase in GER graduate programs, and the growth of tenure-eligible GER faculty positions. As an emerging STEM education research field, the GER community is examining the current state of their research and considering the best course forward so that it can have the greatest collective impact on advancing teaching and learning in the geosciences. As part of an NSF-funded effort to meet this need, 45 researchers drafted priority research questions, or "Grand Challenges", that span 10 geoscience education research themes. These include research on: students' conceptual understanding of the solid and the fluid Earth, K-12 teacher preparation, teaching about Earth in the context of societal problems, access and success of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, spatial and temporal reasoning, quantitative reasoning and use of models, instructional strategies to improve geoscience learning, students' self-regulated learning, and faculty professional development and institutional change. For each theme, several Grand Challenges have been proposed; these have undergone one round of peer-review and are now ready for the AGU community to critically examine the proposed Grand Challenges and make suggestions on strategies for addressing them: http://nagt.org/nagt/geoedresearch/grand_challenges/feedback.html. We seek perspectives from geoscience education researchers, scholars, and reflective educators. It is our vision that the final outcomes of this community-grounded process will be a published guiding framework to (1) focus future GER on questions of high interest to the geoscience education
Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Nevada Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Blake, Kelly [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Calvin, Wendy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences and Engineering; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Glen, Jonathan [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hickman, Stephen [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Kaven, Ole [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lazaro, Mike [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Meade, David [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phelps, Geoff [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sabin, Andrew [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Schoenball, Martin [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Silar, Drew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx/Schlumberger, Richmond, CA (United States); Williams, Colin [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
The Department of Energy (DOE) Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) is to be a dedicated site where the subsurface scientific and engineering community can develop, test, and improve technologies and techniques for the creation of cost-effective and sustainable enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in a controlled, ideal environment. The establishment of FORGE will facilitate development of an understanding of the key mechanisms controlling a successful EGS. Execution of FORGE is occurring in three phases with five distinct sub-phases (1, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3). This report focuses on Phase 1 activities. During Phase 1, critical technical and logistical tasks necessary to demonstrate the viability of the Fallon FORGE Project site were completed and the commitment and capability of the Fallon FORGE team to execute FORGE was demonstrated. As part of Phase 1, the Fallon FORGE Team provided an assessment of available relevant data and integrated these geologic and geophysical data to develop a conceptual 3-D geologic model of the proposed test location. Additionally, the team prepared relevant operational plans for full FORGE implementation, provided relevant site data to the science and engineering community, engaged in outreach and communications with interested stakeholders, and performed a review of the environmental and permitting activities needed to allow FORGE to progress through Phase 3. The results of these activities are provided as Appendices to this report. The Fallon FORGE Team is diverse, with deep roots in geothermal science and engineering. The institutions and key personnel that comprise the Fallon FORGE Team provide a breadth of geoscience and geoengineering capabilities, a strong and productive history in geothermal research and applications, and the capability and experience to manage projects with the complexity anticipated for FORGE. Fallon FORGE Team members include the U.S. Navy, Ormat Nevada Inc., Sandia National Laboratories
Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.
Molecular image-based techniques are widely used in medicine to detect specific diseases. Look diagnosis is an important issue but also the analysis of the eye plays an important role in order to detect specific diseases. These topics are important topics in medicine and the standardization of these topics by an automatic system can be a new challenging field for machine vision. Compared to iris recognition has the iris diagnosis much more higher demands for the image acquisition and interpretation of the iris. One understands by iris diagnosis (Iridology) the investigation and analysis of the colored part of the eye, the iris, to discover factors, which play an important role for the prevention and treatment of illnesses, but also for the preservation of an optimum health. An automatic system would pave the way for a much wider use of the iris diagnosis for the diagnosis of illnesses and for the purpose of individual health protection. With this paper, we describe our work towards an automatic iris diagnosis system. We describe the image acquisition and the problems with it. Different ways are explained for image acquisition and image preprocessing. We describe the image analysis method for the detection of the iris. The meta-model for image interpretation is given. Based on this model we show the many tasks for image analysis that range from different image-object feature analysis, spatial image analysis to color image analysis. Our first results for the recognition of the iris are given. We describe how detecting the pupil and not wanted lamp spots. We explain how to recognize orange blue spots in the iris and match them against the topological map of the iris. Finally, we give an outlook for further work.
Chue Hong, N.
Software is fundamental to research. From short, thrown-together temporary scripts, through an abundance of complex spreadsheets analysing collected data, to the hundreds of software engineers and millions of lines of code behind international efforts such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Square Kilometre Array, software has made an invaluable contribution to advancing our research knowledge. Within the earth and space sciences, data is being generated, collected, processed and analysed in ever greater amounts and detail. However the pace of this improvement leads to challenges around the persistence of research outputs and artefacts. A specific challenge in this field is that often experiments and measurements cannot be repeated, yet the infrastructure used to manage, store and process this data must be continually updated and developed: constant change just to stay still. The UK-based Software Sustainability Institute (SSI) aims to improve research software sustainability, working with researchers, funders, research software engineers, managers, and other stakeholders across the research spectrum. In this talk, I will present lessons learned and good practice based on the work of the Institute and its collaborators. I will summarise some of the work that is being done to improve the integration of infrastructure for managing research outputs, including around software citation and reward, extending data management plans, and improving researcher skills: "better software, better research". Ultimately, being a modern researcher in the geosciences requires you to efficiently balance the pursuit of new knowledge with making your work reusable and reproducible. And as scientists are placed under greater scrutiny about whether others can trust their results, the preservation of your artefacts has a key role in the preservation of your reputation.
Tavaborole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Tavaborole topical solution is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail ...
Efinaconazole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail ...
... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ...
Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.
The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that
This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.
Garnier-Laplace, J; Vandenhove, H; Beresford, N; Muikku, M; Real, A
The ALLIANCE 6 Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) initiated by the STAR 7 Network of Excellence and integrated in the research strategy implemented by the COMET consortium, defines a long-term vision of the needs for, and implementation of, research in radioecology. This reference document, reflecting views from many stakeholders groups and researchers, serves as an input to those responsible for defining EU research call topics through the ALLIANCE SRA statement delivered each year to the EJP-CONCERT 8 (2015-2020). This statement highlights a focused number of priorities for funding. Research in radioecology and related sciences is justified by various drivers, such as policy changes, scientific advances and knowledge gaps, radiological risk perception by the public, and a growing awareness of interconnections between human and ecosystem health. The SRA is being complemented by topical roadmaps that have been initiated by the COMET 9 EC-funded project, with the help and endorsement of the ALLIANCE. The strategy underlying roadmap development is driven by the need for improved mechanistic understanding across radioecology. By meeting this need, we can provide fit-for-purpose human and environmental impact/risk assessments in support of the protection of man and the environment in interaction with society and for the three exposure situations defined by the ICRP (i.e., planned, existing and emergency). Within the framework of the EJP-CONCERT the development of a joint roadmap is under discussion among all the European research platforms and will highlight the major research needs for the whole radiation protection field and how these are likely to be addressed by 2030.
This report surveys the need for large computers in analyzing the properties of magnetically confined plasmas and simulating the characteristics of fusion reactors. The major conclusion of the report is that, to meet the program schedule developed by Magnetic Confinement Systems, it would be necessary to immediately scale up the CTR (controlled thermonuclear research) computerized effort to a level of two Class IV computers by FY 1975. Based on this report, and in an attempt to best meet this need, it was decided to establish the National CTR Computer Center at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
Insitut fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen, University of Stuttgart - topical research; Aktuelle Forschungsarbeiten des Instituts fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen
Number 9 of the communications of the institute offers an overview of its fields of research. Described are both projects lately finalized but which are still topical, and investigations currently under way which have already provided useful results. Part of the contributions will be submitted in their full versions as theses, others are condensations of reports commissioned by industry. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Heft Nr. 9 der Institutsmitteilungen bietet einen Ueberblick ueber die Arbeitsgebiete des Institutes. Es wurden sowohl Arbeiten aufgenommen, die in letzter Zeit abgeschlossen wurden, aber noch nicht an Aktualitaet verloren haben, als auch solche Untersuchungen, die noch im Gange sind, aber bereits zu brauchbaren Ergebnissen gefuehrt haben. Ein Teil der Beitraege wird ausfuehrlich in Form von Dissertationen vorgelegt werden, bei anderen handelt es sich um Kurzfassungen von Berichten, die im Rahmen von Industrieauftraegen erstellt wurden. (orig./GL)
Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.
The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of art in mindfulness research on workplace and identifies some of the necessary steps and risks in the creation of mindful leadership theory. Mindfulness has the potential to effectively address three topical organizational challenges of growing demands on adaptability, prevailing issues of work-related stress and the necessity to raise the moral level in organizations. Current studies seem to suitably respond to the issues of work-related stress; however, the challenges of adaptability and morality so far lack appropriate empirical validation. Lack of empirical support is also noticeable in the case of mindful leadership theory as most studies still focus solely on individual leader development. However, it is important to start to discuss the suitable core variables of mindful leadership now as a clear differentiation from other leadership approaches like authentic leadership will be crucial for successful creation of mindful leadership theory. This paper also presents recommendations for entrepreneurs and managers willing to incorporate mindfulness into their organizational settings.
Schmidt, Steven W.; Biniecki, Susan M. Yelich
Administrators of adult education programs work in dynamic and ever-changing environments. They are continually challenged with a myriad of issues related to program budgeting, marketing, strategic planning, funding, human resources, and other topics. With decades of real world experience in the field, Steven Schmidt and Susan Yelich Biniecki have…
Full Text Available The responsibility of industry towards society and the environment is a much discussed topic, both in academia and in business. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI has recently emerged as a new concept with the potential to advance this discourse in light of two major challenges industry is facing today. The first relates to the accelerating race to innovate in order to stay competitive in a rapidly changing world. The second concerns the need to maintain public trust in industry through innovations that generate social value in addition to economic returns. This Special Issue provides empirical and conceptual contributions that explore corporate motivations to adopt RRI, the state of implementation of concrete RRI practices, the role of stakeholders in responsible innovation processes, as well as drivers and barriers to the further diffusion of RRI in industry. Overall, these contributions highlight the relevance of RRI for firms of different sizes and sectors. They also provide insights and suggestions for managers, policymakers and researchers wishing to engage with responsibility in innovation. This editorial summarizes the most pertinent conclusions across the individual articles published in this Special Issue and concludes by outlining some fruitful avenues for future research in this space.
development and, when required, to recondition and rehabilitate SOF individuals? Consider new concepts for strength building, conditioning, combat nutrition ...organizational whole—Is it possible to pull the head from a snake and not have a Hydra? Use social network analysis and other organizational
Jaeckel, Greta; Braeckevelt, Mareike
The Center for Advanced Water Research (CAWR) brings together the water competences of two German research institutions: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ and the Technische Universität Dresden (TUD). Highly qualified scientists are jointly tackling some of the key challenges in the water sector in an outstanding breadth of research topics and at the same time with a profound disciplinary expertise. Our mission is: "Save water for humans and environment", because water in a good quality and adequate quantity is a fundamental basis of life for humankind and the environment. In many global challenges, such as food or energy security, human health and ecosystems, flood defence and droughts or the provision of drinking water and sanitation systems, water is becoming a very critical element for a sustainable society in Germany, in Europe and worldwide. The CAWR focusses its work on the fields of research, education & training as well as transfer. The CAWR was established in 2013. Over 3 years the activities within the three pillars and the six thematic priority research fields ( 1) Understanding processes: water cycle and water quality, 2): Water quantity and scarcity in the regional context, 3): Urban Water Systems, 4): Methods of data collection and information processing, 5): Societal and climate change, 6): Water governance) were presented within: • the scientific community (newsletters, publication highlights, workshops with different new formats, conferences) • to national and international stakeholders from policy, industry and society (workshops, opinion papers) • public media (TV, radio stations, Newspapers, brochures, videoclips via youtube…) This PICO presentation by Greta Jäckel (scientific management of CAWR) should show which tools for the presentation of research results are useful and which influence they have on different target groups. A bunch of examples for effective and also less successful instruments to present important
Neale, Larry; Treiblmaier, Horst; Henderson, Vani; Hunter, Lee; Hudson, Karen; Murphy, Jamie
The Google Online Marketing Challenge is an ongoing collaboration between Google and academics, to give students experiential learning. The Challenge gives student teams US$200 in AdWords, Google's flagship advertising product, to develop online marketing campaigns for actual businesses. The end result is an engaging in-class exercise that…
Via a consultation process, the PEROSH members identified what occupational safety and health topics the European institutes specialised in, and what they see as the major trends and future challenges in the world of work and their impact on OSH. A second part of the consultation analysed future
SOUTHWELL, EDWIN T.; GARCIA, MARIE L.; MEYERS, CHARLES E.
The(mu)ChemLab(trademark) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Grand Challenge project began in October 1996 and ended in September 2000. The technical managers of the(mu)ChemLab(trademark) project and the LDRD office, with the support of a consultant, conducted a competitive technical and market demand intelligence analysis of the(mu)ChemLab(trademark). The managers used this knowledge to make project decisions and course adjustments. CTI/MDI positively impacted the project's technology development, uncovered potential technology partnerships, and supported eventual industry partner contacts. CTI/MDI analysis is now seen as due diligence and the(mu)ChemLab(trademark) project is now the model for other Sandia LDRD Grand Challenge undertakings. This document describes the CTI/MDI analysis and captures the more important ''lessons learned'' of this Grand Challenge project, as reported by the project's management team
Chi, Donald L
A growing number of parents are refusing topical fluoride for their children during preventive dental and medical visits. This nascent clinical and public health problem warrants attention from dental professionals and the scientific community. Clinical and community-based strategies are available to improve fluoride-related communications with parents and the public. In terms of future research priorities, there is a need to develop screening tools to identify parents who are likely to refuse topical fluoride and diagnostic instruments to uncover the reasons for topical fluoride refusal. This knowledge will lead to evidence-based strategies that can be widely disseminated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J
appropriate feedstocks and deployment scenarios that match hydrogen to the local markets. Co-production opportunities are of particular interest for near-term deployment since multiple products improve the economics; however, co-product development is not covered in this report. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Since biomass is renewable and consumes atmospheric CO2 during growth, it can have a small net CO2 impact compared to fossil fuels. However, hydrogen from biomass has major challenges. There are no completed technology demonstrations. The yield of hydrogen is low from biomass since the hydrogen content in biomass is low to being with (approximately 6% versus 25% for methane) and the energy content is low due to the 40% oxygen content of biomass. Since over half of the hydrogen from biomass comes from splitting water in the steam reforming reaction, the energy content of the feedstock is an inherent limitation of the process . The low yield of hydrogen on a weight basis is misleading since the energy conversion efficiency is high. However, the cost for growing, harvesting, and transporting biomass is high. Thus even with reasonable energy efficiencies, it is not presently economically competitive with natural gas steam reforming for stand-alone hydrogen without the advantage of high-value co-products. Additionally, as with all sources of hydrogen, production from biomass will require appropriate hydrogen storage and utilization systems to be developed and deployed. The report also looked at promising areas for further research and development. The major areas for R,D and D are: feedstock preparation and feeding; gasification gas conditioning; system integration; modular systems development; valuable co-product integration; and larger-scale demonstrations. These are in addition to the challenges for any hydrogen process in storage and utilization technologies.
Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan
Digital advancements and discoveries are now challenging traditional human resource management services within businesses. The Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges provides practical, situated, and unique
John Gore’s seminal 1984 paper on gel dosimetry spawned a vibrant research field ranging from fundamental science through to clinical applications. A preliminary bibliometric study was undertaken of the gel dosimetry family of publications inspired by, and resulting from, Gore’s original 1984 paper to determine active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s paper up to and including 2016. Themes and trends of the gel dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for all relevant papers from 1984 to 2016. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualisation tool to generate cluster maps of gel dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics in gel dosimetry.
Bruun Larsen, Lars; Skonnord, Trygve; Gjelstad, Svein
Objectives This workshop aims to present examples of digital tools and technology that can improve the quality of clinical research. The presenters and participants will discuss both possibilities and pitfalls. Background Electronic surveys and other digital tools can ease data collection...... challenges within the field. To secure a high response rate, you need to follow up manually or use another application. There are also practical and ethical problems, and the data security for sensitive data have to be followed carefully. Session content Oral presentations about some technological...
Thompson, Michael A; Hurley, Patricia A; Faller, Bryan; Longinette, Jean; Richter, Katie; Stewart, Teresa L; Robert, Nicholas
Community-based research programs face many barriers to participation in clinical trials. Although the majority of people with cancer are diagnosed and treated in the community setting, only roughly 3% are enrolled onto clinical trials. Research contract and budget negotiations have been consistently identified as time consuming and a barrier to participation in clinical trials. ASCO's Community Research Forum conducted a survey about specific challenges of research contract and budget negotiation processes in community-based research settings. The goal was to ultimately identify potential solutions to these barriers. A survey was distributed to 780 community-based physician investigators and research staff. The survey included questions to provide insight into contract and budget negotiation processes and perceptions about related barriers. A total of 77% of the 150 respondents acknowledged barriers in the process. Respondents most frequently identified budget-related issues (n = 133), inefficiencies in the process (n = 80), or legal review and negotiation issues (n = 70). Of the respondents, 44.1% indicated that contract research organizations made the contract negotiations process harder for their research program, and only 5% believed contract research organizations made the process easier. The contract negotiations process is perceived to be impeded by sponsors through underestimation of costs, lack of flexibility with the contract language, and excessive delays. Improving clinical trial activation processes and reducing inefficiencies would be beneficial to all interested stakeholders, including patients who may ultimately stand to benefit from participation in clinical trials. The following key recommendations were made: standardization of contracts and negotiation processes to promulgate transparency and efficiencies, improve sponsor processes to minimize burden on sites, create and promote use of contract templates and best practices, and provide education
Fernando Antônio Ribeiro Serra
Full Text Available Organizational decline is related to the deterioration of the resource base and performance of an organization for a sustained period of time. Although some studies have been conducted, it remains an understudied phenomenon, despite its importance. The study of organizational decline is faced with challenges to improving and increasing research. In this study, we analyze the scientific field of organizational decline in business and management journals with a high impact factor. We conducted a mixed-method study: a bibliometric study of a sample of 214 articles, and a qualitative study with 41 authors. We used an analysis of citations, co-citations and factor analysis. This enabled the identification of the most influential works and their conceptual approaches. The interviews with the authors were analyzed using content analysis, which complemented our understanding of the challenges and problems facing the theme. The results show that organizational decline can be organized into three different aspects: organizational decline itself; studies on turnaround; and mortality. Specific challenges to overcome are related to a better definition, cognitive issues and other issues on decision-making and specific methodological problems. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate whether theories that explain growth are also able to explain decline.
Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.
The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific
D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L. Hardman (Lynda)
textabstractThe integration of audio, video, graphics and text on the desktop promises to fundamentally challenge the centuries-old model of the printed document as the basis for information exchange. Before this potential can be realized, however, systems must be devised that enable the production
Mar 17, 2015 ... North–South Collaboration Revisited. Current examples of ... has been questioned not only by those raised at the receiving end of such an introverted ... of life and work. African scholars, aware of the challenge and willing to face it, are engaged in uphill struggles to at least reduce, if not to overcome, such.
Erlijn Eweg; Ivo Opstelten; Nadia Verdeyen
HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (HU) initiated a sustainability program in 2010. A compelling vision, collaboration with external partners, interdisciplinary research and interweavement of research and education are important elements in this program. The scope of this paper is
Bell, Jessica; Ancillotti, Mirko; Coathup, Victoria; Coy, Sarah; Rigter, Tessel; Tatum, Travis; Grewal, Jasjote; Akcesme, Faruk Berat; Brki?, Jovana; Causevic-Ramosevac, Anida; Milovanovic, Goran; Nobile, Marianna; Pavlidis, Cristiana; Finlay, Teresa; Kaye, Jane
Background Over the past 25 years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of studying the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of genetic and genomic research. A large investment into ELSI research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genomic Project budget in 1990 stimulated the growth of this emerging field; ELSI research has continued to develop and is starting to emerge as a field in its own right. The evolving subject matter of ELSI research contin...
Kline, Kimberly N
There is a burgeoning interest in the health and illness content of popular media in the domains of advertising, journalism, and entertainment. This article reviews the past 10 years of this research, describing the relationship between the health topics addressed in the research, the shifting focus of concerns about the media, and, ultimately, the variation in problems for health promotion. I suggest that research attending to topics related to bodily health challenges focused on whether popular media accurately or appropriately represented health challenges. The implication was that there is some consensus about more right or wrong, complete or incomplete ways of representing an issue; the problem was that the media are generally wrong. Alternatively, research addressing topics related to sociocultural context issues focused on how certain interests are privileged in the media. The implication was that competing groups are making claims on the system, but the problem was that popular media marginalizes certain interests. In short, popular media is not likely to facilitate understandings helpful to individuals coping with health challenges and is likely to perpetuate social and political power differentials with regard to health-related issues. I conclude by offering some possibilities for future health media content research.
Mishna, Faye; Muskat, Barbara; Cook, Charlene
Intervention research is vital for social work, as it aims to develop practice/program approaches and provide evidence to understand which interventions are effective and for whom. Despite growing attention, little social work research exists that evaluates interventions. Among the reasons for the dearth of intervention research within social work…
b) inadequate manpower; c) inadequate infrastructures and facilities; d) inaccessibility to modern technology; e) lack of funds . Firstly, setbacks related to the environment for research, which includes lack of societal appreciation for the importance of research in development; inadequate national commitment to research ...
This paper explores why it is important for universities to integrate research and teaching at the present time and considers how it can be achieved. Political, institutional and disciplinary factors affect the relationship, whether the aim is to integrate teaching with research or to integrate research with teaching. So the article explores…
This article draws from ongoing research into the practices and processes of activist researchers. It discusses social relations of knowledge production located outside of academia with/in social movement milieus. Focusing on the politics of research in people's organizations and social movement organizations in the Philippines, it builds on…
Full Text Available Teacher research (i.e. action research has gained acceptance as a tool for teacher professional development. In spite of its increasing popularity in language classrooms, concerns have been raised in the implementation of teacher research, such as issues of quality, sustainability, the development of standards, and accessibility. In the Indonesian context, the unprofessional working conditions and the education background of most teachers have made it difficult for teachers to sustain and access research. Since changing the former appears beyond the aim of this article, it is suggested that teacher education institutions focus on the latter, revisiting the curriculum of teacher education to provide more research components
de la Harpe, Marylaure; Paris, Margot; Karger, Dirk N; Rolland, Jonathan; Kessler, Michael; Salamin, Nicolas; Lexer, Christian
Understanding the drivers and limits of species radiations is a crucial goal of evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology, yet research on this topic has been hampered by the notorious difficulty of connecting micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to studying the drivers of diversification. To chart the current research gaps, opportunities and challenges of molecular ecology approaches to studying radiations, we examine the literature in the journal Molecular Ecology and revisit recent high-profile examples of evolutionary genomic research on radiations. We find that available studies of radiations are highly unevenly distributed among taxa, with many ecologically important and species-rich organismal groups remaining severely understudied, including arthropods, plants and fungi. Most studies employed molecular methods suitable over either short or long evolutionary time scales, such as microsatellites or restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in the former case and conventional amplicon sequencing of organellar DNA in the latter. The potential of molecular ecology studies to address and resolve patterns and processes around the species level in radiating groups of taxa is currently limited primarily by sample size and a dearth of information on radiating nuclear genomes as opposed to organellar ones. Based on our literature survey and personal experience, we suggest possible ways forward in the coming years. We touch on the potential and current limitations of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in studies of radiations. We suggest that WGS and targeted ('capture') resequencing emerge as the methods of choice for scaling up the sampling of populations, species and genomes, including currently understudied organismal groups and the genes or regulatory elements expected to matter most to species radiations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N
In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. The...
... not use a cotton swab or any other brush or applicator to apply topical bimatoprost.To use the solution, follow these steps: Wash your hands and face thoroughly with soap and water. Be sure that ...
Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails (an infection that may cause nail discoloration, splitting and pain). Ciclopirox is in a ...
Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki
There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Given background structural inequities in much international research
Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries.Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates.The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science.Given background structural inequities in much
Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki
Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Methods Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. Findings The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Discussion Given background structural
The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...
Fauci, Anthony S.
Clinical trials and access to therapeutic drugs pose dilemmas for researchers, physicians, and AIDS patients. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, recognizing the need for greater access to drugs by a broader spectrum of the infected population, is establishing the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. (Author/MLW)
Santos, Denise; Graham, Suzanne; Vanderplank, Robert
This paper explores methodological issues related to research into second language listening strategies. We argue that a number of central questions regarding research methodology in this line of enquiry are underexamined, and we engage in the discussion of three key methodological questions: (1) To what extent is a verbal report a valid and…
Cutler, Lois J.
Purpose: This article aims to review research measures and findings related to physical environments of assisted living (AL) according to multiple conceptual perspectives--ecological, cultural, and Maslovian hierarchy. Design and Methods: A literature and research review was undertaken with two foci: performance measures for physical environments,…
Aug 8, 2006 ... professional edge (e.g., additional skill building that adds to employability) or research experience. We make several suggestions about how to achieve these. Of the large number of such people with a first degree, a small fraction (typically a sixth) go on to higher degree or research; the remainder, if well ...
Universities the world over are responsible for research, knowledge generation, scholarship and innovation. They also serve as conduits for the transfer, adaptation, and dissemination of knowledge generated across the world. Universities are expected to guarantee the most efficient utilisation of research results and their ...
death of each modern or traditional health practitioner constitutes a permanent loss of a library of knowledge, ideas, innovations and inventions. The WHO African Advisory Committee on Health Research and Development (AACHRD) has attributed the fragility of NHRS in the Region to poor environment for research, ...
Action research began as an ambitious epistemological and social intervention. As the concept has become reified, packaged for methodology textbooks and professional development workshops, it has degenerated into a cure that may be worse than the disease. The point is not the trivial one that action research, like any practice, sometimes shows up…
personnel emoluments that take up to 85% (mean= 66%) of the allocated budget. In conclusion, the current. NIMR's research capacity building is dependent mainly on foreign funding and personal initiatives. There is an urgent need to increase local funding for capacity building and conduct of research. A programme.
Africa has lost its glory as the pioneer of space research as evidenced by the ancient library of Alexandria in Egypt that housed the first space research centre more than two thousand years ago. Cave paintings in Olduvai Gorge in present day Tanzania showed how the first humans communicated millions of years ago.
of a critical approach to hospitality research that may enable the evolution of programmes in hospitality and tourism studies. Keywords: Hospitality .... demonstrates the traditional view of hospitality research, as indicated by Camargo .... concentrated on management, service, marketing, labour and consumption, followed by ...
of the grants were too competitive for young researchers, especially given a lack of motivation from supervisors. Some quotations below indicate these and related sentiments: “There is need for mentorship programmes and placement opportunities where young African researchers can be given opportunity to showcase ...
Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri
This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…
Full Text Available Digital media and network communication technology have not changed this setup, but rather have opened the possibility for encountering and experiencing additional types of worlds and performing additional types of spatial practices. Being situated online and being globally networked with the possibility of both synchronous and asynchronous communication, digitally mediated worlds provide possible interactions between users which are radically more independent of time and place than the ones facilitated by older media. From this perspective, the concept of online worlds both challenges and broadens our understanding of how media shape the world and how the media technology creates new social structures.
DI Pietro, Nina; DE Vries, Jantina; Paolozza, Angelina; Reid, Dorothy; Reynolds, James N; Salmon, Amy; Wilson, Marsha; Stein, Dan J; Illes, Judy
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is increasingly recognized as a growing public health issue worldwide. Although more research is needed on both the diagnosis and treatment of FASD, and a broader and more culturally diverse range of services are needed to support those who suffer from FASD and their families, both research and practice for FASD raise significant ethical issues. In response, from the point of view of both research and clinical neuroethics, we provide a framework that emphasizes the need to maximize benefits and minimize harm, promote justice, and foster respect for persons within a global context.
Maier, Carmen Daniela; Engberg, Jan
The present study belongs to an extensive project in which we investigate knowledge issues appearing in academic research article, academic visual essay and academic video essay. The data of our analysis which comprises prototype research articles in 7 scientific disciplines is collected from...... the homepage of Article of the Future project: http://www.articleofthefuture.com/. The Article of the Future project is an ongoing initiative aiming to revolutionize the traditional format of the research article. In order to deal with and reflect upon the implications related to knowledge dissemination...
Patel, Gupteswar; Garimella, Surekha; Scott, Kerry; Mondal, Shinjini; George, Asha; Sheikh, Kabir
Implementation Research (IR) in and around health systems comes with unique challenges for researchers including implementation, multi-layer governance, and ethical issues. Partnerships between researchers, implementers, policy makers and community members are central to IR and come with additional challenges. In this paper, we elaborate on the challenges faced by frontline field researchers, drawing from experience with an IR study on Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs). The IR on VHSNC took place in one state/province in India over an 18-month research period. The IR study had twin components; intervention and in-depth research. The intervention sought to strengthen the VHSNC functioning, and concurrently the research arm sought to understand the contextual factors, pathways and mechanism affecting VHSNC functions. Frontline researchers were employed for data collection and a research assistant was living in the study sites. The frontline research assistant experienced a range of challenges, while collecting data from the study sites, which were documented as field memos and analysed using inductive content analysis approach. Due to the relational nature of IR, the challenges coalesced around two sets of relationships (a) between the community and frontline researchers and (b) between implementers and frontline researchers. In the community, the frontline researcher was viewed as the supervisor of the intervention and was perceived by the community to have power to bring about beneficial changes with public services and facilities. Implementers expected help from the frontline researcher in problem-solving in VHSNCs, and feedback on community mobilization to improve their approaches. A concerted effort was undertaken by the whole research team to clarify and dispel concerns among the community and implementers through careful and constant communication. The strategies employed were both managerial, relational and reflexive in nature
There are challenges associated with performing research on titanium dioxide NPs in aquatic environments particularly marine systems. A critical focus for current titanium dioxide NP research in aquatic environments needs to be on optimizing methods for differentiating naturally...
Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.
A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...
Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion ). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in
Woodward, Aniek; Sheahan, Kate; Martineau, Tim; Sondorp, Egbert
High quality health systems research (HSR) in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS) is essential to guiding the policies and programmes that will improve access to health services and, ultimately, health outcomes. Yet, conducting HSR in FCAS is challenging. An understanding of these challenges is essential to tackling them and to supporting research conducted in these complex environments. Led by the Thematic Working Group on Health Systems in FCAS, the primary aim of this study was to develop a research agenda on HSR in FCAS. The secondary aim was to identify the challenges associated with conducting HSR in these contexts. This paper presents these challenges. Guided by a purposely-selected steering group, this qualitative study collected respondents' perspectives through an online survey (n = 61) and a group discussion at the Third Global Symposium on HSR in September 2014 (n = 11). Respondents with knowledge and/or experience of HSR in FCAS were intentionally recruited. Of those ever involved in HSR in FCAS (45/61, 75%), almost all (98%) experienced challenges in conducting their research. Challenges fall under three broad thematic areas: (1) lack of appropriate support; (2) complex local research environment, including access constraints, weak local research capacity, collaboration challenges and lack of trust in the research process; and (3) limited research application, including rapidly outdated findings and lack of engagement with the research process and results. This study shows that those familiar with HSR in FCAS face many challenges in gaining support for and in conducting and applying high-quality research. There is a need for more sustainable support, including commitment to and long-term funding of HSR in FCAS; investment in capacity building within FCAS to meet the challenges related to implementation of research in these complex environments; relationship and trust building among stakeholders involved in HSR, particularly between local and
Ivinson, A J
The biomedical research community of the new millennium has at its disposal the resources and knowledge to bring about major changes in human health. Technological advances on a scale never before seen mean that we can consider a level of medical investigation and intervention unimaginable only 20 years ago. But with this power comes a tremendous responsibility to think carefully about how those resources should best be used. For reasons of economy, biomedical research is likely to remain focussed on the needs of rich countries. This need not, however, mean that poorer countries cannot in the future receive a greater benefit from the current community of biomedical researchers. And given the nature of disease and its disrespect for national boundaries, a more global approach to biomedical research should be attractive to rich and poor countries alike. Achieving this change, no matter how modest in scale, will require a concerted effort at all levels within the biomedical research community. Indeed, the community is at a stage when it must pay closer attention to the sensitivities and concerns of its patient population. Only then will the tremendous potential of biomedical research be embraced and supported by our societies.
The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…
Ellis, Neville; Loughland, Tony
Practitioner research is considered an integral form of professional learning for teachers but in its implementation it will often encounter significant challenges. This qualitative comparative case-study of teachers in Singapore and NSW investigated the range of challenges they encountered during their work as practitioner researchers. The study…
Full Text Available In addition to the researchers, referees have important roles for publishing a valuable scholarly paper. A scientific work is evaluated in different phases from the beginning till it is published. In each of these phases, unpleasant experiences may happen for researchers and referees. Researchers as the producers of scientific papers experience research anxiety, library anxiety, information seeking anxiety, and referee anxiety. On the other hand, referees experience referees’ anxiety. So it is very important to recognize the effective factors causing anxiety and try to eliminate these problems. As the research area is very broad, all these mentioned concepts are parts of the research process. But one of the most critical stages of research is the review of scientific works particularly in the field of health. “The selection of the referee is the most important decision that the editors make about a scientific work” (1. Referee selection is very important in the area of health because the results of these researches have direct or indirect effects on public health (2. If the facilities are not properly provided for referees, many problems may occur including anxiety referee. Findings of Von Glinow and Novelli showed that there was an unpleasant sense for referees when they feel particular biases from the editor (3. Weller also states that there is an unpleasant sensation if the authors identify their referees (4. Other factors that cause anxiety during the referee process are: receiving several papers to review (5, selecting an inappropriate referee for a paper by the editor (6, lack of clear guidelines and standards of review (4, young and inexperienced referees and inappropriate behavior of journal staff and research centers, lack of scientific knowledge of the referee, and lack of enough ability for the referee to reject the article, all causing unpleasant feelings. In a simple definition, referee anxiety includes any discomfort of
Full Text Available This article addresses the state of the art of bioleaching research published in South Korean Journals. Our research team reviewed the available articles registered in the Korean Citation Index (KCI, Korean Journal Database addressing the relevant aspects of bioleaching. We systematically categorized the target metal sources as follows: mine tailings, electronic waste, mineral ores and metal concentrates, spent catalysts, contaminated soil, and other materials. Molecular studies were also addressed in this review. The classification provided in the present manuscript details information about microbial species, parameters of operation (e.g., temperature, particle size, pH, and process length, and target metals to compare recoveries among the bioleaching processes. The findings show an increasing interest in the technology from research institutes and mineral processing-related companies over the last decade. The current research trends demonstrate that investigations are mainly focused on determining the optimum parameters of operations for different techniques and minor applications at the industrial scale, which opens the opportunity for greater technological developments. An overview of bioleaching of each metal substrate and opportunities for future research development are also included.
Vavougios, Dionisios; Verevi, Alkistis; Papalexopoulos, Panagiotis F.; Verevi, Crystallia-Ioanna; Panagopoulou, Athanasia
This article reviews 24 years of research focused on science education for students with learning and other disabilities. Our results are based on 53 articles from 2 relevant databases. We hereby present and discuss the results of the most popular topics investigated, which include: constructivism, exploratory learning, hands-on activities,…
Bateman, G.; Chang, C.; Fenstermacher, M.; Guzdar, P.; Hahm, T.S.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kritz, A.; Rognlien, T D.; Schnack, D.; Schultz, D.; Snyder, P.; Stotler, D.; Terry, J.; Ulrickson, M.; Bolton, C.
The Edge Coordinating Committee (ECC) was formed in July 14-15, 2004 when OFES Theory Team invited 14 plasma researchers to a two-day meeting in Germantown, MD to discuss the state of edge-plasma research in the U.S. with a focus on theory and modeling (see http://www.mfescience.org/ecc/ ecc/). At that time, OFES tasked the ECC with providing, in about a six month period, a report on the present status of key issues in this area together with a roadmap of what range of activities should be undertaken in the next five years to resolve these issues. This document is a response to that charge. Future edge-plasma research described here is assumed to fit into a budget constraint of a ''flat budget,'' with some additional activities cited for budget increases of as much as 50%. To obtain some measure of the relative fraction of OFES Theory funding presently devoted to edge plasma research, the OFES Theory Team informally surveyed funded work they support in this area at National Labs, Universities, and industry. John Mandrekas reported to us that approximately 10% of the present budget goes to edge-physics areas at 10 institutions, for a total of ∼$2.5M each year. While not explicitly estimated, we note that there are also important edge plasma projects in the Plasma Technology program, especially related to plasma/material sputtering interactions, near-surface plasma chemistry and transport, and impurity transport. Likewise, the Confinement Program has important efforts in interpreting edge-plasma data through modeling codes. This initial status/roadmap work of the ECC is complimentary to the Fusion Energy Science Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Panel on Program Priorities (see http://www.mfescience.org/fesac/ fesac/). This Panel is charged with identifying major science and technology issues for all of controlled fusion and also with recommending campaigns to address these issues. The Panel has organized their report along six thematic areas, one of which
Wang, Ping Jr
Latent semantic structure in a text collection is called a topic. In this thesis, we aim to visualize topics in the scientific literature and detect active or inactive research areas based on their lifetime. Topics were extracted from over 1 million abstracts from the arXiv.org database using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Hellinger distance measures similarity between two topics. Topics are determined to be relevant if their pairwise distances are smaller than the threshold of Hellinger ...
Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J
In recent years, stem cells have generated increasing excitement, with frequent claims that they are revolutionizing medicine. For those not directly involved in stem cell research, however, it can be difficult to separate fact from fiction or realistic expectation from wishful thinking. This article aims to provide internists with a clear and concise introduction to the field. While recounting some scientific and medical milestones, the authors discuss the 3 main varieties of stem cells-adult, embryonic, and induced pluripotent-comparing their advantages and disadvantages for clinical medicine. The authors have sought to avoid the moral and political debates surrounding stem cell research, focusing instead on scientific and medical issues.
Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Menezes, Ritesh G; Zachariah, Rony; Wilson, Nevin
There is increasing impetus, interest and opportunity for people working in public health programmes in India to carry out operational research (OR) around relevant programme issues and then publish that in peer-reviewed publications. These published researches are valuable in analysing, documenting and advocating for locally generated evidence to inform policy and practice. Ethics review and approval is an essential step in the process of OR but is often viewed as a barrier rather than a prerequisite of good practice in OR. Journals and peer reviewers are also increasingly requiring approvals from local institutional ethics committees (IECs).
Schuitema, Geertje; Sintov, Nicole D.
Many plea for a better integration of social sciences in energy research, which would imply more comprehensive interdisciplinary energy research. We argue that in order to achieve this, institutional barriers and research challenges need to be recognised and addressed. We identify six challenges and barriers, and provide recommendations for working towards solutions. We conclude that to engage in interdisciplinary research implies extra costs and fewer rewards for all researchers, particularly early and mid-career academics. We propose a new conceptualisation of practices and incentive structures among academic institutions, funding agencies, and publication outlets, and urge all energy researchers to join this debate. - Highlights: • Interdisciplinary energy research currently does not reach its full potential. • Social sciences are underutilised in energy research. • Barriers and challenges need to be addressed to stimulate interdisciplinary energy research. • High costs and small rewards for interdisciplinary (early and mid-career) researchers.
Martin, J.W.; Kannan, K.; Berger, U.; de Voogt, P.; Field, J.; Giesy, J.P.; Harner, T.; Muir, D.C.G.; Scott, B.; Kaiser, M.; Jarnberg, U.; Jones, K.C.; Mabury, S.A.; Schroeder, H.; Simcik, M.; Sottani, C.; Van Bavel, B.; Karrman, A.; Lindstrom, G.; Van Leeuwen, S.
The growing concern over these organohalogens, some of which have been found in human blood and appear to be widespread in the environment, led researchers to gather in Hamburg, Germany, in 2003 to evaluate the current state of methods to analyze for the organic contaminants. Jonathan Martin of the
Dressler, Falko; Kargl, Frank
Nano communication is one of the fastest growing emerging research fields. In recent years, much progress has been achieved in developing nano machines supporting our needs in health care and other scenarios. However, experts agree that only the interaction among nano machines allows to address the
Jan 2, 2018 ... Lebel told the audience about a project he had visited recently in India that is introducing double-fortified salt, which contains both iodine and iron. Salt fortified with iodine nearly eradicated iodine-deficiency. Now, researchers in Canada and India are achieving a breakthrough with double-fortified salt that ...
Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...
... culturally sensitive to the needs of the victims of the humanitarian crisis. In emergency situations, the roles of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) may have to be modified without compromising the ethical standards that health researchers have globally attempted to achieve. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (2) 2008: pp.
Hoffman , T. W. Kerslake, J. S. Hojnicki, D. H. Manzella, R. D. Falck, H. A. Cikanek III, M. D. Klem, J. M. Free, "Concept design of high power solar...Felmetsger, Debbie G. Senesky, and Albert P. Pisano, in Research review, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center (BSAC), University of California, Berkeley
Capacity building is considered a priority for health research institutions in developing countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. However, in many countries including Tanzania, much emphasis has been directed towards human resources for health with the total exclusion of human resources for ...
Roopashree, B. J.
Problem-based approaches to learning have a long history of advocating experience-based education. Psychological research and theory suggests that, by having students learn through the experience of solving problems, they can learn both content and thinking strategies. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method in which students learn…
Prencipe, A.; Bar-Yosef, S.; Dekker, H.C.
Family firms play a significant role in the global economy. Consistently, over the last two decades academia has turned its attention to the family dimension as a determinant of business phenomena, and this interest has increased over time. While family business research has reached an age of
The free market or globalization is a phenomenon which have to be observed carefully. In this era, the market becomes global and the countries have no border in which products/goods and services flow freely from country to others according to market mechanism. The products/goods and services which have more added value will win in the tight market competition. The same case valid to human resources. Human resources who be able take participation in competition must refer to the professionalism, specialization and competence or knowledge in related field. For researcher in order to get participation in the near free market, they have to master the competence, anticipation for future needs, link with industries and strong motivation. The role of researcher is very important in the increasing of added value and product development to win competition. These role is applied in the R and D activity in cooperation between researcher and industry. The cooperation should be developed through several ways in the mutual benefit and the researcher can obtain reward that can trigger their motivation. (author)
Bregt, A.K.; Crompvoets, J.W.H.C.; Man, de E.; Grus, L.
The field of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is developing and approaches rapidly a critical masss of more or less operational SDIs. The purpose of the paper is to anticipate the possible impact of the maturing SDI field on its research agenda. Initial initiatives were predominantly techno centred
E. Demerouti (Eva); A.B. Bakke (Arnold B.)
textabstractMotivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD-R model, which incorporates many possible working
Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper
Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations,...
... the article points toward a change in the dichotomous model of Technikon work (teaching versus research, practice versus theory) to continuous ones. More important to the Arts and Humanities is the need to devise appropriate measures of the range of scholarly outputs. (South African Journal of Higher Education: 2003 ...
Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve
Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development, variabi......Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...
Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine
... Committee on Co-Administration of Service and Research Programs of the National Institutes of Health, the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, and Related Agencies INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, author...
Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
The past several decades have witnessed thousands of studies into the effects of media on children and adults. The effects sizes that are found in these studies are typically small to moderate, at best. In this article, we first compare the effect sizes found in media-effects research to those found
Magic, Jasna; Maljevac, Simon
Research has highlighted that during school, European lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience significantly higher levels of discrimination and verbal, physical, and sexual violence in comparison with their heterosexual peers. Slovenian youth are not exempt from this experience. While the educational system is exclusively…
With reference to concrete situations, we discuss research practices in relation to: countering the widespread power disparity between adults and children; ensuring the authenticity of children's evidence; obtaining informed consent; ensuring non-malfeasance and beneficence; and preserving the anonymity of participants ...
Grönqvist, Helena; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf; Johansson, Birgitta; Held, Claes; Sjöström, Jonas; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Hovén, Emma; Sanderman, Robbert; van Achterberg, Theo; von Essen, Louise
U-CARE is a multidisciplinary eHealth research program that involves the disciplines of caring science, clinical psychology, health economics, information systems, and medical science. It was set up from scratch in a university setting in 2010, funded by a governmental initiative. While establishing the research program, many challenges were faced. Systematic documentation of experiences from establishing new research environments is scarce. The aim of this paper was to describe the challenges of establishing a publicly funded multidisciplinary eHealth research environment. Researchers involved in developing the research program U-CARE identified challenges in the formal documentation and by reflecting on their experience of developing the program. The authors discussed the content and organization of challenges into themes until consensus was reached. The authors identified 15 major challenges, some general to establishing a new research environment and some specific for multidisciplinary eHealth programs. The challenges were organized into 6 themes: Organization, Communication, Implementation, Legislation, Software development, and Multidisciplinarity. Several challenges were faced during the development of the program and several accomplishments were made. By sharing our experience, we hope to help other research groups embarking on a similar journey to be prepared for some of the challenges they are likely to face on their way. ©Helena Grönqvist, Erik Martin Gustaf Olsson, Birgitta Johansson, Claes Held, Jonas Sjöström, Annika Lindahl Norberg, Emma Hovén, Robbert Sanderman, Theo van Achterberg, Louise von Essen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2017.
The goal of this position article is to convey the message to junior faculty with diverse personal characteristics (i.e., female, minority, or majority ethnic scholars) that obstacles encountered in their academic experience may be the result of being perceived as a symbol of sociohistorical problems. For conveying this message, I will tell my story by referring to what I have experienced as transitional phases: (1) "becoming an international student," (2) "from ambassador to minority," (3) "the great insight, sharing our problems," and (4) "overcoming using coping strategies in academic life." Emphasis will be given to coping strategies that I have developed for facing challenging sociohistorical problems while protecting my psychological well-being. Although the literature is sparse, coping strategies are discussed using available literature and personal experiences including the ability: (1) to assume that most problems affecting diverse junior faculty are sociohistorical, (2) to acknowledge the importance of finding mentors for the psychological well-being of junior faculty, (3) to stop replying to stereotypic views and to use energy and time more productively, (4) to respond selectively to collegial and student feedback, (5) to proactively establish collaborative activities, and (6) to have clear career development objectives. I conclude by recognizing the need for junior faculty to assume an advocacy role for creating a new era of equality and change in academe and in multicultural America. Thus, junior faculty need to undergo a major insightful realization leading to an awakening experience portrayed by the phrase: It is not only me.
There are two well-known and often-quoted facts about Sub-Saharan Africa. One is that, in spite of significant progress made in recent years, Africa remains the least developed region in the world and is unlikely to achieve all the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. The other is that Africa fares very poorly in terms of research and innovation;…
Multi-method research (MMR) has gained enthusiastic support among political scientists in recent years. Much of the impetus for MMR has been based on the seemingly intuitive logic of convergent triangulation: two tests are better than one, since a hypothesis that had survived a series of tests with different methods would be regarded as more valid than a hypothesis tested only a single method. In their seminal Design-ing Social Inquiry, King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) argue that combining qu...
Full Text Available The article focuses on the use of film as a medium of historical research. It discusses the film "Shoah," directed by Claude Lanzmann, which is considered as a model for filmic history. It also looks into Robert Rosenstone's claim that people may consider filmmakers as historians and that people should derive theory from practice through analyzing how the past has been portrayed in films.
Kuras, Evan R; Richardson, Molly B; Calkins, Miriam M; Ebi, Kristie L; Hess, Jeremy J; Kintziger, Kristina W; Jagger, Meredith A; Middel, Ariane; Scott, Anna A; Spector, June T; Uejio, Christopher K; Vanos, Jennifer K; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Gohlke, Julia M; Hondula, David M
Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods. We define personal heat exposure as realized contact between a person and an indoor or outdoor environment that poses a risk of increases in body core temperature and/or perceived discomfort. Personal heat exposure can be measured directly with wearable monitors or estimated indirectly through the combination of time-activity and meteorological data sets. Complementary information to understand individual-scale drivers of behavior, susceptibility, and health and comfort outcomes can be collected from additional monitors, surveys, interviews, ethnographic approaches, and additional social and health data sets. Personal exposure research can help reveal the extent of exposure misclassification that occurs when individual exposure to heat is estimated using ambient temperature measured at fixed sites and can provide insights for epidemiological risk assessment concerning extreme heat. Personal heat exposure research provides more valid and precise insights into how often people encounter heat conditions and when, where, to whom, and why these encounters occur. Published literature on personal heat exposure is limited to date, but existing studies point to opportunities to inform public health practice regarding extreme heat, particularly where fine-scale precision is needed to reduce health consequences of heat exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP556.
Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative results of a comparative study evaluating the management skills of doctoral candidates working toward a PhD and additional information related to their lifestyles. We conducted a survey among enrolled doctoral candidates at five universities in Israel and three technological universities in Western Europe. 1013 Israeli candidates and 457 Western European candidates replied to our survey. In our analysis, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering candidates to those of Social Sciences and Humanities candidates; in addition, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering students to their Western European peers. Our analysis focused on finding significant patterns by comparing these groups of students. In order to identify such patterns, we analyzed each question using the Pearson chi-square test. The current study’s main finding is that the majority of candidates, regardless of their chosen academic field or the region where they study, have no training or expertise in managing a doctoral research project. Based on these findings, we suggest that all doctoral candidates be taught basic research-project management. We believe that such training will provide them with a powerful tool for better managing their research as they advance towards successful completion of their doctorate.
Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD–R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative studies on the JD–R model were reviewed to enlighten the health and motivational processes suggested by the model. Main findings: Next to the confirmation of the two suggested processes of the JD–R model, the studies of the special issue showed that the model can be used to predict work-place bullying, incidences of upper respiratory track infection, work-based identity, and early retirement intentions. Moreover, whilst psychological safety climate could be considered as a hypothetical precursor of job demands and resources, compassion satisfaction moderated the health process of the model. Contribution/value-add: The findings of previous studies and the studies of the special issue were integrated in the JD–R model that can be used to predict well-being and performance at work. New avenues for future research were suggested. Practical/managerial implications: The JD–R model is a framework that can be used for organisations to improve employee health and motivation, whilst simultaneously improving various organisational outcomes.
Full Text Available Many attempts have been made or are ongoing for HIV prevention and HIV cure. Many successes are in the list, particularly for HIV drugs, recently proposed also for prevention. However, no eradication of infection has been achieved so far with any drug.Further, a residual immune dysregulation associated to chronic immune activation and incomplete restoration of B and T cell subsets, together with HIV DNA persistence in reservoirs, are still unmet needs of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, causing novel non-AIDS related diseases that account for a higher risk of death even in virologically suppressed patients. These ART unmet needs represent a problem, which is expected to increase by ART roll out. Further, in countries such as South Africa, where 6 millions of individuals are infected, ART appears unable to contain the epidemics. Regretfully, all the attempts at developing a preventative vaccine have been largely disappointing. However, recent therapeutic immunization strategies have opened new avenues for HIV treatment, which might be exploitable also for preventative vaccine approaches. For example, immunization strategies aimed at targeting key viral products responsible of virus transmission, activation and maintenance of virus reservoirs may intensify drug efficacy and lead to a functional cure providing new perspectives also for prevention and future virus eradication strategies. However, this approach imposes new challenges to the scientific community, vaccine developers and regulatory bodies, such as the identification of novel immunological and virological biomarkers to assess efficacy endpoints, taking advantage from the natural history of infection and exploiting lessons from former trials.This review will focus first on recent advancement of therapeutic strategies, then on the progresses made in preventative approaches, discussing concepts and problems for the way ahead for the development of vaccines for HIV treatment
Jimenez, J.; Latrille, E.; Harmand, J.; Robles, A.; Ferrer, J.; Gaida, D.; Wolf, C.; Mairet, F.; Bernard, O.; Alcaraz-Gonzalez, V.; Mendez-Acosta, H.; Zitomer, D.; Totzke, D.; Spanjers, H.; Jacobi, F.; Guwy, A.; Dinsdale, R.; Premier, G.; Mazhegrane, S.; Ruiz-Filippi, G.; Seco, A.; Ribeiro, T.; Pauss, A.; Steyer, J.P.
To enhance energy production from methane or resource recovery from digestate, anaerobic digestion processes require advanced instrumentation and control tools. Over the years, research on these topics has evolved and followed the main fields of application of anaerobic digestion processes: from
... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... doctor.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using betamethasone topical.
... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... immediately.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using betamethasone topical.
... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not wrap or bandage the treated area ... doctor.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using halcinonide topical.
... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... immediately.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using fluocinonide topical.
... go away: skin redness or burning skin drying skin oiliness and peeling itching Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, stop using dapsone and call ... yellow or pale skin Dapsone topical may cause other side effects. Call ...
... a few drops on the affected areas and massage lightly until it disappears.This medication is only for use on the skin. Do not let mometasone topical get into your eyes or mouth and do not swallow it. Avoid use on the face, in the genital and rectal areas, and in ...
Contemporary emphasis on measuring and evaluating observable, behavioral outcomes reflects a major change in the profession toward greater empirical basis for social work practice. This intellectual and methodological shift has created a gap between practitioners and researchers. While social work practitioners definitely should be more knowledgeable and receptive to interventions that have proven to be effective in helping people, social work academics must pay more attention to the realities of social work practitioners who struggle daily with expanding caseloads, ever-increasing time pressures to help clients whose lives are embedded in poverty, unemployment, oppression, racism, homelessness, and violence.
“Wireless Networks and Security” provides a broad coverage of wireless security issues including cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, epidemics, security performance analysis, security issues in applications. The contributions identify various vulnerabilities in the physical layer, MAC layer, network layer, transport layer, and application layer, and focus on ways of strengthening security mechanisms and services throughout the layers. This carefully edited monograph is targeting for researchers, post-graduate students in universities, academics, and industry practitioners or professionals.
Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.
Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597
Sônia Virgínia Moreira
Full Text Available The first part of this article is a cross section analysis of Brazilian communication research produced by postgraduate level (doctor and master programs of the Journalism Department, School of Communication and Art (ECA of the São Paulo State University (USP, Brazil, between 1989 and the beginning of 2004. ECA/USP is one of the most ancient and in infuential school of journalism inBrazil. An analysis of its production may reveal an illustration of journalism research in the country. In the first three decades of ECA’s existence, the field of journalism studies accounted for around 22% of the School’s production of theses and dissertations. The second part of the article presents some data – mostly quantitative and partially qualitative – based on a content analysis of the journal Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Comunicação. The period considered ranges from January 2000 to December 2004 (five years, ten issues.
Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.
This paper argues that challenges that are grand in scope such as "lifelong health and wellbeing", "climate action", or "food security" cannot be addressed through scientific research only. Indeed scientific research could inhibit addressing such challenges if scientific analysis constrains the multiple possible understandings of these challenges into already available scientific categories and concepts without translating between these and everyday concerns. This argument builds on work in philosophy of science and race to postulate a process through which non-scientific notions become part of science. My aim is to make this process available to scrutiny: what I call founding everyday ideas in science is both culturally and epistemologically conditioned. Founding transforms a common idea into one or more scientifically relevant ones, which can be articulated into descriptively thicker and evaluatively deflated terms and enable operationalisation and measurement. The risk of founding however is that it can invisibilise or exclude from realms of scientific scrutiny interpretations that are deemed irrelevant, uninteresting or nonsensical in the domain in question-but which may remain salient for addressing grand-in-scope challenges. The paper considers concepts of "wellbeing" in development economics versus in gerontology to illustrate this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J
During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria da Conceição Passeggi
Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.
Full Text Available Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modelling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modelling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system’s components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modelling in the context of childhood metabolic health research.
Sperisen, Peter; Cominetti, Ornella; Martin, François-Pierre J.
Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modeling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modeling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system's components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modeling in the context of childhood metabolic health research. PMID:26301225
eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.
Ming-Shu Yuan; Yung-Nan Yu
The completion of a master’s thesis requires the advisor’s guidance on topic selection, data collection, analysis, interpretation and writing. The advisory committee’s input also contributes to the work. This study conducted content analysis and network analysis on a sample of 547 master’s theses from eight departments of the College of Journalism and Communications of Shih Hsin University to examine the relationships between the advisors and committee members as well as the connections of re...
Beeson, Tishra; Jester, Michelle; Proser, Michelle; Shin, Peter
Despite community health centers' substantial role in local communities and in the broader safety-net healthcare system, very limited research has been conducted on community health center research experience, infrastructure, or needs from a national perspective. A national survey of 386 community health centers was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to assess research engagement among community health centers and their perceived needs, barriers, challenges, and facilitators with respect to their involvement in public health and health services research. This paper analyzes the differences between health centers that currently conduct or participate in research and health centers that have no prior research experience to determine whether prior research experience is indicative of different perceived challenges and research needs in community health center settings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish
Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198
Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.
Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416
Kokkonen, Kaija; Rissanen, Sari; Hujala, Anneli
Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers' and policymakers' scientific literacy needs to be enhanced.
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Momeni, Khalil; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammazdeh, Khalil; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali
Medical research institute is the main basis for knowledge production through conducting research, and paying attention to the research is one of the most important things in the scientific communities. At present, there is a large gap between knowledge production in Iran compared to that in other countries. This study aimed to identify the challenge of research system in a research institute of medical sciences in Iran. This was a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in the first 6 months of 2013. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 16 heads of research centers in a research institute of medical sciences. The required data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 10.0 software. Six themes identified as challenges of research system. The themes included barriers related to the design and development, and approval of research projects, the implementation of research projects, the administrative and managerial issues in the field of research, the personal problems, publishing articles, and guidelines and recommendations. Based on the results of the present study, the following suggestions can be offered: pushing the research towards solving the problems of society, employing the strong executive and scientific research directors in the field of research, providing training courses for researchers on how to write proposals, implementing administrative reforms in the Deputy of Research and Technology, accelerating the approval of the projects through automating the administrative and peer-reviewing processes.
Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Final Report for Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Number ORNL93-0237 Adhesive Bonding Technologies for Automotive Structural Composites; TOPICAL
In 1993, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. The research undertaken under this CRADA addresses the following areas of importance: bulk material characterization, structural fracture mechanics, modeling/characterization, process control and nondestructive evaluation (PC/NDE), manufacturing demonstration, and advanced processing. For the bulk material characterization task, the individual material properties of the adherends and adhesives were characterized. This included generating a database of mechanical and physical properties, after identifying and developing standard test methods to obtain properties. The structural fracture mechanics task concentrated on test development to characterize the fracture toughness of adhesively bonded joints subjected to Mode I, Mode II and mixed-mode conditions. Standard test procedures for quantifying an adhesive/adherend system's resistance to crack growth were developed for use by industry. In the modeling/characterization task, fracture mechanics-based design guidelines and predictive methodologies have been developed which will facilitate iteration on design concepts for bonded joints while alleviating the need for extensive testing
Blomqvist, Christine; Agrell, Cecilia; Sandahl, Christer
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse leadership challenges in the organisation of strategic research centres, focusing on the relationship between organisation and the level of institutionalisation. Four main themes of leadership challenges were identified: (1) the "changing university context," including relationships…
This article addresses two important challenges in the measurement of functional ability in gerontological research: the first challenge is to connect measurements to a theoretical frame of reference which enhances our understanding and interpretation of the collected data; the second relates...
van Dongen, M. G. J.; Geerts, B. F.; Bhanot, S.; Morgan, E. S.; de Kam, M. L.; Moerland, M.; Romijn, J. A.; Cohen, A. F.; Burggraaf, J.
The aim of this study was to characterize a glucagon challenge test as a tool in diabetes research by assessing the inter- and intra-individual variability, and investigating the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during the challenge, as this might have an indirect impact on glucose
Butler, Peter J.; Dong, Cheng; Snyder, Alan J.; Jones, A. Daniel; Sheets, Erin D.
Summer undergraduate research programs in science and engineering facilitate research progress for faculty and provide a close-ended research experience for students, which can prepare them for careers in industry, medicine, and academia. However, ensuring these outcomes is a challenge when the students arrive ill-prepared for substantive research…
Brew, Angela; Mantai, Lilia
How can universities ensure that strategic aims to integrate research and teaching through engaging students in research-based experiences be effectively realised within institutions? This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study exploring academics' perceptions of the challenges and barriers to implementing undergraduate research.…
Monroe-Gulick, Amalia; Valentine, Greta; Brooks-Kieffer, Jamene
In the spring of 2015, 14 faculty members in social science or in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) spoke with a working group from the University of Kansas (KU) Libraries regarding their research needs and challenges. Their responses highlighted a dynamic research environment in which individual researchers desire to…
Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.
International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety: Defence in Depth — Advances and Challenges for Nuclear Installation Safety. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Vienna, Austria, 21-24 October 2013
The fifth International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety was dedicated to the defence in depth (DID) concept which is fundamental to the safety of nuclear installations. The main focus of the conference was to foster the exchange of information on the implementation of DID and the associated challenges. This CD-ROM contains the papers presented at the conference as well as the summary and conclusions, including recommendations for further actions to strengthen DID and its implementation
Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.
Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should
Full Text Available The recognition heuristic assumes that people make inferences based on the output of recognition memory. While much work has been devoted to establishing the recognition heuristic as a viable description of how people make inferences, more work is needed to fully integrate research on the recognition heuristic with research from the broader cognitive psychology literature. In this article, we outline four challenges that should be met for this integration to take place, and close with a call to address these four challenges collectively, rather than piecemeal.
Kazdin, Alan E
I describe the development and course of my research in studying clinical dysfunction among children, adolescents, and adults. This is an autobiographical account that highlights programs of research, career moves, and experiences along the way that were particularly influential. Research on specific topics and the methods to study them were inherently fascinating but invariably led me to broader issues well beyond what I was studying. The research alerted me to how and why current methods, assumptions, and research practices might be constraining and perhaps slightly misguided. My research and specific findings in a given area were not necessarily part of any particular breakthrough but rather helped me see how more, different, and better work was needed. Collaborations with a diverse set of colleagues and models from other disciplines than psychology helped me conceptualize the goals of research on a given topic (e.g., developing evidence-based treatments, reducing the burden of mental illness, promoting a sustainable environment to mitigate climate change) and propose a shift from current practices as a means to obtain them.
Igoa, J M
This article presents a review of research published by Spanish Faculty from the area of basic psychology in the decade 1989-1998. It provides information about research on basic psychological processes commonly studied under the labels of experimental and cognitive psychology, plus a number of topics from other research areas, including some applied psychology issues. The review analyzes the work of 241 faculty members from 27 different Spanish universities, as reflected in 1,882 published papers, book chapters, and books. The analyses carried out in this report include a description of the main research trends found in each area, with some representative references of the published materials, and statistics showing the distribution of this research work in various relevant publications (both Spanish and foreign), with figures that reveal the impact of this work both at a national and international scale.
Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis based on Scopus database was performed to identify the global research trends related to Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs during the time period from 1995 to 2015. This work tries to improve the understanding of the most relevant research topics and applications. The results from the analysis reveal that only after 2005 the research efforts focused on SILMs became significant, since the references found before that year are scarce. The most important research works on the four main application groups for SILMs defined in this work (carbon dioxide separation, other gas phase separations, pervaporation and liquid phase separations were summarized in this paper. Carbon dioxide separation appeared as the application that has received by far the most attention according to the research trends during the analysed period. Comments about other significant applications that are gaining attention, such as the employment of SILMs in analytical tasks or their consideration for the production of fuel cells, have been included.
Hunt, Matthew; Tansey, Catherine M; Anderson, James; Boulanger, Renaud F; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Schwartz, Lisa
Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs), in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries. We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques. Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process. Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be taken to ensure that
Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be
Full Text Available This paper draws on an ethnographic study with teenage mothers. It discusses how the research incorporated feminist political goals and ethical concerns. The paper focuses in particular on one key concern for feminist researchers, that of hierarchical power in the research setting in order to demonstrate the challenges and advantages of feminist research. A number of approaches were taken to mitigate power relationships and these are discussed and reflected upon here. The paper then goes on to interrogate the author’s position as an ‘insider researcher’. It is demonstrated here how feminist research enabled the position of the researcher to be acknowledged, analysed and critiqued thus ensuring that research which challenges conventional notions of objectivity is robust.
Barth, Andreas; Marx, Werner
Counting compounds (rather than papers or citations) offers a new perspective for quantitative analyses of research activities. First of all, we can precisely define (compound-related) research topics and access the corresponding publications (scientific papers as well as patents) as a measure of research activity. We can also establish the time evolution of the publications dealing with specific compounds or compound classes. Moreover, the mapping of compounds by establishing compound-based landscapes has some potential to visualize the compound basis of research topics for further research activities. We have analyzed the rare earth compounds to give an example of a broad compound class. We present the number of the currently existing compounds and of the corresponding publications as well as the time evolution of the papers and patents. Furthermore, we have analyzed the rare earth cuprates (copper oxides) as an example of a narrower compound class to demonstrate the potential of mapping compounds by compound-based landscapes. We have quantified the various element combinations of the existing compounds and revealed all element combinations not yet realized in the synthesis within this compound class. Finally, we have analyzed the quasicrystal compound category as an example of a compound class that is not defined by a specific element combination or a molecular structure. PMID:24551517
Barth, Andreas; Marx, Werner
Counting compounds (rather than papers or citations) offers a new perspective for quantitative analyses of research activities. First of all, we can precisely define (compound-related) research topics and access the corresponding publications (scientific papers as well as patents) as a measure of research activity. We can also establish the time evolution of the publications dealing with specific compounds or compound classes. Moreover, the mapping of compounds by establishing compound-based landscapes has some potential to visualize the compound basis of research topics for further research activities. We have analyzed the rare earth compounds to give an example of a broad compound class. We present the number of the currently existing compounds and of the corresponding publications as well as the time evolution of the papers and patents. Furthermore, we have analyzed the rare earth cuprates (copper oxides) as an example of a narrower compound class to demonstrate the potential of mapping compounds by compound-based landscapes. We have quantified the various element combinations of the existing compounds and revealed all element combinations not yet realized in the synthesis within this compound class. Finally, we have analyzed the quasicrystal compound category as an example of a compound class that is not defined by a specific element combination or a molecular structure.
Ulla, Mark B.; Barrera, Kenneth Ian B.; Acompanado, Meller M.
This study explores teachers' perceptions and motivations, challenges, and needs of 50 teachers in Agusan del Norte, Philippines with regards to doing research. Methodologies used were survey questionnaire, and group and individual interviews. Findings revealed that teacher-respondents had a positive perceptions towards doing research and its…
Brooks, Melanie Carol; Jean-Marie, Gaetane
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss methodological challenges facing US scholars when conducting international research; and to present personal reflections as educational leadership faculty in the USA conducting and publishing on research undertaken in Haiti and Thailand. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study drew from…
Hessels, Laurens K.; Wardenaar, Tjerk; Boon, W.P.C.; Ploeg, Matthias
Many contemporary science systems are witnessing the rise of public-private research programs that aim to build capacity for research and innovation in strategic areas. These programs create a significant policy challenge: how to select - based on ex ante evaluations - a consortium that will carry
Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Close, Kevin; Evans, Mat
At the 2015 "NARST: A Worldwide Organization for Improving Science Teaching and Learning Through Research" Annual International Conference, a group of scholars held an extended pre-conference workshop to discuss key challenges and future directions faced by argumentation researchers around the world. This wide-ranging group of…
Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Brandt, Hella E; Roodenburg, Annet J C; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C
This review evaluates the methodological quality of current front-of-pack labeling research and discusses future research challenges. Peer-reviewed articles were identified using a computerized search of the databases PubMed and Web of Science (ISI) from 1990 to February 2011; reference lists from
Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole
This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…
Barreiro, Suamit Correia; Bozutti, Daniel Fernando
Many people from generation Z are at the beginning of their academic activities. This generation has peculiar characteristics that might be a challenge in the labor market. Thus, instructors have a great role in their preparation. However, professors might face difficulties dealing with their specific characteristics. The research aims to carry out a general survey to enable an understanding of the greater challenges and difficulties in teaching the subject of engineering to the students of G...
Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Raj, Dominic S C; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H
The field of ethics in medical research has seen important developments in the last three decades, but it also faces great challenges in the new century. The purposes of this report are to examine the current status of ethics of medical research involving human subjects and the nature of the ethical challenges facing this research, to identify the weakness of the current system of safeguards for ethical research, and to stress the importance of the ethical character of the researcher, which is the safeguard that has the greatest potential for protecting the research subjects. Researchers appreciate the risks of human medical research that create ethical dilemmas and the need for an ethical compromise in order to proceed with the research. The main elements of the compromise, formulated primarily from experiences in the Second World War, include: (1) the dominant position of the ethical principle of autonomy; (2) the demand for a signed informed consent; (3) the likelihood of improving health with the research protocol, which must be approved by a duly appointed supervising committee; and (4) an acceptable risk/benefit ratio. The main weakness of this set of safeguards is the difficulty with obtaining a truly informed consent. The new challenges to ethical medical research stem from certain types of research, such as genetic and stem cell research, and from the increasing involvement of the industry in planning and funding the research studies. Developing medical researchers with an ethical character and knowledge about ethics in medicine may be the most effective safeguard in protecting participants of medical research experiments.
Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Fields, Julie C; McWilliams, Junette; Knowlton, Amy R
Introduction Research suggests Emergency Medical Services (EMS) over-use in urban cities is partly due to substance users with limited access to medical/social services. Recent efforts to deliver brief, motivational messages to encourage these individuals to enter treatment have not considered EMS providers. Problem Little research has been done with EMS providers who serve substance-using patients. The EMS providers were interviewed about participating in a pilot program where they would be trained to screen their patients for substance abuse and encourage them to enter drug treatment. Qualitative interviews were conducted with Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD; Baltimore, Maryland USA) EMS providers (N=22). Topics included EMS misuse, work demands, and views on participating in the pilot program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and constant-comparison. Participants were mostly white (68.1%); male (68.2%); with Advanced Life Skills training (90.9%). Mean age was 37.5 years. Providers described the "frequent flyer problem" (eg, EMS over-use by a few repeat non-emergent cases). Providers expressed disappointment with local health delivery due to resource limitations and being excluded from decision making within their administration, leading to reduced team morale and burnout. Nonetheless, providers acknowledged they are well-positioned to intervene with substance-using patients because they are in direct contact and have built rapport with them. They noted patients might be most receptive to motivational messages immediately after overdose revival, which several called "hitting their bottom." Several stated that involvement with the proposed study would be facilitated by direct incorporation into EMS providers' current workflow. Many recommended that research team members accompany EMS providers while on-call to observe their day-to-day work. Barriers identified by the providers included time constraints to intervene, limited
McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.
The "Grand Challenges" to address Global Change identified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) and its partners through the Earth System Sustainability Initiative-improving forecasting, enhancing and integrating observation systems, confining and minimizing global environmental change, responding effectively to change, as well as innovating and evaluating these efforts-require an integrative approach that engages and inspires society in general and young people in particular. What are some of the effective strategies-and stumbling blocks-in being able to make Earth System science and related sustainability efforts relevant and practical to non-technical audiences? Recent climate education projects have pioneered new strategies toward linking and infusing research with education, science with solutions. For example, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), a National Science Digital Library Pathway funded by NSF, has approached this integral approach by "closing the loop" between climate and energy topics, identifying and annotating high quality online resources relating to the carbon cycle and related topics. The Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) project, funded by NASA, offers professional development for teachers that infuses climate science with solutions as an emerging "best practice" while being sensitive to the emotional, psychological and political aspects of avoiding "gloom and doom" on one hand or advocating for particular policy solutions on another. Other examples includes NASA's climate website (http://climate.nasa.gov ), which serves as a robust, engaging portal for climate research and data, especially for educators. The recent PBS series Earth: The Operators' Manual and related book and website are other recent example of how climate science research, education and solutions can be incorporated in a way that is appealing and informative. The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has given assemblies in
I visited Japan from June 29 to August 1, 1992. The purpose of this visit was to assess the status of materials science research at selected governmental, university and industrial laboratories and to established acquaintances with Japanese researchers. The areas of research covered by these visits included ceramics, oxide superconductors, intermetallics alloys, superhard materials and diamond films, high-temperature materials and properties, mechanical properties, fracture, creep, fatigue, defects, materials for nuclear reactor applications and irradiation effects, high pressure synthesis, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, microanalysis, magnetic properties and magnetic facilities, and surface science.
Liu, Lin; Tang, Lin; Dong, Wen; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Wei
With the rapid accumulation of biological datasets, machine learning methods designed to automate data analysis are urgently needed. In recent years, so-called topic models that originated from the field of natural language processing have been receiving much attention in bioinformatics because of their interpretability. Our aim was to review the application and development of topic models for bioinformatics. This paper starts with the description of a topic model, with a focus on the understanding of topic modeling. A general outline is provided on how to build an application in a topic model and how to develop a topic model. Meanwhile, the literature on application of topic models to biological data was searched and analyzed in depth. According to the types of models and the analogy between the concept of document-topic-word and a biological object (as well as the tasks of a topic model), we categorized the related studies and provided an outlook on the use of topic models for the development of bioinformatics applications. Topic modeling is a useful method (in contrast to the traditional means of data reduction in bioinformatics) and enhances researchers' ability to interpret biological information. Nevertheless, due to the lack of topic models optimized for specific biological data, the studies on topic modeling in biological data still have a long and challenging road ahead. We believe that topic models are a promising method for various applications in bioinformatics research.
Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali
Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers' role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers' potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged.
The overall objective of this Phase I small business innovation research (SBIR) program effort was to demonstrate the scientific, technical and commercial feasibility of a 3D virtual world or virtual reality (VR...
Suamit Correia Barreiro
Full Text Available Many people from generation Z are at the beginning of their academic activities. This generation has peculiar characteristics that might be a challenge in the labor market. Thus, instructors have a great role in their preparation. However, professors might face difficulties dealing with their specific characteristics. The research aims to carry out a general survey to enable an understanding of the greater challenges and difficulties in teaching the subject of engineering to the students of Generation Z. The research method used was a case study at a University with 20 instructors from the Faculty of Engineering. The analysis revealed a great challenge in relating theoretical concepts with practical concepts. The research also showed a probable tendency of using more exhibition methods, and the low knowledge about generation Z by most instructors. This study seeks to contribute to the teaching-learning process of engineering.
Previdi, Irene Lafarga; Guzzi Vasques, Ana C; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Albizu García, Carmen E
During 2013 the prison population of Puerto Rico was composed of approximately 13,000 persons. Documents describing the enablers and constraints for research related to mental health in prisons in the existing literature are scarce. The present work consisted of identifying elements that facilitate or hinder research in prisons identified by the members of the research team of a project that aimed to validate a scale to measure stress in prisoners. In this article, we present the facilitating and challenging elements of research work in prison, which can help to inform future research in this particular scenario to achieve satisfactory results.
EPA is one of the world’s leading environmental and human health research organizations. Science provides the foundation for Agency policies, actions, and decisions made on behalf of the American people.
Angulo-Tuesta, Antonia; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Iturri, José Antonio
Evidence-informed policies can produce social and economic impacts and equity and health benefits. Interaction between researchers in politics depends on the interests of social stakeholders and favorable political environments. This paper seeks to understand the meanings and researchers' perspectives of interaction processes between scientists and decision-makers that would influence the research impact on the health policy. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2014 to identify the core meanings and relationships between research and politics. The paper builds on the RAPID program approach of the Overseas Development Institute. Fourteen researchers who conducted maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality studies sponsored by the Health Ministry were interviewed. Researchers focused on the production of knowledge, strengthening of research capacities and dissemination of results. On some occasions, researchers also participated in the definition of clinical care policies and performance of health services. They pointed to barriers to interact and produce an impact on politics due to tensions in the political, economic and social context, as well as to institutional and organizational changes in the health sector and to the academic evaluation system.
Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stanley J. Zarnoch
Logging utilization research results have informed land managers of changes in utilization of forest growing stock for more than 40 years. The logging utilization residue ratio- growing stock residue volume/mill delivered volume- can be applied to historic or projected timber harvest volumes to predict woody residue volumes at varied spatial scales. Researchers at the...
Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)
The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.
Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Hall, B Fenton; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim
The World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF) in March 2014. This first GVIRF aimed to track recent progress of the Global Vaccine Action Plan research and development agenda, identify opportunities and challenges, promote partnerships in vaccine research, and facilitate the inclusion of all stakeholders in vaccine research and development. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific and technical challenges in vaccine development, research to improve the impact of immunization, and regulatory issues. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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