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Sample records for research tasks methodology

  1. Research methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences....... That is it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....

  2. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 3. Recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and criteria. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 3 presents recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and procedural clarification/modification. The fifth category identifies issues where adequate information does not exist to allow a recommendation to be made

  3. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  4. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K

    2012-01-01

    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  5. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  6. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on…

  7. The Use of Dual Task Paradigms in Memory Research: A Methodological Assessment and an Evaluation of Effort as a Measure of Levels of Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    sustained monitoring tasks. Human Factors, 1979, 21, 647-653. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research...original levels approach to human memory ( Craik & Lockhart , 1972) contended that verbal stimuli could be classified along a continuum ranging from...AND AN EVALUATION OF EFFORT AS A MEASURr OF LEVELS OF PROCESSING Arthur D. Fisk, William L. Derrick, and Walter Schneider REPORT HARL-ONR-8105 E. C

  8. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  9. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  10. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  11. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2017-01-01

    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  12. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  13. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  14. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2017-01-01

    , and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice...... that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors...

  16. Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to address these methodological issues. Topics discussed include the researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in qualitative…

  17. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  18. Feminist Methodologies and Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces feminist methodologies in the context of engineering education research. It builds upon other recent methodology articles in engineering education journals and presents feminist research methodologies as a concrete engineering education setting in which to explore the connections between epistemology, methodology and theory.…

  19. Operations management research methodologies using quantitative modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, J.W.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of quantitative model-based research in operations management, focusing on research methodology. Distinguishes between empirical and axiomatic research, and furthermore between descriptive and normative research. Presents guidelines for doing quantitative model-based research in

  20. A constructivist approach for teaching research methodology in construction management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Doree, Andries G.; Martin, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    Construction Management (CM) is an acknowledged field of expertise and profession that requires students to research real world problems. To prepare the students for this task, many CM programs contain a Research Methodology (RM) course. However, after taking part in these courses, many students

  1. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  2. Safety at Work : Research Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Brinks, G. (Ger); Goering-Zaburnenko, T. (Tatiana); Houten, van Y. (Ynze); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    In this document, we provide the methodological background for the Safety atWork project. This document combines several project deliverables as defined inthe overall project plan: validation techniques and methods (D5.1.1), performanceindicators for safety at work (D5.1.2), personal protection

  3. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Clinical Research Task Force Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkan, D.; Derksen, R.; Levy, R.; Machin, S.; Ortel, T.; Pierangeli, S.; Roubey, R.; Lockshin, M.

    The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) Clinical Research Task Force (CRTF) was one of six Task Forces developed by the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) organization committee with the purpose of: a) evaluating the limitations of APS clinical research and developing

  4. Playware ResearchMethodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined projec...... characterized by rapid prototyping cycles which allow iterative technology specification and development together with people in their real world environment....

  5. Research Methodology: A Practitioner Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Chana, Inderveer; Singh, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of scientific research is publication so as to showcase the research outcomes. Scientists, starting as graduate students, are measured primarily not by their dexterity in laboratory manipulations, not by their innate knowledge of either broad or narrow scientific subjects, and certainly not by their wit or charm; they are…

  6. Introducing an ILS methodology into research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, N. de; Borsani, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is the managerial organisation that co-ordinates the activities of many disciplines to develop the supporting resources (training, staffing, designing aids, equipment removal routes, etc) required by technologically complex systems. The application of an ILS methodology in defence projects is described in several places, but it is infrequently illustrated for other areas; therefore the present paper deals with applying this approach to research reactors under design or already in operation. Although better results are obtained when applied since the very beginning of a project, it can be applied successfully in facilities already in operation to improve their capability in a cost-effective way. In applying this methodology, the key objectives shall be previously identified in order to tailor the whole approach. Generally in high power multipurpose reactors, obtaining maximum profit at the lowest possible cost without reducing the safety levels are key issues, while in others the goal is to minimise drawbacks like spurious shutdowns, low quality experimental results or even to reduce staff dose to ALARA values. These items need to be quantified for establishing a system status base line in order to trace the process evolution. Thereafter, specific logistics analyses should be performed in the different areas composing the system. RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Supportability), Manning, Training Needs, Supplying Needs are some examples of these special logistic assessments. The following paragraphs summarise the different areas, encompassed by this ILS methodology. Plant design is influenced focussing the designers? attention on the objectives already identified. Careful design reviews are performed only in an early design stage, being useless a later application. In this paper is presented a methodology including appropriate tools for ensuring the designers abide to ILS issues and key objectives through the

  7. Three tasks for mediatization research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Mats; Fornäs, Johan; Jansson, André

    2016-01-01

    Based on the interdisciplinary experience of a Swedish research committee, this article discusses critical conceptual issues raised by the current debate on mediatization – a concept that holds great potential to constitute a space for synthesized understandings of media-related social transforma......Based on the interdisciplinary experience of a Swedish research committee, this article discusses critical conceptual issues raised by the current debate on mediatization – a concept that holds great potential to constitute a space for synthesized understandings of media-related social...... that mediatization researchers have sometimes formulated too grand claims as to mediatization’s status as a unitary approach, a meta-theory or a paradigm. Such claims have led to problematic confusions around the concept and should be abandoned in favour of a more open agenda. In line with such a call for openness...

  8. Measuring cognitive task demands using dual task methodology, subjective self-ratings, and expert judgments : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English

  9. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  10. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  11. [Plasma properties research: Task 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The principal research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division relate to magnetic fusion plasma physics. In addition, there is a modest amount of work in closely related areas, including space plasma physics, fluid dynamics, and dynamical systems. Members of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division maintain close contacts with fusion researchers in the US and abroad. Some of the work of the Division is clearly directed towards ITER and TPX, while other problems relate to the broader development of fusion plasma physics and to the support of other issues arising in the many experimental programs. Topics of some note in the last year that are discussed in this report are: Application of sophisticated statistical techniques to tokamak data reduction, including time series analysis of TFTR fluctuation data and spline analysis of profile data. Continuing development of edge plasma and divertor modelling, including initial ergodic divertor studies. Analysis of energetic fusion products losses from TFTR plasmas. Examination of anomalous transport in dynamical systems induced by chaotic-like Hamiltonian motion. Numerical simulation of the development of singular MHD equilibria. Exploration of the validity of moment expansions of kinetic equations for weakly collisional systems. Studies of RF- and ripple-induced helium ash removal. Ballooning mode studies in fluids and rotating stars. Studies in dynamical systems, including explosive instabilities, development of chaos, and motion of collisionless particles in a domain with overlapping islands

  12. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  13. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  14. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.

  15. Setting priorities for space research: An experiment in methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.

  16. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...... increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. Methods: The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Results: Key stakeholders were identified...... as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step...

  18. Proceedings of Arcom Doctoral Workshop Research Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lloyd

    2018-01-01

    Editorial Editorial Welcome to this special doctoral workshop on Research Methodology which forms part of what is now a well-established support mechanism for researchers in the discipline of the Built Environment and more particularly construction management. The ARCOM doctoral series, around now for some seventeen years, has addressed many of the diverse research areas that PhD researchers in the discipline have chosen to focus on in their doctoral journey. This doctoral workshop has as ...

  19. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the

  20. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  1. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...... by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR...... is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented...

  2. Research methodology in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Future Tasks of the International Calvin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Neuser

    1998-12-01

    The first answer includes both a review of the previous six Congresses as well as a glance at recent Calvin literature; the second answer will be developed in the overview which follows, titled The future tasks of Calvin research.

  4. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  5. Methodologies and Methods for User Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…

  6. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  7. Basic Project Management Methodologies for Survey Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.

    To be effective, project management requires a heavy dependence on the document, list, and computational capability of a computerized environment. Now that microcomputers are readily available, only the rediscovery of classic project management methodology is required for improved resource allocation in small research projects. This paper provides…

  8. Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert

    . Within the 36 chapters 70 authors bring together a rich selection of theoretical and practical examples of how research methodologies are applied in supply chain management. The book contains papers on theoretical implications as well as papers on a range of key methods, such as modelling, surveys, case...... studies or action research. It will be of great interest to researchers in the area of supply chain management and logistics, but also to neighbouring fields, such as network management or global operations.......While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain...

  9. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  10. Methodological and Analytical Dilemmas in Autoethnographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maydell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an argument on the application of theoretical and methodological frameworks to the study of identity from an autoethnographic perspective. In order to guide the analysis process, the author employed social constructionism as the main theoretical foundation, whereas thematic analysis and positioning theory were deployed as the methodological frameworks. Further, in the process of using ethnographic methods to study the identity of Russian immigrants to New Zealand, the author found herself also needing to use autoethnography to interrogate and understand her own journey. The insider/outsider position of the author who belongs to the same minority group became the most vital tool in her identity construction. In this regard, it is impossible to engage fully with the autoethnographic research practice without understanding the impact of others on identity construction of self, and a strong theoretical and methodological scholarship can provide a valuable foundation for this process.

  11. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina

    2012-01-01

    practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate...

  12. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  13. Verbal protocols as methodological resources: research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Baldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reflecting on the use of verbal protocols as a methodological resource in qualitative research, more specifically on the aspect regarded as the main limitation of a study about lexical inferencing in L2 (BALDO; VELASQUES, 2010: its subjective trait. The article begins with a brief literature review on protocols, followed by a description of the study in which they were employed as methodological resources. Based on that, protocol subjectivity is illustrated through samples of unparalleled data classification, carried out independently by two researchers. In the final section, the path followed to minimize the problem is presented, intending to contribute to improve efficiency in the use of verbal protocols in future research.

  14. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  15. Urban metabolism: A review of research methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research

  16. Methodological triangulation in work life research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...... for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops findings from...

  17. Exploring methodological frameworks for a mental task-based near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Sabine; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori; Chau, Tom

    2015-10-30

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) enable users to interact with their environment using only cognitive activities. This paper presents the results of a comparison of four methodological frameworks used to select a pair of tasks to control a binary NIRS-BCI; specifically, three novel personalized task paradigms and the state-of-the-art prescribed task framework were explored. Three types of personalized task selection approaches were compared, including: user-selected mental tasks using weighted slope scores (WS-scores), user-selected mental tasks using pair-wise accuracy rankings (PWAR), and researcher-selected mental tasks using PWAR. These paradigms, along with the state-of-the-art prescribed mental task framework, where mental tasks are selected based on the most commonly used tasks in literature, were tested by ten able-bodied participants who took part in five NIRS-BCI sessions. The frameworks were compared in terms of their accuracy, perceived ease-of-use, computational time, user preference, and length of training. Most notably, researcher-selected personalized tasks resulted in significantly higher accuracies, while user-selected personalized tasks resulted in significantly higher perceived ease-of-use. It was also concluded that PWAR minimized the amount of data that needed to be collected; while, WS-scores maximized user satisfaction and minimized computational time. In comparison to the state-of-the-art prescribed mental tasks, our findings show that overall, personalized tasks appear to be superior to prescribed tasks with respect to accuracy and perceived ease-of-use. The deployment of personalized rather than prescribed mental tasks ought to be considered and further investigated in future NIRS-BCI studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Research methodological issues in evaluating herbal interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipika Bansal, Debasish Hota, Amitava ChakrabartiPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaAbstract: Randomized controlled trials provide the best evidence, and is seen as the gold standard for allopathic research. Herbal therapies are not an integral part of conventional care although they are still used by patients in their health care management. These medicines need to be subjected to rigorous research to establish their effectiveness and safety. Clearly defined treatments are required and should be recorded in a manner that enables other suitably trained researchers to reproduce them reliably. Quality control of herbal products is also a prerequisite of credible clinical trials. Methodological strategies for investigating the herbal interventions and the issues regarding appropriate patient selection, randomization and blinding, placebo effects and choice of comparator, occupational standardization and the selection of appropriate study endpoints to prove efficacy are being discussed. This paper will review research options and propose some suggestions for future research design.Keywords: CAM research, herbal therapies, methodology, clinical trial

  19. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  20. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  1. Environmental sample banking-research and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in cooperation with the Environment Protection Agency and the National Science Foundation, is engaged in a research program establishing methodology for environmental sample banking. This program is aimed toward evaluating the feasibility of a National Environment Specimen Bank (NESB). The capability for retrospective chemical analyses to evaluate changes in our environment would provide useful information. Much of this information could not be obtained using data from previously analyzed samples. However, to assure validity for these stored samples, they must be sampled, processed and stored under rigorously evaluated, controlled and documented conditions. The program currently under way in the NBS Analytical Chemistry Division has 3 main components. The first is an extension survey of available literature concerning problems of contamination, losses and storage. The components of interest include trace elements, pesticides, other trace organics (PCBs, plasticizers, etc.), radionuclides and microbiological species. The second component is an experimental evaluation of contamination and losses during sampling and sample handling. Of particular interest here is research into container cleaning methodology for trace elements, with respect to adsorption, desorption, leaching and partial dissolution by various sample matrices. The third component of this program is an evaluation of existing methodology for long-term sample storage

  2. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members

  3. Cultivating creativity in methodology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Maslo, Elina

    in which ‘accountable’ research methodologies involve adventurousness and an element of uncertainty. Written by scholars from a range of different fields, academic levels and geographic locations, this unique book will offer significant insight to those from a range of academic fields.......This book presents a variety of narratives on key elements of academic work, from data analysis, writing practices and engagement with the field. The authors discuss how elements of academic work and life – usually edited out of traditional research papers – can elicit important analytical insight....... The book reveals how the unplanned, accidental and even obstructive events that often occur in research life, the ‘detours’, can potentially glean important results. The authors introduce the process of ‘writing-sharing-reading-writing’ as a way to expand the playground of research and inspire a culture...

  4. Toward methodological emancipation in applied health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2011-04-01

    In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.

  5. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.

  6. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  7. Methodology of impact assessment of research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cardona, R.; Cobas Aranda, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)

  8. Researching Lean: Methodological Implications of Loose Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Brännmark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.

  9. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  10. Coding for Language Complexity: The Interplay among Methodological Commitments, Tools, and Workflow in Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Coding, the analytic task of assigning codes to nonnumeric data, is foundational to writing research. A rich discussion of methodological pluralism has established the foundational importance of systematicity in the task of coding, but less attention has been paid to the equally important commitment to language complexity. Addressing the interplay…

  11. A Critique for the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to evaluate of Imre Lakatos' MSRP (Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. Presenting the methodology which is based on Popperian Refutationism, Lakatos intended to overcome Pluralism (, Relativism and Skepticism and distinguishes the best theory (/program in science. The question is that did the lakatos' secondary change in the form and content of MSRP -against some historical facts and criticisms- make some serious deficiencies in his methodology? The answer to this question is positive. One of Lakatos' changes in MSRP is to resort to a new concept of "rationality". Presenting a logical analysis, the paper shows that this change causes MSRP to be unable to distinguish the best program among others. Furthermore he gives a new definition of the term 'methodology'. This definition, in its turn, makes MSRP main task to be inactive.Showing the irreparable harms Lakatos' changes produce in MSRP, the paper shows that these changes not only cannot get rid of the deficiencies therein, but it is also unable to meet lakatos' original purpose for MSRP.

  12. Destination brands and website evaluation: a research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fernández-Cavia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The World Wide Web has become the primary instrument used by tourists in order to search for information. As a result, tourism websites pertaining to destinations need to be appealing and must convey their brand image in an appropriate, effective manner. However, there is no methodology in place to assess the quality and communicative effectiveness of destination websites that is scientifically sound and universally accepted. The development of such a methodology is one of the tasks we have proposed within the framework of the research project: “New strategies for advertising and promoting Spanish tourism brands online” (CSO2008-02627, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Method: The project team have developed an interdisciplinary, all-embracing analysis template combining certain automated analyses with other qualitative and quantitative ones. The template comprises a total of 12 subject areas and 154 indicators prepared on the basis of contributions from prominent experts in each of the fields of work. This article sets out the analysis methodology drawn up and possible applications are given. Results: The primary aim of the project is to provide an assessment methodology that would make it possible to optimise destination brand websites, thus providing a tool to support the work of public tourism destination managers.

  13. Decision-making in research tasks with sequential testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent controversial essay, published by JPA Ioannidis in PLoS Medicine, it has been argued that in some research fields, most of the published findings are false. Based on theoretical reasoning it can be shown that small effect sizes, error-prone tests, low priors of the tested hypotheses and biases in the evaluation and publication of research findings increase the fraction of false positives. These findings raise concerns about the reliability of research. However, they are based on a very simple scenario of scientific research, where single tests are used to evaluate independent hypotheses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present computer simulations and experimental approaches for analyzing more realistic scenarios. In these scenarios, research tasks are solved sequentially, i.e. subsequent tests can be chosen depending on previous results. We investigate simple sequential testing and scenarios where only a selected subset of results can be published and used for future rounds of test choice. Results from computer simulations indicate that for the tasks analyzed in this study, the fraction of false among the positive findings declines over several rounds of testing if the most informative tests are performed. Our experiments show that human subjects frequently perform the most informative tests, leading to a decline of false positives as expected from the simulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the research tasks studied here, findings tend to become more reliable over time. We also find that the performance in those experimental settings where not all performed tests could be published turned out to be surprisingly inefficient. Our results may help optimize existing procedures used in the practice of scientific research and provide guidance for the development of novel forms of scholarly communication.

  14. JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

    2008-04-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition

  15. Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K

    2018-01-01

    Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework. The MIR framework was developed to help cross disciplinary borders, especially those between the natural sciences and the social sciences. The framework has been specifically constructed to facilitate the design of interdisciplinary scientific research, and can be applied in an educational program, as a reference for monitoring the phases of interdisciplinary research, and as a tool to design such research in a process approach. It is suitable for research projects of different sizes and levels of complexity, and it allows for a range of methods' combinations (case study, mixed methods, etc.). The different phases of designing interdisciplinary research in the MIR framework are described and illustrated by real-life applications in teaching and research. We further discuss the framework's utility in research design in landscape architecture, mixed methods research, and provide an outlook to the framework's potential in inclusive interdisciplinary research, and last but not least, research integrity.

  16. The SIMRAND methodology - Simulation of Research and Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In research and development projects, a commonly occurring management decision is concerned with the optimum allocation of resources to achieve the project goals. Because of resource constraints, management has to make a decision regarding the set of proposed systems or tasks which should be undertaken. SIMRAND (Simulation of Research and Development Projects) is a methodology which was developed for aiding management in this decision. Attention is given to a problem description, aspects of model formulation, the reduction phase of the model solution, the simulation phase, and the evaluation phase. The implementation of the considered approach is illustrated with the aid of an example which involves a simplified network of the type used to determine the price of silicon solar cells.

  17. Accelerator research studies: Progress report, Task B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main objectives in Task B of the research program are summarized as follows: (1) studies of the collective acceleration of positive ions from a localized plasma source by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB), (2) studies of ways in which external control may be achieved over the electron beam front in order to achieve higher ion energies - the Beam Front Accelerator (BFA) concept, and (3) study of electron and ion beam generation in a new kind of compact pulsed accelerator in which energy is stored inductively and switched using a plasma focus opening switch. During the past year, substantial progress was made in each of these areas. Our exploratory research on the collective acceleration of laser-produced ions has confirmed the acceleration of C, Al, and Fe ions to peak energies in excess of 10 MeV/amu. In addition, studies of the relation between collective ion acceleration and electron beam propagation in vacuum have shed new light on the experimental processes that lead to energy transfer from electrons to ions. Meanwhile, extensive progress has been made in our attempts to use analytical theory and numerical simulation to model ion acceleration in these systems. Our resultant improved understanding of the processes that limit the peak ion energy has had a profound impact on our plans for further research in this area. Studies of the Compact Pulsed Accelerator have included both ion and electron beam extraction from the device. Its potential to reduce the volume of pulse power sources by an order of magnitude has already been demonstrated, and plans are currently underway to scale the experiment up to voltages in the 1 MV range

  18. Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

  19. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  20. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  1. A Methodological Review of Meditation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John W.; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Despite over 50 years of research into the states of consciousness induced by various meditation practices, no clear neurophysiological signatures of these states have been found. Much of this failure can be attributed to the narrow range of variables examined in most meditation studies, with the focus being restricted to a search for correlations between neurophysiological measures and particular practices, without documenting the content and context of these practices. We contend that more meaningful results can be obtained by expanding the methodological paradigm to include multiple domains including: the cultural setting (“the place”), the life situation of the meditator (“the person”), details of the particular meditation practice (‘the practice’), and the state of consciousness of the meditator (“the phenomenology”). Inclusion of variables from all these domains will improve the ability to predict the psychophysiological variables (“the psychophysiology”) associated with specific meditation states and thus explore the mysteries of human consciousness. PMID:25071607

  2. Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Whilst the natural sciences employ a mostly empiricist methodology and the human ...

  3. Methodology for evaluation of railroad technology research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This Project memorandum presents a methodology for evaluating railroad research projects. The methodology includes consideration of industry and societal benefits, with special attention given to technical risks, implementation considerations, and po...

  4. A role-play approach for teaching research methodology in construction management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Doree, Andries G.; Martin, Ludwig; Dainty, A

    2008-01-01

    Assignments of Construction Management (CM) graduate programmes often require students to carry out research on real-world problems. To prepare students for this task, many CM-programmes contain a research methodology course. However, after taking part in these courses, many students still lack the

  5. Metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa Qualitative research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena T. de Souza Martins

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre o que significa fazer ciência no âmbito dos métodos e técnicas qualitativos da sociologia. Tem como pressupostos uma compreensão de metodologia como o conhecimento crítico dos caminhos do processo científico, que indaga e questiona acerca de seus limites e possibilidades; e o reconhecimento de que todo conhecimento sociológico tem, como fundamento, um compromisso com valores. A pesquisa qualitativa é definida como aquela que privilegia a análise de microprocessos, através do estudo das ações sociais individuais e grupais, realizando um exame intensivo dos dados, e caracterizada pela heterodoxia no momento da análise. Enfatiza-se a necessidade do exercício da intuição e da imaginação pelo so-ciólogo, num tipo de trabalho artesanal, visto não só como condição para o aprofundamento da análise, mas também - o que é muito importante - para a liberdade do intelectual. Discutem-se as principais críticas feitas à pesquisa qualitativa, em especial as acusações de falta de representatividade e de possibilidades de generalização; de subjetividade, decorrente da proximidade entre pesquisador e pesquisados; e o caráter descritivo e narrativo de seus resultados. Neste contexto, reflete-se sobre os problemas éticos envolvidos nesse tipo de pesquisa, e retoma-se brevemente a história que culminou com o predomínio do enfoque quantitativo, especialmente na sociologia norte-americana do pós-guerra. Em conclusão, o texto propõe que hoje o mais importante é produzir um conhecimento que, além de útil, seja explicitamente orientado por um projeto ético visando a solidariedade, a harmonia e a criatividade.This article presents considerations about what it means to do science within the context of qualitative methods and techniques in sociology. It is founded on the conception of methodology as the critical knowledge of the ways of the scientific process, a knowledge that questions and

  6. Research Methodology in Business: A Starter’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, Mohamed AF; Arisha, Amr

    2018-01-01

    A cardinal requisite of successful research lies in the proper selection of the research methodology applied to achieve research objectives using the available resources. In addition to acquiring sufficient knowledge of their specific research topic, researchers are urged to develop good understanding of alternative research methodologies at their disposal to be able to identify the best-suited methods to address the research question. This, however, often poses a challenge for novice researc...

  7. TASK RELEVANCE IN THE DESIGN OF ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF ELLs: A Q Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  8. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  9. Development of a standard methodology for optimizing remote visual display for nuclear maintenance tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. M.; Garin, J.; Prestonanderson, A.

    A fuel recycle facility being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory involves the Remotex concept: advanced servo-controlled master/slave manipulators, with remote television viewing, will totally replace direct human contact with the radioactive environment. The design of optimal viewing conditions is a critical component of the overall man/machine system. A methodology was developed for optimizing remote visual displays for nuclear maintenance tasks. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated by preliminary specification of optimal closed circuit TV systems for such tasks.

  10. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  11. Development of a standard methodology for optimizing remote visual display for nuclear-maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Garin, J.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for optimizing remote viewing systems for a fuel recycle facility (HEF) being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). An important feature of this design involves the Remotex concept: advanced servo-controlled master/slave manipulators, with remote television viewing, will totally replace direct human contact with the radioactive environment. Therefore, the design of optimal viewing conditions is a critical component of the overall man/machine system. A methodology has been developed for optimizing remote visual displays for nuclear maintenance tasks. The usefulness of this approach has been demonstrated by preliminary specification of optimal closed circuit TV systems for such tasks

  12. A hugh marketing research task: birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1968-02-01

    Research in underdeveloped countries to sell family planning is discussed. The article also aims at pinpointing other possible research areas. Census reports were actually the earliest work relevant to birth control. Later came the research on psychosocial factors affecting family size in developed countries. After World War I, client oriented research into family planning began. The history of this type of research is discussed with more emphasis on the surveys of the knowledge, attitude and contraception practices (KAP) in various countries. The author claims the KAP surveys to be the largest worldwide market research job ever done. Propagands campaigns, contraceptive costs, bonuses for contraceptive practices, and effectiveness of persuasion techniques are discussed.

  13. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Tuhiwai

    From the vantage point of indigenous peoples, the term "research" is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism. In this book, an indigenous researcher calls for the decolonization of research methods. The first part of the book critically examines the historical and philosophical bases of Western research; Western…

  14. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  15. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed in FY2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Project 0-6581-TI, TxDOT Administration : Research, encompasses multiple tasks that explore and support administrative aspects of : transportation research. : The project term began in October 2008 and has b...

  16. Posthumanism as Research Methodology: Inquiry in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2017-01-01

    The posthuman turn has radically--and rapidly--shifted what is possible in research methodology. In response, my aim in this conceptual paper is to suggest entry points into posthuman educational research methodology. I outline aspects of posthumanism while recognizing its multiplicity: there are many posthumanisms and each offers different…

  17. Data Mining: A Hybrid Methodology for Complex and Dynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…

  18. Qualitative and quantitative research in Sociolinguistics: methodological dadaism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rodrigues Cardoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The confluence between quantitative and qualitative research in Sociolinguistics is a methodological Dadaism? The issue here is not epistemology, because I assume that the Sociolinguistics studies the language linked to social. I want to demonstrate that the methodological approach depends on the research question, ie, the subject about which a thesis is developed.

  19. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K

    2014-01-01

    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...... of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than...

  20. Problems emerging from practicing research methodologies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The on-going debates and conflicts between defenders of the quantitative research approach and advocates of the qualitative approach to research tends to leave the post graduate students in a dilemma and disillusioned as to which approach to use in their research process. However, the advent of mixed method as the ...

  1. Methodological Challenges for Collaborative Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Fischer, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Research on collaborative learning, both face-to-face and computer-supported, has thrived in the past 10 years. The studies range from outcome-oriented (individual and group learning) to process-oriented (impact of interaction on learning processes, motivation and organisation of collaboration) to mixed studies. Collaborative learning research is…

  2. Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  3. Methodology Series Module 10: Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  4. Systematic reviews in pain research: methodology refined

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...

  5. Indtroduction To Research Methodologies In Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bahasa merupakan bidang yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar di Fakultas Sastra. Artikel ini mencoba menggambarkan berbagai metodologi riset dalam bidang bahasa dengan cara yang sederhana. Metodologi riset ini mencakup experimental research, quasi experimental research, etnografi, dan studi kasus. Artikel ini juga membahas konsep metode riset kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Masalah validitas dan keabsahan sebuah laporan riset dibahas secara singkat.

  6. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  7. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Methodological Approaches in the Research of Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nebojša Janićijević

    2011-01-01

    In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach e...

  9. Critical methodologies: early childhood research studies in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette; Bjelkerud, Agnes Westgaard; Giæver, Katrine; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Holten, Ingeborg Caroline Sæbøe; Lafton, Tove; Moxnes, Anna Rigmor; Pope, Liv Alice

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and originally published in Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology (RERM). You can access the article on publisher's website by following this link: https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/rerm This chapter exemplifies seven projects and their related research methodologies. It does so to consider how to construct critical research studies without replicating someone else’s researc...

  10. Priority research directions in the area of qualitative methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, Olga; Khoroshilov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The basic directions of modern theoretical and practical research in the area of qualitative methodology in Russia are discussed in the article. The complexity of research is considered from three points of view: the development of methodology of qualitative analysis, qualitative methods, and verbal and nonverbal projective techniques. The authors present an integrative model of the qualitative analysis, the research on specificity of the use of discourse-analysis method and projective techni...

  11. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  12. Sex Work Research: Methodological and Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    The challenges involved in the design of ethical, nonexploitative research projects with sex workers or any other marginalized population are significant. First, the size and boundaries of the population are unknown, making it extremely difficult to get a representative sample. Second, because membership in hidden populations often involves…

  13. Research methodology in used oil recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation and activities in the United States on the subject of used oil recycling have increased dramatically in the past several years. However, a substantial portion of both industry and government have some concerns about the lack of scientific and technical research and data on certain aspects of the quality and consistence of recycled petroleum oils, particularly re-refined engine oils. Further, there are some significant environmental concerns about pollution aspects of used oils and their recycling by-products and wastes. Since 1976, the (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has had a legislatively mandated program to''... develop test procedures for the determination of substantial equivalency of re-refined or otherwise processed used oil . . . with new oil for a particular end use'' (42 U.S. Code 6363c). The NBS research includes identification of problem areas in the characterization of used and recycled oils, research into new measurement methods for determination of novel constituents in these materials, and the development and evaluation of appropriate test procedures and standards for recycled oil products. Aspects of this research discussed in this paper include analysis of total elemental content and speciation studies on lead and on the halogens (chlorine and bromine) and hydrocarbon type characterization studies on lubricating oil fractions

  14. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  15. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Shrivastava

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There was increase in knowledge of the delegates after attending research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  16. Frequent methodological errors in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Aycaguer, L C

    2018-03-07

    Several errors that are frequently present in clinical research are listed, discussed and illustrated. A distinction is made between what can be considered an "error" arising from ignorance or neglect, from what stems from a lack of integrity of researchers, although it is recognized and documented that it is not easy to establish when we are in a case and when in another. The work does not intend to make an exhaustive inventory of such problems, but focuses on those that, while frequent, are usually less evident or less marked in the various lists that have been published with this type of problems. It has been a decision to develop in detail the examples that illustrate the problems identified, instead of making a list of errors accompanied by an epidermal description of their characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Methodology and Ontology in Microbiome Research

    OpenAIRE

    Huss, John

    2014-01-01

    Research on the human microbiome has generated a staggering amount of sequence data, revealing variation in microbial diversity at the community, species (or phylotype), and genomic levels. In order to make this complexity more manageable and easier to interpret, new units—the metagenome, core microbiome, and enterotype—have been introduced in the scientific literature. Here, I argue that analytical tools and exploratory statistical methods, coupled with a translational imperative, are the pr...

  18. MAPLE research reactor safety uncertainty assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, H.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The MAPLE (multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment) reactor is a low pressure, low temperature, open-tank-in pool type research reactor that operates at a power level of 5 to 35 MW. MAPLE is designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and to meet today's most demanding requirements for safety and licensing. The emphasis is on the use of passive safety systems and environmentally qualified components. Key safety features include two independent and diverse shutdown systems, two parallel and independent cooling loops, fail safe operation, and a building design that incorporates the concepts of primary containment supported by secondary confinement

  19. Methodology and Ontology in Microbiome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, John

    2014-01-01

    Research on the human microbiome has generated a staggering amount of sequence data, revealing variation in microbial diversity at the community, species (or phylotype), and genomic levels. In order to make this complexity more manageable and easier to interpret, new units-the metagenome, core microbiome, and enterotype-have been introduced in the scientific literature. Here, I argue that analytical tools and exploratory statistical methods, coupled with a translational imperative, are the primary drivers of this new ontology. By reducing the dimensionality of variation in the human microbiome, these new units render it more tractable and easier to interpret, and hence serve an important heuristic role. Nonetheless, there are several reasons to be cautious about these new categories prematurely "hardening" into natural units: a lack of constraints on what can be sequenced metagenomically, freedom of choice in taxonomic level in defining a "core microbiome," typological framing of some of the concepts, and possible reification of statistical constructs. Finally, lessons from the Human Genome Project have led to a translational imperative: a drive to derive results from the exploration of microbiome variation that can help to articulate the emerging paradigm of personalized genomic medicine (PGM). There is a tension between the typologizing inherent in much of this research and the personal in PGM.

  20. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  1. Profile of research methodology and statistics training of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the profile of research methodology and ... Method: Respondents for this descriptive study were persons responsible for the ..... universities: all study designs, all sampling techniques, incidence and.

  2. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  3. Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Järvelin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval (IS&R which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze IS&R. Past research is then contrasted with the dimensions and shown not to cover the dimensions sufficiently. Based on an analysis of the goals of information seeking research, and a view on human task performance augmentation, it is then shown that information seeking is intimately associated with, and dependent on, other aspects of work; tasks and technology included. This leads to a discussion on design and evaluation frameworks for IS&R, based on which two action lines are proposed: information retrieval research needs extension towards more context and information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology.

  4. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Urayama, Ryoichi; Komura, Ichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Yusa, Noritaka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensing of nuclear power plants. The new methodology makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them while it keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology by applying it to a task of extracting research problems for improving an inspection accuracy of ultrasonic testing or eddy current testing in the inspection of objects having cracks due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  5. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  6. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability.

  7. Methodological issues in regional impacts research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the literature concerning regional impacts of climatic change research reveals common elements. Global climatic change scenarios are used to derive regional climate change scenarios, but there is no standard approach for doing so. These scenarios are applied as inputs to impact models that have been used to describe past variations but may not be calibrated for global scenarios. The human element (technology, land use, population density) is generally assumed to remain unchanged. The general process of performing a study on the impacts of projected global warming on the physical and human environments involves three main steps: develop or specify a scenario for global warming for the study area; develop or specify an impact model for the activity in question; and apply the scenario to the impact model. Problems include defining a baseline, resolution of the scenarios, scenario data for regional-scale features, combination of model output with station data, and validation of impact models using archived climate data as inputs. A review of scenario application procedures indicates that four general approaches have been used: the study area baseline is combined with the scenario anomaly of the nearest center of the grid square; the scenario anomaly field is objectively interpreted and combined with the baseline value; the baseline field is objectively interpreted so that data are produced for the same points as the scenario anomaly field; and the baseline and several scenario's anomaly fields are interpolated and combined into one scenario using dynamical/empirical reasoning. 48 refs., 1 fig

  8. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…

  9. Just Research in Contentious Times: Widening the Methodological Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    In this intensely powerful and personal new text, Michelle Fine widens the methodological imagination for students, educators, scholars, and researchers interested in crafting research with communities. Fine shares her struggles over the course of 30 years to translate research into policy and practice that can enhance the human condition and…

  10. Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as…

  11. Two Methodological Challenges for Teacher-Researchers: Reflexivity and Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Teacher research is lauded as a beneficial enterprise both for practitioners and for learners. However, teachers are sometimes accused of not possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to conduct research effectively. This article focuses on the need for teacher-researchers to find means of addressing the methodological challenges of engaging…

  12. Researching Teacher Education for Inclusion: Using a Methodological Memo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathryn S.; Florian, Lani

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a methodological memo (MM) was used in a research and development project designed to reform initial teacher education (ITE). A MM was used to explore what often remains an opaque part of the research process--the relationships between theory and practice that underpin many research studies. Yet, without detailed…

  13. How to emerge from the conservatism in clinical research methodology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Nuria; Penel, Nicolas; Awada, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed. Moreover, the classical frontier between phase I, phase II, and phase III has become unclear in particular for immunological approaches. So, investigators are facing major challenges in drug development methodology. We propose to individualize clinical research using innovative approaches to significantly improve patient outcomes and targeting what is considered unmet need. Integrating high level of translational research and performing well designed biomarker studies with great potential for clinical practice are of utmost importance. This could be performed within new models of clinical research networks and by building a strong collaboration between academic, cooperative groups, on-site investigators, and pharma.

  14. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A

    2008-09-01

    This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

  15. Networks as integrated in research methodologies in PER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of using networks to create insightful maps of learning discussions. To conclude, I argue that conceptual blending is a powerful framework for constructing "mixed methods" methodologies that may integrate diverse theories and other methodologies with network methodologies.......In recent years a number of researchers within the PER community have started using network analysis as a new methodology to extend our understanding of teaching and learning physics by viewing these as complex systems. In this paper, I give examples of social, cognitive, and action mapping...... networks and how they can be analyzed. In so doing I show how a network can be methodologically described as a set of relations between a set of entities, and how a network can be characterized and analyzed as a mathematical object. Then, as an illustrative example, I discuss a relatively new example...

  16. BWR stability analysis: methodology of the stability analysis and results of PSI for the NEA/NCR benchmark task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, D.; Nechvatal, L.

    1996-09-01

    The report describes the PSI stability analysis methodology and the validation of this methodology based on the international OECD/NEA BWR stability benchmark task. In the frame of this work, the stability properties of some operation points of the NPP Ringhals 1 have been analysed and compared with the experimental results. (author) figs., tabs., 45 refs

  17. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  18. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.

  19. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda. PMID:27833362

  20. A review of methodologies used in research on cadastral development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria Augusta; Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    to the acceptance of research methodologies needed for cadastral development, and thereby enhance theory in the cadastral domain. The paper reviews nine publica-tions on cadastre and identifies the methodologies used. The review focuses on the institutional, social political and economic aspects of cadastral......World-wide, much attention has been given to cadastral development. As a consequence of experiences made during the last decades, several authors have stated the need of research in the domain of cadastre and proposed methodologies to be used. The purpose of this paper is to contribute...... development, rather than on the technical aspects. The main conclusion of this paper is that the methodologies used are largely those of the social sciences. That agrees with the notion that cadastre relates as much to people and institutions, as it relates to land, and that cadastral systems are shaped...

  1. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice E. Avolio

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  2. Equipment qualification testing methodology research at Sandia Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, D.

    1983-01-01

    The Equipment Qualification Research Testing (EQRT) program is an evolutionary outgrowth of the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program at Sandia. The primary emphasis of the program has been qualification methodology research. The EQRT program offers to the industry a research-oriented perspective on qualification-related component performance, as well as refinements to component testing standards which are based upon actual component testing research

  3. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Madeleine J.; Minion, Joel T.; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C.; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W.; Burton, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement i...

  4. Utility of radiotracer methodology in scientific research of industrial relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.

    1990-01-01

    Utilization of radiotracer methodology in industrial research provides substantial scientific rather than directly demonstrable economic benefits. These benefits include better understanding of industrial processes and subsequently the development of new ones. Examples are given of the use of radiotracers in technological studies and the significance of the obtained results is put down. Creative application of radiotracer methodology may contribute to the economic development and technological advancement of all countries including the developing ones. (orig.) [de

  5. Profile of Research Methodology and Statistics Training of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical practitioners need to have knowledge of statistics and research principles, especially with the increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of research methodology and statistics training of undergraduate medical students at South African ...

  6. College Research Methodology Courses: Revisiting General Instructional Goals and Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of graduate (masters-level) students from a wide variety of academic disciplines have viewed a required introductory research methodology course negatively. These students often do not retain much of the previously learned material, thus limiting their success of subsequent research and statistics courses. The purpose of this article is…

  7. Practical Aspects of Research Monitoring: Methodological and Functional Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Onosov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of designing, testing and implementing the National system of monitoring the quality of meteorological services in Russia. Within the framework of this project a large-scale research program was carried out aimed to develop the conception, methodology, research tools and design of customer assessment of the Roshydromet services.

  8. Research Methodologies Explored for a Paradigm Shift in University Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…

  9. An applied methodology for stakeholder identification in transdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leventon, Julia; Fleskens, Luuk; Claringbould, Heleen; Schwilch, Gudrun; Hessel, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel methodology for identifying stakeholders for the purpose of engaging with them in transdisciplinary, sustainability research projects. In transdisciplinary research, it is important to identify a range of stakeholders prior to the problem-focussed stages of

  10. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  11. Methodological decolonization and interculturality. Reflexions from the ethnographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Puentes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explain some methodological crosslinks between the decolonial option, subaltern studies and postcolonial studies. In addition, I highlight certains limitations they present in their ethnographic research. Finally, I suggest some guidelines that could help us carry out a research comprising an extended intercultural horizon

  12. Q methodology for post-social-turn research in SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Irie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Q methodology, an approach to inquiry on the subjective views about a complex phenomenon/issue which has been increasingly employed in a wide range of social science fields has not yet been applied in language learning and teaching research. It is a unique approach that has characteristics of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purpose of the present paper is to introduce Q methodology as an alternative approach and demonstrate its potential to respond to the needs of the field that has been expanding in its epistemological diversity since the social turn (Block, 2003; Ortega, 2012. The relevance of the methodology for SLA research will be discussed with a particular focus on the parallels between the development of the methodology in the 1930s and current criticisms towards the traditional cognitive approach in SLA. Using a published study (Irie & Ryan, 2014, the author explains how the focus on the holistic understanding of subjectivity is built into the procedure. Suggestions for possible areas of research and teaching in which Q methodology could be applied are discussed.

  13. Active learning about research methodology in engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Research methodology and theory of science have become important teaching subjects en engineering education as well as in higher education in general. This is rooted in the transition to a knowledge society. Today, it is argued by many that we are well on the way to an era beyond modernity...... of science if often not favored subjects by engineering students, who tend to find the subjects abstract. Thus, the students are often very engaged in the subjects, nor are textbooks or teaching very engaging. This poster asks how we can promote active learning in research methodology and theory of science...... and the sort of industrial economy that came with it. Whatever else the new era brings – the globalization of risks, environmental problems, new technologies, etc. – knowledge and the ability to seek, produce, apply and transform knowledge is of huge importance. However, research methodology and theory...

  14. Methodology is more than research design and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    The Society for Computers in Psychology has been at the forefront of disseminating information about advances in computer technology and their applications for psychologists. Although technological advances, as well as clean research designs, are key contributors to progress in psychological research, the justification of methodological rules for interpreting data and making theory choices is at least as important. Historically, methodological beliefs and practices have been justified through intuition and logic, an approach known as foundationism. However, naturalism, a modern approach in the philosophy of science inspired by the work of Thomas S. Kuhn, indicates that all aspects of scientific practice, including its methodology, should be evaluated empirically. This article examines implications of the naturalistic approach for psychological research methods in general and for the current debate that is often framed as one of qualitative versus quantitative methods.

  15. Multiple Methodologies: Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Decolonizing Methodologies in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Brent C.; Odoyo, Kenneth O.

    2018-01-01

    In this project, we examined the development of a sustainable inclusive education system in western Kenya by combining community-based participatory research (CBPR) and decolonizing methodologies. Through three cycles of qualitative interviews with stakeholders in inclusive education, participants explained what they saw as foundational components…

  16. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  17. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  18. National soft science research task item-organization and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiming

    2014-01-01

    International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, as the most large-scale science project and research cooperation plan in the human history, has brought together major world-wide scientific and technological achievements in current controlled magnetic confinement fusion research. The project is aiming at validating the scientific and technological feasibility of the peaceful use of fusion energy, laying a science and technology foundation for the realization of the fusion energy commercialization. Promoted by the ITER project, the nuclear fusion frontier science researches and experiments in China have made a deep development, and have made remarkable achievements. Based on this situation, the Fusion Information Division of the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP) has undertaken the soft science research task item -Prediction of Nuclear Fusion Energy Research and Development Technology in China,issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. The research team has gone through these processes such as documentation collection and investigation, documentation reading and refining, outline determination, the first draft writing, content analysis and optimization for the draft, and the internal trial within the research team, review and revise from the experts at SWIP and out of SWIP, evaluation from China International Nuclear Fusion Energy Program Execution Center (ITER China DA), as well as evaluation from the famous experts in domestic fusion community by means of letters and mail. Finally, the research team has completed the research report successfully. In this report, the fusion development strategies of the world's leading fusion research countries and organizations participating in ITER project have been described. Moreover, some comparisons and analysis in this report have been made in order to provide scientific and technological research, analysis base, as well as strategic decision references for exploring medium and long term

  19. Methodological Issues in Survey Research: A Historical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, W.; de Leeuw, E.D.; van der Zouwen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of social surveys and describe the historical development of scientific survey methodology and survey statistics. The origins of survey research can be traced back to the early 19th century and the first scientiflc survey was conducted in England in

  20. A Theoretical and Methodological Evaluation of Leadership Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrook, Velma J.; Lashbrook, William B.

    This paper isolates some of the strengths and weaknesses of leadership research by evaluating it from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. The seven theories or approaches examined are: great man, trait, situational, style, functional, social influence, and interaction positions. General theoretical, conceptual, and measurement…

  1. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.

  2. Para-Quantitative Methodology: Reclaiming Experimentalism in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Varaki, Bakhtiar; Floden, Robert E.; Javidi Kalatehjafarabadi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the criticisms of current approaches in educational research methodology. It summarizes rationales for mixed methods and argues that the mixing quantitative paradigm and qualitative paradigm is problematic due to practical and philosophical arguments. It is also indicated that the current rise of mixed methods work has…

  3. Digital Video as Research Practice: Methodology for the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, Wesley; Duque, Ricardo; Brown, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This essay has its origin in a project on the globalization of science that rediscovered the wisdom of past research practices through the technology of the future. The main argument of this essay is that a convergence of digital video technologies with practices of social surveillance portends a methodological shift towards a new variety of…

  4. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. The SIMRAND methodology: Theory and application for the simulation of research and development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A research and development (R&D) project often involves a number of decisions that must be made concerning which subset of systems or tasks are to be undertaken to achieve the goal of the R&D project. To help in this decision making, SIMRAND (SIMulation of Research ANd Development Projects) is a methodology for the selection of the optimal subset of systems or tasks to be undertaken on an R&D project. Using alternative networks, the SIMRAND methodology models the alternative subsets of systems or tasks under consideration. Each path through an alternative network represents one way of satisfying the project goals. Equations are developed that relate the system or task variables to the measure of reference. Uncertainty is incorporated by treating the variables of the equations probabilistically as random variables, with cumulative distribution functions assessed by technical experts. Analytical techniques of probability theory are used to reduce the complexity of the alternative networks. Cardinal utility functions over the measure of preference are assessed for the decision makers. A run of the SIMRAND Computer I Program combines, in a Monte Carlo simulation model, the network structure, the equations, the cumulative distribution functions, and the utility functions.

  6. A methodological review of qualitative case study methodology in midwifery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchan, Marjorie; Davis, Deborah; Foureur, Maralyn

    2016-10-01

    To explore the use and application of case study research in midwifery. Case study research provides rich data for the analysis of complex issues and interventions in the healthcare disciplines; however, a gap in the midwifery research literature was identified. A methodological review of midwifery case study research using recognized templates, frameworks and reporting guidelines facilitated comprehensive analysis. An electronic database search using the date range January 2005-December 2014: Maternal and Infant Care, CINAHL Plus, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Medline, Health Collection (Informit), Cochrane Library Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Wiley online and ProQuest Central. Narrative evaluation was undertaken. Clearly worded questions reflected the problem and purpose. The application, strengths and limitations of case study methods were identified through a quality appraisal process. The review identified both case study research's applicability to midwifery and its low uptake, especially in clinical studies. Many papers included the necessary criteria to achieve rigour. The included measures of authenticity and methodology were varied. A high standard of authenticity was observed, suggesting authors considered these elements to be routine inclusions. Technical aspects were lacking in many papers, namely a lack of reflexivity and incomplete transparency of processes. This review raises the profile of case study research in midwifery. Midwives will be encouraged to explore if case study research is suitable for their investigation. The raised profile will demonstrate further applicability; encourage support and wider adoption in the midwifery setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The effects of overtime work and task complexity on the performance of nuclear plant operators: A proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Potash, L.

    1985-01-01

    This document presents a very general methodology for determining the effect of overtime work and task complexity on operator performance in response to simulated out-of-limit nuclear plant conditions. The independent variables consist of three levels of overtime work and three levels of task complexity. Multiple dependent performance measures are proposed for use and discussion. Overtime work is operationally defined in terms of the number of hours worked by nuclear plant operators beyond the traditional 8 hours per shift. Task complexity is operationalized in terms of the number of operator tasks required to remedy a given plant anomalous condition and bring the plant back to a ''within limits'' or ''normal'' steady-state condition. The proposed methodology would employ a 2 factor repeated measures design along with the analysis of variance (linear) model

  8. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Smith

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research. Reflection on the external examiners’ reports about whether a research methodology for theoretical research is necessary prompted the writing of this paper. In order to answer the question, the characteristics of theoretical research are clarified and contrasting views regarding the necessity or not of including a research methodology section in such a thesis, are examined. The paper also highlights the justification for including a research methodology in a thesis that reports on theoretical research, investigates the soundness of such justification and finally draws conclusions on the matter.

  9. Research of the tasks on risk communication enforcement (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Isao; Ishizaka, Kaoru; Ohata, Yuki; Fukuike, Iori; Miyagawa, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu

    2017-01-01

    From 1955 to 2001, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) carried out research and development projects related to uranium exploration, mining, refining, conversion and enrichment at/around Ningyo-toge in Japan. Subsequently, JAEA has been carrying out remediation of the uranium mine legacy sites and decommissioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. JAEA has many experiences of communication with local stakeholders from these projects. Among such experiences, management of the waste rock sites became local concern in 1988, 27 years after completion of the exploration. The issue was resolved in 2012 after several efforts. From this experience, it was suggested that the lack of information sharing with local stakeholders and that the inadequate support to stakeholder's requests caused the delay of problem solving. Therefore, sustainable relationship with local stakeholders for over decades is important for JAEA Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. As reference, similar domestic cases were investigated and strategies for risk communication were planned. As follows; (1) Clarify roles and responsibilities of communication staffs for sustainable communicating with local residents. (2) Identify gaps in risk communication knowledge among center and local residents and work toward filling those gaps. (3) Improve the effectiveness of Ningyo-toge center's website and PR-magazines as primary mechanism for communicating with wide stakeholders. (4) Investigate new communication methods for sustainable communicating, such as combination of environmental restoration studies by experts and environmental learning activities by residents. (author)

  10. Six methodological steps to build medical data warehouses for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirbik, N B; Pelletier, C; Chaussalet, T

    2006-09-01

    We propose a simple methodology for heterogeneous data collection and central repository-style database design in healthcare. Our method can be used with or without other software development frameworks, and we argue that its application can save a relevant amount of implementation effort. Also, we believe that the method can be used in other fields of research, especially those that have a strong interdisciplinary nature. The idea emerged during a healthcare research project, which consisted among others in grouping information from heterogeneous and distributed information sources. We developed this methodology by the lessons learned when we had to build a data repository, containing information about elderly patients flows in the UK's long-term care system (LTC). We explain thoroughly those aspects that influenced the methodology building. The methodology is defined by six steps, which can be aligned with various iterative development frameworks. We describe here the alignment of our methodology with the RUP (rational unified process) framework. The methodology emphasizes current trends, as early identification of critical requirements, data modelling, close and timely interaction with users and stakeholders, ontology building, quality management, and exception handling. Of a special interest is the ontological engineering aspect, which had the effects with the highest impact after the project. That is, it helped stakeholders to perform better collaborative negotiations that brought better solutions for the overall system investigated. An insight into the problems faced by others helps to lead the negotiators to win-win situations. We consider that this should be the social result of any project that collects data for better decision making that leads finally to enhanced global outcomes.

  11. Vulnerable participants in health research: methodological and ethical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    , leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  12. Graduate students' teaching experiences improve their methodological research skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F; Peugh, James; Timmerman, Briana E; Maher, Michelle A; Hurst, Melissa; Strickland, Denise; Gilmore, Joanna A; Stiegelmeyer, Cindy

    2011-08-19

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate students are often encouraged to maximize their engagement with supervised research and minimize teaching obligations. However, the process of teaching students engaged in inquiry provides practice in the application of important research skills. Using a performance rubric, we compared the quality of methodological skills demonstrated in written research proposals for two groups of early career graduate students (those with both teaching and research responsibilities and those with only research responsibilities) at the beginning and end of an academic year. After statistically controlling for preexisting differences between groups, students who both taught and conducted research demonstrate significantly greater improvement in their abilities to generate testable hypotheses and design valid experiments. These results indicate that teaching experience can contribute substantially to the improvement of essential research skills.

  13. Researching health inequalities with Community Researchers: practical, methodological and ethical challenges of an 'inclusive' research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Such, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Public health research sometimes uses members of communities as researchers. These are called Community Researchers. The advantage of using Community Researchers is that it enables people who live in communities to participate in research by designing the research, gathering data and being involved in analysis. This 'participatory' approach also has the potential to reach communities that might otherwise not be included in research. There are few studies that report the experiences of Community Researchers who take part in such research. This study helps fill this gap by exploring the issues and challenges faced by Community Researchers involved in a study of health and poverty in ethnically mixed areas of east London, UK. Through the accounts of 12 researchers, the study reveals that being a community 'insider' had advantages: many felt they had been able to gain the trust of respondents and access people for the research that would have otherwise been missed. The role of Community Researcher was, however, difficult to manage with some researchers feeling burdened by their role and the increased knowledge they had about the lives of those in their community. In addition to the personal challenges for the Community Researchers, the findings raise various ethical and methodological issues that need consideration in participatory research. Background Inclusive research approaches are increasingly employed by public health researchers. Recent methodological development includes the engagement of Community Researchers (CRs), who use their knowledge and networks to facilitate research with the community with which they identify. Few studies have explored the experiences of CRs in the research process, an important element of any comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of such research endeavours. We report here on the experiences of CRs engaged in a study of health inequalities and poverty in ethnically diverse and disadvantaged areas of London, UK. Methods We

  14. Emerging Methodologies in Pediatric Palliative Care Research: Six Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Nelson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad focus of pediatric palliative care (PPC on the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of children with potentially life-limiting illnesses and their families, PPC research requires creative methodological approaches. This manuscript, written by experienced PPC researchers, describes issues encountered in our own areas of research and the novel methods we have identified to target them. Specifically, we discuss potential approaches to: assessing symptoms among nonverbal children, evaluating medical interventions, identifying and treating problems related to polypharmacy, addressing missing data in longitudinal studies, evaluating longer-term efficacy of PPC interventions, and monitoring for inequities in PPC service delivery.

  15. Emerging Methodologies in Pediatric Palliative Care Research: Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine E.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rosenberg, Abby R.; Widger, Kimberley; Faerber, Jennifer A.; Feudtner, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Given the broad focus of pediatric palliative care (PPC) on the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of children with potentially life-limiting illnesses and their families, PPC research requires creative methodological approaches. This manuscript, written by experienced PPC researchers, describes issues encountered in our own areas of research and the novel methods we have identified to target them. Specifically, we discuss potential approaches to: assessing symptoms among nonverbal children, evaluating medical interventions, identifying and treating problems related to polypharmacy, addressing missing data in longitudinal studies, evaluating longer-term efficacy of PPC interventions, and monitoring for inequities in PPC service delivery. PMID:29495384

  16. A gamma heating calculation methodology for research reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; David, J.C.; Carcreff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma heating is an important issue in research reactor operation and fuel safety. Heat deposition in irradiation targets and temperature distribution in irradiation facility should be determined so as to obtain the optimal irradiation conditions. This paper presents a recently developed gamma heating calculation methodology and its application on the research reactors. Based on the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code under the continuous-energy option, this new calculation methodology was validated against calorimetric measurements realized within a large ex-core irradiation facility of the 70 MWth OSIRIS materials testing reactor (MTR). The contributions from prompt fission neutrons, prompt fission γ-rays, capture γ-rays and inelastic γ-rays to heat deposition were evaluated by a coupled (n, γ) transport calculation. The fission product decay γ-rays were also considered but the activation γ-rays were neglected in this study. (author)

  17. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  18. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R

    2017-04-04

    Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER

  19. Social Network Analysis as an Analytic Tool for Task Group Research: A Case Study of an Interdisciplinary Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Naorah C.

    2017-01-01

    Group counselors commonly collaborate in interdisciplinary settings in health care, substance abuse, and juvenile justice. Social network analysis is a methodology rarely used in counseling research yet has potential to examine task group dynamics in new ways. This case study explores the scholarly relationships among 36 members of an…

  20. [The grounded theory as a methodological alternative for nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.

  1. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Shah, Nehal; Navaid, Seema

    2018-01-01

    In an era of evidence based medicine research is an essential part of medical profession whether clinical or academic. A research methodology workshop intends to help participants, those who are newer to research field or those who are already doing empirical research. The present study was conducted to assess the changes in knowledge of the participants of a research methodology workshop through a structured questionnaire. With administrative and ethical approval, a four day research methodology workshop was planned. The participants were subjected to a structured questionnaire (pre-test) containing 20 multiple choice questions (Q1-Q 20) related to the topics to be covered in research methodology workshop before the commencement of the workshop and then subjected to similar posttest questionnaire after the completion of workshop. The mean values of pre and post-test scores were calculated and the results were analyzed and compared. Out of the total 153 delegates, 45(29 %) were males and 108 were (71 %) females. 92 (60%) participants consented to fill the pre-test questionnaire and 68 (44%) filled the post-test questionnaire. The mean Pre-test and post-test scores at 95% Confidence Interval were 07.62 (SD ±3.220) and 09.66 (SD ±2.477) respectively. The differences were found to be significant using Paired Sample T test ( P research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  2. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L.; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Hallett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of

  3. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pirio Richardson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including

  4. Tutorials on emerging methodologies and applications in operations research

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Operations Research emerged as a quantitative approach to problem-solving in World War II. Its founders, who were physicists, mathematicians, and engineers, quickly found peace-time uses for this new field. Moreover, we can say that Operations Research (OR) was born in the same incubator as computer science, and through the years, it has spawned many new disciplines, including systems engineering, health care management, and transportation science. Fundamentally, Operations Research crosses discipline domains to seek solutions on a range of problems and benefits diverse disciplines from finance to bioengineering. Many disciplines routinely use OR methods. Many scientific researchers, engineers, and others will find the methodological presentations in this book useful and helpful in their problem-solving efforts. OR’s strengths are modeling, analysis, and algorithm design. It provides a quantitative foundation for a broad spectrum of problems, from economics to medicine, from environmental control to sports,...

  5. A Qualitative Methodology for Minority Language Media Production Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Uribe-Jongbloed PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodological construction for research on small groups of minority media producers, especially those who are involved in multilingual settings. The set of qualitative tools are explained and their advantages and disadvantages explored, based on the literature on the subject. Then, the debate is contrasted with the practical experience of its application with minority language producers, indigenous and ethnic radio broadcasters in Colombia and audiovisual producers in Wales. The reflection upon the results leads to a final discussion that brings the adjustments required to increase the advantages and diminish the disadvantages of the proposed combined three-step methodology of an interview to the double (ITTD, a day of participant observation, and a final lengthier semi-structured interview.

  6. Research methodology and epidemiology of relevance in recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    With respect to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), unfortunately there is very little consensus about which investigations are useful for identifying causes and evaluating the prognosis, and also about which treatments are effective. In this review, arguments are given for the claim that this lack...... background for most of the RPL cases and the importance of matching/adjusting for a series of prognostic variables when groups are mutually compared). Furthermore, many studies in RPL contain methodological flaws that are sometimes severe. A series of important epidemiological features of RPL is highlighted...... in the review and the most important methodological pitfalls, many of them specific for RPL research, are discussed. Advice is given about to how to avoid the pitfalls in order that the validity of the studies can improve for the benefit of the patients....

  7. Cognitive structure, flexibility, and plasticity in human multitasking-An integrative review of dual-task and task-switching research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Poljac, Edita; Müller, Hermann; Kiesel, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Numerous studies showed decreased performance in situations that require multiple tasks or actions relative to appropriate control conditions. Because humans often engage in such multitasking activities, it is important to understand how multitasking affects performance. In the present article, we argue that research on dual-task interference and sequential task switching has proceeded largely separately using different experimental paradigms and methodology. In our article we aim at organizing this complex set of research in terms of three complementary research perspectives on human multitasking. One perspective refers to structural accounts in terms of cognitive bottlenecks (i.e., critical processing stages). A second perspective refers to cognitive flexibility in terms of the underlying cognitive control processes. A third perspective emphasizes cognitive plasticity in terms of the influence of practice on human multitasking abilities. With our review article we aimed at highlighting the value of an integrative position that goes beyond isolated consideration of a single theoretical research perspective and that broadens the focus from single experimental paradigms (dual task and task switching) to favor instead a view that emphasizes the fundamental similarity of the underlying cognitive mechanisms across multitasking paradigms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Design Process-System and Methodology of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashier, Fathi

    2017-10-01

    Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.

  9. Offsetting deficit conceptualisations: methodological considerations for higher education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Coleman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the current introspection in the academic development community that critiques the persistent conceptualisations of students as deficient. Deficit discourses are also implicated in many of the student support, curriculum and pedagogic initiatives employed across the higher education sector. The argument developed here, unlike most of the existing debates which focus on pedagogic or institutional initiatives, explores how the research interests and methodological choices of academic developers and researchers could incorporate sensitivity against deficit conceptions and foster more contextualised accounts of students and their learning. This article uses an ethnographic study into the assignment practices of vocational higher education students to show how certain methodological and theoretical choices engender anti-deficit conceptualisations. The study’s analytic framework uses the concepts of literacy practices and knowledge recontextualisation to place analytic attention on both the students’ assignment practices and the influence of curriculum decision making on such practices. The significance of this dual focus is its ability to capture the complexity of students’ meaning-making during assignment production, without remaining silent about the structuring influence of the curriculum. I argue in this paper that the focus on both students and curriculum is able to offer contextualised accounts of students’ interpretations and enacted experiences of their assessment and curriculum environment. Exploring the multidimensional nature of student learning experiences in ways that accommodate the influence of various contextual realities brings researchers and their research agendas closer to offsetting deficit conceptualisation.

  10. Is mindfulness research methodology improving over time? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon B Goldberg

    Full Text Available Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality.The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT analyses.We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies.Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment.Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples.Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area, an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses.Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are

  11. CONCERNING CORRELATION BETWEEN METHODOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY IN PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the continuation of a cycle of the methodological articles, called to help work of young researchers.The general dissatisfaction with quality and results of research work in an education sphere and pedagogics has been largely caused not only insufficient level of methodological culture of competitors of scientific degrees and researchers-experts, but also their inability to choose a work technology of procedure of research that will be adequate to the purposes, problems and a plan of it. The present article is also devoted to this problem.Methods. The methods of the analysis, synthesis, idealisation, generalisation of author’s experience, a concrete definition and modelling are used.Results and scientific novelty. The general technology of scientific search in an education sphere is presented; the technology is developed on the basis of long-term experience of the Tyumen scientific and pedagogical school, and justified in practice. The author doesn’t take into consideration the rigid technology of algorithmic type which is hardly useful in works of creative character; but in the present case – frame technology that defines the expedient organisation, sequence of stages of work and its corresponding maintenance. The following technology components are described: self-determination of the researcher or research group on the basis of creation and the statement of the developed project of all procedures of search; statement of questions on initial allocation of the problem conducting ideas, a plan-way of its realisation; project performance, its ascertaining and a reformative part, research procedures (the basic stage; summarising, generalisation of the research performed, a writing of the text of report documents, preparation of total publications. Examples of typical errors of the young scientists who do not own the technology of scientific activity are given.Practical significance. Proposed recommendations stated

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha ANGELOSKA-GALEVSKA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the text is to point out the developmental tendencies in the research methodology of special education and rehabilitation worldwide and in our country and to emphasize the importance of methodological training of students in special education and rehabilitation at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje.The achieved scientific knowledge through research is the fundamental pre-condition for development of special education and rehabilitation theory and practice. The results of the scientific work sometimes cause small, insignificant changes, but, at times, they make radical changes. Thank to the scientific researches and knowledge, certain prejudices were rejected. For example, in the sixth decade of the last century there was a strong prejudice that mentally retarded children should be segregated from the society as aggressive and unfriendly ones or the deaf children should not learn sign language because they would not be motivated to learn lip-reading and would hardly adapt. Piaget and his colleagues from Geneva institute were the pioneers in researching this field and they imposed their belief that handicapped children were not handicapped in each field and they had potentials that could be developed and improved by systematic and organized work. It is important to initiate further researches in the field of special education and rehabilitation, as well as a critical analysis of realized researches. Further development of the scientific research in special education and rehabilitation should be a base for education policy on people with disabilities and development of institutional and non-institutional treatment of this population.

  13. Task to Training Matrix Design for Decommissioning Engineer on the basis of Systematic Approach to Training Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jeong Keun [KHNP, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In nuclear history, before Chernobyl Accident, Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident was the severest accident. For this reason, to resolve the disclosed or potential possibilities of nuclear accident, more than one hundred countermeasures were proposed by United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Among various recommendations by USNRC, one suggestion was related to training aspect. It was Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) and this event was the initiation of SAT methodology in the world. In Korea, upcoming June 2017, Kori Unit-1 NPP is scheduled to be shut down and it will experience NPP decommissioning for the first time. Present study aims to establish concrete training foundation for NPP decommissioning engineers based on Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) methodology, in particular, Task to Training Matrix (TTM). The objective of this paper is to organize TTM on the basis of SAT for NPP decommissioning engineer. For this reason, eighteen tasks are yielded through Job and Task Analysis (JTA) process. After that, for the settlement of Task to Training Matrix (TTM), various data are determined such as element, condition, standard, knowledge and skill, learning objective and training setting. When it comes to training in nuclear industry, SAT methodology has been the unwavering principle in Korea since NPPs export to UAE.

  14. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  15. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  16. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  17. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  18. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  19. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  20. Intellectual potential of population: theoretical and methodological framework for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological

  1. [Archaeology and genealogy as methodological options of nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; Ramos, Flavia Regina Souza

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on the historical contextualization about the development of research in nursing, presents the categories/lines of interest that support the human knowledge applied in the Doctorate Thesis in Nursing in Brazil, points out the archeological and genealogical methods proposed by Michel Foucault, and their possibility to make more difficult the day-to-day tasks of the nursing profession Whether in Institutions, Public Policies, Health Reform, and Vocational Training, in the attempt to understand which strategies, challenges, knowledge base, and practices have influenced the building of the subjects.

  2. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis: An Appropriate Methodology for Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward John Noon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA is a contemporary qualitative methodology, first developed by psychologist Jonathan Smith (1996. Whilst its roots are in psychology, it is increasingly being drawn upon by scholars in the human, social and health sciences (Charlick, Pincombe, McKellar, & Fielder, 2016. Despite this, IPA has received limited attention across educationalist literature. Drawing upon my experiences of using IPA to explore the barriers to the use of humour in the teaching of Childhood Studies (Noon, 2017, this paper will discuss its theoretical orientation, sampling and methods of data collection and analysis, before examining the strengths and weaknesses to IPA’s employment in educational research.

  3. Study on the methodology for predicting and preventing errors to improve reliability of maintenance task in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Iwaki, Toshio; Embrey, D.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and effective methodology for predicting and preventing errors in nuclear power plant maintenance tasks. A method was established by which chief maintenance personnel can predict and reduce errors when reviewing the maintenance procedures and while referring to maintenance supporting systems and methods in other industries including aviation and chemical plant industries. The method involves the following seven steps: 1. Identification of maintenance tasks. 2. Specification of important tasks affecting safety. 3. Assessment of human errors occurring during important tasks. 4. Identification of Performance Degrading Factors. 5. Dividing important tasks into sub-tasks. 6. Extraction of errors using Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA). 7. Development of strategies for reducing errors and for recovering from errors. By way of a trial, this method was applied to the pump maintenance procedure in nuclear power plants. This method is believed to be capable of identifying the expected errors in important tasks and supporting the development of error reduction measures. By applying this method, the number of accidents resulting form human errors during maintenance can be reduced. Moreover, the maintenance support base using computers was developed. (author)

  4. Decolonising Research and Teaching Methodologies: A "Ninth Moment" Symphony of Artist-Educator-Researcher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janice K.; Batorowicz, Beata; Ladislas Derr, Robert; Peters, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In an era of globalisation, positivist research methodologies and voices are privileged and funded over those of qualitative researchers. This has led to narrowing beliefs about what constitutes knowledge, and about the ways in which knowledge is constructed and evaluated, impacting upon the conduct, funding and reporting of arts research, and…

  5. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Juliana; Small, Rosalie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research.…

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Methodology: Researcher's Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngozwana, Nomazulu

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative research methodology. These dilemmas concern the issues of withdrawal from the study, anonymity and confidentiality, which are discussed. Each aspect examines how it was dealt with using the researcher's reflections. The research was positioned within an interpretive…

  7. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...... of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. CONCLUSIONS: This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy...

  8. Accounting Research Methodology Textbook Development to Provide College Students in Accounting Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Muchson, Mochamad

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lackness of a research accounting methodology book (accounting research methodology) causing difficulties for college students to understand the steps of research in accounting, so that's the textbook is needed to completing Accounting Research Methodology book that has been exist and aimed to guide students for proposal composing or accounting research report so that it is easier to study by students.This textbook contains of accounting research methodology definition, accounting ...

  9. GPS Technology and Human Psychological Research: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. A. Wolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74

  10. Towards a cognitive robotics methodology for reward-based decision-making: dynamical systems modelling of the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2010-09-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism's welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the 'A-not-B' task - already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.

  11. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research.

  12. METHODOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF RURAL ECONOMY RESEARCH FROM NEORURALISM STANDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kutsmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to summarize the existing theoretical and methodological approaches to understanding the essence of the notion ‘rural economics’ and to reason that multifunctionality is a precondition of stable development. The methodology of research is based on a systematic approach, according to which rural economics is considered to be an open type of social and economic system that transforms exogenous and endogenous potential of rural territories into a certain level of rural development. The methodology of rural economic development is based on the following methodological approaches: economic, ecological, social and institutional, each one of which completes the idea of interdependence of rural economics and its territorial basis, i.e. rural area. The subject of study is a scientific-theoretical and applied principles of rural economy development. The results of the study demonstrate that agro-centric model of rural economics, the development of which focuses on formation and support of goods safety, is being displaced by multifunctional model in conditions of strengthening of human-centric priorities of the social development. Contents of this model lies in the perception of the rural economy as a diversified, multifunctional socio-economic system, whose development aimed at the welfare of the rural population. As the goal of rural economies is ensuring high welfare standards of the rural population, providing interconnection problems in the functioning of the system of rural development policy. It’s proved that the sustainable development of the rural economy it provides for the implementation of the set of economic and socially important function that displays the development of socio-economic system beyond the actual production and contributes to its focus on material and non-material welfare of the rural population. Qualitative changes in the properties of the rural economy aiming at self-development and self

  13. Academic Users' Information Searching on Research Topics: Characteristics of Research Tasks and Search Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…

  14. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...... symptoms and concomitant medication. Task force recommendations are to: (i) enrich trials with objectively measured cognitively impaired patients; (ii) generally select a broad cognitive composite score as the primary outcome and a functional measure as a key secondary outcome; and (iii) include remitted...... of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. CONCLUSIONS: This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy...

  15. Culturally Competent Social Work Research: Methodological Considerations for Research with Language Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Negi, Nalini Junko; Hong, Michin

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of language minorities, foreign-born individuals with limited English proficiency, this population has been largely left out of social work research, often due to methodological challenges involved in conducting research with this population. Whereas the professional standard calls for cultural competence, a discussion…

  16. A Design Science Research Methodology for Expert Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jahan Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of design science research (DSR can have applications for improving expert systems (ES development research. Although significant progress of utilising DSR has been observed in particular information systems design – such as decision support systems (DSS studies – only rare attempts can be found in the ES design literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the use of DSR for ES design. First, we explore the ES development literature to reveal the presence of DSR as a research methodology. For this, we select relevant literature criteria and apply a qualitative content analysis in order to generate themes inductively to match the DSR components. Second, utilising the findings of the comparison, we determine a new DSR approach for designing a specific ES that is guided by another result – the findings of a content analysis of examination scripts in Mathematics. The specific ES artefact for a case demonstration is designed for addressing the requirement of a ‘wicked’ problem in that the key purpose is to assist human assessors when evaluating multi-step question (MSQ solutions. It is anticipated that the proposed design knowledge, in terms of both problem class and functions of ES artefacts, will help ES designers and researchers to address similar issues for designing information system solutions.

  17. Prof. Richard Mattessich at 95. His Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Galassi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is presented as a tribute to prof. Richard Mattessich. It is written “through the eyes” of a researcher who has worked closely with him over a period of 42 years, starting attending his courses of “Income Determination Theory” and “Research Methodology” at the University of British Columbia in 1975. Among his huge scientific research and publications, I intend to underline these three major contributions: (i Accounting metrics and other mathematical instruments which anticipated computer spreadsheet by 30 years; (ii. The preparation of accountants for information economics by means of analytical methods; and (iii The proposition of the “onion model of reality” to distinguish different Kind of reality. Este trabajo se presenta como un tributo al profesor Richard Mattessich. Está escrito “con los ojos” de un investigador que ha trabajado estrechamente con él durante un período de 42 años, comenzando a asistir a sus cursos de " Income Determination Theory" y "Research Methodology" en la Universidad de British Columbia en 1975. Entre su investigación y publicaciones, más importantes pretendo subrayar estas tres contribuciones principales: (i Accounting metrics and other mathematical instruments which anticipated computer spreadsheet by 30 years; (ii The preparation of accountants for information economics by means of analytical methods; y (iii The proposition of the “onion model of reality” to distinguish different Kind of reality.

  18. Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E

    2014-09-01

    Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on Mathematics Teachers as Partners in Task Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Keith; Pepin, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical tasks and tools, including tasks in the form of digital tools, are key resources in mathematics teaching and in mathematics teacher education. Even so, the "design" of mathematical tasks is perceived in different ways: sometimes seen as something distinct from the teaching and learning process, and sometimes as integral to…

  20. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  1. A Methodological Approach for Researching National Classroom Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yew Tee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little continues to be known about what actually happens in classrooms, particularly from a national perspective. Descriptions of classroom practices from a national vantage point can provide a bird's eye view of salient patterns and variations within an education system, especially one as centralised as that of Malaysia. With these descriptions, especially if the primary data consists of video recordings, one can also begin to compare movements in classroom practices across time and space; theorise about the nature of practice within the system as well as inform policy deliberations. This paper examines key methodological decisions of conducting a national study to research classroom educational practice within Malaysia's public school system. The case is made for the use of such studies to gain a bird's eye perspective of classroom practices in a national system as well as to lay the foundations for inter-system comparisons. Potential implications and opportunities of these types of studies are also discussed.

  2. 76 FR 40379 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... Collection Title: Study Logistics Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... national longitudinal study of environmental influences (including physical, chemical, biological, and...

  3. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Paunksnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  4. Methodological Approach Into Researching Traffic Under Extraordinary Security Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Anthony Ercegovac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of researching traffic under extraordinaryconditions in order to implement a more efficient and functionaltraffic management strategy under both normal and irregularconditions- as well as the grey zone of when the changefrom normal into extraordinary traffic conditions actually occur-provides the researcher with numerous methodologicalproblems.Starting from the viewpoint that the field of traffic scienceneeds an increase into the capacity of research into traffic underextraordinary conditions we have chosen to define withinthis article a specific methodological approach that undertakesa study into the exposure, menace, threat and risk faced by trafficsystems under extraordinary conditions through utilisingmethods utilised by the military that allow for the possible resolutionof such problems through compatible testing of both simulatedand real life conditions that such systems may face.In searching for possible applicable solutions to such demandingparametres we believe that the use of concrete informationin real time and real space in order to bring about amore efficient functioning of traffic under extraordinary conditionscan be achieved through the use of the analytical capacityof traffic systems information gathering attained through theusage of Uninhabited Flying Vehicles (UFVs in monitoringroad, rail and maritime traffic and transport.

  5. Online Public Access Catalog User Studies: A Review of Research Methodologies, March 1986-November 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Review of research methodologies used in studies of online public access catalog (OPAC) users finds that a variety of research methodologies--e.g., surveys, transaction log analysis, interviews--have been used with varying degrees of expertise. It is concluded that poor research methodology resulting from limited training and resources limits the…

  6. Impact of the Surgical Research Methodology Program on surgical residents' research profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhyar, Forough; Amin, Nalin; Dath, Deepak; Bhandari, Mohit; Kelly, Stephan; Kolkin, Ann M; Gill-Pottruff, Catherine; Skot, Martina; Reid, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether implementing the formal Surgical Research Methodology (SRM) Program in the surgical residency curriculum improved research productivity compared with the preceding informal Research Seminar Series (RSS). The SRM Program replaced the RSS in July 2009. In the SRM Program, the curriculum in Year-1 consisted of 12 teaching sessions on the principles of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, whereas the focus in Year-2 was on the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. The RSS consisted of 8 research methodology sessions repeated annually for 2 years along with the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. Research productivity was measured as the number of peer-reviewed publications and the generation of studies with higher levels of evidence. Outcome measures were independently assessed by 2 authors to avoid bias. Student t test and chi-square test were used for the analysis. Frequencies, mean differences with 95% CI, and effect sizes have been reported. In this study, 81 SRM residents were compared with 126 RSS residents. The performance of the SRM residents was superior on all metrics in our evaluation. They were significantly more productive and published more articles than the RSS residents (mean difference = 1.0 [95% CI: 0.5-1.5], p research performance improved 11.0 grades (95% CI: 8.5%-13.5%, p research methodology is crucial to appropriately apply evidence-based findings in clinical practice. The SRM Program has significantly improved the research productivity and performance of the surgical residents from all disciplines. The implementation of a similar research methodology program is highly recommended for the benefit of residents' future careers and ultimately, evidence-based patient care. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Research Network of Tehran Defined Population: Methodology and Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.

  8. The use and misuse of statistical methodologies in pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Descriptive, exploratory, and inferential statistics are necessary components of hypothesis-driven biomedical research. Despite the ubiquitous need for these tools, the emphasis on statistical methods in pharmacology has become dominated by inferential methods often chosen more by the availability of user-friendly software than by any understanding of the data set or the critical assumptions of the statistical tests. Such frank misuse of statistical methodology and the quest to reach the mystical αstatistical training. Perhaps more critically, a poor understanding of statistical tools limits the conclusions that may be drawn from a study by divorcing the investigator from their own data. The net result is a decrease in quality and confidence in research findings, fueling recent controversies over the reproducibility of high profile findings and effects that appear to diminish over time. The recent development of "omics" approaches leading to the production of massive higher dimensional data sets has amplified these issues making it clear that new approaches are needed to appropriately and effectively mine this type of data. Unfortunately, statistical education in the field has not kept pace. This commentary provides a foundation for an intuitive understanding of statistics that fosters an exploratory approach and an appreciation for the assumptions of various statistical tests that hopefully will increase the correct use of statistics, the application of exploratory data analysis, and the use of statistical study design, with the goal of increasing reproducibility and confidence in the literature. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Some methodological issues in neuroradiological research in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Retz, W.; Hofmann, E.; Becker, G.; Teichmann, E.; Gsell, W.

    1995-01-01

    An outline is given of some of the methodological issues discussed in neuroradiological research on psychiatric illnesses. The strengths and shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in depicting and quantifying brain structures are described. Temporal lobe anatomy and pathology are easily accessible to MRI, whereas limits on anatomical delineation hamper approaches to frontal lobe study. White matter hyperintense lesions are sensitively depicted by MRI, but specificity is limited. The distinction of vascular and primary degenerative dementia is considerably improved by CT and MRI analysis. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI have enhanced the understanding of treatable organic psychiatric disorders, e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus. Subcortical and white matter pathology has been replicated in CT and MRI studies of late onset psychiatric disorders, clinical overlap with cerebrovascular disease or neuro degeneration may be of import. Trans cranial sonography findings of brainstem structural change specific to unipolar depression may contribute to the understanding of affective psychoses. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are likely to stimulate psychiatric research in the future. (author)

  10. Report of the NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:26388962

  11. REPORT OF THE NIH TASK FORCE ON RESEARCH STANDARDS FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:24787228

  12. A human error analysis methodology, AGAPE-ET, for emergency tasks in nuclear power plants and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This report presents a procedurised human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology, AGAPE-ET (A Guidance And Procedure for Human Error Analysis for Emergency Tasks), for both qualitative error analysis and quantification of human error probability (HEP) of emergency tasks in nuclear power plants. The AGAPE-ET is based on the simplified cognitive model. By each cognitive function, error causes or error-likely situations have been identified considering the characteristics of the performance of each cognitive function and influencing mechanism of PIFs on the cognitive function. Then, error analysis items have been determined from the identified error causes or error-likely situations to help the analysts cue or guide overall human error analysis. A human error analysis procedure based on the error analysis items is organised. The basic scheme for the quantification of HEP consists in the multiplication of the BHEP assigned by the error analysis item and the weight from the influencing factors decision tree (IFDT) constituted by cognitive function. The method can be characterised by the structured identification of the weak points of the task required to perform and the efficient analysis process that the analysts have only to carry out with the necessary cognitive functions. The report also presents the the application of AFAPE-ET to 31 nuclear emergency tasks and its results. 42 refs., 7 figs., 36 tabs. (Author)

  13. A Novel Methodology for the Simulation of Athletic Tasks on Cadaveric Knee Joints with Respect to In Vivo Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Nesbitt, Rebecca J.; Shearn, Jason T.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Six degree of freedom (6-DOF) robotic manipulators have simulated clinical tests and gait on cadaveric knees to examine knee biomechanics. However, these activities do not necessarily emulate the kinematics and kinetics that lead to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The purpose of this study was to determine the techniques needed to derive reproducible, in vitro simulations from in vivo skin-marker kinematics recorded during simulated athletic tasks. Input of raw, in vivo, skin-marker-derived motion capture kinematics consistently resulted in specimen failure. The protocol described in this study developed an in-depth methodology to adapt in vivo kinematic recordings into 6-DOF knee motion simulations for drop vertical jumps and sidestep cutting. Our simulation method repeatably produced kinetics consistent with vertical ground reaction patterns while preserving specimen integrity. Athletic task simulation represents an advancement that allows investigators to examine ACL-intact and graft biomechanics during motions that generate greater kinetics, and the athletic tasks are more representative of documented cases of ligament rupture. Establishment of baseline functional mechanics within the knee joint during athletic tasks will serve to advance the prevention, repair and rehabilitation of ACL injuries. PMID:25869454

  14. Scientific Merit Review of Directed Research Tasks Within the NASA Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Human Research Program is instrumental in developing and delivering research findings, health countermeasures, and human systems technologies for spacecraft. :HRP is subdivided into 6 research entities, or Elements. Each Element is charged with providing the Program with knowledge and capabilities to conduct research to address the human health and performance risks as well as advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures. Project: An Element may be further subdivided into Projects, which are defined as an integrated set of tasks undertaken to deliver a product or set of products

  15. Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency and Lexis in Task-Based Performance: A Synthesis of the Ealing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter; Foster, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will present a research synthesis of a series of studies, termed here the Ealing research. The studies use the same general framework to conceptualise tasks and task performance, enabling easier comparability. The different studies, although each is self-contained, build into a wider picture of task performance. The major point of…

  16. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  17. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT OF REGIONAL NETWORK ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Botkin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information practically of all the Russian regions economy branches and development by managing subjects is information − communicative the Internet technologies render huge influence on economic attitudes development in the environment of regional business: there are new forms of interaction of managing subjects and change is information − organizational structures of regional business management. Integrated image of the set forth above innovations is the regional network economy representing the interactive environment in which on high speed and with minimal transaction (R.H.Coase’s costs are performed social economic and commodity monetary attitudes between managing subjects of region with use of Internet global network interactive opportunities. The urgency of the regional network economy phenomenon research, first of all, is caused by necessity of a substantiation of regional network economy methodology development and management mechanisms development by its infrastructure with the purpose of regional business efficiency increase. In our opinion, the decision of these problems will be the defining factor of effective economic development maintenance and russian regions economy growth in the near future.

  18. Using a Realist Research Methodology in Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, Megan; Rata, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the usefulness of a realist methodology in linking sociological theory to empirically obtained data through the development of a methodological device. Three layers of analysis were integrated: 1. the findings from a case study about Maori language education in New Zealand; 2. the identification and analysis of contradictions…

  19. Political Transformation and Research Methodology in Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between political change and epistemologies and methodologies employed at doctorate level. It does so by analysing the range of topics, questions and methodologies used by doctoral students at the University of Pretoria's Faculty of Education between 1985 and 2005--a time-frame that covers the decade before and…

  20. Applications of hydrogeological modelling methodology using NAMMU and CONNECTFLOW. Task 1, 2, 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Hartley, Lee; Holton, David

    2004-11-01

    It is planned to store spent nuclear fuel at depth in crystalline rock in Sweden. Site investigations are carried out to confirm if the suggested sites are appropriate. Modelling of groundwater flow and transport may be used to aid the site investigation and is also an important part of the safety assessment of a site. A good design of the repository will enhance the safety. To support the site investigation phase and the design of underground repositories four tasks have been performed. These tasks are all related to the CONNECTFLOW groundwater flow modelling concept. CONNECTFLOW is a suite of software that includes: the continuum porous medium (CPM) concept as implemented in NAMMU, the discrete fracture network (DFN) concept as implemented in NAPSAC, the ability to nest these two representations into a single combined model. As an integrated suite of hydrogeological modelling tools CONNECTFLOW offers several benefits: the ability to nest different scales of the model from the canister-scale to the regional scale to resolve detailed flow behaviour around the waste packages in the context of the overall hydrogeological situation at a site, nesting is flexible as embedded fine-scale CPM regions can be nested within coarser CPM models, multiple DFN regions can be nested inside CPM models, and CPM models can be nested within DFN models, nesting of regions is precise in that the system is solved in a single step with equations at the interface between nested regions that ensure both continuity of pressure and conservation of mass flux between the regions. This ensures a flux-balance between the two-scales, and hence offers greater consistency than two-step nesting or only implementing pressure continuity, the ability to upscale DFN models to obtain the equivalent CPM properties on a variety of scales ensures that the modeler can move between DFN and SC concepts easily in a self-consistent way. The aim of the current tasks is to demonstrate and test the CONNECTFLOW

  1. De/colonizing methodologies in science education: rebraiding research theory-practice-ethics with Indigenous theories and theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Marc; Kim, Eun-Ji Amy

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentially engage in the work of thinking with Indigenous theorists and theories with decolonizing science education research methodologies in mind. As a rejoinder to Tracey McMahon, Emily Griese, and DenYelle Baete Kenyon's Cultivating Native American scientists: An application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience, we extend the notion of educationally centering Indigenous processes, pedagogies, and protocols by considering methodology a site in which (neo-)colonial logics often linger. We suggest that (re)designing methodology with Indigenous theorists and theories is an important act of resistance, refusal, and resignification; we demonstrate this significance through braiding together narratives of our engagement in this task and provide insights as to what is produced or producible.

  2. Clinical judgment research on economic topics: Role of congruence of tasks in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttin, Christine C

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses what can ensure the performance of judgment studies with an information design that integrates economics of medical systems, in the context of digitalization of healthcare. It is part of a series of 5 methodological papers on statistical procedures and problems to implement judgment research designs and decision models, especially to address cost of care, and ways to measure conversation on cost of care between physicians and patients, with unstructured data such as economic narratives to complement billing and financial information (e.g. cost cognitive cues in conjoint or reversed conjoint designs). The paper discusses how congruence of tasks can increase the reliability of data. It uses some results of two Meta reviews of judgment studies in different fields of applications: psychology, business, medical sciences and education. It compares tests for congruence in judgment studies and efficiency tests in econometric studies.

  3. Attentional bias modification based on visual probe task: methodological issues, results and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attentional bias, the tendency that a person has to drive or maintain attention to a specific class of stimuli, may play an important role in the etiology and persistence of mental disorders. Attentional bias modification has been studied as a form of additional treatment related to automatic processing. Objectives: This systematic literature review compared and discussed methods, evidence of success and potential clinical applications of studies about attentional bias modification (ABM using a visual probe task. Methods: The Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the keywords attentional bias modification, attentional bias manipulation and attentional bias training. We selected empirical studies about ABM training using a visual probe task written in English and published between 2002 and 2014. Results: Fifty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most (78% succeeded in training attention in the predicted direction, and in 71% results were generalized to other measures correlated with the symptoms. Conclusions: ABM has potential clinical utility, but to standardize methods and maximize applicability, future studies should include clinical samples and be based on findings of studies about its effectiveness.

  4. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  5. Theory and Methodology in Researching Emotions in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Differing theoretical approaches to the study of emotions are presented: emotions as private (psychodynamic approaches); emotions as sociocultural phenomena (social constructionist approaches); and a third perspective (interactionist approaches) transcending these two. These approaches have important methodological implications in studying…

  6. Researching virtual worlds methodologies for studying emergent practices

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a wide range of methodological strategies that are designed to take into account the complex, emergent, and continually shifting character of virtual worlds. It interrogates how virtual worlds emerge as objects of study through the development and application of various methodological strategies. Virtual worlds are not considered objects that exist as entities with fixed attributes independent of our continuous engagement with them and interpretation of them. Instead, they are conceived of as complex ensembles of technology, humans, symbols, discourses, and economic structures, ensembles that emerge in ongoing practices and specific situations. A broad spectrum of perspectives and methodologies is presented: Actor-Network-Theory and post-Actor-Network-Theory, performativity theory, ethnography, discourse analysis, Sense-Making Methodology, visual ethnography, multi-sited ethnography, and Social Network Analysis.

  7. On the use of visual methodologies in educational policy research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodological and policy implications that could be applied to a variety of ... approach involves the analysis of images, including the context, content, and .... to govern, modern states have participated in shaping and handling the behaviour of ...

  8. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  9. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  10. Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L.; Lau, A. S.

    1981-11-13

    A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)

  11. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  12. Ensuring VGI Credibility in Urban-Community Data Generation: A Methodological Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the methodological development of current research into urban community formations based on combinations of qualitative (volunteered and quantitative (spatial analytical and geo-statistical data. We outline a research design that addresses problems of data quality relating to credibility in volunteered geographic information (VGI intended for Web-enabled participatory planning. Here we have drawn on a dual notion of credibility in VGI data, and propose a methodological workflow to address its criteria. We propose a ‘super-positional’ model of urban community formations, and report on the combination of quantitative and participatory methods employed to underpin its integration. The objective of this methodological phase of study is to enhance confidence in the quality of data for Web-enabled participatory planning. Our participatory method has been supported by rigorous quantification of area characteristics, including participant communities’ demographic and socio-economic contexts. This participatory method provided participants with a ready and accessible format for observing and mark-making, which allowed the investigators to iterate rapidly a system design based on participants’ responses to the workshop tasks. Participatory workshops have involved secondary school-age children in socio-economically contrasting areas of Liverpool (Merseyside, UK, which offers a test-bed for comparing communities’ formations in comparative contexts, while bringing an under-represented section of the population into a planning domain, whose experience may stem from public and non-motorised transport modalities. Data has been gathered through one-day participatory workshops, featuring questionnaire surveys, local site analysis, perception mapping and brief, textual descriptions. This innovative approach will support Web-based participation among stakeholding planners, who may benefit from well-structured, community

  13. Heuristic Task Analysis on E-Learning Course Development: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing heuristic task analysis (HTA), a method developed for eliciting, analyzing, and representing expertise in complex cognitive tasks, a formative research study was conducted on the task of e-learning course development to further improve the HTA process. Three instructional designers from three different post-secondary institutions in the…

  14. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project: a methodology to promote rigorous evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Stanick, Cameo F; Martinez, Ruben G; Weiner, Bryan J; Kim, Mimi; Barwick, Melanie; Comtois, Katherine A

    2015-01-08

    Identification of psychometrically strong instruments for the field of implementation science is a high priority underscored in a recent National Institutes of Health working meeting (October 2013). Existing instrument reviews are limited in scope, methods, and findings. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project's objectives address these limitations by identifying and applying a unique methodology to conduct a systematic and comprehensive review of quantitative instruments assessing constructs delineated in two of the field's most widely used frameworks, adopt a systematic search process (using standard search strings), and engage an international team of experts to assess the full range of psychometric criteria (reliability, construct and criterion validity). Although this work focuses on implementation of psychosocial interventions in mental health and health-care settings, the methodology and results will likely be useful across a broad spectrum of settings. This effort has culminated in a centralized online open-access repository of instruments depicting graphical head-to-head comparisons of their psychometric properties. This article describes the methodology and preliminary outcomes. The seven stages of the review, synthesis, and evaluation methodology include (1) setting the scope for the review, (2) identifying frameworks to organize and complete the review, (3) generating a search protocol for the literature review of constructs, (4) literature review of specific instruments, (5) development of an evidence-based assessment rating criteria, (6) data extraction and rating instrument quality by a task force of implementation experts to inform knowledge synthesis, and (7) the creation of a website repository. To date, this multi-faceted and collaborative search and synthesis methodology has identified over 420 instruments related to 34 constructs (total 48 including subconstructs) that are relevant to implementation

  15. Systematically Tabulated Outcomes Research Matrix (STORM): a methodology to generate research hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Joseph G; Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Haut, Elliott R; Cornwell, Edward E; Haider, Adil H

    2014-03-01

    Here we describe the Systematically Tabulated Outcomes Research Matrix (STORM) method to generate research questions from pre-existing databases with the aim of improving patient outcomes. STORM can be applied to a database by tabulating its variables into a matrix of independent variables (y-axis) and dependent variables (x-axis) and then applying each unique pairing of an independent and dependent variable to a patient population to generate potentially meaningful research questions. To demonstrate this methodology and establish proof-of-principle, STORM was applied on a small scale to the National Trauma Data Bank and generated at least seven clinically meaningful research questions. When coupled with rigorous clinical judgment, the STORM approach complements the traditional method of hypothesis formation and can be generalized to outcomes research using registry databases across different medical specialties. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, J.; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2016-01-01

    the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD...

  17. Solar Energy Research and Education Foundation. Final reports by task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Reis, K.; Waegel, A.S.; Totten, M.

    1997-12-10

    This document contains final reports for the following tasks: kiosk for the children`s museum renewable energy exhibit and display, internet promotional and educational material, Aurora renewable energy science and engineering, CD-ROM training materials, presentations and traveling display, radio show `Energy Matters`, and newspaper articles and weekly news column.

  18. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and

  19. Critical Race Design: An Emerging Methodological Approach to Anti-Racist Design and Implementation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Deena; Kier, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    This article is about introducing Critical Race Design (CRD), a research methodology that centers race and equity at the nucleus of educational opportunities by design. First, the authors define design-based implementation research (DBIR; Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, & Sabelli, 2011) as an equity-oriented education research methodology where…

  20. 75 FR 59720 - Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research... responsibility for appointing not more than 15 members to a Methodology Committee of the Patient- Centered Outcomes Research Institute. In addition, the Directors of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  1. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  2. Improving the Understanding of Research Methodology and Self-Regulated Learning Through Blog Project

    OpenAIRE

    Retnawati, Heri

    2017-01-01

    : This classroom action research seeks to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL), students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ...

  3. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  4. On the use of visual methodologies in educational policy research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, we suggest that the use of visual methodologies can help us to rethink policy, particularly in relation to studying social difference in globalizing ...... Religion, race, rights: Landmarks in the history of modern Anglo-American law. .... Governing the present: Administering economic, social and personal life.

  5. Six methodological steps to build medical data warehouses for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, N. B.; Pelletier, C.; Chaussalet, T.; Chaussalet, 27629

    Purpose: We propose a simple methodology for heterogeneous data collection and central repository-style database design in healthcare. Our method can be used with or without other software development frameworks, and we argue that its application can save a relevant amount of implementation effort.

  6. Report of the Task Force on Clinical Research in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    A report on clinical dental research reviews current conditions and makes recommendations for increased funding, improved peer review for research proposals, establishment of a well-defined training track for clinical researchers, and better institutional integration of and support for research and teaching. Projected need for researchers is also…

  7. Development and Application of a Clinical Microsystem Simulation Methodology for Human Factors-Based Research of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Gosbee, John W; Merck, Derek L

    2017-07-01

    (1) To develop a clinical microsystem simulation methodology for alarm fatigue research with a human factors engineering (HFE) assessment framework and (2) to explore its application to the comparative examination of different approaches to patient monitoring and provider notification. Problems with the design, implementation, and real-world use of patient monitoring systems result in alarm fatigue. A multidisciplinary team is developing an open-source tool kit to promote bedside informatics research and mitigate alarm fatigue. Simulation, HFE, and computer science experts created a novel simulation methodology to study alarm fatigue. Featuring multiple interconnected simulated patient scenarios with scripted timeline, "distractor" patient care tasks, and triggered true and false alarms, the methodology incorporated objective metrics to assess provider and system performance. Developed materials were implemented during institutional review board-approved study sessions that assessed and compared an experimental multiparametric alerting system with a standard monitor telemetry system for subject response, use characteristics, and end-user feedback. A four-patient simulation setup featuring objective metrics for participant task-related performance and response to alarms was developed along with accompanying structured HFE assessment (questionnaire and interview) for monitor systems use testing. Two pilot and four study sessions with individual nurse subjects elicited true alarm and false alarm responses (including diversion from assigned tasks) as well as nonresponses to true alarms. In-simulation observation and subject questionnaires were used to test the experimental system's approach to suppressing false alarms and alerting providers. A novel investigative methodology applied simulation and HFE techniques to replicate and study alarm fatigue in controlled settings for systems assessment and experimental research purposes.

  8. Augmented Fotonovelas: A Visual Methodology for Community Engaged Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, LeighAnna Grace

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Fotonovelas draw upon the aesthetic of traditional fotonovelas, but incorporate new technologies--such as video interviews, interactive mapping, smart phone technology, and Augmented Reality (AR). Augmented Fotonovelas also make the most of the classic form, utilizing photographs, text, and bubble captions. Through this methodology, new and old come together to produce Augmented Scholarship. I define Augmented Scholarship as knowledge production bridging the gap between communities ...

  9. BUSINESS AND HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zikunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of transformation of the role of the human factor in the economic system, it shows the importance of entrepreneurship as an intangible resource of post-industrial development. Resource value of entrepreneurship is characterized on the basis of economic analysis of the functional role of entrepreneurship in the system. Showing methodological approaches to the study of entrepreneurship presented in the works of foreign representatives of business theory

  10. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.

  11. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  12. A Preliminary Methodology, and a Cautionary Tale, for Determining How Students Seek Research Help Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study to examine undergraduate students' help-seeking behavior when undertaking library research in online courses. A novel methodology incorporating elements of ethnographic research resulted in a small, but rich and detailed, collection of qualitative data. The data suggest that the methodology has promise for…

  13. Conducting Research with LGB People of Color: Methodological Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlaere, Cirleen; Brewster, Melanie E.; Sarkees, Anthony; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Methodological barriers have been highlighted as a primary reason for the limited research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Thus, strategies for anticipating and addressing potential methodological barriers are needed. To address this need, this article discusses potential challenges associated with conducting research with…

  14. Reflections on Conventional and Traditional Methodology in Transnational Community Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2017-01-01

    Cultivating Pathways of Creative Research: New Horizons of Transformative Practice and Collaborative Imagination strives to cultivate new pathways of research and engagement in social sciences and humanities where cultivation is linked to cross-fertilization of creative theorizing...... pathways of creative research. They help us go beyond formalism of method and cultivate new pathways of research in social sciences and humanities, especially in sociology, anthropology, education, art and literature. The volume, second in the trilogy of Creative Research, which follows Pathways...... of Creative Research: Towards a Festival of Dialogues and is followed by Research as Realization: Science, Spirituality and Harmony is not only a pioneering contribution to the world research but also to rethinking and regenerating self, culture, society and the human condition....

  15. The Atlantic rift in Engineering Education Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2015-01-01

    engineering. A revival of engineering education research started in the USA around the turn of the century. Building on the concept of ‘scholarship of teaching’, engineers were challenged to investigate their own role as educators. Since these researchers have their academic background mostly in engineering......In Europe educational research branched off from social sciences during the sixties of the last century. Combining theories and methods from pedagogy, sociology and psychology researchers explored the different fields of education, ranging from kindergarten till higher education including...... and science, they tend to aim for ‘rigorous research’ according to the natural sciences. Worldwide the engineering education community has recognized the need to blend both the social sciences research approach and rigorous research. This paper explores the variation in research methods used by researchers...

  16. Methodological quality and scientific impact of quantitative nursing education research over 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Smyer, Tish; Kowalski, Susan; Stowers, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The methodological quality of nursing education research has not been rigorously studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality and scientific impact of nursing education research reports. The methodological quality of 133 quantitative nursing education research articles published between July 2006 and December 2007 was evaluated using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI).The mean (+/- SD) MERSQI score was 9.8 +/- 2.2. It correlated (p nursing literature and those reported for the medical literature, coupled with the association with citation counts, suggest that the MERSQI is an appropriate instrument to evaluate the quality of nursing education research.

  17. The Possibility of Developing Researches in the Legal Field Making use of the Qualitative Approach Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Serafim de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, through the deductive research, discusses the possibility to research in the field of legal sciences through the qualitative methodology used in the researches in Human Sciences. The north for this study was given by the qualitative methodology to the exploration of the content of the bibliography interdisciplinary elected in Law and Education areas, considering the object of the study the connection of the objects of the research in these areas. Education, in Human Sciences, uses this approach to investigate facts through documentary or field research and the same methodology can be applied in the Law area.

  18. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  19. The study of evaluation methodology of the aging and degradation researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C. J.; Park, Z. H.; Jeong, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    To judge the usefulness of aging related researches like PLIM (Plant lifetime Management) and aging related degradation, et. al. in PSR(Periodic Safety Review), the evaluation methodology of the R and D have been proposed up to now are reviewed. The infometric methodology is considered to be the optimum method for the evaluation of the nuclear related researches. And finally, to increase the objectiveness and reliability of the infometric methodology in the aging and degradation researches, the indexes of safety, technology and economics are introduced. From this study, the infometric methodology has the advantage of the actual engineering evaluation in the nuclear related researches with other methodologies, but for the further research, the effective construction of DB and survey of various statistics in the technical reports and papers are needed

  20. Measuring treatment effects on dual-task performance: a framework for research and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence ePlummer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of dual-task walking to everyday ambulation is widely acknowledged, and numerous studies have demonstrated that dual-task interference can significantly impact recovery of functional walking in people with neurological disorders. The magnitude and direction of dual-task interference is influenced by the interaction between the two tasks, including how individuals spontaneously prioritize their attention. Therefore, to accurately interpret and characterize dual-task interference and identify changes over time, it is imperative to evaluate single and dual-task performance in both tasks, as well as the tasks relative to each other. Yet, reciprocal dual-task effects are frequently ignored. The purpose of this perspective paper is to present a framework for measuring treatment effects on dual-task interference, specifically taking into account the interactions between the two tasks and how this can provide information on whether overall dual-task capacity has improved or a different attentional strategy has been adopted. In discussing the clinical implications of using this framework, we provide specific examples of using this method and provide some explicit recommendations for research and clinical practice.

  1. Global health trials methodological research agenda:results from a priority setting exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Blazeby, Jane; Nasser, Mona; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Sydes, Matthew R.; Zhang, Junhua; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMethodological research into the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trials is essential to optimise the process. UK specialists in the field have established a set of top priorities in aid of this research. These priorities however may not be reflected in the needs of similar research in low to middle income countries (LMICs) with different healthcare provision, resources and research infrastructure. The aim of the study was to identify the top priorities for methodological ...

  2. Methodology for value/impact assessment of nuclear regulatory research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.

    1978-12-01

    A methodology for conducting a value/impact assessment of research programs has been developed to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an improved capability for allocating resources for confirmatory research. This report presents a seven-step evaluation process and applies it to selected units of research. The methodology is intended to provide insight into the technical merits of the programs, one dimension of the complex problem of resource allocation for confirmatory research

  3. Research Tasks on Identity in Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bonny; De Costa, Peter I.

    2018-01-01

    The growing interest in identity and language education over the past two decades, coupled with increased interest in digital technology and transnationalism, has resulted in a rich body of work that has informed language learning, teaching, and research. To keep abreast of these developments in identity research, the authors propose a series of…

  4. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  5. Measuring the impact of methodological research: a framework and methods to identify evidence of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueton, Valerie C; Vale, Claire L; Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Jinks, Rachel; Tierney, Jayne F

    2014-11-27

    Providing evidence of impact highlights the benefits of medical research to society. Such evidence is increasingly requested by research funders and commonly relies on citation analysis. However, other indicators may be more informative. Although frameworks to demonstrate the impact of clinical research have been reported, no complementary framework exists for methodological research. Therefore, we assessed the impact of methodological research projects conducted or completed between 2009 and 2012 at the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit Hub for Trials Methodology Research Hub, with a view to developing an appropriate framework. Various approaches to the collection of data on research impact were employed. Citation rates were obtained using Web of Science (http://www.webofknowledge.com/) and analyzed descriptively. Semistructured interviews were conducted to obtain information on the rates of different types of research output that indicated impact for each project. Results were then pooled across all projects. Finally, email queries pertaining to methodology projects were collected retrospectively and their content analyzed. Simple citation analysis established the citation rates per year since publication for 74 methodological publications; however, further detailed analysis revealed more about the potential influence of these citations. Interviews that spanned 20 individual research projects demonstrated a variety of types of impact not otherwise collated, for example, applications and further developments of the research; release of software and provision of guidance materials to facilitate uptake; formation of new collaborations and broad dissemination. Finally, 194 email queries relating to 6 methodological projects were received from 170 individuals across 23 countries. They provided further evidence that the methodologies were impacting on research and research practice, both nationally and internationally. We have used the information

  6. A review of critical in-flight events research methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot's cognitive responses to critical in-flight events (CIFE's) were investigated, using pilots, who had on the average about 2540 flight hours each, in four experiments: (1) full-mission simulation in a general aviation trainer, (2) paper and pencil CIFE tests, (3) interactive computer-aided scenario testing, and (4) verbal protocols in fault diagnosis tasks. The results of both computer and paper and pencil tests showed only 50 percent efficiency in correct diagnosis of critical events. The efficiency in arriving at a diagnosis was also low: over 20 inquiries were made for 21 percent of the scenarios diagnosed. The information-seeking pattern was random, with frequent retracing over old inquiries. The measures for developing improved cognitive skills for CIFE's are discussed.

  7. The Importance of Team Sex Composition in Team-Training Research Employing Complex Psychomotor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.

  8. Teaching Research Methodologies to Professionally Oriented Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,…

  9. On Research Methodology in Applied Linguistics in 2002-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynychev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals ("Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language…

  10. Disciplinarity and Methodology in Intersectionality Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Intersectionality and research in psychology," by E. R. Cole. Cole's article, says the current author, makes a welcome and valuable contribution to the field of psychology. Particularly useful are the three questions that she posed, highlighting how these questions are relevant and pressing for all researchers,…

  11. Decolonizing Interpretive Research: A Critical Bicultural Methodology for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darder, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a discussion of decolonizing interpretive research in a way that gives greater salience to and understanding of the theoretical efforts of critical bicultural education researchers over the years. Grounded in educational principles that have been derived from critical social theory, a decolonizing approach to theory building,…

  12. Incidence and methodology in sexual harassment research in northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article, we present the results of our review study of research on sexual harassment in the workplace in 11 Northern and Western European countries and consider

  13. How Sex Education Research Methodologies Frame GLBTIQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The "bullied" gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and otherwise Queer (GLBTIQ) student is a fairly recent figure in the sexuality education research literature. GLBTIQ students have previously been problematised by sex education research in a range of different ways and have been the subjects of varying methodological…

  14. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  15. IRT-type research reactor physical calculation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, W.; Castaneda, S.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, L.; Reyes, O.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper an established physical calculation procedure for the research reactor of the Nuclear Research Center (CIN) is described. The results obtained by the method are compared with the ones reported during the physical start up of a reactor with similar characteristics to the CIN reactor. 11 refs

  16. Using Vignette Methodology to research the process of breach comparatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; Beyens, K.; Maguire, N.; Laurinavicius, A.; Persson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research related to any aspect of the process of breach in either the pre-trial, sentencing or release phases is relatively rare. Comparative studies of decision making in the specific context of breach process are particularly lacking. One reason for the dearth of research in this area

  17. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  18. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed FY2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This research project evaluates numerous transportation issues and develops findings and/or recommendations based on results. This project has been structured to address some of the emerging, critical, and unique considerations related to transportat...

  19. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed FY2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This research project evaluates numerous transportation issues and develops findings and/or : recommendations based on results. This project has been structured to address some of the emerging, critical, : and unique considerations related to transpo...

  20. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed FY 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research project evaluates numerous transportation issues and develops findings and/or recommendations based on results. This project has been structured to address some of the emerging, critical, and unique considerations related to transportat...

  1. Rethinking Education Research methodologies-Dominance of Western perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sing Ong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the different approaches and methods in comparative education research. It begins with a broad overview of the influences of Western philosophies and how Western education researchers approach social situations. Its differences with Chinese philosophies were highlighted with the concept of dao and Confucianism. More than just an epistemological discussion, this paper argues that Western researchers’ biasness towards Asian researchers may be due to their failure or lack of experience in making the connections with Asian social systems. It attempts to provide some plausible explanations of the prevalence of biasness by peer reviewers of Western journals.

  2. Mediation analysis in nursing research: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Ulrich, Connie

    2016-12-01

    Mediation statistical models help clarify the relationship between independent predictor variables and dependent outcomes of interest by assessing the impact of third variables. This type of statistical analysis is applicable for many clinical nursing research questions, yet its use within nursing remains low. Indeed, mediational analyses may help nurse researchers develop more effective and accurate prevention and treatment programs as well as help bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and clinical practice. In addition, this statistical approach allows nurse researchers to ask - and answer - more meaningful and nuanced questions that extend beyond merely determining whether an outcome occurs. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a brief tutorial on the use of mediational analyses in clinical nursing research by briefly introducing the technique and, through selected empirical examples from the nursing literature, demonstrating its applicability in advancing nursing science.

  3. Methodological Issues in Leadership Training Research: In Pursuit of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, O; O'Broin, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Leadership training has led to a large amount of research due to the belief that such training can lead to (or more precisely  cause) positive changes in followers’ behavior and work performance. This chapter describes some of the conditions necessary  for research to show a causal relationship between leadership training and outcomes. It then describes different research de‐ signs, employed in leadership training research, and considers the types of problems that can affect inferenc...

  4. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching: An Action-Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…

  5. On the Methodology of Research of Sunni-Shiite Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Chikrizova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain. In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.

  6. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  7. Lost in Translation: Methodological Considerations in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2007-01-01

    In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…

  8. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  9. Research and development in radiotracer methodology and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thereska, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) has promoted further the radiotracer technology, in particular has validated the residence time distribution (RTD) function in investigating many chemical engineering reactors, such as grinding mill and flotation cell, incinerator, crystallizer trickle bed reactor and waste water treatment units. (authors)

  10. Research and development in radiotracer methodology and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) has promoted further the radiotracer technology, in particular has validated the residence time distribution (RTD) function in investigating many chemical engineering reactors, such as grinding mill and flotation cell, incinerator, crystallizer trickle bed reactor and waste water treatment units. (authors)

  11. Research themes, authors and methodologies in the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, quantitative research methods were the most common, with survey design being most prevalent. It is subsequently recommended that periodic reviews of SAJAE be conducted, as well as comparative reviews with similar journals. A collaborative approach was suggested. Keywords: Content analysis, primary ...

  12. 'soft skills' Part I: A qualitative research methodology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Following the introduction of a new, integrated, problem-oriented undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Pretoria (UP) in 1997, a research project was undertaken to study interpersonal skills, professional attitudes, teamwork, ethics and related topics – which have come to be known collectively ...

  13. Video Game-Based Methodology for Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Larry L.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental research in business and economics has exploded in recent years in both laboratory and field settings. The generality of findings from field experiments is limited by the specificity of the experimental environment. Laboratory studies, on the other hand, are criticized for being devoid of the contextual cues that may indicate to…

  14. Teaching Research Methodology and Writing in the Emerald City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry D.

    The major goal of graduate education in speech communication is to advance knowledge about human communication through research and by training minds. Graduate education differs from undergraduate education because it emphasizes not only what we know, but how we come to know. Often, however, graduate education is just seen as being an extension of…

  15. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  16. Doing Animist Research in Academia: A Methodological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies, ontologies, and education based on colonial Eurocentric assumptions have made animism difficult to explicitly explore, acknowledge, and embody in environmental research. Boundaries between humans and the "natural world," including other animals, are continually reproduced through a culture that privileges rationality and the…

  17. Journeying from the philosophical contemplation of constructivism to the methodological pragmatics of health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; King, Lindy

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents our journey through a contemplation of the philosophical origins of constructivism to consider its role as an active methodology in qualitative research. The first part of the paper summarizes the philosophical background of constructivism and the five principles underpinning this paradigm as described through the works of Guba and Lincoln. The philosophical roots of constructivism are then compared with postpositivism, critical realism and participatory inquiry. The paper moves on to consider their common methodological steps, before examining how the constructivist research strategy is being adopted and adapted within the pragmatics of health service research. Recent studies will be drawn upon to illustrate the use of constructivist methodology. Questions are raised about the role of philosophy and the extent to which it should or does underpin or influence qualitative research strategies. We believe that if researchers gain an understanding of both philosophy and methodology a richer and more robust study is likely to result.

  18. Diffraction or Reflection? Sketching the Contours of Two Methodologies in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, an interest is emerging in a growing body of work on what has become known as "diffractive methodologies" drawing attention to ontological aspects of research. Diffractive methodologies have largely been developed in response to a dissatisfaction with practices of "reflexivity", which are seen to be grounded in…

  19. Enacting a Place-Responsive Research Methodology: Walking Interviews with Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jonathan; Mannion, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Place-based and place-responsive approaches to outdoor learning and education are developing in many countries but there is dearth of theoretically-supported methodologies to take a more explicit account of place in research in these areas. In response, this article outlines one theoretical framing for place-responsive methodologies for…

  20. The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

  1. Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

  2. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  3. Insider Research on Diversity and Inclusion: Methodological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsánna E. Horváth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Workforce diversity management is fast becoming a significant component of in Multinational Corporations because it has outstanding benefits on inclusive workplace climate leading to improved work outcomes. The paper provides a conceptual background of the significance and implications of diversity management and inclusion, followed by a proposed insider research design. An employee perception focused approach is discussed that is believed to best capture the efficiency of diversity management and inclusion. Recommendations complement the conceptual framework and critical analyses.

  4. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2017-08-01

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  5. Risk assessment and ranking methodologies for hazardous chemical defense waste: a state-of-the-art review and evaluation. Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Rodricks, J.V.; St Hilaire, C.; Bras, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Task 1 of the Risk Assessment Evaluation Task under the Hazardous Chemical Defense Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of Task 1 was to identify, review, and evaluate the state-of-the-art tools and techniques available for ranking and evaluating disposal facilities. These tools were evaluated for their applicability to DOE's mixed hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites. Various ranking methodologies were reviewed and three were evaluated in detail. Areas that were found to be deficient in each ranking methodology were presented in the report. Recommendations were given for the development of an improved ranking methodology for use on DOE's sites. A literature review was then performed on the various components of a risk assessment methodology. They include source term evaluation, geosphere transport models, exposure pathways models, dose effects models, and sensitivity/uncertainty techniques. A number of recommendations have been made in the report based on the review and evaluation for the development of a comprehensive risk assessment methodology in evaluating mixed waste disposal sites

  6. Main tasks of the Nuclear Research Institute in the period till the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podest, M.

    1989-06-01

    The main tasks of the Nuclear Research Institute will be oriented to: safety of nuclear power installations; expert and diagnostic systems for such installations; the effect of operating medium on the life of nuclear power plants; disposal of radioactive wastes; prospective nuclear sources; research into and development of radiopharmaceuticals; radiation technologies and methods. Specific tasks are itemized. The statute of the Institute is attached. (J.B.). 1 tab

  7. Collaborative Research and Development (CR&D). Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    scratch test for TiN on stainless steel with better substrate mechanical properties. This present study was focused on the study of stress distribution...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2010-4189 COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling Young Sup Kang Universal...SUBTITLE COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-03-D-5801-0049 5b

  8. A Preliminary Inquiry into the Methodologies Employed in Research on ICTs and Society: Prologue (“An Alternate View of Knowledge Negotiation”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Robbin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper originates in a commitment to write a panel presentation on the methodologies employed in published research on ICTs and society for the 2009 ICTs, Society, and Human Beings conference. The author recognized that this task was not feasible without a rethinking of how to proceed. This paper describes how the author reconceptualized her thinking about how to fulfill her original commitment and offers an example of how we begin to understand what our research question is about.

  9. 76 FR 23605 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... maximize the efficiency (measured by scientific robustness, participant and infrastructure burden, and cost... assess the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of the recruitment strategy, study procedures, and...

  10. International conference on research methodology for roadside surveys of drinking-driving : alcohol countermeasures workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    The basic purpose [of the conference] was to encourage more roadside surveys by furthering the research methodology and recommendations for conducting roadside surveys developed by a special group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Deve...

  11. Everyday couples' communication research: Overcoming methodological barriers with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reblin, Maija; Heyman, Richard E; Ellington, Lee; Baucom, Brian R W; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2018-03-01

    Relationship behaviors contribute to compromised health or resilience. Everyday communication between intimate partners represents the vast majority of their interactions. When intimate partners take on new roles as patients and caregivers, everyday communication takes on a new and important role in managing both the transition and the adaptation to the change in health status. However, everyday communication and its relation to health has been little studied, likely due to barriers in collecting and processing this kind of data. The goal of this paper is to describe deterrents to capturing naturalistic, day-in-the-life communication data and share how technological advances have helped surmount them. We provide examples from a current study and describe how we anticipate technology will further change research capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory experiments in innovation research: A methodological overview and a review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Julia; Bizer, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    Innovation research has developed a broad set of methodological approaches in recent decades. In this paper, we propose laboratory experiments as a fruitful methodological addition to the existing methods in innovation research. Therefore, we provide an overview of the existing methods, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory experiments, and review experimental studies dealing with different fields of innovation policy, namely intellectual property rights, financi...

  13. An Evaluation of Research Ethics in Undergraduate Health Science Research Methodology Programs at a South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. 76 FR 23603 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's... an OMB generic clearance to conduct formative research featuring biospecimen and physical measures... health and disease. Findings from the Study will be made available as the research progresses, making...

  15. The Research and Evaluation of Serious Games: Toward a Comprehensive Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Igor; Bekebrede, Geertje; Harteveld, Casper; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi; van Ruijven, Theo; Lo, Julia; Kortmann, Rens; Wenzler, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the methodological background to and underlying research design of an ongoing research project on the scientific evaluation of serious games and/or computer-based simulation games (SGs) for advanced learning. The main research questions are: (1) what are the requirements and design principles for a comprehensive social…

  16. Using Q Methodology in the Literature Review Process: A Mixed Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the mixed research-based nature of literature reviews, it is surprising, then, that insufficient information has been provided as to how reviewers can incorporate mixed research approaches into their literature reviews. Thus, in this article, we provide a mixed methods research approach--Q methodology--for analyzing information…

  17. Leveraging the Methodological Affordances of Facebook: Social Networking Strategies in Longitudinal Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Jenna Pack; Kimme Hea, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    While composition studies researchers have examined the ways social media are impacting our lives inside and outside of the classroom, less attention has been given to the ways in which social media--specifically Social Network Sites (SNSs)--may enhance our own research methods and methodologies by helping to combat research participant attrition…

  18. THE SPECIFIC MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED AT GENERAL MOTOR'S EUROPE ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Liliana Adela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. In fact, industrial segmentation can assist companies in several areas like: analysis of the market, selection of key markets and management and marketing. In this study I tried to make a better understanding of the total marketplace, including how and why customers buy and to develop strategies, plans and programs to profitability meet the needs of different market segments and to give the company a distinct competitive advantage. The Marketing Plan is based on an Information System which can be interpretaded in two different ways. In this case its singular form focusing on both formal and informal information system is appropriate. The investigation explains the environment of the European Business Team . The techniques used were: system maps, observations, interviews, questionnaires and company documents. The initial stage of exploring the situation starts usually with a dialog between the potential client - in this particular case the European Business Team – and the analyst. The vague impression is then given that not everything is running as it should be by the client. This was, however, not completely true in my case, as I had to go looking for problems. Preliminary investigations into product communication did show a feeling of unease between the departments. Having expressed the current situation of the European Business Team , I then chose three areas to study further. I had to

  19. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cruz Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform

  20. Assessment methodology applicable to safe decommissioning of Romanian VVR-S research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniu, O.; Vladescu, G.; Vidican, D.; Penescu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains the results of research activity performed by CITON specialists regarding the assessment methodology intended to be applied to safe decommissioning of the research reactors, developed taking into account specific conditions of the Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor. The Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor is an old reactor (1957) and its Decommissioning Plan is under study. The main topics of paper are as follows: Safety approach of nuclear facilities decommissioning. Applicable safety principles; Main steps of the proposed assessment methodology; Generic content of Decommissioning Plan. Main decommissioning activities. Discussion about the proposed Decommissioning Plan for Romanian Research Reactor; Safety risks which may occur during decommissioning activities. Normal decommissioning operations. Fault conditions. Internal and external hazards; Typical development of a scenario. Features, Events and Processes List. Exposure pathways. Calculation methodology. (author)

  1. Changes in Methodology for Assessing Performance of Research Organisations and Influence of Such Changes on Researchers' Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing quality of research results on an international scale is a basis for evaluating the level of scientific activities pursued in research organisations. In the past 15 years, significant changes have occurred in the Czech Republic in research management and, in particular, the methodology of assessing research results. The methodology of assessment and its modifications should always be focused on increasing quality of research results; the rules of assessment have their effects on researchers' behaviour. This paper studies a question of whether the changes applied to the methodology of assessing research results in the Czech Republic have supported higher quality research results, i.e., results published in high-quality international journals. The authors have developed their own statistical test to measure significance of such changes, as well as other statistical tests of hypotheses. The main source is represented by the results of assessing public universities in the Czech Republic according to "Methodology for assessing results of research organisations" in 2010 and 2013. Our tests have not proven any statistically significant differences in the numbers of papers published in the journals monitored in the Web of Science and Scopus databases.

  2. The Systems Approach to Functional Job Analysis. Task Analysis of the Physician's Assistant: Volume I--Task Analysis Methodology and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC. Bowman Gray School of Medicine.

    Utilizing a systematic sampling technique, the professional activities of small groups of pediatricians, family practitioners, surgeons, obstetricians, and internists were observed for 4 or 5 days by a medical student who checked a prearranged activity sheet every 30 seconds to: (1) identify those tasks and activities an assistant could be trained…

  3. Approaches to qualitative research in mathematics education examples of methodology and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika; Presmeg, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This volume documents a range of qualitative research approaches emerged within mathematics education over the last three decades, whilst at the same time revealing their underlying methodologies. Continuing the discussion as begun in the two 2003 ZDM issues dedicated to qualitative empirical methods, this book presents astate of the art overview on qualitative research in mathematics education and beyond. The structure of the book allows the reader to use it as an actual guide for the selection of an appropriate methodology, on a basis of both theoretical depth and practical implications. The methods and examples illustrate how different methodologies come to life when applied to a specific question in a specific context. Many of the methodologies described are also applicable outside mathematics education, but the examples provided are chosen so as to situate the approach in a mathematical context.

  4. Impact Analysis of OCR Quality on Research Tasks in Digital Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Traub (Myriam); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractHumanities scholars increasingly rely on digital archives for their research in place of time-consuming visits to physical archives. This shift in research methodology has the hidden cost of working with digi- tally processed historical documents: how much trust can a scholar place in

  5. Collaborative Action Research in the Context of Developmental Work Research: A Methodological Approach for Science Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Lathouris, Dimitris; Plakitsi, Katerina; Stylianou, Liana

    2015-01-01

    The paper refers to the theoretical establishment and brief presentation of collaborative action research with the characteristics of "developmental work research" as an effective methodological approach so that science teachers develop themselves professionally. A specific case study is presented, in which we aimed to transform the…

  6. Combining Project-Based Learning and Community-Based Research in a Research Methodology Course: The Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Lino dos Santos, Rebeca Júlia Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we present our findings regarding the course "Research Methodology," offered to 22 first-year undergraduate students studying Administration at the Federal University of São Paulo, Osasco, Brazil. The course, which combined community-based research and project-based learning, was developed during the second semester of…

  7. Phenomenology as a potential methodology for subjective knowing in science education research

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This paper charts the journey that led to the author's discovery of phenomenology as a potential research methodology in the field of science education, and describes the impact on his own thinking and approach of his encounters with the work of Husserl and Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Van Manen. Drawing on this theoretical framework, the author argues that, as a methodology for investigating scientific thinking in relation to life experience, learning and curriculum design, phenomenology not...

  8. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  9. An Empirical Review of Research Methodologies and Methods in Creativity Studies (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 5 prestigious creativity journals, research methodologies and methods of 612 empirical studies on creativity, published between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed and compared to those in gifted education. Major findings included: (a) Creativity research was predominantly quantitative and psychometrics and experiment…

  10. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  11. The Methodological Underdog: A Review of Quantitative Research in the Key Adult Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    An examination of articles published in leading adult education journals demonstrates that qualitative research dominates. To better understand this situation, a review of journal articles reporting on quantitative research has been undertaken by the author of this article. Differences in methodological strengths and weaknesses between…

  12. Methodological progress and substantial insights in the field of internet research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faulbaum, F.; Matzat, U.; Deutschmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    We are pleased to present the first issue of the International Journal of Internet Science (IJIS). As the mission statement indicates the journal is intended to cover two kinds of related research. On the one hand it presents methodological research that shows how the Internet can be used as a tool

  13. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More than Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with…

  14. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it

  15. A food quality management research methodology integrating technological and managerial theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article it is argued how the complexity of food quality management combined with the high requirements on food quality requires a specific research methodology. It is concluded that food quality management research has to deal with two quite different paradigms, the one from technological

  16. Teaching Research Methodology Using a Project-Based Three Course Sequence Critical Reflections on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, Kay H.; Jackson, Kanata A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a reflective analysis of teaching research methodology through a three course sequence using a project-based approach. The authors reflect critically on their experiences in teaching research methods courses in an undergraduate business management program. The introduction of a range of specific techniques including student…

  17. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  18. Methodological Capacity within the Field of "Educational Technology" Research: An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Scott; Henderson, Michael; Johnson, Nicola F.; Selwyn, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The academic study of educational technology is often characterised by critics as methodologically limited. In order to test this assumption, the present paper reports on data collected from a survey of 462 "research active" academic researchers working in the broad areas of educational technology and educational media. The paper…

  19. Getting the picture and changing the picture: visual methodologies and educational research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mitchell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At the risk of seeming to make exaggerated claims for visual methodologies, what I set out to do is lay bare some of the key elements of working with the visual as a set of methodologies and practices. In particular, I address educational research in South Africa at a time when questions of the social responsibility of the academic researcher (including postgraduate students as new researchers, as well as experienced researchers expanding their repertoire of being and doing are critical. In so doing I seek to ensure that the term "visual methodologies" is not simply reduced to one practice or to one set of tools, and, at the same time, to ensure that this set of methodologies and practices is appreciated within its full complexity. I focus on the doing, and, in particular, on the various approaches to doing through drawings, photo-voice, photo-elicitation, researcher as photographer, working with family photos, cinematic texts, video production, material culture, advertising campaigns as nine key areas within visual methodologies.

  20. Postgraduate research methodological flaws detected at final examination stage: Who is to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aceme Nyika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of globalisation, most universities are intensifying efforts to improve their overall performance in order to attract students and enhance chances of securing competitive funding from various sources. As part of these efforts, universities are striving to ensure that their postgraduate programmes meet nationally and internationally acceptable standards. Research projects conducted by students form a critical component of most postgraduate programmes and universities have put in place procedures meant to ensure that postgraduate research meets acceptable minimum standards. The procedures include setting minimum entry educational qualifications, supervision by qualified members of university academic staff, institutional evaluation of research proposals before the proposed research is embarked on, submission of progress reports by postgraduate students during the course of their programmes, and final examination of students theses, dissertations or research reports by internal as well as external examiners. In some instances, the examiners recommend outright rejection of the student's write-up if they consider the methodology used to be inappropriate to answer research questions of the project conducted. The implications of research methodological shortcomings which are identified at the final examination stage, even if the research proposals were evaluated and approved by appropriate university structures before commencement of the research projects, are discussed. As postgraduate programmes are meant to nurture a competent and resourceful workforce and future researchers, universities need to pay attention to the issue of research methodology and internal evaluation systems in order to minimise chances of compromising the quality of their postgraduate degree programmes.

  1. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofu Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots’ individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.

  2. Research on multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm based on emotional cooperation factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.

  3. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  4. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on

  5. Application of quality improvement analytic methodology in emergency medicine research: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Bruce; Filiatrault, Lyne; Abu-Laban, Riyad B

    2018-05-30

    Quality improvement (QI) analytic methodology is rarely encountered in the emergency medicine literature. We sought to comparatively apply QI design and analysis techniques to an existing data set, and discuss these techniques as an alternative to standard research methodology for evaluating a change in a process of care. We used data from a previously published randomized controlled trial on triage-nurse initiated radiography using the Ottawa ankle rules (OAR). QI analytic tools were applied to the data set from this study and evaluated comparatively against the original standard research methodology. The original study concluded that triage nurse-initiated radiographs led to a statistically significant decrease in mean emergency department length of stay. Using QI analytic methodology, we applied control charts and interpreted the results using established methods that preserved the time sequence of the data. This analysis found a compelling signal of a positive treatment effect that would have been identified after the enrolment of 58% of the original study sample, and in the 6th month of this 11-month study. Our comparative analysis demonstrates some of the potential benefits of QI analytic methodology. We found that had this approach been used in the original study, insights regarding the benefits of nurse-initiated radiography using the OAR would have been achieved earlier, and thus potentially at a lower cost. In situations where the overarching aim is to accelerate implementation of practice improvement to benefit future patients, we believe that increased consideration should be given to the use of QI analytic methodology.

  6. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Haddon’s matrix in qualitative research methodology: an experience in burns epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljavan R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reza Deljavan,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazarganim,2,3 Nasrin Fouladim,4 Shahnam Arshi,5 Reza Mohammadi61Injury Epidemiology and Prevention Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 5Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries.Methods: This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase.Results: The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education, pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators. This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans.Conclusion: Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries

  8. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Barquera

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  9. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  10. Can methodological requirements be fulfilled when studying concealed or unethical research objects? The case of astroturfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie BOULAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific soundness is key in the development of research designs. Methodological choices bear the responsibility to demonstrate its obtainment. However, it is challenging to abide by these standards while dealing with hidden, masked or unethical objects. In this article, we share the various strategies employed to aim at a sound scientific process in spite of astroturfing’s characteristics and of the methodological orientations it dictates. Facing the dilemma between the importance of scientific value and the richness of inductive and exploratory approaches, we question the influence of positivist research standards in communication studies. We fear these requirements may limit their development.

  11. The RADAR Test Methodology: Evaluating a Multi-Task Machine Learning System with Humans in the Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    details, static websites, and an ecommerce vendor portal. The “corpus” consists of the email and world state content. The latter consists of facts...learned fact variation, and the opportunity to induce a substantial crisis workload. The conference itself was a 4-day, multi-track technical conference...General 1. I am confident I completed the task well. 2. The task was difficult to complete. 3. I could have done as good of a job without the

  12. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  13. A PART OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY COURSE: Introduction to the Research Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 800 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated...

  14. Introduction to the “Research Tools” for Research Methodology course

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 800 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated...

  15. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  16. On the Dichotomy of Qualitative and Quantitative Researches in Contemporary Scientific Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Suvakovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Argumentation in favor of overcoming the long-ago-established dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative scientific research is presented in the article. Proceeding from the view of materialistic dialecticians that every scientific research must deal with a subject, the author assumes that it is impossible to conduct a quantitative research without first establishing the quality to be studied. This also concerns measuring, which is referred only to quantitative procedures in literature. By way of illustration, the author designs two instruments for measuring the successfulness of political parties - the scale and the quotient of party successfulness. On the other hand, even the qualitative analysis usually involves certain quantifications. The author concludes that to achieve methodological correctness the existing dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative research should be considered as overcome and a typology of scientific research including predominantly qualitative and predominantly quantitative studies, depending on the methodological components prevailing in them, should be used.

  17. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325

  18. In the middle of the world, aquendar the methodology: notes for queering curriculum research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ranniery Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the condition of queer critique not only reflects in the sphere of social exchange, but it can acquire methodological dimensions to the extent that allows reapply to the investigative positions and the paths of curriculum research ironic and jocular style redefinition of the queer insult. The explored argument is that the queer critique allows to question the normative naturalization of research procedures into the curriculum as those contained in the formulas that tend to oppose researcher/researched, realism/fiction, coherence/multiplicity. From the perspective of taking queer as a heterogeneous reading, this text explores how four notes, combinations, wanderings, affectations and fertilizations, translate what happens when queering research methodology. Movements that can be seen as wandering experiments in relation to the paradigm of queer critique in Education and curriculum.

  19. Theory and research in audiology education: understanding and representing complexity through informed methodological decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of audiology has the opportunity to embark on research in education from an informed perspective, learning from professions that began this journey decades ago. The goal of this article is to position our discipline as a new member in the academic field of health professional education (HPE), with much to learn and contribute. In this article, I discuss the need for theory in informing HPE research. I also stress the importance of balancing our research goals by selecting appropriate methodologies for relevant research questions, to ensure that we respect the complexity of social processes inherent in HPE. Examples of relevant research questions are used to illustrate the need to consider alternative methodologies and to rethink the traditional hierarchy of evidence. I also provide an example of the thought processes and decisions that informed the design of an educational research study using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. As audiology enters the scholarly field of HPE, we need to arm ourselves with some of the knowledge and perspective that informs the field. Thus, we need to broaden our conceptions of what we consider to be appropriate styles of academic writing, relevant research questions, and valid evidence. Also, if we are to embark on qualitative inquiry into audiology education (or other audiology topics), we need to ensure that we conduct this research with an adequate understanding of the theories and methodologies informing such approaches. We must strive to conduct high quality, rigorous qualitative research more often than uninformed, generic qualitative research. These goals are imperative to the advancement of the theoretical landscape of audiology education and evolving the place of audiology in the field of HPE. American Academy of Audiology.

  20. [A research program in neutrino physics, cosmic rays and elementary particles: Tasks A, B, C, D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A Summary of the DOE Supported High Energy Physics Research at The University of California, Irvine. Physics interests of the group are focused primarily on tests of conservation laws and studies of fundamental interactions between particles. There is also a significant interest in astrophysics and cosmic rays. The DOE support has been divided into four tasks briefly describes in this paper

  1. Formative Research on the Simplifying Conditions Method (SCM) for Task Analysis and Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHwan; Reigluth, Charles M.

    The Simplifying Conditions Method (SCM) is a set of guidelines for task analysis and sequencing of instructional content under the Elaboration Theory (ET). This article introduces the fundamentals of SCM and presents the findings from a formative research study on SCM. It was conducted in two distinct phases: design and instruction. In the first…

  2. Methodological aspects of language processing research with adults and children : Reading research and the Visual World Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijn, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Research on language comprehension has benefited greatly from the use of eye-tracking methodology. However, the technique is not easy to use. In particular, the creation of (auditory and visual) stimuli and the analysis of eye-movement data are difficult and laborious. The presentation will deal

  3. Leveraging the Zachman framework implementation using action - research methodology - a case study: aligning the enterprise architecture and the business goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Juan Manuel; Romero, David; Espadas, Javier; Molina, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    With the emergence of new enterprise models, such as technology-based enterprises, and the large quantity of information generated through technological advances, the Zachman framework continues to represent a modelling tool of great utility and value to construct an enterprise architecture (EA) that can integrate and align the IT infrastructure and business goals. Nevertheless, implementing an EA requires an important effort within an enterprise. Small technology-based enterprises and start-ups can take advantage of EAs and frameworks but, because these enterprises have limited resources to allocate for this task, an enterprise framework implementation is not feasible in most cases. This article proposes a new methodology based on action-research for the implementation of the business, system and technology models of the Zachman framework to assist and facilitate its implementation. Following the explanation of cycles of the proposed methodology, a case study is presented to illustrate the results of implementing the Zachman framework in a technology-based enterprise: PyME CREATIVA, using action-research approach.

  4. Searching for qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a structured methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrew

    2016-05-04

    Qualitative systematic reviews or qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly recognised as a way to enhance the value of systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical trials. They can explain the mechanisms by which interventions, evaluated within trials, might achieve their effect. They can investigate differences in effects between different population groups. They can identify which outcomes are most important to patients, carers, health professionals and other stakeholders. QES can explore the impact of acceptance, feasibility, meaningfulness and implementation-related factors within a real world setting and thus contribute to the design and further refinement of future interventions. To produce valid, reliable and meaningful QES requires systematic identification of relevant qualitative evidence. Although the methodologies of QES, including methods for information retrieval, are well-documented, little empirical evidence exists to inform their conduct and reporting. This structured methodological overview examines papers on searching for qualitative research identified from the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group Methodology Register and from citation searches of 15 key papers. A single reviewer reviewed 1299 references. Papers reporting methodological guidance, use of innovative methodologies or empirical studies of retrieval methods were categorised under eight topical headings: overviews and methodological guidance, sampling, sources, structured questions, search procedures, search strategies and filters, supplementary strategies and standards. This structured overview presents a contemporaneous view of information retrieval for qualitative research and identifies a future research agenda. This review concludes that poor empirical evidence underpins current information practice in information retrieval of qualitative research. A trend towards improved transparency of search methods and further evaluation of key search procedures offers

  5. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  6. Research status of multi - robot systems task allocation and uncertainty treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dahui; Fan, Qi; Dai, Xuefeng

    2017-08-01

    The multi-robot coordination algorithm has become a hot research topic in the field of robotics in recent years. It has a wide range of applications and good application prospects. This paper analyzes and summarizes the current research status of multi-robot coordination algorithms at home and abroad. From task allocation and dealing with uncertainty, this paper discusses the multi-robot coordination algorithm and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each method commonly used.

  7. Critical Race Theory-Social Constructivist Bricolage: A Health-Promoting Schools Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne

    2017-01-01

    While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…

  8. Context Based Inferences in Research Methodology: The Role of Culture in Justifying Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Mason, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on work in epistemology and the philosophy of science, this paper seeks to provide very general reasons for why a comparative perspective needs to be applied to the inferential procedures of research methodologies where these concern the issue of justifying knowledge claims. In particular, the paper explores the role of culture on a number…

  9. Understanding palliative care on the heart failure care team: an innovative research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Lorelei A; McDougall, Allan; Schulz, Valerie; Shadd, Joshua; Marshall, Denise; Strachan, Patricia H; Tait, Glendon R; Arnold, J Malcolm; Kimel, Gil

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing call to integrate palliative care for patients with advanced heart failure (HF). However, the knowledge to inform integration efforts comes largely from interview and survey research with individual patients and providers. This work has been critically important in raising awareness of the need for integration, but it is insufficient to inform solutions that must be enacted not by isolated individuals but by complex care teams. Research methods are urgently required to support systematic exploration of the experiences of patients with HF, family caregivers, and health care providers as they interact as a care team. To design a research methodology that can support systematic exploration of the experiences of patients with HF, caregivers, and health care providers as they interact as a care team. This article describes in detail a methodology that we have piloted and are currently using in a multisite study of HF care teams. We describe three aspects of the methodology: the theoretical framework, an innovative sampling strategy, and an iterative system of data collection and analysis that incorporates four data sources and four analytical steps. We anticipate that this innovative methodology will support groundbreaking research in both HF care and other team settings in which palliative integration efforts are emerging for patients with advanced nonmalignant disease. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative Shadowing as a Research Methodology for Exploring Early Childhood Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…

  11. Q and you: The application of Q methodology in recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney. Ward

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have used various qualitative and quantitative methods to deal with subjectivity in studying people's recreation experiences. Q methodology has been the most effective approach for analyzing both qualitative and quantitative aspects of experience, including attitudes or perceptions. The method is composed of two main components--Q sorting and Q factor...

  12. Snapshots of what, exactly? A comment on methodological experimentation and conceptual foundations in place research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Michael E. Patterson

    2007-01-01

    Place ideas in natural resource management have grown in recent years. But with that growth have come greater complexity and diversity in thinking and mounting confusion about the ontological and epistemological assumptions underlying any specific investigation. Beckley et al. (2007) contribute to place research by proposing a new methodological approach to analyzing...

  13. "Beyond the commodity metaphor," revisited: Some methodological reflections on place attachment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    The year 1992 was a watershed for research on place attachment. Not only was the landmark book Place Attachment (Altman & Low, 1992) published, in that same year some colleagues and I published "Beyond the Commodity Metaphor" in the journal Leisure Sciences (Williams et al., 1992). Our paper was not intended as a methodological contribution to place...

  14. Tough Teens: The Methodological Challenges of Interviewing Teenagers as Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Raewyn; Beagan, Brenda L.; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Chapman, Gwen E.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging a teenager to have a conversation in a semistructured research interview is fraught with difficulties. The authors discuss the methodological challenges encountered when interviewing adolescents of European Canadian, African Canadian, and Punjabi Canadian families who took part in the Family Food Decision-Making Study in two regions of…

  15. A Methodological Review of Structural Equation Modelling in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Teegan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increases in the number of articles published in higher education journals using structural equation modelling (SEM), research addressing their statistical sufficiency, methodological appropriateness and quantitative rigour is sparse. In response, this article provides a census of all covariance-based SEM articles published up until 2013…

  16. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the

  17. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  18. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  19. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  20. [Methodology for clinical research in Orthodontics, the assets of the beOrtho website].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Martial; Thibult, François

    2014-06-01

    The rules applying to the "evidence-based" methodology strongly influenced the clinical research in orthodontics. However, the implementation of clinical studies requires rigour, important statistical and methodological knowledge, as well as a reliable environment in order to compile and store the data obtained from research. We developed the project "beOrtho.com" (based on orthodontic evidence) in order to fill up the gap between our desire to drive clinical research and the necessity of methodological rigour in the exploitation of its results. BeOrtho website was created to answer the issue of sample recruitment, data compilation and storage, while providing help for the methodological design of clinical studies. It allows the development and monitoring of clinical studies, as well as the creation of databases. On the other hand, we designed an evaluation grid for clinical studies which helps developing systematic reviews. In order to illustrate our point, we tested a research protocol evaluating the interest of the mandibular advancement in the framework of Class II treatment. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  1. Motivating Students for Project-based Learning for Application of Research Methodology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ranjana; Arya, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Manoj

    2017-12-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is motivational for students to learn research methodology skills. It is a way to engage and give them ownership over their own learning. The aim of this study is to use PBL for application of research methodology skills for better learning by encouraging an all-inclusive approach in teaching and learning rather than an individualized tailored approach. The present study was carried out for MBBS 6 th - and 7 th -semester students of community medicine. Students and faculties were sensitized about PBL and components of research methodology skills. They worked in small groups. The students were asked to fill the student feedback Questionnaire and the faculty was also asked to fill the faculty feedback Questionnaire. Both the Questionnaires were assessed on a 5 point Likert scale. After submitted projects, document analysis was done. A total of 99 students of the 6 th and 7 th semester were participated in PBL. About 90.91% students agreed that there should be continuation of PBL in subsequent batches. 73.74% felt satisfied and motivated with PBL, whereas 76.77% felt that they would be able to use research methodology in the near future. PBL requires considerable knowledge, effort, persistence, and self-regulation on the part of the students. They need to devise plans, gather information evaluate both the findings, and their approach. Facilitator plays a critical role in helping students in the process by shaping opportunity for learning, guiding students, thinking, and helping them construct new understanding.

  2. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  3. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology: Raw Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Thaler-Kall, Kathrin; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Brønd, Jan C; Bonomi, Alberto; Schulze, Mareike; Vigl, Matthäus; Morseth, Bente; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Schulz, Holger; Brage, Søren; Horsch, Alexander

    2016-12-07

    Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Key stakeholders were identified as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step of algorithms for processing raw accelerometer data should be documented, and ideally also motivated, to facilitate interpretation and discussion, iii) Algorithm developers and method users should be open about uncertainties in the description of data and the uncertainty of the inference itself, iv) All new algorithms which are pitched as "ready for implementation" should be shared with the community to facilitate replication and ongoing evaluation by independent groups, and v) A dynamic interaction between method stakeholders should be encouraged to facilitate a well-informed harmonization process. The workshop led to the identification of a number of opportunities for harmonizing methodological practice. The discussion as well as the practical checklists proposed in this review should provide guidance for stakeholders on how to contribute to increased harmonization.

  5. Conjoint analysis applications in health--a checklist: a report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John F P; Hauber, A Brett; Marshall, Deborah; Lloyd, Andrew; Prosser, Lisa A; Regier, Dean A; Johnson, F Reed; Mauskopf, Josephine

    2011-06-01

    The application of conjoint analysis (including discrete-choice experiments and other multiattribute stated-preference methods) in health has increased rapidly over the past decade. A wider acceptance of these methods is limited by an absence of consensus-based methodological standards. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force was established to identify good research practices for conjoint-analysis applications in health. The task force met regularly to identify the important steps in a conjoint analysis, to discuss good research practices for conjoint analysis, and to develop and refine the key criteria for identifying good research practices. ISPOR members contributed to this process through an extensive consultation process. A final consensus meeting was held to revise the article using these comments, and those of a number of international reviewers. Task force findings are presented as a 10-item checklist covering: 1) research question; 2) attributes and levels; 3) construction of tasks; 4) experimental design; 5) preference elicitation; 6) instrument design; 7) data-collection plan; 8) statistical analyses; 9) results and conclusions; and 10) study presentation. A primary question relating to each of the 10 items is posed, and three sub-questions examine finer issues within items. Although the checklist should not be interpreted as endorsing any specific methodological approach to conjoint analysis, it can facilitate future training activities and discussions of good research practices for the application of conjoint-analysis methods in health care studies. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodological quality of quantitative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nursing research from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael; Smyer, Tish; Yucha, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality of quantitative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nursing research from 2000 to 2010. Using a key word search in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 188 studies were identified and 40 met the criteria, which included descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational (case control, cohort, and cross-sectional) design. The methodological quality of these studies was similar to that reported for medical and nursing educational research. The foci of these lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender studies were biased toward human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and sexually transmitted diseases, and 58.5% of the funded research was related to human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To provide evidence-based health care to these populations, an understanding of the current state of research is crucial.

  7. Modeling good research practices--overview: a report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force--1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Briggs, Andrew H; Siebert, Uwe; Kuntz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    Models--mathematical frameworks that facilitate estimation of the consequences of health care decisions--have become essential tools for health technology assessment. Evolution of the methods since the first ISPOR Modeling Task Force reported in 2003 has led to a new Task Force, jointly convened with the Society for Medical Decision Making, and this series of seven articles presents the updated recommendations for best practices in conceptualizing models; implementing state-transition approaches, discrete event simulations, or dynamic transmission models; and dealing with uncertainty and validating and reporting models transparently. This overview article introduces the work of the Task Force, provides all the recommendations, and discusses some quandaries that require further elucidation. The audience for these articles includes those who build models, stakeholders who utilize their results, and, indeed, anyone concerned with the use of models to support decision making. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodology of gender research and local development concepts: report on workshop, 11-12 November 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Hessling, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Der Workshop "Methodology of Gender Research and Local Development Concepts" wurde aus Anlass eines Besuches zweier Angehöriger der 'Ahfad University of Women' Omdurmman, Sudan von der 'Gender Division of the Sociology of Development Research Centre' an der Universität Bielefeld organisiert und von ungefähr 30 Teilnehmern besucht. Erfahrungen von empirischen Feldforschungsarbeiten aus dem Sudan, Kenia, Ruanda, Westafrika und Südasien bildeten den Ausgangspunkt für Diskussionen über methodolo...

  9. Research Methodology in Montanistic Tourism with Respect to the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schejbal Ctirad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methodology in montanistic tourism involves the archival research and study of special literature, surface and underground field survey, the analysis of findings of rock fragments, mineral composition, traces of metallurgical processes, fragments of pottery, etc. A separate problem is the study and evaluation of the development of mining and post-mining landscapes, focusing on the entire supply chain of resource industries and their impact on the cultural development of the country.

  10. Baseline Study Methodology for Future Phases of Research on Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide a basis for industry adoption of advanced technologies, the Control Room Upgrades Benefits Research Project will investigate the benefits of including advanced technologies as part of control room modernization This report describes the background, methodology, and research plan for the first in a series of full-scale studies to test the effects of advanced technology in NPP control rooms. This study will test the effect of Advanced Overview Displays in the partner Utility’s control room simulator

  11. Analysis Planning Methodology: For Thesis, Joint Applied Project, & MBA Research Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Naegle, Brad R.

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition Research Handbook Series Purpose: This guide provides the graduate student researcher—you—with techniques and advice on creating an effective analysis plan, and it provides methods for focusing the data-collection effort based on that analysis plan. As a side benefit, this analysis planning methodology will help you to properly scope the research effort and will provide you with insight for changes in that effort. The information presented herein was supported b...

  12. Development of a methodology for conducting an integrated HRA/PRA --. Task 1, An assessment of human reliability influences during LP&S conditions PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckas, W.J.; Barriere, M.T.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wreathall, J. [Wreathall (John) and Co., Dublin, OH (United States); Cooper, S.E. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    During Low Power and Shutdown (LP&S) conditions in a nuclear power plant (i.e., when the reactor is subcritical or at less than 10--15% power), human interactions with the plant`s systems will be more frequent and more direct. Control is typically not mediated by automation, and there are fewer protective systems available. Therefore, an assessment of LP&S related risk should include a greater emphasis on human reliability than such an assessment made for power operation conditions. In order to properly account for the increase in human interaction and thus be able to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) applicable to operations during LP&S, it is important that a comprehensive human reliability assessment (HRA) methodology be developed and integrated into the LP&S PRA. The tasks comprising the comprehensive HRA methodology development are as follows: (1) identification of the human reliability related influences and associated human actions during LP&S, (2) identification of potentially important LP&S related human actions and appropriate HRA framework and quantification methods, and (3) incorporation and coordination of methodology development with other integrated PRA/HRA efforts. This paper describes the first task, i.e., the assessment of human reliability influences and any associated human actions during LP&S conditions for a pressurized water reactor (PWR).

  13. Using social media for health research: Methodological and ethical considerations for recruitment and intervention delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Pagoto, Sherry; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Lillie, Sarah E; Nebeker, Camille

    2018-01-01

    As the popularity and diversity of social media platforms increases so does their utility for health research. Using social media for recruitment into clinical studies and/or delivering health behavior interventions may increase reach to a broader audience. However, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is limited, and key questions remain with respect to optimal benchmarks, intervention development and methodology, participant engagement, informed consent, privacy, and data management. Little methodological guidance is available to researchers interested in using social media for health research. In this Tutorial, we summarize the content of the 2017 Society for Behavioral Medicine Pre-Conference Course entitled 'Using Social Media for Research,' at which the authors presented their experiences with methodological and ethical issues relating to social media-enabled research recruitment and intervention delivery. We identify common pitfalls and provide recommendations for recruitment and intervention via social media. We also discuss the ethical and responsible conduct of research using social media for each of these purposes.

  14. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

  15. Game-like tasks for comparative research: leveling the playing field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Gulledge, J. P.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Game-like computer tasks offer many benefits for psychological research. In this paper, the usefulness of such tasks to bridge population differences (e.g., age, intelligence, species) is discussed and illustrated. A task called ALVIN was used to assess humans' and monkeys' working memory for sequences of colors with or without tones. Humans repeated longer lists than did the monkeys, and only humans benefited when the visual stimuli were accompanied by auditory cues. However, the monkeys did recall sequences at levels comparable to those reported elsewhere for children. Comparison of similarities and differences between the species is possible because the two groups were tested with exactly the same game-like paradigm.

  16. Methodologic and ethical ramifications of sex and gender differences in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Experience and investigative studies have shown that inequalities still exist between the sexes as well as in how public health policies and strategies approach the needs of the sexes. Sufficient attention has not been given to gender in public health research. Gender-based differences and similarities need to be promoted, and more structured guidelines are needed to build gender into public health research models. The aim of this review was to investigate and discuss public health research and to answer several related questions on gender biases, ethics and methodologies, and the establishment of guidelines. Using the search terms public health research and gender , or ethics , gender , and public health, a literature search was conducted predominately with, but not limited to, the PubMed database. English- or German-language articles were identified that examined the current status of gender in public health research as well as any relevant ethical guidelines. A review of the current literature showed that much work has been undertaken to promote the inclusion of gender in health research. However, deficiencies in the extent of gender-oriented research have been found in a number of key areas, including ethics committees and public health research methodology. Women were found to be underrepresented in ethics committees, which lack clear guidance, particularly in the European Union, to ensure the inclusion of gender issues in public health research. Data are often not sex disaggregated, and information on gender and social circumstances are frequently lacking. Furthermore, some methodologies, such as those used in the field of occupational health, underestimate men's or women's burden of disease. Recommendations include establishing guidelines for researchers on how to incorporate gender in health research, ensuring that the composition of ethics committees is more representative of society, and recommending that data collection systems or bodies ensure that data

  17. Application of productive research tasks in working with gifted students in teaching Serbian language and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Mirjana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work we examine the possibility of application of productive research tasks in working with gifted students in teaching Serbian language and literature. Using specific examples of interpretations of literary works we show that productive research assignments encourage students' creative and inventive expression, creativity, imagination and criticality and enable them to develop in accordance with their personality, individual preferences and abilities. In the examples of their use in problem solving, we determine how productive research tasks are conducive to gifted students who need to learn through problem solving and school work and to experience learning as a challenge. They present the basis for independent research, which allows gifted students to express their own creativity and the need to acquire new, challenging knowledge, and represent a powerful motivational tool that teachers can use in order to further develop their talent. Creative application of the productive research tasks in teaching Serbian language and literature is the possibility that the education of gifted students is not treated as elitist question, but to transform teaching process into development of giftedness and talent, where the role of the teacher in the teaching process rises to the role of the mentor.

  18. The trials methodological research agenda: results from a priority setting exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research into the methods used in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials is essential to ensure that effective methods are available and that clinical decisions made using results from trials are based on the best available evidence, which is reliable and robust. Methods An on-line Delphi survey of 48 UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) was undertaken. During round one, CTU Directors were asked to identify important topics that require methodological research. During round two, their opinion about the level of importance of each topic was recorded, and during round three, they were asked to review the group’s average opinion and revise their previous opinion if appropriate. Direct reminders were sent to maximise the number of responses at each round. Results are summarised using descriptive methods. Results Forty one (85%) CTU Directors responded to at least one round of the Delphi process: 25 (52%) responded in round one, 32 (67%) responded in round two, 24 (50%) responded in round three. There were only 12 (25%) who responded to all three rounds and 18 (38%) who responded to both rounds two and three. Consensus was achieved amongst CTU Directors that the top three priorities for trials methodological research were ‘Research into methods to boost recruitment in trials’ (considered the highest priority), ‘Methods to minimise attrition’ and ‘Choosing appropriate outcomes to measure’. Fifty other topics were included in the list of priorities and consensus was reached that two topics, ‘Radiotherapy study designs’ and ‘Low carbon trials’, were not priorities. Conclusions This priority setting exercise has identified the research topics felt to be most important to the key stakeholder group of Directors of UKCRC registered CTUs. The use of robust methodology to identify these priorities will help ensure that this work informs the trials methodological research agenda, with

  19. Researching local sports initiatives for young migrants from a political perspective: methodological and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi García-Arjona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.

  20. The Researching on Evaluation of Automatic Voltage Control Based on Improved Zoning Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jun, ZHU; Ang, FU; Guang-de, DONG; Rui-miao, WANG; De-fen, ZHU

    2018-03-01

    According to the present serious phenomenon of increasing size and structure of power system, hierarchically structured automatic voltage control(AVC) has been the researching spot. In the paper, the reduced control model is built and the adaptive reduced control model is researched to improve the voltage control effect. The theories of HCSD, HCVS, SKC and FCM are introduced and the effect on coordinated voltage regulation caused by different zoning methodologies is also researched. The generic framework for evaluating performance of coordinated voltage regulation is built. Finally, the IEEE-96 stsyem is used to divide the network. The 2383-bus Polish system is built to verify that the selection of a zoning methodology affects not only the coordinated voltage regulation operation, but also its robustness to erroneous data and proposes a comprehensive generic framework for evaluating its performance. The New England 39-bus network is used to verify the adaptive reduced control models’ performance.

  1. Designing and Implementing INTREPID, an Intensive Program in Translational Research Methodologies for New Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Shao, Yongzhao; Micoli, Keith J.; Fang, Yixin; Goldberg, Judith D.; Galeano, Claudia R.; Stangel, Jessica H.; Chavis‐Keeling, Deborah; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Senior housestaff and junior faculty are often expected to perform clinical research, yet may not always have the requisite knowledge and skills to do so successfully. Formal degree programs provide such knowledge, but require a significant commitment of time and money. Short‐term training programs (days to weeks) provide alternative ways to accrue essential information and acquire fundamental methodological skills. Unfortunately, published information about short‐term programs is sparse. To encourage discussion and exchange of ideas regarding such programs, we here share our experience developing and implementing INtensive Training in Research Statistics, Ethics, and Protocol Informatics and Design (INTREPID), a 24‐day immersion training program in clinical research methodologies. Designing, planning, and offering INTREPID was feasible, and required significant faculty commitment, support personnel and infrastructure, as well as committed trainees. PMID:25066862

  2. A dynamic systems engineering methodology research study. Phase 2: Evaluating methodologies, tools, and techniques for applicability to NASA's systems projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.; Maclin, Arlene P.

    1989-01-01

    A study of NASA's Systems Management Policy (SMP) concluded that the primary methodology being used by the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate and its subordinate, the Networks Division, is very effective. Still some unmet needs were identified. This study involved evaluating methodologies, tools, and techniques with the potential for resolving the previously identified deficiencies. Six preselected methodologies being used by other organizations with similar development problems were studied. The study revealed a wide range of significant differences in structure. Each system had some strengths but none will satisfy all of the needs of the Networks Division. Areas for improvement of the methodology being used by the Networks Division are listed with recommendations for specific action.

  3. Creating Innovative Research Designs: The 10-Year Methodological Think Tank Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Crabtree, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Addressing important but complex research questions often necessitates the creation of innovative mixed methods designs. This report describes an approach to developing research designs for studying important but methodologically challenging research questions. METHODS The Methodological Think Tank has been held annually in conjunction with the Primary Care Research Methods and Statistics Conference in San Antonio since 1994. A group of 3 to 4 methodologists with expertise balanced between quantitative and qualitative backgrounds is invited by the think tank coordinators to serve on a 2-day think tank to discuss a research question selected from those submitted in response to a call for proposals. During the first half-day, these experts explore the content area with the investigator, often challenging beliefs and assumptions. During the second half-day, the think tank participants systematically prune potential approaches until a desirable research method is identified. RESULTS To date, the most recent 7 think tanks have produced fundable research designs, with 1 being funded by a K award and 4 by R01 grants. All participating investigators attributed much of their success to think tank participation. Lessons learned include (1) the importance of careful selection of participating methodologists, (2) all think tank communities of inquiry must go through 4 stages of development from pseudocommunity to community, and (3) the critical importance of listening by the investigator. CONCLUSION Researchers and academic departments could use this process locally to develop innovative research designs. PMID:17003146

  4. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick-Makaroff, Kara; MacDonald, Marjorie; Plummer, Marilyn; Burgess, Judy; Neander, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers. PMID:29546155

  5. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Schick-Makaroff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods: We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results: We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions: The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  6. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick-Makaroff, Kara; MacDonald, Marjorie; Plummer, Marilyn; Burgess, Judy; Neander, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use 'research synthesis' as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  7. Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cleveland-INNERS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs Tom JONES, Ph.D. Associate Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA M. Cleveland-INNERS, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA ABSTRACT The growth of basic and applied research activity in distance education requires redirection on several fronts, including the instruction of research methods in the education of graduate students. The majority of graduate students in distance education are practitioners whose goals range from carrying out original research to acquiring the concepts and skills necessary to become a practitioner. We argue that the best foundation for achieving both of those goals in distance education is developed by means of an understanding and internalization of sound research design methodologies, primarily acquired by formal instruction, and that an emphasis on research in graduate programs in distance education will encourage theory development. This paper presents the rationale for a general curricular model that attempts to address the sets of research competencies for graduate students in graduate-level distance education programs while at the same time moving students toward an appreciation and understanding of the epistemological foundations for social science research.

  8. Project-based learning methodology in the area of microbiology applied to undergraduate medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Estibaliz; Sevillano, Elena

    2018-07-01

    In the recent years, there has been a decrease in the number of medical professionals dedicated to a research career. There is evidence that students with a research experience during their training acquire knowledge and skills that increase the probability of getting involved in research more successfully. In the Degree of Medicine (University of the Basque Country) the annual core subject 'Research Project' introduces students to research. The aim of this work was to implement a project-based learning methodology, with the students working on microbiology, and to analyse its result along time. Given an initial scenario, the students had to come up with a research idea related to medical microbiology and to carry out a research project, including writing a funding proposal, developing the experimental assays and analyzing and presenting their results to a congress organized by the University. Summative assessment was performed by both students and teachers. A satisfaction survey was carried out to gather the students' opinion. The overall results regarding to the classroom dynamics, learning results and motivation after the implementation were favourable. Students referred a greater interest about research than they had before. They would choose the project based methodology versus the traditional one.

  9. Conducting research among smuggled migrants in the Netherlands and Austria: methodological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bilger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research among smuggled migrants raises methodological as well as ethical questions. In this article the implications of field work among this specific group of people are thoroughly discussed. Also migrants who have been smuggled have a past, a travel experience and some have a confrontation with immigration officers which can have a concrete impact on the story provided to the researcher and as such on the data collection. Besides, once the story is told, the researcher is responsable for how best to deal with this often secret information.

  10. Research to reduce the suicide rate among older adults: methodology roadblocks and promising paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Lenze, Eric J; Waern, Margda; Duberstein, Paul; Bruce, Martha L; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention have requested input into the development of a national suicide research agenda. In response, a working group of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry has prepared recommendations to ensure that the suicide prevention dialogue includes older adults, a large and fast-growing population at high risk of suicide. In this Open Forum, the working group describes three methodology roadblocks to research into suicide prevention among elderly persons and three paradigms that might provide directions for future research into suicide prevention strategies for older adults.

  11. To meet new tasks of scientific research on uranium geology in new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    2000-01-01

    The author analyses the new situation that the scientific research on uranium geology is facing in the coming new century, and proposes that the guiding idea of the scientific research on uranium geology is to coordinate the general policy of Bureau of Geology--to give the first priority to in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. The specific tasks for the scientific research on uranium geology are: to implement regional evaluation and target area selection of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits; to develop new techniques and methods of detecting buried in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits; to turn the genetic model of uranium deposit and deposit model to prospecting model; to strengthen the research on economic geology and the dynamic assessment system of uranium resources and to build up and improve the data base of Meso-Cenozoic basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits. In order to guarantee the successful implementation of the above tasks it is necessary for the Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology--the leading unit in scientific research on uranium geology to accelerate bringing up large numbers of young outstanding researchers; to have clear consciousness of market economy and product quality; to given play to advantages of qualified personnel, advanced equipment and modern technology

  12. Proceedings of the specialist research meeting on scientific and engineering researches of unstable nuclei and on their nuclear methodology (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawade, K.; Taniguchi, A.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    New research fields with the use of radioactive ion beams are now rapidly developing by virtue of recent progress in radioactive beam accelerators. The scientific and engineering researches on unstable nuclei far from stability are getting particular interests aiming at the full use of their radiation. In the circumstance many laboratories report utilizations and researches of the RI beam, the Tohoku University's renewal plan of the cyclotron and the short-lived nuclear beam facility at KEK have started. To discuss these new subjects on the scientific and engineering researches of unstable nuclei and on their nuclear methodology, the third specialist meeting was held at the KUR on February 16 and 17, 1998. Several noticeable and wide scope works on the method of RI-beam generation and on the new development of nuclear methodology have been reported, such as fundamental researches with laser, new isotope searchings and researches of nuclear structures with ISOL, in-beam nuclear spectroscopies through the deep-inelastic collision. In this meeting, especially, fundamental support-researches are reported, which are precise measurements of absolute disintegration rates, a gamma peak analysis method, evaluations of fundamental nuclear data, measurements of beta detector response functions for reducing Q values and precise measurement of high energy gamma intensities up to 11 MeV. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Concept mapping methodology and community-engaged research: A perfect pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jones, Jennifer R; Booth, Emily; Burke, Jessica G

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping methodology as refined by Trochim et al. is uniquely suited to engage communities in all aspects of research from project set-up to data collection to interpreting results to dissemination of results, and an increasing number of research studies have utilized the methodology for exploring complex health issues in communities. In the current manuscript, we present the results of a literature search of peer-reviewed articles in health-related research where concept mapping was used in collaboration with the community. A total of 103 articles met the inclusion criteria. We first address how community engagement was defined in the articles and then focus on the articles describing high community engagement and the associated community outcomes/benefits and methodological challenges. A majority (61%; n=63) of the articles were classified as low to moderate community engagement and participation while 38% (n=39) of the articles were classified as high community engagement and participation. The results of this literature review enhance our understanding of how concept mapping can be used in direct collaboration with communities and highlights the many potential benefits for both researchers and communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body-Map Storytelling as a Health Research Methodology: Blurred Lines Creating Clear Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gastaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the literature on body-mapping (BM as an approach to health research in order to systematize recent advancements and to contribute to its development. We conducted a critical narrative synthesis of the literature published until September 2016 guided by two questions: 1. How has BM been utilized in health research? 2. How does BM advance a decolonization agenda? Twenty-seven studies in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were analyzed. Most of them were published between 2011 and 2016 and were conducted in South Africa, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Chile, and USA. They narrate stories of marginalized groups and commonly focus on the social determinants of health. Data generation, analysis, and knowledge mobilization strategies differ considerably. Recent developments show that body-mapping is a visual, narrative, and participatory methodology that has several names and is used unevenly by health researchers. Despite its diversity, core methodological elements reveal that participants are considered knowledgeable, reflexive individuals who can better articulate their complex life journeys when painting and drawing their bodies and social circumstances. The decolonization of health research occurs when these unlikely protagonists tell their stories producing counter-hegemonic discourses to exclusionary capitalist, patriarchal and colonialist rationalities. We call this methodology body-map storytelling.

  15. Recent tasks and status of National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene as TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.

    2007-01-01

    The technical support function of the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene has been introduced at the time of its establishment. In order to support the actual requirements the Institute carries on extended research in the fields of radiation protection and radiation biology participating in national and international projects. Supporting the proper performance of national radiation protection and safety tasks the Institute gives professional directives and expert opinions for decision processes of authorities. The Institutes main areas of radiation protection activity are: - Radiation-related licensing, inspection, record keeping; - assuring safety of radiation sources; - National Personal Dosimetry Service; - radiological monitoring of the environment; - preparedness for radiological incidents and accidents; - radiation protection training activities. The Institute has an accredited Testing Laboratory with nearly sixty examination protocols. Together with its Central Environmental Testing Laboratory, the Institute thus provides a significant support for both theoretical and practical accomplishment of the national radiation protection and safety tasks. (author)

  16. Biomedical text mining for research rigor and integrity: tasks, challenges, directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil

    2017-06-13

    An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications. These artifacts can be both the source and the manifestation of practices leading to research waste. For example, an article may describe a poorly designed experiment, or the authors may reach conclusions not supported by the evidence presented. In this article, we pose the question of whether biomedical text mining techniques can assist the stakeholders in the biomedical research enterprise in doing their part toward enhancing research integrity and rigor. In particular, we identify four key areas in which text mining techniques can make a significant contribution: plagiarism/fraud detection, ensuring adherence to reporting guidelines, managing information overload and accurate citation/enhanced bibliometrics. We review the existing methods and tools for specific tasks, if they exist, or discuss relevant research that can provide guidance for future work. With the exponential increase in biomedical research output and the ability of text mining approaches to perform automatic tasks at large scale, we propose that such approaches can support tools that promote responsible research practices, providing significant benefits for the biomedical research enterprise. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  18. Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-04-01

    Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and

  19. Patient-centered outcomes research in radiology: trends in funding and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    The creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 presents new opportunities for funding patient-centered comparative effectiveness research (CER) in radiology. We provide an overview of the evolution of federal funding and priorities for CER with a focus on radiology-related priority topics over the last two decades, and discuss the funding processes and methodological standards outlined by PCORI. We introduce key paradigm shifts in research methodology that will be required on the part of radiology health services researchers to obtain competitive federal grant funding in patient-centered outcomes research. These paradigm shifts include direct engagement of patients and other stakeholders at every stage of the research process, from initial conception to dissemination of results. We will also discuss the increasing use of mixed methods and novel trial designs. One of these trial designs, the pragmatic trial, has the potential to be readily applied to evaluating the effectiveness of diagnostic imaging procedures and imaging-based interventions among diverse patient populations in real-world settings. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers' (HDRs) capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic…

  1. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  2. Methodology for thermal-hydraulics analysis of pool type MTR fuel research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology developed for thermal-hydraulic analysis of pool type MTR fuel research reactors. For this methodology a computational program, FLOW, and a model, MTRCR-IEAR1 were developed. FLOW calculates the cooling flow distribution in the fuel elements, control elements, irradiators, and through the channels formed among the fuel elements and among the irradiators and reflectors. This computer program was validated against experimental data for the IEA-R1 research reactor core at IPEN-CNEN/SP. MTRCR-IEAR1 is a model based on the commercial program Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Besides the thermal-hydraulic analyses of the core in steady state accomplished by traditional computational programs like COBRA-3C/RERTR and PARET, this model allows to analyze parallel channels with different cooling flow and/or geometry. Uncertainty factors of the variables from neutronic and thermalhydraulic calculation and also from the fabrication of the fuel element are introduced in the model. For steady state analyses MTRCR-IEAR1 showed good agreement with the results of COBRA-3C/RERTR and PARET. The developed methodology was used for the calculation of the cooling flow distribution and the thermal-hydraulic analysis of a typical configuration of the IEA-R1 research reactor core. (author)

  3. Examining a Social-Participatory Youth Co-Researcher Methodology: A Cross-Case Analysis Extending Possibilities of Literacy and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Vaughn W. M.; Marciano, Joanne E.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when youth are increasingly negotiating new media literacy practices across multiple contexts, literacy researchers are compelled to take notice and reconsider methodologies that centre the researcher, to purposefully engage youth's knowledge, identities and new media literacies as research methodologies. To that end, the authors…

  4. [Review of the gender research in cross-cultural psychology since 1990: conceptual definitions and methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuko

    2004-06-01

    A review of the cross-cultural research on gender in psychology since 1990 reveals (1) conceptual confusion of the definitions of sex, gender, man, and woman; (2) diversification, refinement, reification, and a problem-solving orientation in the research topics; and (3) the possibility of the elucidation of the psychological sex-difference mechanism in relation to the biological sex differences. A comparison of 1990 and 2000 cross-cultural psychological articles published in "Sex Roles" found that overall, the research is Western-centered and some methodological problems remain to be solved concerning the measures and the sampling. These findings lead to the following suggestions for cross-cultural research on gender to resolve the problems and contribute to the development of psychology in general: (1) use of an operational definition for conceptual equivalence; (2) conducting more etic-approach research; (3) avoiding ethnocentric or androcentric research attitudes; (4) use of a theoretical framework; (5) strict examination of methodologies; and (6) examination of the specific context of participants in terms of cultural diversity, dynamics of husband-wife relationships, and relationships with husbands and fathers.

  5. Discourse analysis: A useful methodology for health-care system researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Yousefy, Alireza; Mohammadi, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry and becoming an increasingly popular research strategy for researchers in various disciplines which has been little employed by health-care researchers. The methodology involves a focus on the sociocultural and political context in which text and talk occur. DA adds a linguistic approach to an understanding of the relationship between language and ideology, exploring the way in which theories of reality and relations of power are encoded in such aspects as the syntax, style, and rhetorical devices used in texts. DA is a useful and productive qualitative methodology but has been underutilized within health-care system research. Without a clear understanding of discourse theory and DA it is difficult to comprehend important research findings and impossible to use DA as a research strategy. To redress this deficiency, in this article, represents an introduction to concepts of discourse and DA, DA history, Philosophical background, DA types and analysis strategy. Finally, we discuss how affect to the ideological dimension of such phenomena discourse in health-care system, health beliefs and intra-disciplinary relationship in health-care system.

  6. The research and practice of integrating conservation and development: Self-reflections by researchers on methodologies, objectives and influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Pasgaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of mixed-method and participatory approaches to conservation and development research. Both approaches were applied in a research project on the relationship between ecosystem governance and the wellbeing of local communities adjacent to a protected area in Laos. By encouraging four of the involved field researchers to reflect upon and expose their practical approaches as scientific experts (in terms of methodologies, objectives, reliability of results and research influence, this article aims to improve our learning from research practice and to promote reflexivity in research. The reflexive study presented here emphasizes the social and political context or real world situation against which research outputs can and should be evaluated, and retrospectively sheds light on the barriers to reach research objectives. In essence, the article addresses the relation between science and policy, and underlines the political undercurrent of conservation and development research in facilitating institutional change. The article outlines the very role of researchers in developing conservation policies, and provides a foundation for institutions and individual researchers to promote critical and constructive self-reflections in scientific practices.

  7. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  8. The IAEA research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Graham, D.; Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Research Coordinated Project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM) was launched in November 1997 and it has been underway for three years. The ISAM project was developed to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in long-term safety assessment of near surface repositories. It resulted in the development of a harmonised approach and illustrated its application by way of three test cases - vault, borehole and Radon (a particular range of repository designs developed within the former Soviet Union) type repositories. As a consequence, the ISAM project had over 70 active participants and attracted considerable interest involving around 700 experts from 72 Member States. The methodology developed, the test cases, the main lessons learnt and the conclusions have been documented and will be published in the form of an IAEA TECDOC. This paper presents the work of the IAEA on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface waste disposal facilities and the application of these methodologies for different purposes in the individual stages of the repository development. The paper introduces the main objectives, activities and outcome of the ISAM project and summarizes the work performed by the six working groups within the ISAM programme, i.e. Scenario Generation and Justification, Modelling, Confidence Building, Vault, Radon Type Facility and Borehole test cases. (author)

  9. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy: how to involve and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide. Furthermore, the collective process makes the decision-making procedures relatively complex.

  10. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside clinical trials II-An ISPOR Good Research Practices Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Scott D; Willke, Richard J; Glick, Henry; Reed, Shelby D; Augustovski, Federico; Jonsson, Bengt; Briggs, Andrew; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-03-01

    Clinical trials evaluating medicines, medical devices, and procedures now commonly assess the economic value of these interventions. The growing number of prospective clinical/economic trials reflects both widespread interest in economic information for new technologies and the regulatory and reimbursement requirements of many countries that now consider evidence of economic value along with clinical efficacy. As decision makers increasingly demand evidence of economic value for health care interventions, conducting high-quality economic analyses alongside clinical studies is desirable because they broaden the scope of information available on a particular intervention, and can efficiently provide timely information with high internal and, when designed and analyzed properly, reasonable external validity. In 2005, ISPOR published the Good Research Practices for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Alongside Clinical Trials: The ISPOR RCT-CEA Task Force report. ISPOR initiated an update of the report in 2014 to include the methodological developments over the last 9 years. This report provides updated recommendations reflecting advances in several areas related to trial design, selecting data elements, database design and management, analysis, and reporting of results. Task force members note that trials should be designed to evaluate effectiveness (rather than efficacy) when possible, should include clinical outcome measures, and should obtain health resource use and health state utilities directly from study subjects. Collection of economic data should be fully integrated into the study. An incremental analysis should be conducted with an intention-to-treat approach, complemented by relevant subgroup analyses. Uncertainty should be characterized. Articles should adhere to established standards for reporting results of cost-effectiveness analyses. Economic studies alongside trials are complementary to other evaluations (e.g., modeling studies) as information for decision

  12. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: An Overview and Methodological Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Carley J.; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; however, the direction and precise nature of this relationship are not yet clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression as it has been examined in the empirical literature. Also, the potential mechanisms of action that have been implicated in this relationship are also explored. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using the keywords: breastfeeding with postpartum depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression. Results of this search showed that researchers have examined this relationship in diverse ways using diverse methodology. In particular, researchers have examined the relationships between postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, initiation, duration, and dose. Due to a number of methodological differences among past studies we make some recommendations for future research that will better facilitate an integration of findings. Future research should (1) use standardized assessment protocols; (2) confirm diagnosis through established clinical interview when possible; (3) provide a clear operationalized definition for breastfeeding variables; (4) clearly define the postpartum period interval assessed and time frame for onset of symptoms; (5) be prospective or longitudinal in nature; and (6) take into consideration other potential risk factors identified in the empirical literature. PMID:27148457

  13. A call to improve sampling methodology and reporting in young novice driver research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Senserrick, T

    2017-02-01

    Young drivers continue to be over-represented in road crash fatalities despite a multitude of research, communication and intervention. Evidence-based improvement depends to a great extent upon research methodology quality and its reporting, with known limitations in the peer-review process. The aim of the current research was to review the scope of research methodologies applied in 'young driver' and 'teen driver' research and their reporting in four peer-review journals in the field between January 2006 and December 2013. In total, 806 articles were identified and assessed. Reporting omissions included participant gender (11% of papers), response rates (49%), retention rates (39%) and information regarding incentives (44%). Greater breadth and specific improvements in study designs and reporting are thereby identified as a means to further advance the field. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: An Overview and Methodological Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley J. Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; however, the direction and precise nature of this relationship are not yet clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression as it has been examined in the empirical literature. Also, the potential mechanisms of action that have been implicated in this relationship are also explored. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using the keywords: breastfeeding with postpartum depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression. Results of this search showed that researchers have examined this relationship in diverse ways using diverse methodology. In particular, researchers have examined the relationships between postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, initiation, duration, and dose. Due to a number of methodological differences among past studies we make some recommendations for future research that will better facilitate an integration of findings. Future research should (1 use standardized assessment protocols; (2 confirm diagnosis through established clinical interview when possible; (3 provide a clear operationalized definition for breastfeeding variables; (4 clearly define the postpartum period interval assessed and time frame for onset of symptoms; (5 be prospective or longitudinal in nature; and (6 take into consideration other potential risk factors identified in the empirical literature.

  15. Tolerance limits and methodologies for IMRT measurement-based verification QA: Recommendations of AAPM Task Group No. 218.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miften, Moyed; Olch, Arthur; Mihailidis, Dimitris; Moran, Jean; Pawlicki, Todd; Molineu, Andrea; Li, Harold; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Shi, Jie; Xia, Ping; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Low, Daniel A

    2018-04-01

    Patient-specific IMRT QA measurements are important components of processes designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered radiation doses. Discrepancy tolerance limits are neither well defined nor consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report provides a comprehensive review aimed at improving the understanding and consistency of these processes as well as recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. The performance of the dose difference/distance-to-agreement (DTA) and γ dose distribution comparison metrics are investigated. Measurement methods are reviewed and followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of each. Methodologies for absolute dose verification are discussed and new IMRT QA verification tools are presented. Literature on the expected or achievable agreement between measurements and calculations for different types of planning and delivery systems are reviewed and analyzed. Tests of vendor implementations of the γ verification algorithm employing benchmark cases are presented. Operational shortcomings that can reduce the γ tool accuracy and subsequent effectiveness for IMRT QA are described. Practical considerations including spatial resolution, normalization, dose threshold, and data interpretation are discussed. Published data on IMRT QA and the clinical experience of the group members are used to develop guidelines and recommendations on tolerance and action limits for IMRT QA. Steps to check failed IMRT QA plans are outlined. Recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, dose normalization, the use of γ analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA are made with focus on detecting differences between calculated and measured doses via the use of robust analysis methods and an in-depth understanding of IMRT verification metrics. The recommendations are intended to improve the IMRT QA process and establish consistent, and comparable IMRT QA

  16. BWR stability analysis: methodology of the stability analysis and results of PSI for the NEA/NCR benchmark task; SWR Stabilitaetsanalyse: Methodik der Stabilitaetsanalyse und PSI-Ergebnisse zur NEA/NCR Benchmarkaufgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, D.; Nechvatal, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    The report describes the PSI stability analysis methodology and the validation of this methodology based on the international OECD/NEA BWR stability benchmark task. In the frame of this work, the stability properties of some operation points of the NPP Ringhals 1 have been analysed and compared with the experimental results. (author) figs., tabs., 45 refs.

  17. Improvement The Acquisition of Research Methodology and Self Regulated Learning through Blog Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Retnawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This classroom action research seeks to improveself-regulated learning (SRL and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL, students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ona model by Kemmis & McTaggart and was conducted in two cycles. The data were analyzed using mixed methods in which the main data were analyzed qualitatively and further analysed quantitatively. The results of the study showed that after completing the course, students not only gained knowledge about research methods, but were also able to write are search proposal. In addition, the project-based learning could facilitate students to practice their communication skills while writing on their blog and to improve selfegulated learning. Keywords: Action research, project-based learning, blog, self-regulated learning PENINGKATAN PENGUASAAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN DAN SELF REGULATED LEARNING MELALUI PROJEK BLOG Abstrak: Penelitian tindakan kelas ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemandirian belajar dan pemahaman metodologi penelitian di sekolah Pascasarjana. Partisipan yang terlibat pada studi ini adalah 19 mahasiswa master di sekolah pascasarjana. Dengan menerapkan pembelajaran berbasis projek (PjBL, mahasiswa diberi tugas membuat blog sebagai projek utama. Projek yang dibuat mahasiswa berupa blog untuk merepresantasikan pemahaman metodologi penelitian mahasiswa melalui tulisan dan usulan penelitian tesis. Penelitian tindakan ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus dengan model Kemmis & Taggart. Analisis data dilakukan dengan mixed methods secara kualitatif dengan dilengkapi analisis kuantitatif sebagai pendukung. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa setelah menyelesaikan

  18. Research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Liles, Brandi D; Tett, Robert P; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the development of community-based and clinical interventions to assist children and adolescents after a disaster has become an international priority. Clinicians and researchers have begun to scientifically evaluate these interventions despite challenging conditions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress. This scientifically rigorous analysis used standards for methodological rigor of psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to examine 29 intervention studies. This analysis revealed that further refinement of methodology is needed to determine if certain intervention approaches are superior to other approaches and if they provide benefit beyond natural recovery. Most studies (93.1%) clearly described the interventions being tested or used manuals to guide application and most (89.7%) used standardized instruments to measure outcomes, and many used random assignment (69.0%) and provided assessor training (65.5%). Fewer studies used blinded assessment (44.8%) or measured treatment adherence (48.3%), and sample size in most studies (82.8%) was not adequate to detect small effects generally expected when comparing two active interventions. Moreover, it is unclear what constitutes meaningful change in relation to treatment especially for the numerous interventions administered to children in the general population. Overall, the results are inconclusive about which children, what settings, and what approaches are most likely to be beneficial. © 2014.

  19. The participatory action research as a methodological alternative for social change: analysis from different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Consuegra Ascanio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social sciences have conceived several methods, approaches and methodological tools to tackle the complexity of social reality and get to transform it in depth. Yet, the dominant view has followed a neoliberal model that merely proposes specific guidelines aimed at promoting both individual and collective actions that strengthen status quo and keep dominant practices in place. On the contrary, this article highlights four key aspects of Participatory Action Research (PAR, that make it a methodological alternative to promote social changes. First: PAR as a way to decolonize proper knowledge in social sciences and through them. Second: PAR as a critical stance towards the hegemonic economic and political model. Third, PAR as a pedagogical frame to think of research and education as emancipatory actions, and finally, PAR as a political option for social change in Colombia. It is highlighted the role of social movements in getting structural transformations. Also, the relevance of PAR as a methodology combining action and reflection on many-faceted and ever-changing social realities is addressed.

  20. The Development Of Learning Sets And Research Methodology Module Using Problem Based Learning For Accounting Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Partono; Nurkhin, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the learning process is very important for every lecturer by implement innovative learning methods or media. The purpose of this study is to develop a research methodology learning instruction and module based of problem based learning for accounting education students. This research applied research and development design in the research methodology course in Economics Education (Accounting) Department, Faculty Of Economics, Semarang State University. Data analysis was used to test...

  1. Challenges in developing a methodology for reviewing Nordic research on media and technology in MTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    important as there exist several alternatives to ‘technology’ and ‘media’ – e.g. ‘the expanded text’, ‘digital media’, ‘multimodal media’ etc. Thus, M&T within MTE can be seen as didactic border objects. Analyzing the Danish studies, we find a clear predominance of interventionist approaches that try...... to push forward the use of new, typically digital M&T. Overall, the studies suggest that such interventions are interpreted in both integrating and disintegrating ways by participating teachers and students. Discussion No systematic reviews of research on M&T in MTE have been made transnationally......The paper presents a methodological framework for a research project, which aims at reviewing Nordic research of mother tongue education with a particular focus on media and technology (M&T). Relevant national context During the last decade, several research projects have had an explicit focus...

  2. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  3. Teaching Theory of Science and Research Methodology to Nursing Students: A Practice-Developing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth

    , in a principled way, to select subject-matter content for a course for nursing students on theory of science and research methodology. At the same time, the practical organisation of the project was motivated by a practice-developing research perspective. The purpose of the presentation is to illustrate how...... the idea of practice-developing research was realised in this concrete project. A short introduction is first given to explain the practical situation that motivated the need and interest to select subject matter for teaching. Then, the main part of the presentation explains the considerations involved...... developed. On the basis of this presentation, it should be possible to get a concrete image of one form for practice-developing research. The presentation concludes with a discussion that problematises the sense in which general knowledge about development of nursing school teaching practice has been...

  4. Research on Evaluation Methodology for High Temperature Components and Technical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Han, S.B.

    2007-03-01

    The research on evaluation methodology for high temperature components and technical issues includes the comparison of evaluation technology of Very High Temperature Reactors(VHTRs) with that of present commercial reactors, the review of Hot Gas Duct(HGD) insulation designs, the analysis of the codes related to VHTR component construction and the analysis of technical issues on application of present codes to HGD construction. Codes to assure the integrity of the VHTR components are not fully prepared yet in any country. To understand the evaluation technology of the VHTR-related codes, key requirements of ASME B and PV Code Section III, Subsection NB and NH were compared. Six kinds of HGD designs were reviewed and compared. A reference which analyzed seven kinds of present component codes were reviewed and the limitations of them were summarized. Especially it was found that the selection of materials is limited, material property data are not enough, and design analysis methodology is not fully specified

  5. Depression research methodologies in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: a review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennen, H; Hall, J A; Affleck, G

    1995-05-01

    Personality and social psychological studies of depression and depressive phenomena have become more methodologically sophisticated in recent years. In response to earlier problems in this literature, investigators have formulated sound suggestions for research designs. Studies of depression published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) between 1988 and 1993 were reviewed to evaluate how well these recommendations have been followed. Forty-one articles were examined for adherence to 3 suggestions appearing consistently in the literature: (a) multiple assessment periods, (b) multiple assessment methods, and (c) appropriate comparison groups. The studies published in JPSP have not adhered well to these standards. The authors recommend resetting minimum methodological criteria for studies of depression published in the premier journal in personality and social psychology.

  6. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  7. Study and implementation of the CADIS methodology to research reactor shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Gregorio S.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Santos, Adimir dos

    2013-01-01

    The Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) is a methodology that basically uses source biasing and a mesh-based importance map. Therefore, to make the best use of an importance map, the map must be consistent with the source biasing. To achieve this consistency, a Sn calculation could be made to improve the importance map and the computational performance. The MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations) code does that and this work intends to study the code options to generate the importance map. A pool type 10 MW research reactor was designed in a simple way just to study the prompt gamma rays penetration in the concrete and therefore study the CADIS methodology applied to point detectors and mesh tallies. By keeping constant the simulation time and the CPU (Central Processing Unit) power a significant improvement was achieved in the relative errors for the point detectors and for the mesh tally. (author)

  8. Research on statistical methodology to investigate energy consumption in public buildings sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuqin; Li Nianping; Guan Jun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find a statistical methodology to investigate the national energy consumption in the public buildings sector in China, in order to look into the actuality of the national energy consumption of public buildings and to provide abundant data for building energy efficiency work. The frame of a national statistical system of energy consumption for public buildings is presented in this paper. The statistical index system of energy consumption is constituted, which refers to the general characteristics of public buildings, their possession and utilization of energy consumption equipment and their energy consumption quantities. Sequentially, a set of statistical report forms is designed to investigate the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country, respectively. On this base, the above statistical methodology is used to gather statistics of a public building for annual energy consumption

  9. The Future of Contextual Fear Learning for PTSD Research: A Methodological Review of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Daniel E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Simmons, Alan N; Acheson, Dean T; Stout, Daniel M

    2017-10-21

    There has been a great deal of recent interest in human models of contextual fear learning, particularly due to the use of such paradigms for investigating neural mechanisms related to the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the construct of "context" in fear conditioning research is broad, and the operational definitions and methods used to investigate contextual fear learning in humans are wide ranging and lack specificity, making it difficult to interpret findings about neural activity. Here we will review neuroimaging studies of contextual fear acquisition in humans. We will discuss the methodology associated with four broad categories of how contextual fear learning is manipulated in imaging studies (colored backgrounds, static picture backgrounds, virtual reality, and configural stimuli) and highlight findings for the primary neural circuitry involved in each paradigm. Additionally, we will offer methodological recommendations for human studies of contextual fear acquisition, including using stimuli that distinguish configural learning from discrete cue associations and clarifying how context is experimentally operationalized.

  10. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Urayama, Ryoichi; Komura, Ichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Yusa, Noritaka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process, which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in USNRC licensing of nuclear power plants. It keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process but makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them, which need to be solved to improve the performance. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed method by showing a specific example of the application to physical events or phenomena in objects having fatigue or SCC crack(s) under ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. (author)

  11. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  12. Seminar Cum Meeting Report: Codata Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On March 4-5, 2008, the CODATA Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education held a two day seminar cum meeting at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi, India, with NPL materials researchers and task group members representing material activities and databases from seven countries: European Union (The Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands, India, Korea, Japan, and the United States. The NPL seminar included presentations about the researchers' work. The Task Group meeting included presentations about current data related activities of the members. Joint discussions between NPL researchers and CODATA task group members began an exchange of viewpoints among materials data producers, users, and databases developers. The seminar cum meeting included plans to continue and expand Task Group activities at the 2008 CODATA 21st Meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine.

  13. Priorities for methodological research on patient and public involvement in clinical trials: A modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather; Gamble, Carrol; Denegri, Simon; Muir, Delia; Simon, Natalie A; Thomas, Stephen; Elliot, Jim T; Bulbeck, Helen; Crocker, Joanna C; Planner, Claire; Vale, Claire; Clarke, Mike; Sprosen, Tim; Woolfall, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting. In total, 237 people registered of whom 219 (92%) completed the first round. One hundred and eighty-seven of 219 (85%) completed the second; 25 stakeholders attended the consensus meeting. Round 1 of the survey comprised 36 topics; 42 topics were considered in round 2 and at the consensus meeting. Approximately 96% of meeting participants rated the top three topics as equally important. These were as follows: developing strong and productive working relationships between researchers and PPI contributors; exploring PPI practices in selecting trial outcomes of importance to patients; and a systematic review of PPI activity to improve the accessibility and usefulness of trial information (eg participant information sheets) for participants. The prioritized methodological research topics indicate important areas of uncertainty about PPI in trials. Addressing these uncertainties will be critical to enhancing PPI. Our findings should be used in the planning and funding of PPI in clinical trials to help focus research efforts and minimize waste. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Leininger's Ethnonursing Research Methodology and Studies of Cancer Survivors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Arlene T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a literature review regarding the use of Leininger's ethnonursing research methodology (ENRM) in studies addressing adult cancer survivors. It is important to learn about differences and similarities among cancer survivors' experiences so that patient-centered, culturally congruent care can be provided. A review of the literature was conducted using databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE. Search terms included variations on ENRM and cancer survivors. The results were a small number of published studies that used the ENRM examining breast cancer survivors' perceptions and experiences. A review instrument was developed to estimate study quality based on established criteria. The studies are critiqued in relation to the theory-based methodology, evaluation criteria for qualitative research, and study findings are summarized. The author concludes that although there is a paucity of research using ENRM with adult cancer survivors, the preliminary findings of the included studies contribute to what is known about breast cancer survivors. Implications for research include recommendations to increase the use of ENRM to discover the universal and diverse experiences of care practices in adult cancer survivors and use the evidence to develop patient-centered, culturally congruent, quality care for cancer survivors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The reporting characteristics and methodological quality of Cochrane reviews about health policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Research methodology in dentistry: Part II — The relevance of statistics in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat; Valarmathi, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The lifeline of original research depends on adept statistical analysis. However, there have been reports of statistical misconduct in studies that could arise from the inadequate understanding of the fundamental of statistics. There have been several reports on this across medical and dental literature. This article aims at encouraging the reader to approach statistics from its logic rather than its theoretical perspective. The article also provides information on statistical misuse in the Journal of Conservative Dentistry between the years 2008 and 2011 PMID:22876003

  17. The Technologist Function in Fields Related to Radiology: Tasks in Radiation Therapy and Diagnostic Ultrasound. Research Report No. 9; Relating Technologist Tasks in Diagnostic Radiology, Ultrasound and Radiation Therapy. Research Report No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    The two research reports included in this document describe the application of the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS) task analysis method to two technologist functions and examine the interrelationships of these tasks with those in diagnostic radiology. (The HSMS method includes processes for using the data for designing job ladders, for…

  18. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola; Luke, Douglas; Calhoun, Annaliese; McMillen, Curtis; Brownson, Ross; McCrary, Stacey; Padek, Margaret

    2015-06-11

    Little is known about how well or under what conditions health innovations are sustained and their gains maintained once they are put into practice. Implementation science typically focuses on uptake by early adopters of one healthcare innovation at a time. The later-stage challenges of scaling up and sustaining evidence-supported interventions receive too little attention. This project identifies the challenges associated with sustainability research and generates recommendations for accelerating and strengthening this work. A multi-method, multi-stage approach, was used: (1) identifying and recruiting experts in sustainability as participants, (2) conducting research on sustainability using concept mapping, (3) action planning during an intensive working conference of sustainability experts to expand the concept mapping quantitative results, and (4) consolidating results into a set of recommendations for research, methodological advances, and infrastructure building to advance understanding of sustainability. Participants comprised researchers, funders, and leaders in health, mental health, and public health with shared interest in the sustainability of evidence-based health care. Prompted to identify important issues for sustainability research, participants generated 91 distinct statements, for which a concept mapping process produced 11 conceptually distinct clusters. During the conference, participants built upon the concept mapping clusters to generate recommendations for sustainability research. The recommendations fell into three domains: (1) pursue high priority research questions as a unified agenda on sustainability; (2) advance methods for sustainability research; (3) advance infrastructure to support sustainability research. Implementation science needs to pursue later-stage translation research questions required for population impact. Priorities include conceptual consistency and operational clarity for measuring sustainability, developing evidence

  19. A methodology to promote business development from research outcomes in food science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Valorization of knowledge produced in research units has been a major challenge for research universities in contemporary societies. The prevailing forces have led these institutions to develop a “third mission”, the facilitation of technology transfer and activity in an entrepreneurial paradigm. Effective management of challenges encountered in the development of academic entrepreneurship and the associated valorization of knowledge produced by universities are major factors to bridge the gap between research and innovation in Europe.The need to improve the existing institutional knowledge valorization processes, concerning entrepreneurship and business development and the processes required were discussed.A case study was designed to describe the institutional knowledge valorization process in a food science and technology research unit and a related incubator, during a five year evaluation period that ended in 2012.The knowledge valorization processes benefited from the adoption of a structured framework methodology that led to ideas and teams from a business model generation to client development, in parallel, when possible, with an agile product/service development.Although academic entrepreneurship engagement could be improved, this case study demonstrated that stronger skills development was needed to enable the researcher to be more aware of business development fundamentals and therefore contribute to research decisions and the valorisation of individual and institutional knowledge assets. It was noted that the timing for involvement of companies in the research projects or programs varied with the nature of the research.

  20. Comments on future tasks for Romanian research related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, I.

    2000-01-01

    Four main research areas are identified: - nuclear safety, - waste management, - fuel cycles and - plant life management. A significant number of tasks are related to each of these areas. Unfortunately, the cost of the needed research is much too high for the current electricity planning of Romania. Up to now, the international co-operation in CANDU field was not very efficient. Canada, India, Korea and Argentina have distinct intentions related to the use of nuclear power potential. Romania is the only European country interested to investigate CANDU reactor problems. Consequently, the author believes that the future Romanian nuclear power research effort must be clearly divided in two main classes: a. CR = 'Concentrated Research' on specific subjects, aimed to a better understanding, and to a complete solving of the associated problems, when possible, and b. CAR = 'Covering Areas Research' to maintain and update the know-how needed in the nuclear power activities. A given research subject may successively pass from one class to another, if needed; however, for a given period of one-to-five years, the class must be stated for each project, from the beginning. No research effort must be planned in the first class, CR, if the needed resources (human, technical and financial) are not ensured. Usually, the power plant leaders and the Institute researchers wish to dedicate their efforts to investigation of the 'hot problems'. Apparently, they are always right. In fact, the allocation of human and financial resources must be based on a very careful evaluation of the 'conditions required for success'. Otherwise, instead of the needed solution, the research will probably offer' a significant number of original methods, successfully applied', 'a more detailed knowledge of phenomena', 'several patents', a few papers 'published or accepted for publication in world over recognized scientific journals' etc. Although valuable, such results are not accepted instead of the needed

  1. The Mexican ‘Pueblos Mágicos’. A Qualitative Research Using Ethnological Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhnák Adam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study is on the ‘magical villages‘ in Mexico. The magical villages were originally established based on a political project with the aim to increase travel and tourism and revitalise the culture. In the introduction, the author describes the type, function and goals of this project based on the official requirements set by its originators. Firstly, the author explains the aims and methods of the intended research supported with theoretical hypothesis to analyse the project as a whole. Secondly, the author defines the methodology used to describe locations of the researched topic. In conclusion, the author provides own hypothesis and expected outcomes of the research.

  2. Methodological approach to mainstreaming the research content formation Technician in Nursing in the Ecuadorian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Rosario Altamirano-Baquerizo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presented is from recognizing the training needs of the students of the Higher Technical career in Nursing Bolivarian Technological Institute of Technology, since it appears as regularly as research training is mainly associated with the search bibliographic information and not as a tool for solving professional problems, coupled with the project of certification. Why this paper aims to draft pedagogical nature reflections provide insight into the methodological guidelines for mainstreaming research training of Technician in Nursing in the Ecuadorian context. This result of the doctoral research carried out on this subject, with the application of empirical and theoretical methods which set the proposals that contribute to the solution of this problem.

  3. Single Case Method in Psychology: How to Improve as a Possible Methodology in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Kjær, Elisa; Nedergaard, Jensine I

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of including Single-Case Method (SCM), as a possible methodology in quantitative research in the field of psychology, has been argued as useful, e.g., by Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Their article introduces a historical and conceptual analysis of SCMs and proposes changing the, often prevailing, tendency of neglecting SCM as an alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). This article contributes by putting a new light on SCM as an equally important methodology in psychology. The intention of the present article is to elaborate this point of view further by discussing one of the most fundamental requirements as well as main characteristics of SCM regarding temporality. In this respect that; "…performance is assessed continuously over time and under different conditions…" Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Defining principles when it comes to particular units of analysis, both synchronic (spatial) and diachronic (temporal) elements should be incorporated. In this article misunderstandings of the SCM will be adduced, and further the temporality will be described in order to propose how the SCM could have a more severe usability in psychological research. It is further discussed how to implement SCM in psychological methodology. It is suggested that one solution might be to reconsider the notion of time in psychological research to cover more than a variable of control and in this respect also include the notion of time as an irreversible unity within life.

  4. Ecological Momentary Assessment Methodology in Chronic Pain Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcella; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Ono, Masakatsu; Stone, Arthur A; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-31

    Self-reported pain intensity assessments are central to chronic pain research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodologies are uniquely positioned to collect these data, and are indeed being used in the field. However, EMA protocols are complex, and many decisions are necessary in the design of EMA research studies. A systematic literature review identified 105 articles drawing from 62 quantitative EMA research projects examining pain intensity in adult chronic pain patients. Study characteristics were tabulated to summarize and describe the use of EMA, with an emphasis placed on various dimensions of decision-making involved in executing EMA methodologies. Most identified studies considered within-person relationships between pain and other variables, and a few examined interventions on chronic pain. There was a trend toward the use of smartphones as EMA data collection devices more recently, and completion rates were not reported in nearly one third of studies. Pain intensity items varied widely with respect to number of scale points, anchor labels, and length of reporting period; most used numeric rating scales. Recommendations are provided for reporting to improve reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of results, and for opportunities to clarify the importance of design decisions. Studies that use EMA methodologies to assess pain intensity are heterogeneous. Aspects of protocol design, including data input modality and pain item construction, have the potential to influence the data collected. Thorough reporting on design features and completion rates therefore facilitates reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of study results. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [An approach to a methodology of scientific research for assistant-students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivón T C; Bejarano, Paola Antón; Rodríguez, Fernando Marcos

    2007-01-01

    This work is presented from a "problematic" perspective in the attempt to establish a dialogic relationship between the educator and the student-subject, mediated by the object of knowledge. It is oriented to the integral education of the helping students departing from a closer approach to the scientific research. This work was carried out by a teacher and two hired students. This project was developed in relation with the profile required for the career of medicine in the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Cordoba which--among other aspects- addresses the importance of "adopting a positive attitude towards research based on knowledge and the application of the scientific methodology" and towards "the development of a responsible self-learning and continuous improvements" (sic). Thus, this work tries to be aligned with this perspectives. I. Characterization of the scientific methodology. Search for bibliography and discussion of scientific works. II. Optimization of the methodology for the observation of leucocytes: blood samples donated by healthy people, non-coagulating with citrate or with EDTA (Blood reservoir of the UNC (National University of Cordoba) n = 20. a) Blood smear of full blood. b) centrifugation at 200g of plasma and aspirated leucocytes after erythro sedimentation and re suspension of the cell pellet and cyto-dispersion. Cytological and cyto-chemical techniques. I. Deeper knowledge about blood field was achieved. It generated an appropriate atmosphere to produce scientific questioning and the activities involved in the process were carried out responsibly. II. Better results were achieved using EDTA for the observation and analysis of leucocytes. It was possible to attain the objectives for an approach to a scientific research as well as for a contribution towards a responsible development in the continuous learning process.

  6. Practice as research in drama and theatre: Introducing narrative supervision methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Aaltonen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For four decades, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU Trondheim, has pioneered the field of drama and theatre in higher education in Norway. This article addresses educational, academic and artistic challenges that emerge when practice as research in the arts enters the academic field of humanities. In particular, the article examines narrative supervision methodology at the master’s level. The first part of the paper identifies the foundations of the contextual and methodological challenges. The main body of the article explores three discussion topics, each illustrated by case examples of practical-theoretical master’s projects. The first example investigates experiential and theoretical borderland tensions; the second addresses onto-epistemic questions; and the third explores the communication of complex narrative construction. Storytelling metaphors are used to advance our emphasis on narrative inquiry as practitioner-researchers and supervisors. The dilemmas outlined are relevant to the Nordic and international community currently navigating this relatively new research area.

  7. Is There a Consensus on Consensus Methodology? Descriptions and Recommendations for Future Consensus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jane; Carline, Jan D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this article reviewed the methodology of three common consensus methods: nominal group process, consensus development panels, and the Delphi technique. The authors set out to determine how a majority of researchers are conducting these studies, how they are analyzing results, and subsequently the manner in which they are reporting their findings. The authors conclude with a set of guidelines and suggestions designed to aid researchers who choose to use the consensus methodology in their work.Overall, researchers need to describe their inclusion criteria. In addition to this, on the basis of the current literature the authors found that a panel size of 5 to 11 members was most beneficial across all consensus methods described. Lastly, the authors agreed that the statistical analyses done in consensus method studies should be as rigorous as possible and that the predetermined definition of consensus must be included in the ultimate manuscript. More specific recommendations are given for each of the three consensus methods described in the article.

  8. Searching for rigour in the reporting of mixed methods population health research: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Elliott, S J; Leatherdale, S T; Robertson-Wilson, J

    2015-12-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing rigour in quantitative and qualitative research, there is poor consensus regarding rigour in mixed methods. Using the empirical example of school-based obesity interventions, this methodological review examined how mixed methods have been used and reported, and how rigour has been addressed. Twenty-three peer-reviewed mixed methods studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases and appraised using the guidelines for Good Reporting of a Mixed Methods Study. In general, more detailed description of data collection and analysis, integration, inferences and justifying the use of mixed methods is needed. Additionally, improved reporting of methodological rigour is required. This review calls for increased discussion of practical techniques for establishing rigour in mixed methods research, beyond those for quantitative and qualitative criteria individually. A guide for reporting mixed methods research in population health should be developed to improve the reporting quality of mixed methods studies. Through improved reporting, mixed methods can provide strong evidence to inform policy and practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An innovative methodology for the transmission of information, using Sensor Web Enablement, from ongoing research vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, Jordi; Sinquin, Jean Marc; Diviacco, Paolo; De Cauwer, Karien; Danobeitia, Juanjo; Olive, Joan; Bermudez, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Research vessels are sophisticated laboratories with complex data acquisition systems for a variety of instruments and sensors that acquire real-time information of many different parameters and disciplines. The overall data and metadata acquired commonly spread using well-established standards for data centers; however, the instruments and systems on board are not always well described and it may miss significant information. Thus, important information such as instrument calibration or operational data often does not reach to the data center. The OGC Sensor Web Enablement standards provide solutions to serve complex data along with the detailed description of the process used to obtain them. We show an innovative methodology on how to use Sensor Web Enablement standards to describe and serve information from the research vessels, the data acquisition systems used onboard, and data sets resulting from the onboard work. This methodology is designed to be used in research vessels, but also applies to data centers to avoid loss of information in between The proposed solution considers (I) the difficulty to describe a multidisciplinary and complex mobile sensor system, (II) it can be easily integrated with data acquisition systems onboard, (III) it uses the complex and incomplete typical vocabulary in marine disciplines, (IV) it provides contacts with the data and metadata services at the Data Centers, and (V) it manages the configuration changes with time of the instrument.

  10. Research Advances and Detection Methodologies for Microbe-Derived Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Systemic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqian Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs are an attractive research subject owing to their potential applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Fungi and bacteria are major producers of AChEIs. Their active ingredients of fermentation products include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and steroids. A variety of in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitor assays have been developed and used to measure the activity of acetylcholinesterases, including modified Ellman’s method, thin layer chromatography bioautography, and the combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/modified Ellman’s method. In this review, we provide an overview of the different detection methodologies, the microbe-derived AChEIs, and their producing strains.

  11. Research methodology workshops evaluation using the Kirkpatrick's model: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Khamis, Nehal; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed Abdulrahman; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Isnani, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of academic programs can enhance the development, effectiveness, and dissemination of comparative quality reports as well as quality improvement efforts. To evaluate the five research methodology workshops through assessing participants' satisfaction, knowledge and skills gain and impact on practices by the Kirkpatrick's evaluation model. The four level Kirkpatrick's model was applied for the evaluation. Training feedback questionnaires, pre and post tests, learner development plan reports and behavioral surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the workshop programs. Of the 116 participants, 28 (24.1%) liked with appreciation, 62 (53.4%) liked with suggestions and 26 (22.4%) disliked the programs. Pre and post MCQs tests mean scores showed significant improvement of relevant basic knowledge and cognitive skills by 17.67% (p ≤ 0.005). Pre-and-post tests scores on workshops sub-topics also significantly improved for the manuscripts (p ≤ 0.031) and proposal writing (p ≤ 0.834). As for the impact, 56.9% of participants started research, and 6.9% published their studies. The results from participants' performance revealed an overall positive feedback and 79% of participant reported transfer of training skills at their workplace. The course outcomes achievement and suggestions given for improvements offer insight into the program which were encouraging and very useful. Encouraging "research culture" and work-based learning are probably the most powerful determinants for research promotion. These findings therefore encourage faculty development unit to continue its training and development in the research methodology aspects.

  12. Methodological Characteristics and Future Directions for Plyometric Jump Training Research: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Álvarez, Cristian; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Gentil, Paulo; Asadi, Abbas; Chaabene, Helmi; Moran, Jason; Meylan, Cesar; García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Granacher, Urs; Kraemer, William; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there has been a proliferation of published articles on the effect of plyometric jump training, including several review articles and meta-analyses. However, these types of research articles are generally of narrow scope. Furthermore, methodological limitations among studies (e.g., a lack of active/passive control groups) prevent the generalization of results, and these factors need to be addressed by researchers. On that basis, the aims of this scoping review were to (1) characterize the main elements of plyometric jump training studies (e.g., training protocols) and (2) provide future directions for research. From 648 potentially relevant articles, 242 were eligible for inclusion in this review. The main issues identified related to an insufficient number of studies conducted in females, youths, and individual sports (~ 24.0, ~ 37.0, and ~ 12.0% of overall studies, respectively); insufficient reporting of effect size values and training prescription (~ 34.0 and ~ 55.0% of overall studies, respectively); and studies missing an active/passive control group and randomization (~ 40.0 and ~ 20.0% of overall studies, respectively). Furthermore, plyometric jump training was often combined with other training methods and added to participants' daily training routines (~ 47.0 and ~ 39.0% of overall studies, respectively), thus distorting conclusions on its independent effects. Additionally, most studies lasted no longer than 7 weeks. In future, researchers are advised to conduct plyometric training studies of high methodological quality (e.g., randomized controlled trials). More research is needed in females, youth, and individual sports. Finally, the identification of specific dose-response relationships following plyometric training is needed to specifically tailor intervention programs, particularly in the long term.

  13. Methodological and ethical issues in research using social media: a metamethod of Human Papillomavirus vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Woodworth, Claire F

    2014-12-02

    Online content is a primary source of healthcare information for internet-using adults and a rich resource for health researchers. This paper explores the methodological and ethical issues of engaging in health research using social media. A metamethod was performed on systematically selected studies that used social media as a data source for exploring public awareness and beliefs about Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) and HPV vaccination. Seven electronic databases were searched using a variety of search terms identified for each of three concepts: social media, HPV vaccine, and research method. Abstracts were assessed for eligibility of inclusion; six studies met the eligibility criteria and were subjected to content analysis. A 10-item coding scheme was developed to assess the clarity, congruence and transparency of research design, epistemological and methodological underpinnings and ethical considerations. The designs of the six selected studies were sound, although most studies could have been more transparent about how they built in rigor to ensure the trustworthiness and credibility of findings. Statistical analysis that intended to measure trends and patterns did so without the benefit of randomized sampling and other design elements for ensuring generalizability or reproducibility of findings beyond the specified virtual community. Most researchers did not sufficiently engage virtual users in the research process or consider the risk of privacy incursion. Most studies did not seek ethical approval from an institutional research board or permission from host websites or web service providers. The metamethod exposed missed opportunities for using the dialogical character of social media as well as a lack of attention to the unique ethical issues inherent in operating in a virtual community where social boundaries and issues of public and private are ambiguous. This suggests the need for more self-conscious and ethical research practices when using social media

  14. Studies of national research performance: A case of ‘methodological nationalism’ and ‘zombie science’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2017-01-01

    The analytical point of departure in this paper is the ongoing debate, initiated by Ulrich Beck, on methodological nationalism within the social sciences. Based on a comprehensive study of research collaboration and mobility of researchers this paper discusses possible traces of methodological...... with researchers in other countries. The national research institutions are increasingly transnationalised due to the growing mobility of researchers. Based on an examination of all the papers registered in the Thompson Reuter’s Web of Science database we follow the development in research collaboration...

  15. From a satisfied to the successful library user: conceptual and methodological elements of users research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pinter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a specific segment of libraries’ activities which has been much exposed recently – the user. For the library of today, opinions of its users are no longer a curiosity; they are an important aspect of its research activities and also of its administrative practices. The purpose of this paper is thus twofold: to outline a broader framework of library users research and to discuss selected dilemmas that commonly arise in this framework. As users research has become a prominent activity in the international arena and has also established itself in Slovenia, the paper comments on most popular measurement instruments for library users research (SERVQUAL, LibQUAL+ and also on the ways of defining key dimensions of users’ perceptions of the library service. Special attention is placed on a systematic distinction between the concept of library service quality and users’ satisfaction. This is an important conceptual dilemma which also affects research methodology. The concluding part of the paper presents and empirical analysis of the relation between the selected dimensions of users’ satisfaction and their success in searching for desired library materials. This problem is conceptually extracted from contemporary debates about the results of users’ research, whereas in practical terms it derives from the context of one of the public libraries in Ljubljana.

  16. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: a comprehensive review of methodology and current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  17. Time-to-event methodology improved statistical evaluation in register-based health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhmki, Tobias; Bramlage, Peter; Volk, Michael; Kaltheuner, Matthias; Danne, Thomas; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Beyersmann, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Complex longitudinal sampling and the observational structure of patient registers in health services research are associated with methodological challenges regarding data management and statistical evaluation. We exemplify common pitfalls and want to stimulate discussions on the design, development, and deployment of future longitudinal patient registers and register-based studies. For illustrative purposes, we use data from the prospective, observational, German DIabetes Versorgungs-Evaluation register. One aim was to explore predictors for the initiation of a basal insulin supported therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes initially prescribed to glucose-lowering drugs alone. Major challenges are missing mortality information, time-dependent outcomes, delayed study entries, different follow-up times, and competing events. We show that time-to-event methodology is a valuable tool for improved statistical evaluation of register data and should be preferred to simple case-control approaches. Patient registers provide rich data sources for health services research. Analyses are accompanied with the trade-off between data availability, clinical plausibility, and statistical feasibility. Cox' proportional hazards model allows for the evaluation of the outcome-specific hazards, but prediction of outcome probabilities is compromised by missing mortality information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodological and Epistemological Criticism on Experimental Accounting Research Published in Brazil

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    Paulo Frederico Homero Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze 17 experimental studies published in Brazilian accounting journals between 2006 and 2015, in order to develop both critical and methodological criticism on these articles. First, we discuss the methodological characteristics of the experiments and the main validity threats they face, analyzing how the selected articles deal with these threats. Overall, this analysis shows a lack of consideration of the validity of the constructs used, difficulty to develop internally valid experiments and inability to express confidence in the applicability of the results to contexts other than the experimental. Then, I compare the positivist theoretical perspective these articles have in common with constructionist conceptions of the social sciences and criticize them, based on these notions. I maintain that these articles are characterized by a behaviorist approach, a reified notion of subjectivity, disregard of the cultural and historical specificities and axiological commitment to submission, instead of the emancipation of the people in relation to management control. The paper contributes to the Brazilian accounting literature in two ways: raising awareness on the challenges faced in conducting appropriate experimental designs and showing how the experimental accounting research can be problematic from an epistemological point of view, aiming to promote an interparadigmatic debate to arouse greater awareness on the subject and more robust consideration of such issues by future researchers.

  19. Experience and Meaning in Qualitative Research: A Conceptual Review and a Methodological Device Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Daher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of experience and meaning in qualitative research is mostly accepted and is common ground for qualitative studies. However, there is an increasing trend towards trivializing the use of these notions. As a consequence, a mechanistic use of these terms has emerged within qualitative analysis, which has resulted in the loss of the original richness derived from the theoretical roots of these concepts. In this article, we aim to recover these origins by reviewing theoretical postulates from phenomenological and hermeneutic traditions and to propose their convergence in a holistic perspective. The challenge is to find the local source of meanings that will enlighten on how to understand people's experiences. This discussion is the basis for the encounter context themes (ECT methodological device, which emphasizes the importance of studying experience and meaning as part of a larger whole: the participants' life-world. Hence, ECT seeks to complement the available methodological tools for qualitatively-oriented studies, recovering—rather than re-creating—a theoretical discussion useful for current qualitative research practices.

  20. Methodological Reflections on the Contribution of Qualitative Research to the Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Support Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäscher, Sebastian; Salloch, Sabine; Ritter, Peter; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2017-05-01

    This article describes a process of developing, implementing and evaluating a clinical ethics support service intervention with the goal of building up a context-sensitive structure of minimal clinical-ethics in an oncology department without prior clinical ethics structure. Scholars from different disciplines have called for an improvement in the evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) for different reasons over several decades. However, while a lot has been said about the concepts and methodological challenges of evaluating CESS up to the present time, relatively few empirical studies have been carried out. The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, it describes a process of development, modifying and evaluating a CESS intervention as part of the ETHICO research project, using the approach of qualitative-formative evaluation. On the other hand, it provides a methodological analysis which specifies the contribution of qualitative empirical methods to the (formative) evaluation of CESS. We conclude with a consideration of the strengths and limitations of qualitative evaluation research with regards to the evaluation and development of context sensitive CESS. We further discuss our own approach in contrast to rather traditional consult or committee models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.