WorldWideScience

Sample records for research study setting

  1. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  2. Setting Priorities for Gerontological Social Work Research: A National Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Denise; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Chen, Li-Mei

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: An increasingly important task for all disciplines involved in aging research is to identify and prioritize areas for investigation. This article reports the results of a national Delphi study on setting research priorities for gerontological social work. Design and Methods: Delphi methodology, a structured process for eliciting and…

  3. CONSIDER - Core Outcome Set in IAD Research: study protocol for establishing a core set of outcomes and measurements in incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, Karen; De Meyer, Dorien; Van Damme, Nele; Kottner, Jan; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2017-10-01

    This study protocol describes the methodology for the development of a core set of outcomes and a core set of measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis. Incontinence is a widespread disorder with an important impact on quality of life. One of the most common complications is incontinence-associated dermatitis, resulting from chemical and physical irritation of the skin barrier, triggering inflammation and skin damage. Managing incontinence-associated dermatitis is an important challenge for nurses. Several interventions have been assessed in clinical trials, but heterogeneity in study outcomes complicates the comparability and standardization. To overcome this challenge, the development of a core outcome set, a minimum set of outcomes and measurements to be assessed in clinical research, is needed. A project team, International Steering Committee and panelists will be involved to guide the development of the core outcome set. The framework of the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema roadmap endorsed by Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative, is used to inform the project design. A systematic literature review, interviews to integrate the patients' perspective and a consensus study with healthcare researchers and providers using the Delphi procedure will be performed. The project was approved by the Ethics review Committee (April 2016). This is the first project that will identify a core outcome set of outcomes and measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis research. A core outcome set will reduce possible reporting bias, allow results comparisons and statistical pooling across trials and strengthen evidence-based practice and decision-making. This project has been registered in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database and is part of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fifteen Challenges in Establishing a Multidisciplinary Research Program on eHealth Research in a University Setting: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Helena; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf; Johansson, Birgitta; Held, Claes; Sjöström, Jonas; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Hovén, Emma; Sanderman, Robbert; van Achterberg, Theo; von Essen, Louise

    2017-05-23

    U-CARE is a multidisciplinary eHealth research program that involves the disciplines of caring science, clinical psychology, health economics, information systems, and medical science. It was set up from scratch in a university setting in 2010, funded by a governmental initiative. While establishing the research program, many challenges were faced. Systematic documentation of experiences from establishing new research environments is scarce. The aim of this paper was to describe the challenges of establishing a publicly funded multidisciplinary eHealth research environment. Researchers involved in developing the research program U-CARE identified challenges in the formal documentation and by reflecting on their experience of developing the program. The authors discussed the content and organization of challenges into themes until consensus was reached. The authors identified 15 major challenges, some general to establishing a new research environment and some specific for multidisciplinary eHealth programs. The challenges were organized into 6 themes: Organization, Communication, Implementation, Legislation, Software development, and Multidisciplinarity. Several challenges were faced during the development of the program and several accomplishments were made. By sharing our experience, we hope to help other research groups embarking on a similar journey to be prepared for some of the challenges they are likely to face on their way. ©Helena Grönqvist, Erik Martin Gustaf Olsson, Birgitta Johansson, Claes Held, Jonas Sjöström, Annika Lindahl Norberg, Emma Hovén, Robbert Sanderman, Theo van Achterberg, Louise von Essen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2017.

  5. Identifying the barriers to conducting outcomes research in integrative health care clinic settings - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay-Reece Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative health care (IHC is an interdisciplinary blending of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM with the purpose of enhancing patients' health. In 2006, we designed a study to assess outcomes that are relevant to people using such care. However, we faced major challenges in conducting this study and hypothesized that this might be due to the lack of a research climate in these clinics. To investigate these challenges, we initiated a further study in 2008, to explore the reasons why IHC clinics are not conducting outcomes research and to identify strategies for conducting successful in-house outcomes research programs. The results of the latter study are reported here. Methods A total of 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants from 19 IHC clinics across Canada. Basic content analysis was used to identify key themes from the transcribed interviews. Results Barriers identified by participants fell into four categories: organizational culture, organizational resources, organizational environment and logistical challenges. Cultural challenges relate to the philosophy of IHC, organizational leadership and practitioner attitudes and beliefs. Participants also identified significant issues relating to their organization's lack of resources such as funding, compensation, infrastructure and partnerships/linkages. Environmental challenges such as the nature of a clinic's patient population and logistical issues such as the actual implementation of a research program and the applicability of research data also posed challenges to the conduct of research. Embedded research leadership, integration of personal and professional values about research, alignment of research activities and clinical workflow processes are some of the factors identified by participants that support IHC clinics' ability to conduct outcomes research. Conclusions Assessing and enhancing the broader

  6. A SHARED study-the benefits and costs of setting up a health research study involving lay co-researchers and how we overcame the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Carole; Murray, Matt; Seers, Kate; Oyebode, Jan; Grant, Richard; Boex, Sue; Staniszewska, Sophie; Diment, Yvonne; Leach, Jim; Sharma, Uma; Clarke, Rosemary; Suleman, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), official bodies such as the Department of Health and research funders such as the National Institute for Health Research support and encourage lay involvement in all stages of research studies. The SHARED study has had substantial patient and public involvement (PPI) from developing the idea to dissemination. The aim of the study has been to develop recommendations led by service users for health and social care professionals to use at hospital discharge and in care planning for people living with memory loss and their carers. This article is about how the study started and the benefits, costs and challenges we encountered as the lead and lay co-researchers. Once we were successful with the grant application, we had to recruit and train the lay co-researchers and obtain various approvals before we could start the project. We had various support from funders, the Research Ethics Committee, lay members of Alzheimer's Society and from the lay co-researchers. However, we encountered some challenges with paying the lay co-researchers and with getting the approval for the co-researchers to interview staff on NHS premises. The challenges were overcome eventually but some aspects of the study changed because of this. We suggest that some changes could be made to the research system which would lead to greater inclusion of the lay co-researchers in research studies and would make the process more straightforward for the research team. Background Involving patients and the public in all stages of research has been the focus of the SHARED study. Patient and public involvement (PPI) is an important strategic priority for the Department of Health and funders such as the National Institute for Health Research. The aim of this paper is to describe the benefits, challenges and costs involved in setting up the research study with lay members as part of the research team. The study focused on developing service user-led recommendations for people with

  7. Review of Sexuality Studies in Africa: Setting a New Post-2015 Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; De Wet, Nicole; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-03-01

    At the nexus between reproductive health, population and development is the subject of sexuality which has generated extensive discourse in the past two decades. In this paper, we review Africa sexuality studies published between 1994 and 2015 with the aim of synthesizing the available evidence and suggesting a new research agenda for post-2015. Review findings showed that previous studies covered the five components of sexuality - practices, partners, pleasure/pressure/pain, procreation and power to different extents. Risky sexual behaviour was prevalent from adolescence till older ages. Literature on pleasure, pain, procreation and power reflect the complex diversity driven by traditional norms, gender roles and attitudes across the continent. Knowledge gaps were highlighted and new agenda suggested for sexuality research.

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Conflict Management Styles of Department Heads in a Research University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christine A.; Algert, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    Conflict in the university setting is an inherent component of academic life. Leaders spend more than 40% of their time managing conflict. Department heads are in a unique position--they encounter conflict from individuals they manage and from others to whom they report such as a senior administrator in the position of dean. There are very few…

  9. Research in a dental practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Oystein

    2004-09-01

    There is a shortage of research from dental practice. The aim of this article is to stimulate more interest in dental research. This is done by explaining the basic principles of doing research in a dental practice setting. Examples are taken from the author's own practice. Emphasis is placed on the following points: how to develop and research ideas; factors specific to dental practice; how articles and journals are rated; making a protocol for the study; examiners' reliability and statistical analysis.

  10. Urine testing and urinary tract infections in febrile infants seen in office settings: the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' Febrile Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Bernzweig, Jane A; Takayama, John I; Finch, Stacia A; Wasserman, Richard C; Pantell, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    To determine the predictors and results of urine testing of young febrile infants seen in office settings. Prospective cohort study. Offices of 573 pediatric practitioners from 219 practices in the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings' research network. A total of 3066 infants 3 months or younger with temperatures of 38 degrees C or higher were evaluated and treated according to the judgment of their practitioners. Urine testing results, early and late urinary tract infections (UTIs), and UTIs with bacteremia. Fifty-four percent of the infants initially had urine tested, of whom 10% had a UTI. The height of the fever was associated with urine testing and a UTI among those tested (adjusted odds ratio per degree Celsius, 2.2 for both). Younger age, ill appearance, and lack of a fever source were associated with urine testing but not with a UTI, whereas lack of circumcision (adjusted odds ratio, 11.6), female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 5.4), and longer duration of fever (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 for fever lasting > or = 24 hours) were not associated with urine testing but were associated with a UTI. Bacteremia accompanied the UTI in 10% of the patients, including 17% of those younger than 1 month. Among 807 infants not initially tested or treated with antibiotics, only 2 had a subsequent documented UTI; both did well. Practitioners order urine tests selectively, focusing on younger and more ill-appearing infants and on those without an apparent fever source. Such selective urine testing, with close follow-up, was associated with few late UTIs in this large study. Urine testing should focus particularly on uncircumcised boys, girls, the youngest and sickest infants, and those with persistent fever.

  11. Study of steam condensation at sub-atmospheric pressure: setting a basic research using MELCOR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, A.; Mazzini, M.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most serious accidents that can occur in the experimental nuclear fusion reactor ITER is the break of one of the headers of the refrigeration system of the first wall of the Tokamak. This results in water-steam mixture discharge in vacuum vessel (VV), with consequent pressurization of this container. To prevent the pressure in the VV exceeds 150 KPa absolute, a system discharges the steam inside a suppression pool, at an absolute pressure of 4.2 kPa. The computer codes used to analyze such incident (eg. RELAP 5 or MELCOR) are not validated experimentally for such conditions. Therefore, we planned a basic research, in order to have experimental data useful to validate the heat transfer correlations used in these codes. After a thorough literature search on this topic, ACTA, in collaboration with the staff of ITER, defined the experimental matrix and performed the design of the experimental apparatus. For the thermal-hydraulic design of the experiments, we executed a series of calculations by MELCOR. This code, however, was used in an unconventional mode, with the development of models suited respectively to low and high steam flow-rate tests. The article concludes with a discussion of the placement of experimental data within the map featuring the phenomenon characteristics, showing the importance of the new knowledge acquired, particularly in the case of chugging.

  12. New directions in research priority-setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Velsing

    2017-01-01

    The way governments set priorities for research and innovation in Europe is changing. The new focus on responsible research and innovation (RRI) emphasises broader inclusion, increased dialogue, and a focus on societal challenges. The case of RESEARCH2015 in Denmark is one of the first European...... priority-setting processes to incorporate such criteria. This paper develops a theoretical model to explore how RESEARCH2015 contributes to mutual responsiveness among actors, a main objective of RRI. Studying mutual responsiveness means going beyond the often-stated focus on policy impact to look...... at the creation of trust, interdependence and mutual understanding among participants. The study finds that mutual responsiveness is an important precondition for priority-setting, but that the process's contribution to mutual responsiveness is limited, due to the limited attention to social impacts. Still...

  13. Missed opportunities for impact in patient and carer involvement: a mixed methods case study of research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R; Crocker, J C; Crowe, S

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers want to listen more to patients and their carers in all sorts of areas of healthcare. This can include choosing topics for medical research. We looked at how patients and carers have helped to choose topics for research about type I diabetes. We aimed to find out if, and why, researchers often rejected their choices. We looked at a project which brought together patients, carers and healthcare workers to choose topics for research about type 1 diabetes. The group first asked patients, carers and healthcare workers to suggest ideas for research questions. But the group had to follow rules about what counted as a good research question. Some people's ideas did not count as good research questions, and they were rejected at the start. We looked at who were most likely to have their ideas rejected at the start. We found that patients and carers were most likely to have a suggestion rejected. Then we looked at the rejected questions in detail. They were mostly about curing diabetes, preventing diabetes and understanding how diabetes works. There were also some questions about access to medicines and the quality of care. Researchers should ask patients and carers for help deciding what counts as a good research question from the start of projects like these. We should also think about what might be getting in the way of patients and carers making more of a difference in research. Background Patients and carers are increasingly involved in deciding on topics for medical research. However, so far, it has been difficult to gain an accurate picture of the impact of such involvement because of poor reporting and evaluation in published studies to date. This study aimed to explore how a partnership of patients, carers, healthcare professionals and organisations identified questions for future research and why patients and carers had a limited impact on this process. Methods In the first stage of the partnership process, relevant service users and providers

  14. Setting stroke research priorities: The consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvatanakul, Pukkaporn; Hillege, Sharon; Lalor, Erin; Levi, Christopher; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy

    2010-12-01

    To test a method of engaging consumers in research priority-setting using a quantitative approach and to determine consumer views on stroke research priorities for clinical practice recommendations with lower levels of evidence (Level III and Level IV) and expert consensus opinion as published in the Australian stroke clinical practice guidelines. Survey Urban community Eighteen stroke survivors (n = 12) and carers (n = 6) who were members of the "Working Aged Group - Stroke" (WAGS) consumer support group. Phase I: Participants were asked whether recommendations were "worth" researching ("yes" or "no"); and, if researched, what potential impact they likely would have on patient outcomes. Phase II: Participants were asked to rank recommendations rated by more than 75% of participants in Phase I as "worth" researching and "highly likely" or "likely" to generate research with a significant effect on patient outcomes (n = 13) in order of priority for future stroke research. All recommendations were rated by at least half (n = 9, 50%) of participants as "worth" researching. The majority (67% to 100%) rated all recommendations as "highly likely" or "likely" that research would have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Thirteen out of 20 recommendations were ranked for their research priorities. Recommendations under the topic heading Getting to hospital were ranked highest and Organization of care and Living with stroke were ranked as a lower priority for research. This study provided an example of how to involve consumers in research priority setting successfully using a quantitative approach. Stroke research priorities from the consumer perspective were different from those of health professionals, as published in the literature; thus, consumer opinion should be considered when setting research priorities. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Setting research priorities for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, R; Snow, R; Daly, A C; Crowe, S; Matyka, K; Hall, B; Petrie, J

    2012-10-01

    Research priorities are often set by academic researchers or the pharmaceutical industry. The interests of patients, carers and clinicians may therefore be overlooked and research questions that matter may be neglected. The aims of this study were to collect uncertainties about the treatment of Type 1 diabetes from patients, carers and health professionals, and to collate and prioritize these uncertainties to develop a top 10 list of research priorities, using a structured priority-setting partnership of patients, carers, health professionals and diabetes organizations, as described by the James Lind Alliance. A partnership of interested organizations was set up, and from this a steering committee of 10 individuals was formed. An online and paper survey was used to identify uncertainties. These were collated, and the steering group carried out an interim priority-setting exercise with partner organizations. This group of uncertainties was then voted on to give a smaller list that went forward to the final priority-setting workshop. At this meeting, a final list of the top 10 research priorities was agreed. An initial 1141 uncertainties were described. These were reduced to 88 indicative questions, 47 of which went out for voting. Twenty-four were then taken forward to a final priority-setting workshop. This workshop resulted in a list of top 10 research priorities in Type 1 diabetes. We have shown that it is possible using the James Lind Alliance process to develop an agreed top 10 list of research priorities for Type 1 diabetes from health professionals, patients and carers. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  16. Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rebecca M; Soames, Jamie; Wright, Mark; Sultana, Kirin; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Dixon, William G

    2018-02-01

    To describe a novel observational study that supplemented primary care electronic health record (EHR) data with sample collection and patient diaries. The study was set in primary care in England. A list of 3974 potentially eligible patients was compiled using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Interested general practices opted into the study then confirmed patient suitability and sent out postal invitations. Participants completed a drug-use diary and provided saliva samples to the research team to combine with EHR data. Of 252 practices contacted to participate, 66 (26%) mailed invitations to patients. Of the 3974 potentially eligible patients, 859 (22%) were at participating practices, and 526 (13%) were sent invitations. Of those invited, 117 (22%) consented to participate of whom 86 (74%) completed the study. We have confirmed the feasibility of supplementing EHR with data collected directly from patients. Although the present study successfully collected essential data from patients, it also underlined the requirement for improved engagement with both patients and general practitioners to support similar studies. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Accounting Research in the Japanese Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Skinner

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary I offer some thoughts on the possibilities for accounting research that uses the Japanese setting. I argue that the uniqueness of the Japanese setting offers many opportunities for researchers, and hope that we can encourage more researchers to take advantage of this setting to advance the literature on financial reporting and disclosure.

  18. Yoga in school settings: a research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany

    2016-06-01

    Research on the efficacy of yoga for improving mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health characteristics in school settings is a recent but growing field of inquiry. This systematic review of research on school-based yoga interventions published in peer-reviewed journals offers a bibliometric analysis that identified 47 publications. The studies from these publications have been conducted primarily in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 15) since 2005, with the majority of studies (n = 41) conducted from 2010 onward. About half of the publications were of studies at elementary schools; most (85%) were conducted within the school curriculum, and most (62%) also implemented a formal school-based yoga program. There was a high degree of variability in yoga intervention characteristics, including overall duration, and the number and duration of sessions. Most of these published research trials are preliminary in nature, with numerous study design limitations, including limited sample sizes (median = 74; range = 20-660) and relatively weak research designs (57% randomized controlled trials, 19% uncontrolled trials), as would be expected in an infant research field. Nevertheless, these publications suggest that yoga in the school setting is a viable and potentially efficacious strategy for improving child and adolescent health and therefore worthy of continued research. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Maximizing research study effectiveness in malaria elimination settings: a mixed methods study to capture the experiences of field-based staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Haller, Britt; Lek, Dysoley; Yok, Sovann; Richards, Jack S; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2017-09-11

    In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols. This mixed-methods analysis sought to gain an understanding of the daily challenges encountered by research field staff in the artemisinin-resistant, malaria elimination setting of Western Cambodia. In doing so, this study seeks to understand how the experiences and opinions of field staff can be captured, and used to inform future study designs. Twenty-two reports from six field-based malaria studies conducted in Western Cambodia were reviewed using content analysis to identify challenges to conducting the research. Informal Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews were also conducted among field research staff. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken using Nvivo 9 ® software. Triangulation and critical case analysis was also used. There was a lack of formalized avenues through which field workers could report challenges experienced when conducting the malaria studies. Field research staff faced significant logistical barriers to participant recruitment and data collection, including a lack of available transportation to cover long distances, and the fact that mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) are usually excluded from studies because of challenges in follow-up. Cultural barriers to communication also hindered participant recruitment and created

  20. Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humanitarian agencies are increasingly engaged in research in conflict and post-conflict settings. This is justified by the need to improve the quality of assistance provided in these settings and to collect evidence of the highest standard to inform advocacy and policy change. The instability of conflict-affected areas, and the heightened vulnerability of populations caught in conflict, calls for careful consideration of the research methods employed, the levels of evidence sought, and ethical requirements. Special attention needs to be placed on the feasibility and necessity of doing research in conflict-settings, and the harm-benefit ratio for potential research participants.

  1. Toward an Integration of Organization Research and Practice: A Contingency Study of Bureaucratic Control and Performance in Scientific Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph L. C.; McKinley, William

    1983-01-01

    A study of 288 research units in 66 universities in Austria, Belgium, Finland, and Sweden found that bureaucratic control, through national science policy influence on research themes, affected organizational performance positively in physics and chemistry (where paradigms are highly developed), and negatively in biology and geology (with less…

  2. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for

  3. Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START): study protocol to assess knowledge translation interventions in continuing care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S; Eliasziw, Misha

    2013-10-26

    Bridging the research-practice gap is an important research focus in continuing care facilities, because the population of older adults (aged 65 years and over) requiring continuing care services is the fastest growing demographic among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unlicensed practitioners, known as health care aides, provide the majority of care for residents living in continuing care facilities. However, little research examines how to sustain health care aide behavior change following initial adoption of current research evidence. We will conduct a phase III, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) using a stratified 2 × 2 additive factorial design, including an embedded process evaluation, in 24 supportive living facilities within the health zone of Edmonton, AB, Canada. We will determine which combination of frequency and intensity of reminders most effectively sustains the completion of the sit-to-stand activity by health care aides with residents. Frequency refers to how often a reminder is implemented; intensity refers to whether a reminder is social or paper-based. We will compare monthly reminders with reminders implemented every 3 months, and we will compare low intensity, paper-based reminders and high intensity reminders provided by a health care aide peer.Using interviews, questionnaires, and observations, Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START) will evaluate the processes that inhibit or promote the mobility innovation's sustainability among health care aides in daily practice. We will examine how the reminders are implemented and perceived by health care aides and licensed practical nurses, as well as how health care aides providing peer reminders are identified, received by their peers, and supported by their supervisors. START will connect up-to-date innovation research with the practice of health care aides providing direct care to a growing population

  4. Setting the research agenda for governmental communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vos

    2006-01-01

    The Research Group for Governmental Communication has carried out a trend study of governmental communication within The Netherlands (1). Research topics were: the major tasks for communication, current issues, profiling the communication department, and policy plans for communication. Another study

  5. Music Research in Inclusive School Settings: 1975 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellison, Judith A.; Draper, Ellary A.

    2015-01-01

    A search for music research in inclusive music school settings (1975-2013) resulted in 22 descriptive and experimental studies that can be classified and coded according to settings, participants, research variables, measures of generalization, and effectiveness of the interventions. Half of the studies reported data from both students with…

  6. Setting Research Priorities for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen S; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel Y C; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    Defining disease-specific research priorities in cancer can facilitate better allocation of limited resources. Involving patients and caregivers as well as expert clinicians in this process is of value. We undertook this approach for kidney cancer as an example. The Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership that identified ten research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. These are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis management in Tanzania with strict schedule of serial lumber punctures using intravenous tubing sets: an operational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, John; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Chofle, Awilly A; Seni, Jeremiah; Kidenya, Benson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available.

  9. Moderation of effects of AAC based on setting and types of aided AAC on outcome variables: an aggregate study of single-case research with individuals with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Rispoli, Mandy J; Mason, Rose Ann; Hong, Ee Rea

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the potential moderating effects of intervention setting and type of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on outcome variables for students with autism spectrum disorders. Improvement rate difference, an effect size measure, was used to calculate aggregate effects across 35 single-case research studies. Results indicated that the largest effects for aided AAC were observed in general education settings. With respect to communication outcomes, both speech generating devices (SGDs) and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) were associated with larger effects than other picture-based systems. With respect to challenging behaviour outcomes, SGDs produced larger effects than PECS. This aggregate study highlights the importance of considering intervention setting, choice of AAC system and target outcomes when designing and planning an aided AAC intervention.

  10. Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to

  11. A mixed-methods study on perceptions towards use of Rapid Ethical Assessment to improve informed consent processes for health research in a low-income setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Newport, Melanie J; Addissie, Thomas; MacGregor, Hayley; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Farsides, Bobbie

    2014-05-02

    Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) is a form of rapid ethnographic assessment conducted at the beginning of research project to guide the consent process with the objective of reconciling universal ethical guidance with specific research contexts. The current study is conducted to assess the perceived relevance of introducing REA as a mainstream tool in Ethiopia. Mixed methods research using a sequential explanatory approach was conducted from July to September 2012, including 241 cross-sectional, self-administered and 19 qualitative, in-depth interviews among health researchers and regulators including ethics committee members in Ethiopian health research institutions and universities. In their evaluation of the consent process, only 40.2% thought that the consent process and information given were adequately understood by study participants; 84.6% claimed they were not satisfied with the current consent process and 85.5% thought the best interests of study participants were not adequately considered. Commonly mentioned consent-related problems included lack of clarity (48.1%), inadequate information (34%), language barriers (28.2%), cultural differences (27.4%), undue expectations (26.6%) and power imbalances (20.7%). About 95.4% believed that consent should be contextualized to the study setting and 39.4% thought REA would be an appropriate approach to improve the perceived problems. Qualitative findings helped to further explore the gaps identified in the quantitative findings and to map-out concerns related to the current research consent process in Ethiopia. Suggestions included, conducting REA during the pre-test (pilot) phase of studies when applicable. The need for clear guidance for researchers on issues such as when and how to apply the REA tools was stressed. The study findings clearly indicated that there are perceived to be correctable gaps in the consent process of medical research in Ethiopia. REA is considered relevant by researchers and stakeholders

  12. Forms of benefit sharing in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings: a qualitative study of stakeholders' views in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairumbi Geoffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings in the last decade though a positive development has raised ethical concerns relating to potential for exploitation. Some of the suggested strategies to address these concerns include calls for providing universal standards of care, reasonable availability of proven interventions and more recently, promoting the overall social value of research especially in clinical research. Promoting the social value of research has been closely associated with providing fair benefits to various stakeholders involved in research. The debate over what constitutes fair benefits; whether those that addresses micro level issues of justice or those focusing on the key determinants of health at the macro level has continued. This debate has however not benefited from empirical work on what stakeholders consider fair benefits. This study explores practical experiences of stakeholders involved in global health research in Kenya, over what benefits are fair within a developing world context. Methods and results We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. The range of benefits articulated by stakeholders addresses both micro and macro level concerns for justice by for instance, seeking to engage with interests of those facilitating research, and the broader systemic issues that make resource poor settings vulnerable to exploitation. We interpret these views to suggest a need for global health research to engage with current crises that face people in these settings as well as the broader systemic issues that produce them. Conclusion Global health research should provide benefits that

  13. Forms of benefit sharing in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings: a qualitative study of stakeholders' views in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; English, Michael C

    2012-01-17

    Increase in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings in the last decade though a positive development has raised ethical concerns relating to potential for exploitation. Some of the suggested strategies to address these concerns include calls for providing universal standards of care, reasonable availability of proven interventions and more recently, promoting the overall social value of research especially in clinical research. Promoting the social value of research has been closely associated with providing fair benefits to various stakeholders involved in research. The debate over what constitutes fair benefits; whether those that addresses micro level issues of justice or those focusing on the key determinants of health at the macro level has continued. This debate has however not benefited from empirical work on what stakeholders consider fair benefits. This study explores practical experiences of stakeholders involved in global health research in Kenya, over what benefits are fair within a developing world context. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups.The range of benefits articulated by stakeholders addresses both micro and macro level concerns for justice by for instance, seeking to engage with interests of those facilitating research, and the broader systemic issues that make resource poor settings vulnerable to exploitation. We interpret these views to suggest a need for global health research to engage with current crises that face people in these settings as well as the broader systemic issues that produce them. Global health research should provide benefits that address both the micro and macro level issues of justice in order to

  14. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  15. Validated Outcomes in the Grafting of Autologous Fat to the Breast: The VOGUE Study. Development of a Core Outcome Set for Research and Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz A; Pidgeon, Thomas E; Borrelli, Mimi R; Dowlut, Naeem; Orkar, Ter-Er K; Ahmed, Maziyah; Pujji, Ojas; Orgill, Dennis P

    2018-05-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an important part of the reconstructive surgeon's toolbox when treating women affected by breast cancer and subsequent tumor extirpation. The debate over safety and efficacy of autologous fat grafting continues within the literature. However, work performed by the authors' group has shown significant heterogeneity in outcome reporting. Core outcome sets have been shown to reduce heterogeneity in outcome reporting. The authors' goal was to develop a core outcome set for autologous fat grafting in breast reconstruction. The authors published their protocol a priori. A Delphi consensus exercise among key stakeholders was conducted using a list of outcomes generated from their previous work. These outcomes were divided into six domains: oncologic, clinical, aesthetic and functional, patient-reported, process, and radiologic. In the first round, 55 of 78 participants (71 percent) completed the Delphi consensus exercise. Consensus was reached on nine of the 13 outcomes. The clarity of the results and lack of additional suggested outcomes deemed further rounds to be unnecessary. The VOGUE Study has led to the development of a much-needed core outcome set in the active research front and clinical area of autologous fat grafting. The authors hope that clinicians will use this core outcome set to audit their practice, and that researchers will implement these outcomes in their study design and reporting of autologous fat grafting outcomes. The authors encourage journals and surgical societies to endorse and encourage use of this core outcome set to help refine the scientific quality of the debate, the discourse, and the literature. Therapeutic, V.

  16. Understanding the environmental issues in diabetes self-management education research: a reexamination of 8 studies in community-based settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Leonard; Liburd, Leandris; Spencer, Tirzah; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2004-06-01

    Eight studies included in a recent systematic review of the efficacy of diabetes self-management education were qualitatively reexamined to determine the presence of theoretical frameworks, methods used to ensure cultural appropriateness, and the quality of the instrument. Theoretical frameworks that help to explain complex pathways that produce health outcomes were lacking; culture indices were not incorporated into diabetes self-management education; and the instruments used to measure outcomes were inadequate. We provide recommendations to improve research on diabetes self-management education in community settings through use of a contextual framework that encourages targeting multiple levels of influence--individual, family, organizational, community, and policy.

  17. RETHINKING RESEARCH ETHICS FOR MEDIATED SETTINGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaulieu, Anne; Estalella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of e-research is the increased mediation of research practices, which changes not only the objects and tools of research, but also the relation between researcher and object, between researchers, and between researchers and their constituencies and stakeholders. This article

  18. Generating evidence for health policy in challenging settings: lessons learned from four prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV implementation research studies in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Aliyu, Muktar H; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Oronsaye, Frank; Oyeledun, Bolanle; Ogidi, Amaka G; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2018-04-17

    Implementation research (IR) facilitates health systems strengthening and optimal patient outcomes by generating evidence for scale-up of efficacious strategies in context. Thus, difficulties in generating IR evidence, particularly in limited-resource settings with wide disease prevention and treatment gaps, need to be anticipated and addressed. Nigeria is a priority country for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). This paper analyses the experiences of four PMTCT IR studies in Nigeria, and proffers solutions to major challenges encountered during implementation. Multicentre PMTCT IR studies conducted in Nigeria during the Global Plan's assessment period (2011 to 2015) were included. Four studies were identified, namely The Baby Shower Trial, Optimizing PMTCT, MoMent and Lafiyan Jikin Mata. Major common challenges encountered were categorised as 'External' (beyond the control of study teams) and 'Internal' (amenable to rectification by study teams). External challenges included healthcare worker strikes and turnover, acts and threats of ethnic and political violence and terrorism, and multiplicity of required local ethical reviews. Internal challenges included limited research capacity among study staff, research staff turnover and travel restrictions hindering study site visits. Deliberate research capacity-building was provided to study staff through multiple opportunities before and during study implementation. Post-study employment opportunities and pathways for further research career-building are suggested as incentives for study staff retention. Engagement of study community-resident personnel minimised research staff turnover in violence-prone areas. The IR environment in Nigeria is extremely diverse and challenging, yet, with local experience and anticipatory planning, innovative solutions can be implemented to modulate internal challenges. Issues still remain with healthcare worker strikes and often unpredictable insecurity

  19. Setting priorities for space research: An experiment in methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.

  20. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  1. Setting the scene: Why research matters

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Moller, Naomi; Cooper, Mick

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the current field of research in counselling and psychotherapy. It first takes a historical perspective in describing the strong move in British psychotherapy and counselling towards ‘evidence-based’ practice. This shift is illustrated through a discussion of the focus on therapies that are evidence-based in the NICE guidelines and the NHS/IAPT context. The increasing emphasis on research in training curricula for counselling and psychotherapy programmes is considered ...

  2. REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings (RESTORE: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology—Participatory Learning and Action—to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. Methods This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders—migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory’s four constructs—coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co

  3. REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings (RESTORE): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Spiegel, Wolfgang; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Burns, Nicola; Gravenhorst, Katja; Princz, Christine; Teunissen, Erik; van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Saridaki, Aristoula; Papadakaki, Maria; Vlahadi, Maria; Dowrick, Christopher

    2012-11-20

    The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology--Participatory Learning and Action--to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders-migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory's four constructs--coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders to enhance the

  4. Setting research priorities by applying the combined approach matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul

    2009-04-01

    Priority setting in health research is a dynamic process. Different organizations and institutes have been working in the field of research priority setting for many years. In 1999 the Global Forum for Health Research presented a research priority setting tool called the Combined Approach Matrix or CAM. Since its development, the CAM has been successfully applied to set research priorities for diseases, conditions and programmes at global, regional and national levels. This paper briefly explains the CAM methodology and how it could be applied in different settings, giving examples and describing challenges encountered in the process of setting research priorities and providing recommendations for further work in this field. The construct and design of the CAM is explained along with different steps needed, including planning and organization of a priority-setting exercise and how it could be applied in different settings. The application of the CAM are described by using three examples. The first concerns setting research priorities for a global programme, the second describes application at the country level and the third setting research priorities for diseases. Effective application of the CAM in different and diverse environments proves its utility as a tool for setting research priorities. Potential challenges encountered in the process of research priority setting are discussed and some recommendations for further work in this field are provided.

  5. Goal setting in sport and exercise: research and practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg,Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to briefly review the major theoretical and empirical research in goal setting related to sport and develop applications for best practice. Different types of goals were discussed and Locke's theory of goal setting provided the foundation for future research. After briefly reviewing the goal setting literature in sport and organizational settings, principles for how to apply goal setting to enhance performance were developed. The development and implementations o...

  6. Turning the Table on Professional Development in Mathematics by Setting the Stage for Teacher-Led Inquiry: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sabrina D.

    2016-01-01

    This action research study investigated the change in professional development model in the acquisition of content knowledge for fourth-grade math teachers. The current professional development atmosphere is a traditional "sit and get" opportunity. However, research offers that teachers should be active participants in their learning.…

  7. Core outcome sets for research and clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Ostelo, Raymond W.; Turk, Dennis C.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Boers, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Background This masterclass introduces the topic of core outcome sets, describing rationale and methods for developing them, and providing some examples that are relevant for clinical research and practice. Method A core outcome set is a minimum consensus-based set of outcomes that should be

  8. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  9. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  10. Setting research priorities for patients on or nearing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lillie, Erin; Dip, Sally Crowe P G; Cyr, Annette; Gladish, Michael; Large, Claire; Silverman, Howard; Toth, Brenda; Wolfs, Wim; Laupacis, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    With increasing emphasis among health care providers and funders on patient-centered care, it follows that patients and their caregivers should be included when priorities for research are being established. This study sought to identify the most important unanswered questions about the management of kidney failure from the perspective of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and the health care professionals who care for these patients. Research uncertainties were identified through a national Canadian survey of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and health care professionals. Uncertainties were refined by a steering committee that included patients, caregivers, researchers, and clinicians to assemble a short-list of the top 30 uncertainties. Thirty-four people (11 patients; five caregivers; eight physicians; six nurses; and one social worker, pharmacist, physiotherapist, and dietitian each) from across Canada subsequently participated in a workshop to determine the top 10 research questions. In total, 1570 usable research uncertainties were received from 317 respondents to the survey. Among these, 259 unique uncertainties were identified; after ranking, these were reduced to a short-list of 30 uncertainties. During the in-person workshop, the top 10 research uncertainties were identified, which included questions about enhanced communication among patients and providers, dialysis modality options, itching, access to kidney transplantation, heart health, dietary restrictions, depression, and vascular access. These can be used alongside the results of other research priority-setting exercises to guide researchers in designing future studies and inform health care funders. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Priority setting and health policy and systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policy and systems research (HPSR has been identified as critical to scaling-up interventions to achieve the millennium development goals, but research priority setting exercises often do not address HPSR well. This paper aims to (i assess current priority setting methods and the extent to which they adequately include HPSR and (ii draw lessons regarding how HPSR priority setting can be enhanced to promote relevant HPSR, and to strengthen developing country leadership of research agendas. Priority setting processes can be distinguished by the level at which they occur, their degree of comprehensiveness in terms of the topic addressed, the balance between technical versus interpretive approaches and the stakeholders involved. When HPSR is considered through technical, disease-driven priority setting processes it is systematically under-valued. More successful approaches for considering HPSR are typically nationally-driven, interpretive and engage a range of stakeholders. There is still a need however for better defined approaches to enable research funders to determine the relative weight to assign to disease specific research versus HPSR and other forms of cross-cutting health research. While country-level research priority setting is key, there is likely to be a continued need for the identification of global research priorities for HPSR. The paper argues that such global priorities can and should be driven by country level priorities.

  12. Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson, Nicola; Richards-Doran, Dan; Heath, Laura; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation. The project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations. The first survey phase identified unanswered research questions in the field of tobacco control. The second phase asked participants to rank these, with overall rankings calculated by combining scores across participants. The workshop allowed attendees to discuss prioritization of topics and questions in more depth. Workshop discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically, and a final voting activity at the close of the workshop allowed participants to choose topics to prioritize and to de-prioritize. A total of 304 stakeholders (researchers, health professionals, smokers and ex-smokers, guideline developers, research funders and policymakers, representing 28 countries) identified 183 unanswered research questions. These were categorized into 15 research categories. A total of 175 participants prioritized categories and questions in the second survey phase, with 'electronic cigarettes'; 'addressing inequalities'; and 'mental health and other substance abuse' prioritized as the top three categories. Forty-three stakeholders attended the workshop and discussed reasons for and against category prioritization. Prioritized research categories largely mirrored those in the survey stage, although 'treatment delivery' also emerged as a key category. Five cross-cutting themes emerged: efficacy; relative efficacy; cost effectiveness; addressing inequalities; and different types of evidence. There are many unanswered

  13. Improved participants' understanding of research information in real settings using the SIDCER informed consent form: a randomized-controlled informed consent study nested with eight clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Tharavanij, Thipaporn; Phiphatpatthamaamphan, Kittichet; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Manuwong, Sudsayam; Curry, Parichat; Siramolpiwat, Sith; Punchaipornpon, Thanachai; Kanitnate, Supakit; Tammachote, Nattapol; Yamprasert, Rodsarin; Chanvimalueng, Waipoj; Kaewkumpai, Ruchirat; Netanong, Soiphet; Kitipawong, Peerapong; Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Karbwang, Juntra

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to test the applicability and effectiveness of the principles and informed consent form (ICF) template proposed by the Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER) across multiple clinical trials involving Thai research participants with various conditions. A single-center, randomized-controlled study nested with eight clinical trials was conducted at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. A total of 258 participants from any of the eight clinical trials were enrolled and randomly assigned to read either the SIDCER ICF (n = 130) or the conventional ICF (n = 128) of the respective trial. Their understanding of necessary information was assessed using the post-test questionnaire; they were allowed to consult a given ICF while completing the questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of the participants who had the post-test score of ≥80%, and the secondary endpoint was the total score of the post-test. The proportion of the participants in the SIDCER ICF group who achieved the primary endpoint was significantly higher than that of the conventional ICF group (60.8 vs. 41.4%, p = 0.002). The total score of the post-test was also significantly higher among the participants who read the SIDCER ICF than those who read the conventional ICF (83.3 vs. 76.0%, p study demonstrated that the SIDCER ICF was applicable and effective to improve Thai research participants' understanding of research information in diverse clinical trials. Using the SIDCER ICF methodology, clinical researchers can improve the quality of ICFs for their trials.

  14. Using Smartphones for Research Outside Clinical Settings: How Operating Systems, App Developers, and Users Determine Geolocation Data Quality in mHealth Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukenhorst, A L; Schultz, D M; McBeth, J; Lakshminarayana, R; Sergeant, J C; Dixon, W G

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones that collect user geolocation provid opportunities for mobile Health (mHealth). Although granularity of geolocation data may be high, data completeness depends on the device's operating system, application developer decisions, and user actions. We investigate completeness of geolocation data collected via smartphones of 5601 people that self-reported daily chronic pain symptoms on 349,293 days. On 17% of these days, hourly geolocation data is reported, but days with 0 (16%), 1 (14%) and 2 (13%) geolocations are common. Android phones collect geolocation more often than iPhones (median 17 versus 2 times a day). Factors on operating system level and individual user level influence completeness of geolocation data collected with smartphones. mHealth researchers should be aware of these factors when designing their studies. The mHealth research community should devise standards for reporting geolocation data quality, analysing systematic differences in data quality between participant groups, and methods for data imputation.

  15. Considering Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level for Anticipatable Incidental Findings from Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Osorno, Alberto Betto; Ehler, Linda A; Brooks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Determining what constitutes an anticipatable incidental finding (IF) from clinical research and defining whether, and when, this IF should be returned to the participant have been topics of discussion in the field of human subject protections for the last 10 years. It has been debated that implementing a comprehensive IF-approach that addresses both the responsibility of researchers to return IFs and the expectation of participants to receive them can be logistically challenging. IFs have been debated at different levels, such as the ethical reasoning for considering their disclosure or the need for planning for them during the development of the research study. Some authors have discussed the methods for re-contacting participants for disclosing IFs, as well as the relevance of considering the clinical importance of the IFs. Similarly, other authors have debated about when IFs should be disclosed to participants. However, no author has addressed how the "actionability" of the IFs should be considered, evaluated, or characterized at the participant's research setting level. This paper defines the concept of "Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level" (APRSL) for anticipatable IFs from clinical research, discusses some related ethical concepts to justify the APRSL concept, proposes a strategy to incorporate APRSL into the planning and management of IFs, and suggests a strategy for integrating APRSL at each local research setting. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  17. Melding Research and Education in a Zoological Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Dustin

    The first zoo was opened in London in 1828 and was intended for scientific study, but was eventually opened to the public in 1847. Since then, public dogma has dictated the development, role, and standards concerning the use of animals across the zoological community. Too often there is disconnect between research programs, captive propagation, and public education. In the fight against human driven extinction of earth's flora and fauna, it is vital that these areas be aligned. Thus in an effort to unite research and education in a zoological setting, East Carolina University (ECU) and Sylvan Heights Bird Park (SHBP) have partnered for a collaborative project involving the study of evolution in the African brood parasitic finches (Viduidae), specifically he Pin-tailed Whydah (Vidua macroura). I attempt to quantify the educational impact of Avian Pirates and SHBP, and assess basic demographic factors that will allow insights into what areas of exhibit design pertain to education. It is important to understand what aspects of zoos facilitate visitor learning in areas of conservation and biodiversity. This is vital as Zoos are under new pressure to substantiate claims of education during visits.

  18. A Study on Setting of Traffic Signal

    OpenAIRE

    本多, 義明

    1981-01-01

    In this paper,effect of traffic signal setting are Studied according to regional characteristics. Firstly, regional and accident characteristics are analized by factor analysis. Secondly,88 regions in Aichi Prefecture are clustered into six clusters. Finally,effect of traffic signal setting is discussed.

  19. Improving the Understanding of Progressing and Emerging Health Informatics Roles and Skill Sets among Health Information Management Professionals: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkie, Brooke N.

    2013-01-01

    The Health Information Management (HIM) profession is evolving to meet the technology demands of the current healthcare landscape. The 2009 enactment of the HITECH Act has placed unprecedented emphasis on utilizing technology to improve the quality of care and to decrease healthcare costs. Expectations of deep analytical skills have set the stage…

  20. Research into Practice: Listening Strategies in an Instructed Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…

  1. Recreation settings, scenery, and visitor experiences: a research assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    A core task of recreation research is to understand the relation between settings, scenery, and visitor experiences. This paper uses environmental psychology to describe four conceptual models underlying these relations: inherent/aesthetic, opportunity/goal-directed, symbolic, and expressive. The paper then describes some challenges to applying results to recreation...

  2. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  3. AEC sets five year nuclear safety research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research by the government for the establishment of means of judging the adequacy of safety measures incorporated in nuclear facilities, including setting safety standards and collecting documents of general criteria, and the research by the industry on safety measures and the promotion of safety-related technique are stated in the five year program for 1976-80 reported by subcommittees, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Four considerations on the research items incorporated in the program are 1) technical programs relating to the safety of nuclear facilities and the necessary criteria, 2) priority of the relevant items decided according to their impact on circumstances, urgency, the defence-indepth concept and so on, 3) consideration of all relevant data and documents collected, and research subjects necessary to quantify safety measurement, and 4) consideration of technological actualization, the capability of each research body, the budget and the time schedule. In addition, seven major themes decided on the basis of these points are 1) reactivity-initiated accident, 2) LOCA, 3) fuel behavior, 4) structural safety, 5) radioactive release, 6) statistical method of safety evaluation, and 7) seismic characteristics. The committee has deliberated the appropriate division of researches between the government and the industry. A set of tables showing the nuclear safety research plan for 1976-80 are attached. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Congestion Quantification Using the National Performance Management Research Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia P. Sisiopiku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of transportation system performance is a key element of any transportation operation and planning strategy. Estimation of dependable performance measures relies on analysis of large amounts of traffic data, which are often expensive and difficult to gather. National databases can assist in this regard, but challenges still remain with respect to data management, accuracy, storage, and use for performance monitoring. In an effort to address such challenges, this paper showcases a process that utilizes the National Performance Management Research Data Set (NPMRDS for generating performance measures for congestion monitoring applications in the Birmingham region. The capabilities of the relational database management system (RDBMS are employed to manage the large amounts of NPMRDS data. Powerful visual maps are developed using GIS software and used to illustrate congestion location, extent and severity. Travel time reliability indices are calculated and utilized to quantify congestion, and congestion intensity measures are developed and employed to rank and prioritize congested segments in the study area. The process for managing and using big traffic data described in the Birmingham case study is a great example that can be replicated by small and mid-size Metropolitan Planning Organizations to generate performance-based measures and monitor congestion in their jurisdictions.

  5. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  6. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.D.; Berry, S.M.; Galloway, K.J.; Langenwalter, T.A.; Lopez, D.A.; Noakes, C.M.; Peterson, H.K.; Pope, M.I.; Turk, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase

  7. Study text and sets of questions for the training and examination of selected personnel of nuclear research facilities. Issue 2. Experimental teaching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhans, J.; Hejzlar, R.; Hermansky, B.

    2004-01-01

    The VR-1 teaching reactor is described, 14 experimental exercises are given (e.g. Starting up and running the VR-1 reactor; Neutron detection and detectors; Measuring delayed neutrons ; Reactivity measurement; Control rod calibration; ...) and practical training at the existing Czech research reactors (LVR-15; LR-0; VR-1) is briefly highlighted. (P.A.)

  8. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways...

  9. Setting research strategy on electromagnetic-field pollution of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    General population and occupational groups are being exposed to electromagnetic field (EMF) nonionizing radiation that come from all electric or electronic equipment that work either with extremely low frequency (ELF) or radiofrequency (RF) fields. This preoccupation has generated research and regulation plans in some countries int he world, in order to set a clear configuration of bioeffects and other environmental implications derived from exposures to ELF/RF EMF

  10. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  11. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  12. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pteam process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid surveillance for health events following a mass meningococcal B vaccine program in a university setting: A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J M; MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; Swain, A; Halperin, S A; Top, K A; McNeil, S A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Marty, K; De Serres, G; Dubé, E; Bettinger, J A

    2016-07-25

    An outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B infection occurred at a small residential university; public health announced an organizational vaccination program with the 4-component Meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine (Bexsero(TM), Novartis/GlaxoSmithKline Inc.) several days later. Since there were limited published data on reactogenicity of 4CMenB in persons over 17years of age, this study sought to conduct rapid surveillance of health events in vaccinees and controls using an online survey. Vaccine uptake was 84.7% for dose 1 (2967/3500) and 70% (2456/3500) for dose 2; the survey response rates were 33.0% (987/2967) and 18.7% (459/2456) in dose 1 and dose 1 recipients respectively, and 12% in unvaccinated individuals (63/533). Most students were 20-29years of age (vaccinees, 64.0%; controls, 74.0). A new health problem or worsening of an existing health problem was reported by 30.0% and 30.3% of vaccine recipients after doses 1 and 2 respectively; and by 15.9% of controls. These health problems interfered with the ability to perform normal activities in most vaccinees reporting these events (74.7% post dose 1; 62.6% post dose 2), and in 60% of controls. The health problems led to a health care provider visit (including emergency room) in 12.8% and 14.4% of vaccinees post doses 1 and 2, respectively and in 40% of controls. The most common reactions in vaccinees were injection site reactions (20.6% post dose 1, 16.1% post dose 20 and non-specific systemic complaints (22.6% post dose 1, 17.6% post dose 2). No hospitalizations were reported. An online surveillance program during an emergency meningococcal B vaccine program was successfully implemented, and detected higher rates of health events in vaccinees compared to controls, and high rates of both vaccinees and controls seeking medical attention. The types of adverse events reported by young adult vaccinees were consistent with those previously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saving a Unique Data Set for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian/US International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program included the four satellites Alouette 1 and 2, ISIS 1 and 2 launched in 1962, 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively and in operation for 10, 10, 21, and 19 years, respectively. The core experiment on these satellites was a topside sounder that could determine the ionospheric electron density from the orbit altitude down to about 250-500 km near where the ionosphere reaches its point of highest density, the F-peak. The mission was long lasting and highly successful, producing a wealth of information about the topside ionosphere in the form of analog ionosphere soundings on 7-track tapes. The analysis process required a tedious manual scaling of ionogram traces that could then, with appropriate software, be converted into electron density profiles. Even with the combined effort involving ionospheric groups from many countries only a relatively small percentage of the huge volume of recorded ionograms could be converted to electron density profiles. Even with this limited number significant new insights were achieved documented by the many Alouette/ISIS-related papers published in the 1960s and 1970s. Recognizing the importance of this unique data set for space weather research a new effort was undertaken in the late Nineties to analyze more of the Alouette/ISIS ionograms. The immediate cause for action was the threat to the more than 100,000 analog telemetry tapes in storage in Canada because of space limitations and storage costs. We were able to have nearly 20,000 tapes shipped to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analog-to-digital conversion and succeeded in developing software that automatically scales and converts the ionograms to electron density profiles. This rescue effort is still ongoing and has already produced a significant increase in the information available for the topside ionosphere and has resulted in numerous publications. The data have led to improvements of the

  15. Research culture in a regional allied health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Research evidence is required to guide best practice, inform policy and improve the health of communities. Current indicators consider allied health research culture to be low. This study aimed to measure the allied health research culture and capacity in a Victorian regional health service. The Research Capacity and Culture tool was used to evaluate research capacity and culture across individual, team and organisation domains. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between allied health professions, whereas responses to open-ended questions were themed using open coding. One hundred thirty-six allied health professionals completed the survey. There were statistically significant differences in the organisation domain between social work, physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions; in the team domain, between social work and all other professions. Motivators for conducting research included providing a high-quality service, developing skills and increasing job satisfaction. Barriers included other work roles taking priority, a lack of time and limited research skills. Multi-layered strategies including establishing conjoint research positions are recommended to increase allied health research culture in this regional area.

  16. Online Communication Settings and the Qualitative Research Process: Acclimating Students and Novice Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine

    2018-06-01

    In the last 20 years, qualitative research scholars have begun to interrogate methodological and analytic issues concerning online research settings as both data sources and instruments for digital methods. This article examines the adaptation of parts of a qualitative research curriculum for understanding online communication settings. I propose methodological best practices for researchers and educators that I developed while teaching research methods to undergraduate and graduate students across disciplinary departments and discuss obstacles faced during my own research while gathering data from online sources. This article confronts issues concerning the disembodied aspects of applying what in practice should be rooted in a humanistic inquiry. Furthermore, as some approaches to online qualitative research as a digital method grow increasingly problematic with the development of new data mining technologies, I will also briefly touch upon borderline ethical practices involving data-scraping-based qualitative research.

  17. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  18. Ancillary care in public health intervention research in low-resource settings: researchers' practices and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W; Mullany, Luke C

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about researchers' practices regarding the provision of ancillary care (AC) in public health intervention studies they have conducted and the factors that influence their decisions about whether to provide ancillary care in low-resource settings. We conducted 52 in-person in-depth interviews with public health researchers. Data analysis was iterative and led to the identification of themes and patterns among themes. We found that researchers who conduct their research in the community setting are more likely to identify and plan for the AC needs of potential research subjects before a study begins, whereas those affiliated with a permanent facility are more likely to deliver AC to research subjects on an ad hoc basis. Our findings suggest that on the whole, at least for public health intervention research in low-resource settings, researchers conducting research in the community setting confront more complex ethical and operational challenges in their decision-making about AC than do researchers conducting facility-based studies.

  19. Innovations in research ethics governance in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Doris; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross; Ahmad, Aasim; Jesani, Amar; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Segelid, Michael J; Sheel, Sunita; Singh, Jerome

    2015-02-26

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is one of the world's leading humanitarian medical organizations. The increased emphasis in MSF on research led to the creation of an ethics review board (ERB) in 2001. The ERB has encouraged innovation in the review of proposals and the interaction between the ERB and the organization. This has led to some of the advances in ethics governance described in this paper. We first update our previous work from 2009 describing ERB performance and then highlight five innovative practices: • A new framework to guide ethics review • The introduction of a policy exempting a posteriori analysis of routinely collected data • The preapproval of "emergency" protocols • General ethical approval of "routine surveys" • Evaluating the impact of approved studies. The new framework encourages a conversation about ethical issues, rather than imposing quasi-legalistic rules, is more engaged with the specific MSF research context and gives greater prominence to certain values and principles. Some of the innovations implemented by the ERB, such as review exemption or approval of generic protocols, may run counter to many standard operating procedures. We argue that much standard practice in research ethics review ought to be open to challenge and revision. Continued interaction between MSF researchers and independent ERB members has allowed for progressive innovations based on a trustful and respectful partnership between the ERB and the researchers. In the future, three areas merit particular attention. First, the impact of the new framework should be assessed. Second, the impact of research needs to be defined more precisely as a first step towards being meaningfully assessed, including changes of impact over time. Finally, the dialogue between the MSF ERB and the ethics committees in the study countries should be enhanced. We hope that the innovations in research ethics governance described may be relevant for other organisations carrying out

  20. Feasibility of Conducting Autism Biomarker Research in the Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sices, Laura; Pawlowski, Katherine; Farfel, Laura; Phillips, Deirdre; Howe, Yamini; Cochran, David M; Choueiri, Roula; Forbes, Peter W; Brewster, Stephanie J; Frazier, Jean A; Neumeyer, Ann; Bridgemohan, Carolyn

    2017-09-01

    Recruitment and completion of research activities during regular clinical care has the potential to increase research participation in complex neurodevelopmental disorders. We evaluated the feasibility, and effect on clinical care, of conducting biomarker research within a subspecialty clinical visit for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children, aged 5 to 10 years, were recruited by providers in ASD clinics at 5 institutions. Biomarkers collected were growth measurements, head circumference, neurologic and dysmorphology examinations, digit ratio (2D:4D) measurement, and platelet serotonin and urinary melatonin sulfate excretion levels. Parents completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community and a medical/demographic questionnaire. Cognitive level was abstracted from the medical record. Parents and clinicians completed surveys on the effect of the study on the clinical visit. Eighty-three children and their caregivers participated. Factors limiting participation included difficulty reaching families by phone and parent concern about the study blood draw requirement. All children completed at least 4 of 7 planned research activities. Demographic factors, educational placement, and child behavior were not associated with completion of study activities. Lower nonverbal cognitive function was weakly associated with fewer activities completed. Forty-four percent of clinicians reported an effect of the research study on the clinical visit. However, neither parent-reported nor clinician-reported effect was associated with the degree of study activity completion. Recruiting study participants in the context of scheduled ASD clinical visits required significant effort. However, once recruited, participants completed most study activities, regardless of behavioral symptom severity. Research activities did not adversely affect the clinical visit.

  1. Social Relations of Fieldwork: Giving Back in a Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The project of this special issue emerged from the guest editors' experiences as field researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. During this time both researchers faced the difficult question of "giving back" to the communities in which, and with whom, they worked—communities that were often far less privileged than the researchers were in terms of wealth, mobility, education, and access to health care. Returning from their field sites, both researchers felt a combination of guilt and frustration that they had not done enough or had not done things right. Thus emerged the idea of bringing together a group of researchers, from a range of disciplines, to discuss the topic of giving back in field research. This editorial describes the idea and process that led to the present collection of articles. The guest editors situate the project in the literature on feminist studies and briefly summarize each of the four thematic sections in this special issue. They conclude by emphasizing that their collection is not a guide to giving back. Rather than lay out hard and fast rules about what, how much, and to whom field researchers should give, their collection offers a series of examples and considerations for giving back in fieldwork.

  2. Managing multiple projects: a literature review of setting priorities and a pilot survey of healthcare researchers in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert Borden; Campbell, Kaitryn; O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Bowen, Jim; Blackhouse, Gord; Goerre, Ron

    2007-05-16

    To summarize and then assess with a pilot study the use of published best practice recommendations for priority setting during management of multiple healthcare research projects, in a resource-constrained environment. Medical, economic, business, and operations literature was reviewed to summarize and develop a survey to assess best practices for managing multiple projects. Fifteen senior healthcare research project managers, directors, and faculty at an urban academic institution were surveyed to determine most commonly used priority rules, ranking of rules, characteristics of their projects, and availability of resources. Survey results were compared to literature recommendations to determine use of best practices. Seven priority-setting rules were identified for managing multiple projects. Recommendations on assigning priorities by project characteristics are presented. In the pilot study, a large majority of survey respondents follow best practice recommendations identified in the research literature. However, priority rules such as Most Total Successors (MTS) and Resource Scheduling Method (RSM) were used "very often" by half of the respondents when better performing priority rules were available. Through experience, project managers learn to manage multiple projects under resource constraints. Best practice literature can assist project managers in priority setting by recommending the most appropriate priority given resource constraints and project characteristics. There is room for improvement in managing multiple projects.

  3. Global health trials methodological research agenda:results from a priority setting exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Blazeby, Jane; Nasser, Mona; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Sydes, Matthew R.; Zhang, Junhua; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMethodological research into the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trials is essential to optimise the process. UK specialists in the field have established a set of top priorities in aid of this research. These priorities however may not be reflected in the needs of similar research in low to middle income countries (LMICs) with different healthcare provision, resources and research infrastructure. The aim of the study was to identify the top priorities for methodological ...

  4. Rapid research and implementation priority setting for wound care uncertainties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trish A Gray

    Full Text Available People with complex wounds are more likely to be elderly, living with multimorbidity and wound related symptoms. A variety of products are available for managing complex wounds and a range of healthcare professionals are involved in wound care, yet there is a lack of good evidence to guide practice and services. These factors create uncertainty for those who deliver and those who manage wound care. Formal priority setting for research and implementation topics is needed to more accurately target the gaps in treatment and services. We solicited practitioner and manager uncertainties in wound care and held a priority setting workshop to facilitate a collaborative approach to prioritising wound care-related uncertainties.We recruited healthcare professionals who regularly cared for patients with complex wounds, were wound care specialists or managed wound care services. Participants submitted up to five wound care uncertainties in consultation with their colleagues, via an on-line survey and attended a priority setting workshop. Submitted uncertainties were collated, sorted and categorised according professional group. On the day of the workshop, participants were divided into four groups depending on their profession. Uncertainties submitted by their professional group were viewed, discussed and amended, prior to the first of three individual voting rounds. Participants cast up to ten votes for the uncertainties they judged as being high priority. Continuing in the professional groups, the top 10 uncertainties from each group were displayed, and the process was repeated. Groups were then brought together for a plenary session in which the final priorities were individually scored on a scale of 0-10 by participants. Priorities were ranked and results presented. Nominal group technique was used for generating the final uncertainties, voting and discussions.Thirty-three participants attended the workshop comprising; 10 specialist nurses, 10 district

  5. Rapid research and implementation priority setting for wound care uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C.; Christie, Janice; Cullum, Nicky A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction People with complex wounds are more likely to be elderly, living with multimorbidity and wound related symptoms. A variety of products are available for managing complex wounds and a range of healthcare professionals are involved in wound care, yet there is a lack of good evidence to guide practice and services. These factors create uncertainty for those who deliver and those who manage wound care. Formal priority setting for research and implementation topics is needed to more accurately target the gaps in treatment and services. We solicited practitioner and manager uncertainties in wound care and held a priority setting workshop to facilitate a collaborative approach to prioritising wound care-related uncertainties. Methods We recruited healthcare professionals who regularly cared for patients with complex wounds, were wound care specialists or managed wound care services. Participants submitted up to five wound care uncertainties in consultation with their colleagues, via an on-line survey and attended a priority setting workshop. Submitted uncertainties were collated, sorted and categorised according professional group. On the day of the workshop, participants were divided into four groups depending on their profession. Uncertainties submitted by their professional group were viewed, discussed and amended, prior to the first of three individual voting rounds. Participants cast up to ten votes for the uncertainties they judged as being high priority. Continuing in the professional groups, the top 10 uncertainties from each group were displayed, and the process was repeated. Groups were then brought together for a plenary session in which the final priorities were individually scored on a scale of 0–10 by participants. Priorities were ranked and results presented. Nominal group technique was used for generating the final uncertainties, voting and discussions. Results Thirty-three participants attended the workshop comprising; 10 specialist nurses

  6. Lessons learned from setting up the NOWESP research data base: Experiences in an interdisciplinary research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radach, Günther; Gekeler, Jens

    1996-09-01

    Research carried out within the framework of the MAST project NOWESP (North-West European Shelf Programme) was based on a multi-parameter data set of existing marine data, relevant for estimating trends, variability and fluxes on the Northwest European Shelf. The data sets were provided by the partners of the project. Additional data sets were obtained from several other institutions. During the project, the data were organized in the NOWESP Research Data Base (NRDB), for which a special data base scheme was defined that was capable of storing different types of marine data. Data products, like time series and interpolated fields, were provided to the partners for analysis (Radach et al. [1997]). After three years of project time, the feasibility of such an approach is discussed. Ways of optimizing data access and evaluation are proposed. A project-oriented Research Data Base is a useful tool because of its flexibility and proximity to the research being carried out. However, several requirements must be met to derive optimum benefits from this type of service unit. Since this task usually is carried out by a limited number of staff, an early start of project data management is recommended. To enable future projects to succeed in an analogous compilation of relevant data for their use, as performed in NOWESP, the task of organizing the data sets for any short-term project should be shared between a research data base group and a national or international data centre whose experience and software could be used. It must be ensured that only quality controlled data sets from the individual data-produ cing projects are delivered to the national data centres. It is recommended that data quality control should be performed by the originators and/or data centres before delivering any data sets to the research data base. Delivery of the (full) data sets should be checked and their quality should be approved by authorized data centres.

  7. Setting Priorities for Space Research: Opportunities and Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, John A.; Abelson, Philip H.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Bishop, William P.; Byerly, Radford, Jr.; Crowe, Lawson; Dews, Peter; Garriott, Owen K.; Lunine, Jonathan; Macauley, Molly K.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents the first phase of a study by a task group convened by the Space Studies Board to ascertain whether it should attempt to develop a methodology for recommending priorities among the various initiatives in space research (that is, scientific activities concerned with phenomena in space or utilizing observations from space). The report argues that such priority statements by the space research community are both necessary and desirable and would contribute to the formulation and implementation of public policy. The report advocates the establishment of priorities to enhance effective management of the nation's scientific research program in space. It argues that scientific objectives and purposes should determine how and under what circumstances scientific research should be done. The report does not take a position on the controversy between advocates of manned space exploration and those who favor the exclusive use of unmanned space vehicles. Nor does the report address questions about the value or appropriateness of Space Station Freedom or proposals to establish a permanent manned Moon base or to undertake a manned mission to Mars. These issues lie beyond the charge to the task group.

  8. Setting healthcare priorities in hospitals: a review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Priority setting research has focused on the macro (national) and micro (bedside) level, leaving the meso (institutional, hospital) level relatively neglected. This is surprising given the key role that hospitals play in the delivery of healthcare services and the large proportion of health systems resources that they absorb. To explore the factors that impact upon priority setting at the hospital level, we conducted a thematic review of empirical studies. A systematic search of PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Econlit databases and Google scholar was supplemented by a search of key websites and a manual search of relevant papers' reference lists. A total of 24 papers were identified from developed and developing countries. We applied a policy analysis framework to examine and synthesize the findings of the selected papers. Findings suggest that priority setting practice in hospitals was influenced by (1) contextual factors such as decision space, resource availability, financing arrangements, availability and use of information, organizational culture and leadership, (2) priority setting processes that depend on the type of priority setting activity, (3) content factors such as priority setting criteria and (4) actors, their interests and power relations. We observe that there is need for studies to examine these issues and the interplay between them in greater depth and propose a conceptual framework that might be useful in examining priority setting practices in hospitals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  9. Clinical code set engineering for reusing EHR data for research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Buchan, Iain; Peek, Niels

    2017-06-01

    The construction of reliable, reusable clinical code sets is essential when re-using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data for research. Yet code set definitions are rarely transparent and their sharing is almost non-existent. There is a lack of methodological standards for the management (construction, sharing, revision and reuse) of clinical code sets which needs to be addressed to ensure the reliability and credibility of studies which use code sets. To review methodological literature on the management of sets of clinical codes used in research on clinical databases and to provide a list of best practice recommendations for future studies and software tools. We performed an exhaustive search for methodological papers about clinical code set engineering for re-using EHR data in research. This was supplemented with papers identified by snowball sampling. In addition, a list of e-phenotyping systems was constructed by merging references from several systematic reviews on this topic, and the processes adopted by those systems for code set management was reviewed. Thirty methodological papers were reviewed. Common approaches included: creating an initial list of synonyms for the condition of interest (n=20); making use of the hierarchical nature of coding terminologies during searching (n=23); reviewing sets with clinician input (n=20); and reusing and updating an existing code set (n=20). Several open source software tools (n=3) were discovered. There is a need for software tools that enable users to easily and quickly create, revise, extend, review and share code sets and we provide a list of recommendations for their design and implementation. Research re-using EHR data could be improved through the further development, more widespread use and routine reporting of the methods by which clinical codes were selected. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerating String Set Matching in FPGA Hardware for Bioinformatics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Shane C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes techniques for accelerating the performance of the string set matching problem with particular emphasis on applications in computational proteomics. The process of matching peptide sequences against a genome translated in six reading frames is part of a proteogenomic mapping pipeline that is used as a case-study. The Aho-Corasick algorithm is adapted for execution in field programmable gate array (FPGA devices in a manner that optimizes space and performance. In this approach, the traditional Aho-Corasick finite state machine (FSM is split into smaller FSMs, operating in parallel, each of which matches up to 20 peptides in the input translated genome. Each of the smaller FSMs is further divided into five simpler FSMs such that each simple FSM operates on a single bit position in the input (five bits are sufficient for representing all amino acids and special symbols in protein sequences. Results This bit-split organization of the Aho-Corasick implementation enables efficient utilization of the limited random access memory (RAM resources available in typical FPGAs. The use of on-chip RAM as opposed to FPGA logic resources for FSM implementation also enables rapid reconfiguration of the FPGA without the place and routing delays associated with complex digital designs. Conclusion Experimental results show storage efficiencies of over 80% for several data sets. Furthermore, the FPGA implementation executing at 100 MHz is nearly 20 times faster than an implementation of the traditional Aho-Corasick algorithm executing on a 2.67 GHz workstation.

  11. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  12. Leadership development through action learning sets: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical issues in family violence research in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Eija; Lepistö, Sari; Flinck, Aune

    2014-02-01

    Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards.

  14. An Analytical Framework for Delirium Research in Palliative Care Settings: Integrated Epidemiologic, Clinician-Researcher, and Knowledge User Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammed; Hosie, Annmarie; Kanji, Salmaan; Momoli, Franco; Bush, Shirley H.; Watanabe, Sharon; Currow, David C.; Gagnon, Bruno; Agar, Meera; Bruera, Eduardo; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.J.A.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Caraceni, Augusto; Marchington, Katie; Stewart, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium often presents difficult management challenges in the context of goals of care in palliative care settings. Objectives The aim was to formulate an analytical framework for further research on delirium in palliative care settings, prioritize the associated research questions, discuss the inherent methodological challenges associated with relevant studies, and outline the next steps in a program of delirium research. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and knowledge users at an international delirium study planning meeting, relevant literature searches, focused input of epidemiologic expertise, and a meeting participant and coauthor survey to formulate a conceptual research framework and prioritize research questions. Results Our proposed framework incorporates three main groups of research questions: the first was predominantly epidemiologic, such as delirium occurrence rates, risk factor evaluation, screening, and diagnosis; the second covers pragmatic management questions; and the third relates to the development of predictive models for delirium outcomes. Based on aggregated survey responses to each research question or domain, the combined modal ratings of “very” or “extremely” important confirmed their priority. Conclusion Using an analytical framework to represent the full clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care settings, we identified multiple knowledge gaps in relation to the occurrence rates, assessment, management, and outcome prediction of delirium in this population. The knowledge synthesis generated from adequately powered, multicenter studies to answer the framework’s research questions will inform decision making and policy development regarding delirium detection and management and thus help to achieve better outcomes for patients in palliative care settings. PMID:24726762

  15. Overcoming practical challenges to conducting clinical research in the inpatient stroke rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Grace B; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Whyte, Ellen M; Matthews, Judith T

    2015-10-01

    There is a shortage of published empirical studies conducted in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation, though such studies are greatly needed in order to shed light on the most efficacious inpatient stroke rehabilitation interventions. The inherent challenges of inpatient research may dissuade researchers from undertaking this important work. This paper describes our institution's experience devising practical solutions to research barriers in this setting. Through concentrated efforts to overcome research barriers, such as by cultivating collaborative relationships and capitalizing on unanticipated benefits, we successfully facilitated conduct of five simultaneous inpatient stroke studies. Tangible benefits realized include increased effectiveness of research participant identification and enrollment, novel collaborative projects, innovative clinical care initiatives, and enhanced emotional and practical support for patients and their families. We provide recommendations based on lessons learned during our experience, and discuss benefits of this collaboration for our research participants, clinical staff, and the research team.

  16. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to Identify Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation of an Internet-Based Patient-Provider Communication Service in Five Settings: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Cecilie; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Gammon, Deede; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2015-11-18

    Although there is growing evidence of the positive effects of Internet-based patient-provider communication (IPPC) services for both patients and health care providers, their implementation into clinical practice continues to be a challenge. The 3 aims of this study were to (1) identify and compare barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation of an IPPC service in 5 hospital units using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), (2) assess the ability of the different constructs of CFIR to distinguish between high and low implementation success, and (3) compare our findings with those from other studies that used the CFIR to discriminate between high and low implementation success. This study was based on individual interviews with 10 nurses, 6 physicians, and 1 nutritionist who had used the IPPC to answer messages from patients. Of the 36 CFIR constructs, 28 were addressed in the interviews, of which 12 distinguished between high and low implementation units. Most of the distinguishing constructs were related to the inner setting domain of CFIR, indicating that institutional factors were particularly important for successful implementation. Health care providers' beliefs in the intervention as useful for themselves and their patients as well as the implementation process itself were also important. A comparison of constructs across ours and 2 other studies that also used the CFIR to discriminate between high and low implementation success showed that 24 CFIR constructs distinguished between high and low implementation units in at least 1 study; 11 constructs distinguished in 2 studies. However, only 2 constructs (patient need and resources and available resources) distinguished consistently between high and low implementation units in all 3 studies. The CFIR is a helpful framework for illuminating barriers and facilitators influencing IPPC implementation. However, CFIR's strength of being broad and comprehensive also limits its

  17. A validated set of tool pictures with matched objects and non-objects for laterality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ark; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research has established that knowledge related to tool use and tool recognition is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. Recently, behavioural studies with the visual half-field technique have confirmed the lateralization. A limitation of this research was that different sets of stimuli had to be used for the comparison of tools to other objects and objects to non-objects. Therefore, we developed a new set of stimuli containing matched triplets of tools, other objects and non-objects. With the new stimulus set, we successfully replicated the findings of no visual field advantage for objects in an object recognition task combined with a significant right visual field advantage for tools in a tool recognition task. The set of stimuli is available as supplemental data to this article.

  18. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  19. Ready! Set! Go! An Action Research Agenda for Software Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Schougaard, Kari Rye

    2008-01-01

    Software architecture practice is highly complex. Software architects interact with business as well as technical aspects of systems, often embedded in large and changing organizations. We first make an argument that an appropriate research agenda for understanding, describing, and changing...... architectural practice in this context is based on an action research agenda in which researchers use ethnographic techniques to understand practice and engages directly with and in practice when proposing and designing new practices. Secondly, we present an overview of an ongoing project which applies action...... research techniques to understand and potentially change architectural practice in four Danish software companies....

  20. Cyber-Bullying in School Settings: A Research Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on school-aged children. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest in the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using…

  1. Biodiversity research sets sail: showcasing the diversity of marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2009-04-23

    The World Congress on Marine Biodiversity was held in the City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia, from 10 to 15 November 2008, showcasing research on all aspects of marine biodiversity from basic taxonomic exploration to innovative conservation strategies and methods to integrate research into environmental policy.

  2. Foreign board members and firm innovativeness: An exploratory analysis for setting a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan; Habersetzer, Antoine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to assess the often repeated, but empirically unconfirmed, supposition that there is a positive connection between foreign board members (FBMs) and firm innovativeness and to set a research agenda for future studies on the topic. Design/methodology/approach The analyses ar...

  3. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  4. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, J.E.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products

  5. Research on Role Sets and Emotional Relationships in Military Personnel Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazina, Elmira I.; Minullina, Aida F.

    2016-01-01

    An urgent demand of society to conduct effective work with the family substantiates the relevance of the research. The article provides the investigation of role sets and emotional relationships in marriage through the study of military personnel and nonmilitary personnel families. Practical implementation of psychological ideas represents one of…

  6. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  7. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site's total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside

  8. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  9. Developing Research Collaborations in an Academic Clinical Setting: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahs, John A; Nicasio, Andel V; Storey, Joan E; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Research collaboration in "real world" practice settings may enhance the meaningfulness of the findings and reduce barriers to implementation of novel intervention strategies. This study describes an initiative to integrate research into a hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic within an academic medical center, focusing on collaborative processes across three research projects. We report on the varied outcomes of the projects and utilize data from two focus groups to identify the key elements that contributed to the challenges and successes. We identify barriers to practice-research collaborations that emerged even when the initial circumstances of the partnership were favorable. These barriers include the presence of varied agendas across clinicians and investigators, resource constraints, limited staff buy-in, and staff turnover. In highlighting the lessons learned in this collaborative process, we hope to facilitate successful partnerships in other clinical settings.

  10. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  11. The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Eriksson, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this review is to compile and identify key issues in international research about youth sports clubs as health-promoting settings, and then discuss the results of the review in terms of a framework for the youth sports club as a health-promoting setting. Methods: The framework guiding this review of research is the health-promoting settings approach introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The method used is the integrated review. Inclusion criteria were, first, that the studies concerned sports clubs for young people, not professional clubs; second, that it be a question of voluntary participation in some sort of ongoing organized athletics outside of the regular school curricula; third, that the studies consider issues about youth sports clubs in terms of health-promoting settings as described by WHO. The final sample for the review consists of 44 publications. Results: The review shows that youth sports clubs have plentiful opportunities to be or become health-promoting settings; however this is not something that happens automatically. To do so, the club needs to include an emphasis on certain important elements in its strategies and daily practices. The youth sports club needs to be a supportive and healthy environment with activities designed for and adapted to the specific age-group or stage of development of the youth. Conclusions: To become a health-promoting setting, a youth sports club needs to take a comprehensive approach to its activities, aims, and purposes. PMID:23349167

  12. Research Priority Setting for Social Determinants of Health Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: It is obvious that, because of the lack of resources, we should devote our limited resources to priorities in order to reach an acceptable level of health. The objective of this study was to research priority setting for Pediatric Surgery Research Center; with the participation of all stakeholders.Material and Methods: This is a Health System Research (HSR project in order to apply governance and leadership issues with the participation of 41 people including faculty members in Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Medical University and the other pediatric specialists and health system stakeholders as well as the people associated with health system inside & outside the university. This was performed in 2010 using the Council on Health Research for Development COHRED( model with little change. Based on the model, at first the stakeholders were identified and the field situation of Pediatric Surgery was analyzed. Then, research areas and titles were specified and research priorities were set out by giving scores according to the criteria.Results: The seven obtained research areas in priority order are included pediatric trauma, pediatric cancers, pediatric urology diseases, undescended testicles in children, developmental genetics & congenital defects, emergency in children and application of laparoscopic surgery in children. Because each of the research areas is composed of multiple subareas, we managed to finally specify 43 research subareas as research priorities. These subareas included epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment. They also included follow-up, complications, knowledge & attitudes of parents, quality of life, economy aspects and data bank for further research.Conclusion: In this project, research priorities were set out for Pediatric Surgery Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, with the participation of all the stakeholders

  13. Asynchronous Brainstorming in an Industrial Setting: Exploratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Paul B; Korde, Runa M; Dickson, Jubilee J; Carmeli, Abraham; Cohen-Meitar, Ravit

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of brainwriting in an industrial setting. Research has demonstrated that group interaction can inhibit idea generation. Written exchanges of ideas in groups have been found to be an effective way to increase idea generation. To our knowledge, no study has examined the potential of brainwriting for group idea generation in work settings or the impact of different sequences of group and individual idea generation. Participants in a high-technology company participated in two brainwriting studies. In one study, participants generated ideas either first alone and then in a group or in the reverse order. In a second study, participants either generated as a group during the entire session or alternated individual ideation with a periodic review of the group's ideas. In the first study, participants who generated ideas first as a group and then as individuals performed best. In the first session, group writing also tended to lead to more ideas than did individual writing. In the second study, participants with periodic reviews performed best. The results suggest that alternation in individual and group brainwriting can enhance the number of ideas generated. The group-to-alone sequence is also beneficial since it allows group members to build on shared ideas. This research indicates that collaborative idea sessions can be beneficial in work sessions if the brainwriting paradigm is used with an appropriate alternation of group ideation or review sessions with individual idea generation sessions. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Negotiating Peer Mentoring Roles in Undergraduate Research Lab Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Becky W.; Marciano, Vincenza N.; Payne, Jessica M.; Bledzki, Leszek A.; Woodard, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research is viewed as an important catalyst for educational engagement and persistence, with an emphasis on the faculty mentoring relationship. Despite the common practice of having multi-tiered lab teams composed of newer undergraduates and more seasoned undergraduates serving as peer mentors, less is understood about the experience…

  15. Considerations, clues and challenges: Gaining Ethical and Trust research approval when using the NHS as a research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, Leon, E-mail: leon.jonker@cumbria.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Research and Development Department, North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust, Carlisle CA2 7HY (United Kingdom); Cox, Diane; Marshall, Gill [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Substantial changes have been made in recent years to the process of obtaining ethical and research governance approval for research projects in the NHS. The advent of the Integrated Research Application System (IRAS) has streamlined the process, providing a single point of entry. Ethical approval gained in one part of the country is now valid throughout the UK. The previous process of gaining research governance approval in NHS Trusts was maligned and it has been overhauled with the introduction of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Coordinated System for gaining NHS Permission. In addition to updating the reader about the new processes around gaining ethical and Trust approval for research within an NHS setting, essential research project documentation needed for submission are discussed. The aspects of a proposal that Ethics Committees and Trust R and D Departments consider when reviewing applications are highlighted. The implemented changes to the research approval processes will mostly benefit large multi-centre studies; small scale unfunded studies and student projects are potentially at risk of being marginalised in the quest for a streamlined ethics and NHS Trust research governance approval process. However, researchers' familiarity with the approval system should minimise rejection rates and delays.

  16. Considerations, clues and challenges: Gaining Ethical and Trust research approval when using the NHS as a research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, Leon; Cox, Diane; Marshall, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Substantial changes have been made in recent years to the process of obtaining ethical and research governance approval for research projects in the NHS. The advent of the Integrated Research Application System (IRAS) has streamlined the process, providing a single point of entry. Ethical approval gained in one part of the country is now valid throughout the UK. The previous process of gaining research governance approval in NHS Trusts was maligned and it has been overhauled with the introduction of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Coordinated System for gaining NHS Permission. In addition to updating the reader about the new processes around gaining ethical and Trust approval for research within an NHS setting, essential research project documentation needed for submission are discussed. The aspects of a proposal that Ethics Committees and Trust R and D Departments consider when reviewing applications are highlighted. The implemented changes to the research approval processes will mostly benefit large multi-centre studies; small scale unfunded studies and student projects are potentially at risk of being marginalised in the quest for a streamlined ethics and NHS Trust research governance approval process. However, researchers' familiarity with the approval system should minimise rejection rates and delays.

  17. Building clinicians-researchers partnerships: lessons from diverse natural settings and practice-oriented initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Youn, Soo Jeong; Xiao, Henry; Muran, J Christopher; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding paper, we identify the type of studies conducted by 11 teams of contributors to a special issue on building clinicians-researchers partnerships. Those studies were conducted across a variety of clinical settings. We also integrate the lessons that have emerged from their collaborative initiatives in terms of obstacles faced, strategies adopted to address these challenges, benefits gained, and general recommendations offered to facilitate studies conducted with or by clinicians. The paper ends with the authors' thoughts about the future success of practice-oriented research in general.

  18. Research on dose setting for radiation sterilization of medical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Zhong Hongliang; Mi Zhisu; Wang Chunlei; Jiang Jianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the radiation sterilization dose for medical devices using data of bioburden on the medical device. Methods: Firstly determination of recovery ratio and correction coefficient of the microbiological test method was used according to ISO11737 standard, then determination of bioburden on the products, finally the dose setting was completed based on the Method 1 in ISO11137 standard. Results: Fifteen kinds of medical devices were tested. Bioburden range was from 8.6-97271.2 CFU/device, recovery ration range 54.6%-100%, correction co-efficiency range 1.00-1.83, D 10 distribution from 1.40 to 2.82 kGy, verification dose (dose at SAL = 10 -2 ) range 5.1-17.6 kGy and sterilization dose (dose at SAL 10 -6 ) range 17.5-32.5 kGy. Conclusion: One hundred samples of each kind of product were exposed to the pre-determined verification dose and then the sterility test was performed. Each sterility test showed positive number was not greater than two. This indicated that the sterilization dose established for each kind of product was statistically acceptable

  19. Setting a standard for electricity pilot studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Alexander L.; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wandi

    2013-01-01

    In-home displays, dynamic pricing, and automated devices aim to reduce residential electricity use—overall and during peak hours. We present a meta-analysis of 32 studies of the impacts of these interventions, conducted in the US or Canada. We find that methodological problems are common in the design of these studies, leading to artificially inflated results relative to what one would expect if the interventions were implemented in the general population. Particular problems include having volunteer participants who may have been especially motivated to reduce their electricity use, letting participants choose their preferred intervention, and having high attrition rates. Using estimates of bias from medical clinical trials as a guide, we recalculate impact estimates to adjust for bias, resulting in values that are often less than half of those reported in the reviewed studies. We estimate that in-home displays were the most effective intervention for reducing overall electricity use (∼4% using reported data; ∼3% after adjusting for bias), while dynamic pricing significantly reduced peak demand (∼11% reported; ∼6% adjusted), especially when used in conjunction with home automation (∼25% reported; ∼14% adjusted). We conclude with recommendations that can improve pilot studies and the soundness of decisions based on their results. -- Highlights: •We conduct a meta-analysis of field studies of in-home displays, dynamic pricing, and automation on overall and peak use. •Studies were assessed and adjusted for risk-of-bias from inadequate experimental design. •Most studies were at high risk-of-bias from multiple sources. •In-home displays provided the best overall reduction in energy use, approximately 3% after adjustment for risk-of-bias. •Even after adjustment, automation approximately doubled the effectiveness of dynamic pricing on peak reduction from 6% to 14%

  20. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  1. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  2. Authentic scientific research in an international setting as a path toward higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Palomo, M.; Casad, B.; Pietruschka, B.; Buckley, C.

    2016-12-01

    Studies have shown that undergraduate research opportunities foster student interest in research, encourage minority students to seek advanced degrees, and put students on a path toward higher education. It has been further suggested that engineering projects in international settings address issues of sustainability and promote a connection between engineering and social welfare that may compel students to seek future research opportunities. In this study, we explored the role that authentic research experiences in an international setting play in promoting higher education for students from groups typically under-represented in engineering and sciences. We hypothesized that the international context of the research experiences will provide undergraduate and graduate students with a global perspective of water reuse challenges and promote increased interest in pursuing a higher degree in engineering. Through the Sustainable Sanitation International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) Program, US students conducting research in Durban, South Africa in 2015 and 2016, were tasked with leading 6-week long research projects, collaborating with partners at the University of KwaZulu Natal, and producing papers and presentations for regional and international scientific conferences. All undergraduate participants were from groups under-represented in the sciences. Pre- and post-program survey results revealed that, after completing the program, participants of Cohort 1 had 1) greater research skills, 2) greater identification as an engineer, and 3) stronger intentions to pursue a PhD in engineering. Survey data were also used to evaluate comfort with cultural diversity before and after the international program and the effect of pairing US with South African student researchers. Our results indicate that students' awareness of societal needs and engineering challenges faced in Durban resulted in a positive impact on each student. The benefits gained from the

  3. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  4. Mind-sets, low-level exposures, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Much of our environmental policy is based on the notion that carcinogenic agents are harmful at even minuscule doses. From where does this thinking come? What is the scientific evidence that supports such policy? Moreover, why is the public willing to buy into this? Or is it the other way around: Has the scientific community bought into a paradigm that has its origins in public imagery? Or, most likely, are there interactions between the two? It is essential that we find out whether or not there are risks associated with low-level exposures to radiation. The author can see three obvious areas where the future depends on better information: The increasing radiation exposures resulting from the use of medical diagnostic and therapeutic practices need to be properly evaluated for safety; Environmental policies, which direct enormous resources to the reduction of small radiation exposures, needs to be put on a firmer scientific basis; The future of nuclear energy, dependent as it is on public acceptance, may well rely upon a better understanding of low-dose effects. Nuclear energy could provide an important solution of global warming and other possible environmental hazards, but will probably not be implemented as long as fear of low-dose radiation persists. Although an established paradigm has great resilience, it cannot resist the onslaught of inconsistent scientific observations or of the social value system that supports it. Only new research will enable us to determine if a paradigm shift is in order here

  5. 77 FR 47797 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts AGENCY: Department of... when the market research conducted in accordance with FAR part 10 indicates there are small businesses... officer can proceed with a small business set-aside for research and development. FAR 19.502-2(b...

  6. Archival Research Capabilities of the WFIRST Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander

    WFIRST's unique combination of a large (~0.3 deg2) field of view and HST-like angular resolution and sensitivity in the near infrared will produce spectacular new insights into the origins of stars, galaxies, and structure in the cosmos. We propose a WFIRST Archive Science Investigation Team (SIT-F) to define an archival, query, and analysis system that will enable scientific discovery in all relevant areas of astrophysics and maximize the overall scientific yield of the mission. Guest investigators (GIs), guest observers (GOs), the WFIRST SIT's, WFIRST Science Center(s), and astronomers using data from other surveys will all benefit from the extensive, easy, fast and reliable use of the WFIRST archives. We propose to develop the science requirements for the archive and work to understand its interactions with other elements of the WFIRST mission. To accomplish this, we will conduct case studies to derive performance requirements for the WFIRST archives. These will clarify what is needed for GIs to make important scientific discoveries across a broad range of astrophysics. While other SITs will primarily address the science capabilities of the WFIRST instruments, we will look ahead to the science enabling capabilities of the WFIRST archives. We will demonstrate how the archive can be optimized to take advantage of the extraordinary science capabilities of the WFIRST instruments as well as major space and ground observatories to maximize the science return of the mission. We will use the "20 queries" methodology, formulated by Jim Gray, to cover the most important science analysis patterns and use these to establish the performance required of the WFIRST archive. The case studies will be centered on studying galaxy evolution as a function of cosmic time, environment and intrinsic properties. The analyses will require massive angular and spatial cross correlations between key galaxy properties to search for new fundamental scaling relations that may only become

  7. Promoting Shifts in Preservice Science Teachers' Thinking through Teaching and Action Research in Informal Science Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an integrated experiential learning and action research project on preservice science teachers' developing ideas about science teaching, learning, and action research itself. The qualitative, interpretive study examined the action research of 10 master's degree students who were involved in service learning with children in informal education settings. Results indicated that all of the participants enhanced their knowledge of children as diverse learners and the importance of prior knowledge in science learning. In-depth case studies for three of the participants indicated that two developed deeper understandings of science learners and learning. However, one participant was resistant to learning and gained more limited understandings.

  8. The prefabricated building risk decision research of DM technology on the basis of Rough Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z. L.; Zhang, W. B.; Ma, L. H.

    2017-08-01

    With the resources crises and more serious pollution, the green building has been strongly advocated by most countries and become a new building style in the construction field. Compared with traditional building, the prefabricated building has its own irreplaceable advantages but is influenced by many uncertainties. So far, a majority of scholars have been studying based on qualitative researches from all of the word. This paper profoundly expounds its significance about the prefabricated building. On the premise of the existing research methods, combined with rough set theory, this paper redefines the factors which affect the prefabricated building risk. Moreover, it quantifies risk factors and establish an expert knowledge base through assessing. And then reduced risk factors about the redundant attributes and attribute values, finally form the simplest decision rule. This simplest decision rule, which is based on the DM technology of rough set theory, provides prefabricated building with a controllable new decision-making method.

  9. Theoretical Frameworks, Methods, and Procedures for Conducting Phenomenological Studies in Educational Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Pelin Yüksel; Soner Yıldırım

    2015-01-01

    The main purposes of phenomenological research are to seek reality from individuals’ narratives of their experiences and feelings, and to produce in-depth descriptions of the phenomenon. Phenomenological research studies in educational settings generally embody lived experience, perception, and feelings of participants about a phenomenon. This study aims to provide a general framework for researchers who are interested in phenomenological studies especially in educational setting. Additionall...

  10. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  11. Assessing data quality and the variability of source data verification auditing methods in clinical research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lauren; Probst, Yasmine; Martin, Allison

    2018-05-18

    Data audits within clinical settings are extensively used as a major strategy to identify errors, monitor study operations and ensure high-quality data. However, clinical trial guidelines are non-specific in regards to recommended frequency, timing and nature of data audits. The absence of a well-defined data quality definition and method to measure error undermines the reliability of data quality assessment. This review aimed to assess the variability of source data verification (SDV) auditing methods to monitor data quality in a clinical research setting. The scientific databases MEDLINE, Scopus and Science Direct were searched for English language publications, with no date limits applied. Studies were considered if they included data from a clinical trial or clinical research setting and measured and/or reported data quality using a SDV auditing method. In total 15 publications were included. The nature and extent of SDV audit methods in the articles varied widely, depending upon the complexity of the source document, type of study, variables measured (primary or secondary), data audit proportion (3-100%) and collection frequency (6-24 months). Methods for coding, classifying and calculating error were also inconsistent. Transcription errors and inexperienced personnel were the main source of reported error. Repeated SDV audits using the same dataset demonstrated ∼40% improvement in data accuracy and completeness over time. No description was given in regards to what determines poor data quality in clinical trials. A wide range of SDV auditing methods are reported in the published literature though no uniform SDV auditing method could be determined for "best practice" in clinical trials. Published audit methodology articles are warranted for the development of a standardised SDV auditing method to monitor data quality in clinical research settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research.

  13. Setting up an ethics of ecosystem research structure based on the precautionary principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Ethical practices in ecological field research differ from those in laboratory research in more than the technical setting and the important distinction between population-level and individual-based concerns. The number of stakeholders affected by the conduct of field research is far larger; private landholders, public water utilities, public land managers, local industries, and communities large and small are only some of those who may be impacted. As research review boards move to establish specific ethical practices for field biologists, the process of identifying appropriate standards will affect the degree to which research will ultimately be disrupted. Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress is likely to be better met.

  14. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shanda L; Bakker, Caitlin J

    2018-04-01

    The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience sampling. One-on-one interviews, held November 2016 to January 2017, were audio-recorded. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVivo 11 Pro and were based on the principles of grounded theory. The data revealed that a broad range of skill levels among participants (e.g., literature searching) and areas of misunderstanding (e.g., current publishing landscape, open access options). Overall, data management was an afterthought. Few participants were fully aware of the breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment.

  15. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Johanna M; Rowley, Kevin G; Anderson, Ian Ps

    2009-11-20

    Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH)'s experience in setting and meeting priorities.Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met.In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities.This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled researchers and stakeholders to come

  16. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ian PS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH's experience in setting and meeting priorities. Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met. In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities. This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled

  17. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... authorized to utilize RSA, based on the selection criteria described in the RFP. (d) NMFS shall consider each...

  18. Studying the Complex Expression Dependences between Sets of Coexpressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Huerta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms simplify the orchestration of gene expression by coregulating genes whose products function together in the cell. The use of clustering methods to obtain sets of coexpressed genes from expression arrays is very common; nevertheless there are no appropriate tools to study the expression networks among these sets of coexpressed genes. The aim of the developed tools is to allow studying the complex expression dependences that exist between sets of coexpressed genes. For this purpose, we start detecting the nonlinear expression relationships between pairs of genes, plus the coexpressed genes. Next, we form networks among sets of coexpressed genes that maintain nonlinear expression dependences between all of them. The expression relationship between the sets of coexpressed genes is defined by the expression relationship between the skeletons of these sets, where this skeleton represents the coexpressed genes with a well-defined nonlinear expression relationship with the skeleton of the other sets. As a result, we can study the nonlinear expression relationships between a target gene and other sets of coexpressed genes, or start the study from the skeleton of the sets, to study the complex relationships of activation and deactivation between the sets of coexpressed genes that carry out the different cellular processes present in the expression experiments.

  19. A checklist for health research priority setting: nine common themes of good practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research priority setting processes assist researchers and policymakers in effectively targeting research that has the greatest potential public health benefit. Many different approaches to health research prioritization exist, but there is no agreement on what might constitute best practice. Moreover, because of the many different contexts for which priorities can be set, attempting to produce one best practice is in fact not appropriate, as the optimal approach varies per exercise. Therefore, following a literature review and an analysis of health research priority setting exercises that were organized or coordinated by the World Health Organization since 2005, we propose a checklist for health research priority setting that allows for informed choices on different approaches and outlines nine common themes of good practice. It is intended to provide generic assistance for planning health research prioritization processes. The checklist explains what needs to be clarified in order to establish the context for which priorities are set; it reviews available approaches to health research priority setting; it offers discussions on stakeholder participation and information gathering; it sets out options for use of criteria and different methods for deciding upon priorities; and it emphasizes the importance of well-planned implementation, evaluation and transparency.

  20. A checklist for health research priority setting: nine common themes of good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Olifson, Sylvie; Ghaffar, Abdul; Terry, Robert F

    2010-12-15

    Health research priority setting processes assist researchers and policymakers in effectively targeting research that has the greatest potential public health benefit. Many different approaches to health research prioritization exist, but there is no agreement on what might constitute best practice. Moreover, because of the many different contexts for which priorities can be set, attempting to produce one best practice is in fact not appropriate, as the optimal approach varies per exercise. Therefore, following a literature review and an analysis of health research priority setting exercises that were organized or coordinated by the World Health Organization since 2005, we propose a checklist for health research priority setting that allows for informed choices on different approaches and outlines nine common themes of good practice. It is intended to provide generic assistance for planning health research prioritization processes. The checklist explains what needs to be clarified in order to establish the context for which priorities are set; it reviews available approaches to health research priority setting; it offers discussions on stakeholder participation and information gathering; it sets out options for use of criteria and different methods for deciding upon priorities; and it emphasizes the importance of well-planned implementation, evaluation and transparency.

  1. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  2. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21(st) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-06-01

    Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001-2014. A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion ("consultation process") but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face-to-face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed-indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well-defined structure - such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix - it is likely that the Delphi method and non-replicable consultation processes will gradually be replaced by these emerging tools, which offer more

  3. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. Methods To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001–2014. Results A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion (“consultation process”) but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face–to–face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. Conclusion The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed–indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well–defined structure – such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix – it is likely that the Delphi method and non–replicable consultation processes will gradually be

  4. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  5. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  6. From a Viewpoint of Clinical Settings: Pharmacoepidemiology as Reverse Translational Research (rTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology research may converge in practise. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of pharmacotherapy and risk management in patient groups. For many drugs, adverse reaction(s) that were not seen and/or clarified during research and development stages have been reported in the real world. Pharmacoepidemiology can detect and verify adverse drug reactions as reverse translational research. Recently, development and effective use of medical information databases (MID) have been conducted in Japan and elsewhere for the purpose of post-marketing safety of drugs. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan has been promoting the development of 10-million scale database in 10 hospitals and hospital groups as "the infrastructure project of medical information database (MID-NET)". This project enables estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions, the distinction between drug-induced reactions and basal health-condition changes, and usefulness verification of administrative measures of drug safety. However, because the database information is different from detailed medical records, construction of methodologies for the detection and evaluation of adverse reactions is required. We have been performing database research using medical information system in some hospitals to establish and demonstrate useful methods for post-marketing safety. In this symposium, we aim to discuss the possibility of reverse translational research from clinical settings and provide an introduction to our research.

  7. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Martines, José; Lawn, Joy E

    2016-01-01

    for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities...... for 2013-2025. METHODS: We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated...... into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts. RESULTS: Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program...

  8. Creating a Research Agenda and Setting Research Priorities for Clinical Nurse Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jan; Bautista, Cynthia; Ellstrom, Kathleen; Kalowes, Peggy; Manning, Jennifer; Pasek, Tracy Ann

    The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution and results of the process for establishing a research agenda and identification of research priorities for clinical nurse specialists, approved by the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists (NACNS) membership and sanctioned by the NACNS Board of Directors. Development of the research agenda and identification of the priorities were an iterative process and involved a review of the literature; input from multiple stakeholders, including individuals with expertise in conducting research serving as task force members, and NACNS members; and feedback from national board members. A research agenda, which is to provide an enduring research platform, was established and research priorities, which are to be applied in the immediate future, were identified as a result of this process. Development of a research agenda and identification of research priorities are a key method of fulfilling the mission and goals of NACNS. The process and outcomes are described in this article.

  9. The relationship between characteristics of context and research utilization in a pediatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G; Hutchinson, Alison M; Scott, Shannon D; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2010-06-16

    Research utilization investigators have called for more focused examination of the influence of context on research utilization behaviors. Yet, up until recently, lack of instrumentation to identify and quantify aspects of organizational context that are integral to research use has significantly hampered these efforts. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to assess the relationships between organizational factors and research utilization by a variety of healthcare professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a pilot study using the ACT to elicit pediatric and neonatal healthcare professionals' perceptions of the organizational context in which they work and their use of research to inform practice. Specifically, we report on the relationship between dimensions of context, founded on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, and self-reported research use behavior. A cross-sectional survey approach was employed using a version of the ACT, modified specifically for pediatric settings. The survey was administered to nurses working in three pediatric units in Alberta, Canada. Scores for three dimensions of context (culture, leadership and evaluation) were used to categorize respondent data into one of four context groups (high, moderately high, moderately low and low). We then examined the relationships between nurses' self-reported research use and their perceived context. A 69% response rate was achieved. Statistically significant differences in nurses' perceptions of culture, leadership and evaluation, and self-reported conceptual research use were found across the three units. Differences in instrumental research use across the three groups of nurses by unit were not significant. Higher self-reported instrumental and conceptual research use by all nurses in the sample was associated with more positive perceptions of their context. Overall, the results of this study lend support to

  10. The relationship between characteristics of context and research utilization in a pediatric setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research utilization investigators have called for more focused examination of the influence of context on research utilization behaviors. Yet, up until recently, lack of instrumentation to identify and quantify aspects of organizational context that are integral to research use has significantly hampered these efforts. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT was developed to assess the relationships between organizational factors and research utilization by a variety of healthcare professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a pilot study using the ACT to elicit pediatric and neonatal healthcare professionals' perceptions of the organizational context in which they work and their use of research to inform practice. Specifically, we report on the relationship between dimensions of context, founded on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework, and self-reported research use behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey approach was employed using a version of the ACT, modified specifically for pediatric settings. The survey was administered to nurses working in three pediatric units in Alberta, Canada. Scores for three dimensions of context (culture, leadership and evaluation were used to categorize respondent data into one of four context groups (high, moderately high, moderately low and low. We then examined the relationships between nurses' self-reported research use and their perceived context. Results A 69% response rate was achieved. Statistically significant differences in nurses' perceptions of culture, leadership and evaluation, and self-reported conceptual research use were found across the three units. Differences in instrumental research use across the three groups of nurses by unit were not significant. Higher self-reported instrumental and conceptual research use by all nurses in the sample was associated with more positive perceptions of their context

  11. Research of vibration resistance of non-rigid shafts turning with various technological set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevykh Sergey L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the definition of the stability range of a dynamic system for turning non-rigid shafts with different technological set-ups: standard and developed ones; they are improved as a result of this research. The topicality of the study is due to the fact that processing such parts is associated with significant difficulties caused by deformation of the workpiece under the cutting force as well as occurrence of vibration of the part during processing, they are so intense and in practice they force to significantly reduce the cutting regime, recur to multiple-pass operation, lead to premature deterioration of the cutter, as a result, reduce the productivity of machining shafts on metal-cutting machines. In this connection, the purpose of the present research is to determine the boundaries of the stability regions with intensive turning of non-rigid shafts. In the article the basic theoretical principles of construction of a mathematical system focused on the process of non-free cutting of a dynamic machine are justified. By means of the developed mathematical model interrelations are established and legitimacies of influence of various technological set-ups on stability of the dynamic system of the machine-tool-device-tool-blank are revealed. The conducted researches allow to more objectively represent difficult processes that occur in a closed dynamic system of a machine.

  12. Internet Research Ethics and the Policy Gap for Ethical Practice in Online Research Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Jacqueline G.; Jacobsen, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of education and social science researchers design and conduct online research. In this review, the Internet Research Ethics (IRE) policy gap in Canada is identified along with the range of stakeholders and groups that either have a role or have attempted to play a role in forming better ethics policy. Ethical issues that current…

  13. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-28

    To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. UK health service and community. The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to identify research priorities that included stakeholders that have

  14. SOLVING CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS: A STUDY OF MULTIPLE COMMERCIAL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme: Many reports stress the importance of solving customer complaints in order to maintain customer satisfaction, but also to learn from mistakes and further improve the customer service. However, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted regarding the effect of complains handling activities on customer satisfaction and on company-customer relationships. Objectives of research: This paper attempts to identify the main elements of the complaints handling strategy that are considered essential for customers, and their effect on customer satisfaction. Literature analysis/previous research: Previous studies define a complaint as a conflict between a consumer and a business organisation in which the fairness of the resolution procedures, the interpersonal communication and behaviour, and the outcome of the complaint resolution process are the principal evaluative criteria used by the customer. In our opinion, a complaint is not necessary a conflict, however, it can create a conflict between a customer and a business organisation, when the answer to the consumer’s complaint is not satisfactory. Therefore, the way in which business organisations deal with consumer complaints can significantly influence the consumers’ level of satisfaction and loyalty. Research methodology: The empirical analysis of primary data collected through face-to-face interviews with 150 French customers provides a detailed picture of the specific elements of complains handling which are perceived as important in four different settings defined in relation to the perceived importance of the product or service, and the emergency of the experienced problem. Results: The identified elements of the complaint-handling procedure have a variable importance from one element to the other, and in the context of various complaint situations. This finding highlights the fact that, depending on each situation, the factors that will determine customer

  15. Setting Priorities in Global Child Health Research Investments: Guidelines for Implementation of the CHNRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Gibson, Jennifer L.; Ameratunga, Shanthi; El Arifeen, Shams; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Black, Maureen; Black, Robert E.; Brown, Kenneth H.; Campbell, Harry; Carneiro, Ilona; Chan, Kit Yee; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chopra, Mickey; Cousens, Simon; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Hess, Sonja Y.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Kapiriri, Lydia; Kosek, Margaret; Lanata, Claudio F.; Lansang, Mary Ann; Lawn, Joy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.; Webster, Jayne

    2008-01-01

    This article provides detailed guidelines for the implementation of systematic method for setting priorities in health research investments that was recently developed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI). The target audience for the proposed method are international agencies, large research funding donors, and national governments and policy-makers. The process has the following steps: (i) selecting the managers of the process; (ii) specifying the context and risk management preferences; (iii) discussing criteria for setting health research priorities; (iv) choosing a limited set of the most useful and important criteria; (v) developing means to assess the likelihood that proposed health research options will satisfy the selected criteria; (vi) systematic listing of a large number of proposed health research options; (vii) pre-scoring check of all competing health research options; (viii) scoring of health research options using the chosen set of criteria; (ix) calculating intermediate scores for each health research option; (x) obtaining further input from the stakeholders; (xi) adjusting intermediate scores taking into account the values of stakeholders; (xii) calculating overall priority scores and assigning ranks; (xiii) performing an analysis of agreement between the scorers; (xiv) linking computed research priority scores with investment decisions; (xv) feedback and revision. The CHNRI method is a flexible process that enables prioritizing health research investments at any level: institutional, regional, national, international, or global. PMID:19090596

  16. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  17. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shanda L.; Bakker, Caitlin J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Methods Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience sampling. One-on-one interviews, held November 2016 to January 2017, were audio-recorded. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVivo 11 Pro and were based on the principles of grounded theory. Results The data revealed that a broad range of skill levels among participants (e.g., literature searching) and areas of misunderstanding (e.g., current publishing landscape, open access options). Overall, data management was an afterthought. Few participants were fully aware of the breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Conclusions Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment. PMID:29632441

  18. Compensating citizens for poor service delivery: experimental research in public and private settings

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassen, JP; Leliveld, MC; Van de Walle, Steven; Ahaus, K

    2017-01-01

    After a service failure, citizens expect a recovery strategy that restores perceived justice and places a reasonable value on their loss. Offering monetary compensation is a strategy commonly used in private settings, but less so in public settings. To date compensation effects have not been researched in public settings. To investigate citizens’ evaluations of perceived justice, negative emotions and post-recovery satisfaction we used a 2 (sector: public, private) by 2 (compensation promised...

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersing, Linn; Caplehorn, John R M; Clausen, Thomas

    2010-02-10

    Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.

  20. Patient involvement in research programming and implementation: a responsive evaluation of the Dialogue Model for research agenda setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, T.A.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; Visse, M.; Elberse, J.E.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dialogue Model for research agenda-setting, involving multiple stakeholders including patients, was developed and validated in the Netherlands. However, there is little insight into whether and how patient involvement is sustained during the programming and implementation of research

  1. RESEARCH PRIORITY-SETTING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA: POLICIES, METHODS AND PRACTICALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omuru, Eric; Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural research priority-setting at best promotes the effective and efficient use of scarce research resources. This paper reviews firstly the priority-setting methods used in Papua New Guinea for agricultural R&D and examines the practicalities of implementing these and other methods. Secondly, this paper reports on key factors affecting the strategic directions for agricultural R&D in Papua New Guinea. These factors include:(i) the long term trends in international crop prices; (ii) l...

  2. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Setting research priorities across science, technology, and health sectors: the Tanzania experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sylvia; Kingamkono, Rose; Tindamanyire, Neema; Mshinda, Hassan; Makandi, Harun; Tibazarwa, Flora; Kubata, Bruno; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2015-03-12

    Identifying research priorities is key to innovation and economic growth, since it informs decision makers on effectively targeting issues that have the greatest potential public benefit. As such, the process of setting research priorities is of pivotal importance for favouring the science, technology, and innovation (STI)-driven development of low- and middle-income countries. We report herein on a major cross-sectoral nationwide research priority setting effort recently carried out in Tanzania by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) in partnership with the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and the NEPAD Agency. The first of its type in the country, the process brought together stakeholders from 42 sub-sectors in science, technology, and health. The cross-sectoral research priority setting process consisted of a 'training-of-trainers' workshop, a demonstration workshop, and seven priority setting workshops delivered to representatives from public and private research and development institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations, and other agencies affiliated to COSTECH. The workshops resulted in ranked listings of research priorities for each sub-sector, totalling approximately 800 priorities. This large number was significantly reduced by an expert panel in order to build a manageable instrument aligned to national development plans that could be used to guide research investments. The Tanzania experience is an instructive example of the challenges and issues to be faced in when attempting to identify research priority areas and setting an STI research agenda in low- and middle-income countries. As countries increase their investment in research, it is essential to increase investment in research management and governance as well, a key and much needed capacity for countries to make proper use of research investments.

  4. Studying constructions of national identity across historical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Øland, Trine

    2018-01-01

    , and national self-imagery. The first setting is the first decade after World War II and the second setting is the post-9/11 era. The empirical focus is based on sources pertaining to the way police officers and related professionals of the Danish welfare nation-state construct disturbing behavior and how......This article aims to demonstrate how constructions of national identity can be studied across historical settings. In this sense, the article contributes knowledge about how Danish-ness is constructed in two historical settings characterized by great upheavals in popular moral codes, culture...... these constructions are made into categories that activate an array of interventions. Using a comparative outlook between the two historical settings and by putting theoretically guided questions to work empirically, the purpose of this article is to understand 1) the boundaries of legitimate behavior and membership...

  5. The trials methodological research agenda: results from a priority setting exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research into the methods used in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials is essential to ensure that effective methods are available and that clinical decisions made using results from trials are based on the best available evidence, which is reliable and robust. Methods An on-line Delphi survey of 48 UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) was undertaken. During round one, CTU Directors were asked to identify important topics that require methodological research. During round two, their opinion about the level of importance of each topic was recorded, and during round three, they were asked to review the group’s average opinion and revise their previous opinion if appropriate. Direct reminders were sent to maximise the number of responses at each round. Results are summarised using descriptive methods. Results Forty one (85%) CTU Directors responded to at least one round of the Delphi process: 25 (52%) responded in round one, 32 (67%) responded in round two, 24 (50%) responded in round three. There were only 12 (25%) who responded to all three rounds and 18 (38%) who responded to both rounds two and three. Consensus was achieved amongst CTU Directors that the top three priorities for trials methodological research were ‘Research into methods to boost recruitment in trials’ (considered the highest priority), ‘Methods to minimise attrition’ and ‘Choosing appropriate outcomes to measure’. Fifty other topics were included in the list of priorities and consensus was reached that two topics, ‘Radiotherapy study designs’ and ‘Low carbon trials’, were not priorities. Conclusions This priority setting exercise has identified the research topics felt to be most important to the key stakeholder group of Directors of UKCRC registered CTUs. The use of robust methodology to identify these priorities will help ensure that this work informs the trials methodological research agenda, with

  6. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  7. Integrating cross-case analyses and process tracing in set-theoretic research: Strategies and parameters of debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the combination of two methods on the basis of set theory. In our introduction and this special issue, we focus on two variants of cross-case set-theoretic methods - Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and typological theory...... – and their combination with process tracing. Our goal is to broaden and deepen set-theoretic empirical research and equip scholars with guidance on how to implement it in multi-method research (MMR). At first glance, set-theoretic cross-case methods and process tracing seem to be highly compatible when causal...... relationships are conceptualized in terms of set-theory. However, multiple issues have not so far been thoroughly addressed. Our paper builds on the emerging MMR literature and seeks to enhance it in four ways. First, we offer a comprehensive and coherent elaboration of the two sequences in which case studies...

  8. Measuring Data Quality Through a Source Data Verification Audit in a Clinical Research Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lauren; Probst, Yasmine; Humphries, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Health data has long been scrutinised in relation to data quality and integrity problems. Currently, no internationally accepted or "gold standard" method exists measuring data quality and error rates within datasets. We conducted a source data verification (SDV) audit on a prospective clinical trial dataset. An audit plan was applied to conduct 100% manual verification checks on a 10% random sample of participant files. A quality assurance rule was developed, whereby if >5% of data variables were incorrect a second 10% random sample would be extracted from the trial data set. Error was coded: correct, incorrect (valid or invalid), not recorded or not entered. Audit-1 had a total error of 33% and audit-2 36%. The physiological section was the only audit section to have <5% error. Data not recorded to case report forms had the greatest impact on error calculations. A significant association (p=0.00) was found between audit-1 and audit-2 and whether or not data was deemed correct or incorrect. Our study developed a straightforward method to perform a SDV audit. An audit rule was identified and error coding was implemented. Findings demonstrate that monitoring data quality by a SDV audit can identify data quality and integrity issues within clinical research settings allowing quality improvement to be made. The authors suggest this approach be implemented for future research.

  9. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  10. Measuring the Value of Research Data: A Citation Analysis of Oceanographic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities - such as data curation – that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions. PMID:24671177

  11. Research priority setting for health policy and health systems strengthening in Nigeria: the policymakers and stakeholders perspective and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Onwe, Friday; Aulakh, Bhupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be allocated to the health sector. Priority setting becomes imperative because it guides investments in health care, health research and respects resource constraints. The objective of this study was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of policymakers on research priority setting and to conduct a research priority setting exercise. A one-day evidence-to-policy research priority setting meeting was held. The meeting participants included senior and middle level policymakers and key decision makers/stakeholders in the health sector in Ebonyi State southeastern Nigeria. The priorities setting meeting involved a training session on priority setting process and conduction of priority setting exercise using the essential national health research (ENHR) approach. The focus was on the health systems building blocks (health workforce; health finance; leadership/governance; medical products/technology; service delivery; and health information/evidence). Of the total of 92 policymakers invited 90(97.8%) attended the meeting. It was the consensus of the policymakers that research should focus on the challenges of optimal access to health products and technology; effective health service delivery and disease control under a national emergency situation; the shortfalls in the supply of professional personnel; and the issues of governance in the health sector management. Research priority setting exercise involving policymakers is an example of demand driven strategy in the health policymaking process capable of reversing inequities and strengthening the health systems in LMICs.

  12. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  13. Setting global standards for stem cell research and clinical translation : The 2016 ISSCR guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daley, George Q.; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F.; Barker, Roger A.; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L.; Breuer, Christopher K.; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E.; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T.; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E.; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M.; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of

  14. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions--breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges of maintaining research protocol fidelity in a clinical care setting: A qualitative study of the experiences and views of patients and staff participating in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trial research has predominantly focused on patient and staff understandings of trial concepts and/or motivations for taking part, rather than why treatment recommendations may or may not be followed during trial delivery. This study sought to understand why there was limited attainment of the glycaemic target (HbA1c ≤6.5% among patients who participated in the Treating to Target in Type 2 Diabetes Trial (4-T. The objective was to inform interpretation of trial outcomes and provide recommendations for future trial delivery. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 patients and 21 health professionals recruited from 11 of 58 trial centres in the UK. Patients were broadly representative of those in the main trial in terms of treatment allocation, demographics and glycaemic control. Both physicians and research nurses were interviewed. Results Most patients were committed to taking insulin as recommended by 4-T staff. To avoid hypoglycaemia, patients occasionally altered or skipped insulin doses, normally in consultation with staff. Patients were usually unaware of the trial's glycaemic target. Positive staff feedback could lead patients to believe they had been 'successful' trial participants even when their HbA1c exceeded 6.5%. While some staff felt that the 4-T automated insulin dose adjustment algorithm had increased their confidence to prescribe larger insulin doses than in routine clinical practice, all described situations where they had not followed its recommendations. Staff regarded the application of a 'one size fits all' glycaemic target during the trial as contradicting routine clinical practice where they would tailor treatments to individuals. Staff also expressed concerns that 'tight' glycaemic control might impose an unacceptably high risk of hypoglycaemia, thus compromising trust and safety, especially amongst older patients. To address these concerns, staff tended to adapt the trial protocol to

  16. Reliability of maximal isometric knee strength testing with modified hand-held dynamometry in patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty: useful in research and individual patient settings? A reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblbauer Ian FH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA often experience strength deficits both pre- and post-operatively. As these deficits may have a direct impact on functional recovery, strength assessment should be performed in this patient population. For these assessments, reliable measurements should be used. This study aimed to determine the inter- and intrarater reliability of hand-held dynamometry (HHD in measuring isometric knee strength in patients awaiting TKA. Methods To determine interrater reliability, 32 patients (81.3% female were assessed by two examiners. Patients were assessed consecutively by both examiners on the same individual test dates. To determine intrarater reliability, a subgroup (n = 13 was again assessed by the examiners within four weeks of the initial testing procedure. Maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength were tested using a modified Citec hand-held dynamometer. Both the affected and unaffected knee were tested. Reliability was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. In addition, the Standard Error of Measurement (SEM and the Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD were used to determine reliability. Results In both the affected and unaffected knee, the inter- and intrarater reliability were good for knee flexors (ICC range 0.76-0.94 and excellent for knee extensors (ICC range 0.92-0.97. However, measurement error was high, displaying SDD ranges between 21.7% and 36.2% for interrater reliability and between 19.0% and 57.5% for intrarater reliability. Overall, measurement error was higher for the knee flexors than for the knee extensors. Conclusions Modified HHD appears to be a reliable strength measure, producing good to excellent ICC values for both inter- and intrarater reliability in a group of TKA patients. High SEM and SDD values, however, indicate high measurement error for individual measures. This study demonstrates that a modified HHD is appropriate to

  17. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007–2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances.

  18. Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Timothy M; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Husson, Fran; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Ahmad, Raheelah

    2018-02-01

    Public sources fund the majority of UK infection research, but citizens currently have no formal role in resource allocation. To explore the feasibility and willingness of citizens to engage in strategic decision making, we developed and tested a practical tool to capture public priorities for research. A scenario including six infection themes for funding was developed to assess citizen priorities for research funding. This was tested over two days at a university public festival. Votes were cast anonymously along with rationale for selection. The scenario was then implemented during a three-hour focus group exploring views on engagement in strategic decisions and in-depth evaluation of the tool. 188/491(38%) prioritized funding research into drug-resistant infections followed by emerging infections(18%). Results were similar between both days. Focus groups contained a total of 20 citizens with an equal gender split, range of ethnicities and ages ranging from 18 to >70 years. The tool was perceived as clear with participants able to make informed comparisons. Rationale for funding choices provided by voters and focus group participants are grouped into three major themes: (i) Information processing; (ii) Knowledge of the problem; (iii) Responsibility; and a unique theme within the focus groups (iv) The potential role of citizens in decision making. Divergent perceptions of relevance and confidence of "non-experts" as decision makers were expressed. Voting scenarios can be used to collect, en-masse, citizens' choices and rationale for research priorities. Ensuring adequate levels of citizen information and confidence is important to allow deployment in other formats. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Elias, Vanessa; Terry, Robert F; Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  20. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. METHODS: This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG. RESULTS: Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. CONCLUSIONS: Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  1. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  2. Setting Priorities for Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research and Identifying Evidence Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jimmy T; Hutfless, Susan; Li, Tianjing; Bressler, Neil M; Heyward, James; Bittner, Ava K; Glassman, Adam; Dickersin, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research may contribute to obtaining answers that clinicians perceive they need and may minimize research that could be considered wasteful. Our objective was to identify evidence gaps and set priorities for new systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for managing diabetic retinopathy (DR), including diabetic macular edema (DME). Cross-sectional study. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) investigators. We provided recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2012 Preferred Practice Patterns for Diabetic Retinopathy as 91 answerable clinical research questions about intervention effectiveness to 410 DRCR.net investigators to rate each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round Delphi survey and to suggest additional questions. We considered questions as high priority if at least 75% of respondents to both rounds assigned an importance rating of 5 or more in round 2. We also extracted outcome measures relevant to DR and asked respondents to identify those that must be measured in all studies. We mapped Cochrane reviews published up to March 2016 to high-priority clinical research questions. Ranking of importance of each clinical question. Thirty-two individuals completed rounds 1 and 2 and suggested 15 questions. Among the final list of 106 clinical research questions, 22 questions met our definition of high priority: 9 of 22 concerned the effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy, and 13 of 22 focused on how often patients should be followed up (re-examination) and treatment effectiveness in patients with specific characteristics (e.g., DME). Outcomes that 75% or more of respondents marked as "must be measured in all studies" included visual acuity and visual loss, death of participants, and intraocular pressure. Only 1 prioritized question was associated with conclusive evidence from a Cochrane systematic review. A limited response rate among

  3. The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150369

  4. Paediatric obesity research in early childhood and the primary care setting: the TARGet Kids! research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2012-04-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada--TARGet Kids!--to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.

  5. Paediatric Obesity Research in Early Childhood and the Primary Care Setting: The TARGet Kids! Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Birken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.

  6. Ethics and equity in research priority-setting: stakeholder engagement and the needs of disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Rana, Sangeeta; Karimkhani, Chante; Welch, Vivian; Armstrong, Rebecca; Pottie, Kevin; Dellavalle, Robert; Dhakal, Purushottam; Oliver, Sandy; Francis, Damian K; Nasser, Mona; Crowe, Sally; Aksut, Baran; Amico, Roberto D

    2015-01-01

    A transparent and evidence-based priority-setting process promotes the optimal use of resources to improve health outcomes. Decision-makers and funders have begun to increasingly engage representatives of patients and healthcare consumers to ensure that research becomes more relevant. However, disadvantaged groups and their needs may not be integrated into the priority-setting process since they do not have a "political voice" or are unable to organise into interest groups. Equitable priority-setting methods need to balance patient needs, values, experiences with population-level issues and issues related to the health system.

  7. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor

    2016-06-01

    Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007-2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances. The guiding principle of the CHNRI method is to expose the potential of many competing health research ideas to reduce disease burden and inequities that exist in the population in a feasible and cost-effective way. The CHNRI method introduced three key conceptual advances that led to its increased popularity in comparison to other priority-setting methods and processes. First, it proposed a systematic approach to listing a large number of possible research ideas, using the "4D" framework (description, delivery, development and discovery research) and a well-defined "depth" of proposed research ideas (research instruments, avenues, options and questions). Second, it proposed a systematic approach for discriminating between many proposed research ideas based on a well-defined context and criteria. The five "standard" components of the context are the population of interest, the disease burden of interest, geographic limits, time scale and the preferred style of investing with respect to risk. The five "standard" criteria proposed for prioritization between research ideas are answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for disease burden reduction and the effect on equity. However, both the context and the criteria can be flexibly changed to meet the specific needs of each priority-setting exercise. Third, it facilitated consensus development through measuring collective optimism on each component of each research idea among a larger group of experts using a simple scoring system. This enabled the use of the knowledge of

  8. Sports clubs as settings for health promotion: fundamentals and an overview to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores the efficacy and value of sports clubs as a setting for health promotion. Sports clubs for children and adolescents are the primary focus of the paper, and the aims are two-fold. Firstly, the paper aims to review the basis for and elements of the health promoting sports club (HPSC) concept. Secondly, the aim is to overview the international evolution of the HPSC concept and its usefulness in the research. The settings-based health promotion approach forms the basis for the HPSC concept and it is introduced first. Thereafter, both obligating and prospecting factors, to justify the importance for sports clubs to address health promotion, are expressed. Major prospecting factors relate to the facts that sports club activities reach a lot of children and adolescents, and that its educational nature is informal due to voluntary participation. The paper also presents multilevel structure of sports clubs, as well as the determinants affecting the settings-based work. The research concerning health promotion in sports-related settings is evolving worldwide, and Nordic countries are in the front line of this new-wave of settings-based health promotion. Indeed, it has been claimed that, for the settings approach to assimilate to current societal challenges, there is a need to widen the reach of the approach to non-traditional, non-institutional settings, like sports clubs. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Determinants of Children's Mental Health in War-Torn Settings: Translating Research Into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Jordans, Mark J D

    2016-06-01

    Research on the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children in conflict-affected settings has undergone a significant paradigm shift in recent years. Earlier studies based on a war exposure model primarily emphasized the effects of direct exposure to armed conflict; this has gradually given way to a broader understanding of the diverse pathways by which organized violence affects children. A robustly supported comprehensive model includes risk factors at multiple points in time (prior war exposure, ongoing daily stressors) and at all levels of the social ecology. In particular, findings suggest that material deprivation and a set of family variables, including harsh parenting, parental distress, and witnessing intimate partner violence, are important mediators of the relationship between armed conflict and children's wellbeing. To date, however, interventions aimed at supporting war-affected children's wellbeing, both preventive and treatment-focused, have focused primarily on direct work with children, while paying only modest attention to ongoing risk factors in their families and broader environments. Possible reasons for the ongoing prioritization of child-focused interventions are considered, and examples are provided of recent evidence-based interventions that have reduced toxic stressors (harsh parenting and the use of violent discipline by teachers) in conflict-affected communities.

  10. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martines

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013–2025.

  11. Social Studies Instruction in a Non-Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret M.

    Certain areas in the social studies can be effectively taught in a non-classroom setting. This experiment determined if, in a supermarket situation, consumer preferences (as measured in sales figures and augmented by questionnaire data) could be altered by the addition of nutritional information to the labels of sixteen items which had moderate…

  12. Involving healthcare professionals and family carers in setting research priorities for end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffin, Janet; Spence, Michael; Spencer, Rebecca; Mellor, Peter; Grande, Gunn

    2017-02-02

    It is important to ensure regional variances are considered when setting future end-of-life research priorities, given the differing demographics and service provision. This project sought to identify end-of-life research priorities within Greater Manchester (United Kingdom). Following an initial scoping exercise, six topics within the 10 national priorities outlined by The Palliative and end-of-life care Priority Setting Partnership were selected for exploration. A workshop involving 32 healthcare professionals and a consultation process with 26 family carers was conducted. Healthcare professionals and carers selected and discussed the topics important to them. The topics selected most frequently by both healthcare professionals and carers were 'Access to 24 hour care', 'Planning end-of-life care in advance' and 'Staff and carer education'. Healthcare professionals also developed research questions for their topics of choice which were refined to incorporate carers' views. These questions are an important starting point for future end-of-life research within Greater Manchester.

  13. Relational Research and Organisation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Lone Hersted

    , analyzing organizational dialoguing, and polyphonic future-forming ways of writing up research.  Relational Research and Organisation Studies does not only present and discuss guidelines for practice at a onto-epistemological level but also presents and discusses concrete cases of research projects building...... on relational constructionist ideas. Furthermore, excerpts of data are presented and analyzed in order to explain the co-constructed processes of the inquiries more in detail. Relational Research and Organisation Studies invites the reader into the process of planning and carrying out relational constructionist......This volume lays out a variety of ways of engaging in research projects focused on exploring the everyday relational practices of organizing and leading is presented. The main focus is through elaborate examples from the author’s own research to further the understanding of how it is possible...

  14. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D S; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Sachdev, H P S; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007-2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24-48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown for the development of

  15. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Asemani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.

  16. Value-based integrated (renal) care: setting a development agenda for research and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P; Biermann, Claus; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2016-08-02

    Integrated care services are considered a vital strategy for improving the Triple Aim values for people with chronic kidney disease. However, a solid scholarly explanation of how to develop, implement and evaluate such value-based integrated renal care services is limited. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to identify the strategies and outcomes for the implementation of value-based integrated renal care. First, the theoretical foundations of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care and the Triple Aim were united into one overarching framework through an iterative process of key-informant consultations. Second, a rapid review approach was conducted to identify the published research on integrated renal care, and the Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, and Business Source Premier databases were searched for pertinent articles published between 2000 and 2015. Based on the framework, a coding schema was developed to synthesis the included articles. The overarching framework distinguishes the integrated care domains: 1) type of integration, 2) enablers of integration and the interrelated outcome domains, 3) experience of care, 4) population health and 5) costs. The literature synthesis indicated that integrated renal care implementation strategies have particularly focused on micro clinical processes and physical outcomes, while little emphasis has been placed on meso organisational as well as macro system integration processes. In addition, evidence regarding patients' perceived outcomes and economic outcomes has been weak. These results underscore that the future challenge for researchers is to explore which integrated care implementation strategies achieve better health and improved experience of care at a lower cost within a specific context. For this purpose, this study's framework and evidence synthesis have set a developmental agenda for both integrated renal care practice and research. Accordingly, we plan further work to develop an implementation

  17. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  18. Counseling in the clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy: an evidence-based research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Merry K; Bartholomew, Neva E; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2003-02-01

    Unintended pregnancies account for about half of all pregnancies in the United States and, in 1995, numbered nearly 3 million pregnancies. They pose appreciable medical, emotional, social and financial costs on women, their families and society. The US is not attaining national goals to decrease unintended pregnancies, and little is known about effective means for reducing unintended pregnancy rates in adults or adolescents.To examine the evidence about the effectiveness, benefits and harms of counseling in a clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy in adults and adolescents and to use the evidence to propose a research agenda.We identified English-language articles from comprehensive searches of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychLit and other databases from 1985 through May 2000; the main clinical search terms included pregnancy (mistimed, unintended, unplanned, unwanted), family planning, contraceptive behavior, counseling, sex counseling, and knowledge, attitudes and behavior. We also used published systematic reviews, hand searching of relevant articles, the second Guide to Clinical Preventive Services and extensive peer review to identify important articles not otherwise found and to assure completeness. Of 673 abstracts examined, we retained 354 for full article review; of these, we used 74 for the systematic evidence review and abstracted data from 13 articles for evidence tables. Four studies addressed the effectiveness of counseling in a clinical setting in changing knowledge, skills and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy; all had poor internal validity and generalizability and collectively did not provide definitive guidance about effective counseling strategies. Nine studies (three in teenage populations) addressed the relationship of knowledge on contraceptive use and adherence. Knowledge of correct contraceptive methods may be positively associated with appropriate use, but reservations about the method itself, partner support of the method

  19. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  20. Power Trip Set-points of Reactor Protection System for New Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Yang, Soohyung

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the trip set-point related to the reactor power considering the reactivity induced accident (RIA) of new research reactor. The possible scenarios of reactivity induced accidents were simulated and the effects of trip set-point on the critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) were calculated. The proper trip set-points which meet the acceptance criterion and guarantee sufficient margins from normal operation were then determined. The three different trip set-points related to the reactor power are determined based on the RIA of new research reactor during FP condition, over 0.1%FP and under 0.1%FP. Under various reactivity insertion rates, the CHFR are calculated and checked whether they meet the acceptance criterion. For RIA at FP condition, the acceptance criterion can be satisfied even if high power set-point is only used for reactor trip. Since the design of the reactor is still progressing and need a safety margin for possible design changes, 18 MW is recommended as a high power set-point. For RIA at 0.1%FP, high power setpoint of 18 MW and high log rate of 10%pp/s works well and acceptance criterion is satisfied. For under 0.1% FP operations, the application of high log rate is necessary for satisfying the acceptance criterion. Considering possible decrease of CHFR margin due to design changes, the high log rate is suggested to be 8%pp/s. Suggested trip set-points have been identified based on preliminary design data for new research reactor; therefore, these trip set-points will be re-established by considering design progress of the reactor. The reactor protection system (RPS) of new research reactor is designed for safe shutdown of the reactor and preventing the release of radioactive material to environment. The trip set point of RPS is essential for reactor safety, therefore should be determined to mitigate the consequences from accidents. At the same time, the trip set-point should secure margins from normal operational condition to avoid

  1. The new dedicated PIXE set-up at the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Ka ring re; Waahlin, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen was in the beginning of the 70'es one of the early places for PIXE. Contributions were made to the theoretical interpretation of the PIXE spectra as well as the practical application. The home-made 4 MV van de Graaff accelerator at the Niels Bohr Institute was an excellent tool for PIXE. The accelerator, which was used for many years, has now found its place on a museum after more than 40 years of active service. A dedicated PIXE set-up has now been established at the National Environmental Research Institute using a new 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron (5SDH) from NEC. The main application is elemental analysis of outdoor aerosols. The main work is unsophisticated macro analyses, which do not push the equipment to its limits. This enables automated analysis of about 10,000 samples per year using very limited manpower resources. The research focuses on the contribution from various source types to the atmosphere over Europe, the North Atlantic and Greenland. Source compositions and their temporal variations are studied

  2. Setting priorities for zinc-related health research to reduce children's disease burden worldwide: an application of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative's research priority-setting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Boy, Erick; Gibson, Rosalind S; Horton, Susan; Osendarp, Saskia J; Sempertegui, Fernando; Shrimpton, Roger; Rudan, Igor

    2009-03-01

    To make the best use of limited resources for supporting health-related research to reduce child mortality, it is necessary to apply a suitable method to rank competing research options. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) developed a new methodology for setting health research priorities. To broaden experience with this priority-setting technique, we applied the method to rank possible research priorities concerning the control of Zn deficiency. Although Zn deficiency is not generally recognized as a direct cause of child mortality, recent research indicates that it predisposes children to an increased incidence and severity of several of the major direct causes of morbidity and mortality. Leading experts in the field of Zn research in child health were identified and invited to participate in a technical working group (TWG) to establish research priorities. The individuals were chosen to represent a wide range of expertise in Zn nutrition. The seven TWG members submitted a total of ninety research options, which were then consolidated into a final list of thirty-one research options categorized by the type of resulting intervention. The identified priorities were dominated by research investment options targeting Zn supplementation, and were followed by research on Zn fortification, general aspects of Zn nutrition, dietary modification and other new interventions. In general, research options that aim to improve the efficiency of an already existing intervention strategy received higher priority scores. Challenges identified during the implementation of the methodology and suggestions to modify the priority-setting procedures are discussed.

  3. Refining Video Game Use Questionnaires for Research and Clinical Application: Detection of Problematic Response Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Kyle A.; Faust, David; Baker, Aaron M.; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Even when relatively infrequent, deviant response sets, such as defensive and careless responding, can have remarkably robust effects on individual and group data and thereby distort clinical evaluations and research outcomes. Given such potential adverse impacts and the widespread use of self-report measures when appraising addictions and…

  4. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  5. Single-site community consultation for emergency research in a community hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the

  6. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  7. Computational Study on a PTAS for Planar Dominating Set Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ping Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominating set problem is a core NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization and graph theory, and has many important applications. Baker [JACM 41,1994] introduces a k-outer planar graph decomposition-based framework for designing polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS for a class of NP-hard problems in planar graphs. It is mentioned that the framework can be applied to obtain an O(2ckn time, c is a constant, (1+1/k-approximation algorithm for the planar dominating set problem. We show that the approximation ratio achieved by the mentioned application of the framework is not bounded by any constant for the planar dominating set problem. We modify the application of the framework to give a PTAS for the planar dominating set problem. With k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS has an approximation ratio (1 + 2/k. Using 2k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS achieves the approximation ratio (1+1/k in O(22ckn time. We report a computational study on the modified PTAS. Our results show that the modified PTAS is practical.

  8. Doing Fieldwork on State Organizations in Democratic Settings: Ethical Issues of Research in Refugee Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tomkinson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork and my field diaries in refugee decision-making in Canada, I make three arguments in this article. First, the binary of research in closed vs. open settings may have contributed to overlooking of ethical challenges of research in state organizations in democratic settings. We have to overcome this binary by opening a dialogue among ethnographers. Second, despite well-developed and diverse nature of scholarship on Research Ethics' Board's (REB formal practices and their negative impact on ethnographers' research proposals, the scarcity of scholarship on "ethics in practice" or "everyday ethics" show that we seem to forget that ethnographers, after receiving research ethics approval, still have to do considerable interpretation for what "being ethical" means. Finally, paying attention to "ethically important moments" during research practice may help us bridge the gap between principles of formal ethics and ethics in practice. Using field diaries in these reflections instead of more sanitized subsequent accounts illustrates the immediacy and importance of ethical concerns during research practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150168

  9. An Emergency Medicine Research Priority Setting Partnership to establish the top 10 research priorities in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Keating, Liza; Flowerdew, Lynsey; O'Brien, Rachel; McIntyre, Sam; Morley, Richard; Carley, Simon

    2017-07-01

    Defining research priorities in a specialty as broad as emergency medicine is a significant challenge. In order to fund and complete the most important research projects, it is imperative that we identify topics that are important to all clinicians, society and to our patients. We have undertaken a priority setting partnership to establish the most important questions facing emergency medicine. The top 10 questions reached through a consensus process are discussed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Abstract sets and finite ordinals an introduction to the study of set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Keene, G B

    2007-01-01

    This text unites the logical and philosophical aspects of set theory in a manner intelligible both to mathematicians without training in formal logic and to logicians without a mathematical background. It combines an elementary level of treatment with the highest possible degree of logical rigor and precision.Starting with an explanation of all the basic logical terms and related operations, the text progresses through a stage-by-stage elaboration that proves the fundamental theorems of finite sets. It focuses on the Bernays theory of finite classes and finite sets, exploring the system's basi

  11. Antecedents of Employee Loyalty in Educational Setting: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies have been conducted to link three variables of work values, internal marketing, and job satisfaction in predicting employee loyalty. Therefore, this research aims to fulfill the gap by developing a model that include work values, internal marketing, and job satisfaction in assessing employee loyalty in educational context. This research applies a judgmental sampling with the sample size of 200 lecturers from private universities in Tangerang. Structural equation modeling was applied in testing the research hypotheses. The results showed that there is one out of three hypotheses that were not supported. That hypothesis is the relationship between internal marketing and job satisfaction.

  12. Development of a new model to engage patients and clinicians in setting research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Alex; St George, Bridget; Fenton, Mark; Crowe, Sally; Firkins, Lester

    2014-01-01

    Equitable involvement of patients and clinicians in setting research and funding priorities is ethically desirable and can improve the quality, relevance and implementation of research. Survey methods used in previous priority setting projects to gather treatment uncertainties may not be sufficient to facilitate responses from patients and their lay carers for some health care topics. We aimed to develop a new model to engage patients and clinicians in setting research priorities relating to life after stroke, and to explore the use of this model within a James Lind Alliance (JLA) priority setting project. We developed a model to facilitate involvement through targeted engagement and assisted involvement (FREE TEA model). We implemented both standard surveys and the FREE TEA model to gather research priorities (treatment uncertainties) from people affected by stroke living in Scotland. We explored and configured the number of treatment uncertainties elicited from different groups by the two approaches. We gathered 516 treatment uncertainties from stroke survivors, carers and health professionals. We achieved approximately equal numbers of contributions; 281 (54%) from stroke survivors/carers; 235 (46%) from health professionals. For stroke survivors and carers, 98 (35%) treatment uncertainties were elicited from the standard survey and 183 (65%) at FREE TEA face-to-face visits. This contrasted with the health professionals for whom 198 (84%) were elicited from the standard survey and only 37 (16%) from FREE TEA visits. The FREE TEA model has implications for future priority setting projects and user-involvement relating to populations of people with complex health needs. Our results imply that reliance on standard surveys may result in poor and unrepresentative involvement of patients, thereby favouring the views of health professionals.

  13. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Martines, José; Lawn, Joy E; Wall, Stephen; Souza, Joăo Paulo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon; Aaby, Peter; Adam, Ishag; Adhikari, Ramesh Kant; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Arifeen, Shams Ei; Aryal, Dhana Raj; Asiruddin, Sk; Baqui, Abdullah; Barros, Aluisio Jd; Benn, Christine S; Bhandari, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E; Blencowe, Hannah; Bose, Carl; Brown, Justin; Bührer, Christoph; Carlo, Wally; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Cheung, Po-Yin; Clark, Robert; Colbourn, Tim; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Corbett, Erica; Czeizel, Andrew E; Das, Abhik; Day, Louise Tina; Deal, Carolyn; Deorari, Ashok; Dilmen, Uğur; English, Mike; Engmann, Cyril; Esamai, Fabian; Fall, Caroline; Ferriero, Donna M; Gisore, Peter; Hazir, Tabish; Higgins, Rosemary D; Homer, Caroline Se; Hoque, D E; Irgens, Lorentz; Islam, M T; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Joshua, Martias Alice; Keenan, William; Khatoon, Soofia; Kieler, Helle; Kramer, Michael S; Lackritz, Eve M; Lavender, Tina; Lawintono, Laurensia; Luhanga, Richard; Marsh, David; McMillan, Douglas; McNamara, Patrick J; Mol, Ben Willem J; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Mukasa, G K; Mutabazi, Miriam; Nacul, Luis Carlos; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Narayanan, Indira; Olusanya, Bolajoko; Osrin, David; Paul, Vinod; Poets, Christian; Reddy, Uma M; Santosham, Mathuram; Sayed, Rubayet; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E; Singhal, Nalini; Smith, Mary Alice; Smith, Peter G; Soofi, Sajid; Spong, Catherine Y; Sultana, Shahin; Tshefu, Antoinette; van Bel, Frank; Gray, Lauren Vestewig; Waiswa, Peter; Wang, Wei; Williams, Sarah LA; Wright, Linda; Zaidi, Anita; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhong, Nanbert; Zuniga, Isabel; Bahl, Rajiv

    2016-06-01

    In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013-2025. We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts. Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program and clinical algorithms and improved skills of community health workers leading the list. The top 10 priorities in the domain of development were led by ideas on improved Kangaroo Mother Care at community level, how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by community health workers, and perinatal audits. The 10 leading priorities for discovery research focused on stable surfactant with novel modes of administration for preterm babies, ability to diagnose fetal distress and novel tocolytic agents to delay or stop preterm labour. These findings will assist both donors and researchers in supporting and conducting research to close the knowledge gaps for reducing neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term impairment. WHO, SNL and other partners will work to generate interest among key national

  14. Exploring the challenge of health research priority setting in partnership: reflections on the methodology used by the James Lind Alliance Pressure Ulcer Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Morley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of treatment. The JLA emerged from the evidence-informed healthcare movement to address a concern that the research being carried out on treatment effectiveness is not that of most importance to patients and health professionals. In the JLA PSPs, 'hard' evidence-informed ideals meet 'soft' participatory practices. This article explores the challenges of putting co-production methods into practice by reflecting on the methods used by the JLA Pressure Ulcer PSP (JLAPUP). The JLA principles are transparency, inclusivity and avoiding waste in research. This means paying the same close critical attention to how PSPs are designed and run, as is desired in the health research which the JLA seeks to influence. JLAPUP showed that it was possible to work in partnership in a field where patients are often elderly, immobile, unrepresented and particularly unwell, many of whom are living with more than one long term condition. However, for those unfamiliar with it, 'uncertainty' was a difficult term to get to grips with. Also, it was harder for some people than others to take part and to have their voices heard and understood. In keeping with other PSPs, JLAPUP found that the nature and quality of research into pressure ulcer prevention and treatment did not reflect the priorities of those who took part. ᅟ. Studies identifying a mismatch between the priorities of academics and clinicians and those of people with direct experience of a health condition pose a challenge to the assumption that professional researchers can represent the interests of patients and the public in setting priorities for health research. The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of

  15. Methods, metrics and research gaps around minimum data sets for nursing practice and fundamental care: A scoping literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa

    2018-06-01

    To examine and map research on minimum data sets linked to nursing practice and the fundamentals of care. Another aim was to identify gaps in the evidence to suggest future research questions to highlight the need for standardisation of terminology around nursing practice and fundamental care. Addressing fundamental care has been highlighted internationally as a response to missed nursing care. Systematic performance measurements are needed to capture nursing practice outcomes. Overview of the literature framed by the scoping study methodology. PubMed and CINAHL were searched using the following inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed empirical quantitative and qualitative studies related to minimum data sets and nursing practice published in English. No time restrictions were set. Exclusion criteria were as follows: no available full text, reviews and methodological and discursive studies. Data were categorised into one of the fundamentals of care elements. The review included 20 studies published in 1999-2016. Settings were mainly nursing homes or hospitals. Of 14 elements of the fundamentals of care, 11 were identified as measures in the included studies, but their frequency varied. The most commonly identified elements concerned safety, prevention and medication (n = 11), comfort (n = 6) and eating and drinking (n = 5). Studies have used minimum data sets and included variables linked to nursing practices and fundamentals of care. However, the relations of these variables to nursing practice were not always clearly described and the main purpose of the studies was seldom to measure the outcomes of nursing interventions. More robust studies focusing on nursing practice and patient outcomes are warranted. Using minimum data sets can highlight the nurses' work and what impact it has on direct patient care. Appropriate models, systems and standardised terminology are needed to facilitate the documentation of nursing activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An all-encompassing study of an authentic court setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    necessarily be judged from a particular (subjective) perspective on the communicative event. In this paper I shall address the issue of interpreting quality in an all-encompassing perspective on an authentic Danish courtroom setting. The aim of the empirical case-based survey is unlike that of most existing...... but homogeneous. Several empirical studies, which have been carried out on this subject, have shown that different user groups have different expectations about the interpreted communicative event, which ceteris paribus means that user expectations are heterogeneous. The question is, whether the heterogeneity......, which are to be considered as expectancy norms projected and recommended by the specific legal system. In order to be able to answer this question, a questionnaire-based survey on specific quality criteria has been conducted within an authentic interpreter-mediated court setting, because, according...

  17. A study on generalized hesitant intuitionistic Fuzzy soft sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazra, A.; Syafruddin; Wicaksono, G. C.; Syafwan, M.

    2018-03-01

    By combining the concept of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets, fuzzy soft sets and fuzzy sets, we extend hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets to a generalized hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets. Some operations on generalized hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, such as union, complement, operations “AND” and “OR”, and intersection are defined. From such operations the authors obtain related properties such as commutative, associative and De Morgan's laws. The authors also get an algebraic structure of the collection of all generalized hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets over a set.

  18. Aerostructural Level Set Topology Optimization for a Common Research Model Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to use level set topology optimization to improve the design of a representative wing box structure for the NASA common research model. The objective is to minimize the total compliance of the structure under aerodynamic and body force loading, where the aerodynamic loading is coupled to the structural deformation. A taxi bump case was also considered, where only body force loads were applied. The trim condition that aerodynamic lift must balance the total weight of the aircraft is enforced by allowing the root angle of attack to change. The level set optimization method is implemented on an unstructured three-dimensional grid, so that the method can optimize a wing box with arbitrary geometry. Fast matching and upwind schemes are developed for an unstructured grid, which make the level set method robust and efficient. The adjoint method is used to obtain the coupled shape sensitivities required to perform aerostructural optimization of the wing box structure.

  19. Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Information and data sets. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Springer, E.P.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The Environmental Science Group (HSE-12) is conducting a study to compare various approaches of modeling water and solute transport in porous media. Various groups representing different approaches will model a common set of transport data so that the state of the art in modeling and field experimentation can be discussed in a positive framework with an assessment of current capabilities and future needs in this area of research. This paper provides information and sets of data that will be useful to the modelers in meeting the objectives of the modeling study. The information and data sets include: (1) a description of the experimental design and methods used in obtaining solute transport data, (2) supporting data that may be useful in modeling the data set of interest, and (3) the data set to be modeled

  20. Action Research in a Non-Profit Agency School Setting: Analyzing the Adoption of an Innovation after Initial Training and Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Pappas, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Action research is a method of organizational development and improvement often used in educational settings. This study implemented an action research process in an alternative school that serves students with significant special needs. The action research process was implemented by classroom teams who developed a research question, collected and…

  1. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  3. Study on default setting for risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.C.; Ha, J.J.; Jung, W.D.; Jeong, K.S.; Han, S.H.

    1998-12-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in regulatory decision making, both regulated parties and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults, because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PSA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PSA. The use of defaults may also ensure more uniform standards of PSA quality. However, regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet well understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This study focus on the development of model for setting defaults in order to achieve more applicability of risk-informed regulation. In particular, explored are the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults, and their implications for the crafting of regularity incentives. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab

  4. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: I. Involving funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the World Health Organization's Department for Child and Adolescent Health and Development commissioned five large research priority setting exercises using the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. The aim was to define research priorities related to the five major causes of child deaths for the period up to the year 2015. The selected causes were childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and preterm birth/low birth weight. The criteria used for prioritization in all five exercises were the “standard” CHNRI criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, potential for mortality burden reduction and the effect on equity. Having completed the exercises, the WHO officers were left with another question: how “fundable” were the identified priorities, i.e. how attractive were they to research funders?

  6. Priority setting partnership to identify the top 10 research priorities for the management of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Katherine H O; Flaherty, Helen; Daley, David J; Pascoe, Roland; Penhale, Bridget; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Catherine; Storey, Stacey

    2014-12-14

    This priority setting partnership was commissioned by Parkinson's UK to encourage people with direct and personal experience of the condition to work together to identify and prioritise the top 10 evidential uncertainties that impact on everyday clinical practice for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD). The UK. Anyone with experience of PD including: people with Parkinson's (PwP), carers, family and friends, healthcare and social care professionals. Non-clinical researchers and employees of pharmaceutical or medical devices companies were excluded. 1000 participants (60% PwP) provided ideas on research uncertainties, 475 (72% PwP) initially prioritised them and 27 (37% PwP) stakeholders agreed a final top 10. Using a modified nominal group technique, participants were surveyed to identify what issues for the management of PD needed research. Unique research questions unanswered by current evidence were identified and participants were asked to identify their top 10 research priorities from this list. The top 26 uncertainties were presented to a consensus meeting with key stakeholders to agree the top 10 research priorities. 1000 participants provided 4100 responses, which contained 94 unique unanswered research questions that were initially prioritised by 475 participants. A consensus meeting with 27 stakeholders agreed the top 10 research priorities. The overarching research aspiration was an effective cure for PD. The top 10 research priorities for PD management included the need to address motor symptoms (balance and falls, and fine motor control), non-motor symptoms (sleep and urinary dysfunction), mental health issues (stress and anxiety, dementia and mild cognitive impairments), side effects of medications (dyskinesia) and the need to develop interventions specific to the phenotypes of PD and better monitoring methods. These research priorities identify crucial gaps in the existing evidence to address everyday practicalities in the management of the

  7. Research priorities in mesothelioma: A James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R J; Whiting, C; Cowan, K

    2015-08-01

    In the UK, despite the import and use of all forms of asbestos being banned more than 15 years ago, the incidence of mesothelioma continues to rise. Mesothelioma is almost invariably fatal, and more research is required, not only to find more effective treatments, but also to achieve an earlier diagnosis and improve palliative care. Following a debate in the House of Lords in July 2013, a package of measures was agreed, which included a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership, funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The partnership brought together patients, carers, health professionals and support organisations to agree the top 10 research priorities relating to the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with mesothelioma. Following the established James Lind Alliance priority setting process, mesothelioma patients, current and bereaved carers, and health professionals were surveyed to elicit their concerns regarding diagnosis, treatment and care. Research questions were generated from the survey responses, and following checks that the questions were currently unanswered, an interim prioritisation survey was conducted to identify a shortlist of questions to take to a final consensus meeting. Four hundred and fifty-three initial surveys were returned, which were refined into 52 unique unanswered research questions. The interim prioritisation survey was completed by 202 responders, and the top 30 questions were taken to a final meeting where mesothelioma patients, carers, and health professionals prioritised all the questions, and reached a consensus on the top 10. The top 10 questions cover a wide portfolio of research (including assessing the value of immunotherapy, individualised chemotherapy, second-line treatment and immediate chemotherapy, monitoring patients with pleural thickening, defining the management of ascites in peritoneal mesothelioma, and optimising follow-up strategy). This list is an invaluable resource, which should be

  8. Contextual Exploration of a New Family Caregiver Support Concept for Geriatric Settings Using a Participatory Health Research Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorant, Elisabeth; Krieger, Theresia

    2017-11-28

    Family caregivers are the backbone of the long-term care support system within the home environment. Comprehensive caregiver support programs require collaboration and coordination within the system. A new public health concept, Vade Mecum, aims to harmonize and professionalize family caregiver support initiatives in geriatric care settings in the Euregion Maas-Rhine. Exploration of the new concept recently started in Germany to gain in-depth insight into current support and the needs of the geriatric care team and family caregivers. Within the context of an exploratory qualitative study, a participatory health research (PHR) strategy was applied to make optimal use of experience and knowledge from the system. Care professionals, engaged as co-researchers, were responsible for decisions about the research question, data collection methods and procedures of engaging family caregivers. A research team representing all professions within the geriatric department was formed. Research objectives were formulated and an appropriate mix of qualitative data collection methods consisting of interviews, focus groups and story-telling was chosen. Needs and expectations of the new concept, and practical solutions for involving family caregivers were discussed. A PHR strategy resulted in initiating a qualitative study in a geriatric care setting carried out by care professionals from the department. Knowledge was generated in a co-creative manner, and co-researchers were empowered. A comprehensive understanding of the system serves as a starting point for advancement of the new family caregiver concept.

  9. Patients' views on priority setting in neurosurgery: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratnam, Caroline; Bernstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Accountability for Reasonableness is an ethical framework which has been implemented in various health care systems to improve and evaluate the fairness of priority setting. This framework is grounded on four mandatory conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement. There have been few studies which have evaluated the patient stakeholders' acceptance of this framework; certainly no studies have been done on patients' views on the prioritization system for allocating patients for operating time in a system with pressure on the resource of inpatient beds. The aim of this study is to examine neurosurgical patients' views on the prioritization of patients for operating theater (OT) time on a daily basis at a tertiary and quaternary referral neurosurgery center. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with thirty-seven patients, recruited from the neurosurgery clinic at Toronto Western Hospital. Family members and friends who accompanied the patient to their clinic visit were encouraged to contribute to the discussion. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Overall, patients are supportive of the concept of a priority-setting system based on fairness, but felt that a few changes would help to improve the fairness of the current system. These changes include lowering the level of priority given to volume-funded cases and providing scheduled surgeries that were previously canceled a higher level of prioritization. Good communication, early notification, and rescheduling canceled surgeries as soon as possible were important factors that directly reflected the patients' confidence level in their doctor, the hospital, and the health care system. This study is the first clinical qualitative study of patients' perspective on a prioritization system used for allocating neurosurgical patients for OT time on a daily basis in a socialized not-for-profit health care system with

  10. A standardized set of 3-D objects for virtual reality research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, David

    2018-06-01

    The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized database of colored three-dimensional (3-D) objects that can be used in virtual reality and augmented reality research and applications. The 147 objects have been normed for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, and corresponding lexical characteristics of the modal object names. The availability of standardized 3-D objects for virtual reality research is important, because reaching valid theoretical conclusions hinges critically on the use of well-controlled experimental stimuli. Sharing standardized 3-D objects across different virtual reality labs will allow for science to move forward more quickly.

  11. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Framework for Studying Organizational Innovation in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is two-fold: to propose a theoretical framework and model for studying organizational innovation in research libraries and to set forth propositions that can provide directions for future empirical studies of innovation in research libraries. Research libraries can be considered members of a class of organizations…

  13. An approach for setting evidence-based and stakeholder-informed research priorities in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfuess, Eva A; Durão, Solange; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Young, Taryn; Rohwer, Anke

    2016-04-01

    To derive evidence-based and stakeholder-informed research priorities for implementation in African settings, the international research consortium Collaboration for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Public Health in Africa (CEBHA+) developed and applied a pragmatic approach. First, an online survey and face-to-face consultation between CEBHA+ partners and policy-makers generated priority research areas. Second, evidence maps for these priority research areas identified gaps and related priority research questions. Finally, study protocols were developed for inclusion within a grant proposal. Policy and practice representatives were involved throughout the process. Tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension and road traffic injuries were selected as priority research areas. Evidence maps covered screening and models of care for diabetes and hypertension, population-level prevention of diabetes and hypertension and their risk factors, and prevention and management of road traffic injuries. Analysis of these maps yielded three priority research questions on hypertension and diabetes and one on road traffic injuries. The four resulting study protocols employ a broad range of primary and secondary research methods; a fifth promotes an integrated methodological approach across all research activities. The CEBHA+ approach, in particular evidence mapping, helped to formulate research questions and study protocols that would be owned by African partners, fill gaps in the evidence base, address policy and practice needs and be feasible given the existing research infrastructure and expertise. The consortium believes that the continuous involvement of decision-makers throughout the research process is an important means of ensuring that studies are relevant to the African context and that findings are rapidly implemented.

  14. The Emergence of Student Creativity in Classroom Settings: A Case Study of Elementary Schools in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Younsoon; Chung, Hye Young; Choi, Kyoulee; Seo, Choyoung; Baek, Eunjoo

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the emergence of student creativity in classroom settings, specifically within two content areas: science and social studies. Fourteen classrooms in three elementary schools in Korea were observed, and the teachers and students were interviewed. The three types of student creativity emerging in the teaching and learning…

  15. Teaching Cafe' Waiter Skills to Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Real Setting Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine effectiveness of the Cafe' Waiter Education Program by providing the least prompting to three adult subjects with intellectual disability in a real-life setting. A multiple probe research design across subjects was used. Cafe' waiter skills included five main tasks incorporating 125 skill steps. Task…

  16. Respiratory support in oncology ward setting: a prospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Gupta, Deepak; Goyal, Gaurav Nirvani; Agrawal, Ravi; Jain, Roopesh; Chauhan, Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation in cancer patients is a critical issue The present prospective descriptive study was designed (1) to assess the patient population needing respirator support in ward setting at a premier state-run oncology institute in India, (2) to observe and analyze the course of their disease while on respirator, and (3) to coordinate better quality of life measures in cancer patients at the institute based on the present study's outcomes. Beginning from March 2005 to March 2006, all cancer patients who were connected to respirator in the wards were enrolled in the current study. Our anesthesiology department at the cancer institute also has primary responsibility for airway management and mechanical ventilation in high dependency units of oncology wards. Preventilation variables in cancer patients were assessed to judge the futility of mechanical ventilation in ward setting. Subsequently, patients were observed for disease course while on respirator. Final outcome with its etio-pathogenesis was correlated with predicted futility of mechanical ventilation. Over a period of 1 year, 132 (46 men and 86 women) cancer patients with median age 40 years (range 1-75 years) were connected to respirator in oncology wards. Based on the preventilation variables and indications for respirator support, right prediction of medical futility and hospital discharge was made in 77% of patients. Underestimation and overestimation of survival to hospital discharge was made in 10% cases and 13% cases, respectively. Based on preventilation variables, prediction of outcome in cancer patients needing respirator support can be made in 77% cases. This high probability of prediction can be used to educate patients, and their families and primary physicians, for well-informed and documented advance directives, formulated and regularly revised DNAR policies, and judicious use of respirator support for better quality-of-life outcomes.

  17. Research on Natural Settings: Observing Adolescent Mothers and Infants throughout the First Postpartum Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Silvia H

    2018-03-01

    This manuscript aims to present and discuss challenges regarding naturalistic observation of adolescent mothers and their infants throughout the first postpartum year. Case illustrations were the object to discuss methodological options and issues faced during an observational and longitudinal research. The participants live in vulnerability in a metropolitan area in Southern Brazil. Data collection challenges led to reflections about naturalistic observation and methodological procedures, which were affected by setting characteristics and by the need of adapting to them. Most methodological difficulties were linked to naturalistic observations of mothers and their infants. Personal and contextual aspects of these settings must be taken into account in order to enhance result reliability and the knowledge about cultural idiosyncrasies.

  18. Reliability studies in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Tob Rodrigues de

    2013-01-01

    Fault trees and event trees are widely used in industry to model and to evaluate the reliability of safety systems. Detailed analyzes in nuclear installations require the combination of these two techniques. This study uses the methods of FT (Fault Tree) and ET (Event Tree) to accomplish the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) in research reactors. According to IAEA (lnternational Atomic Energy Agency), the PSA is divided into Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. At the Level 1, conceptually, the security systems perform to prevent the occurrence of accidents, At the Level 2, once accidents happened, this Level seeks to minimize consequences, known as stage management of accident, and at Level 3 accident impacts are determined. This study focuses on analyzing the Level 1, and searching through the acquisition of knowledge, the consolidation of methodologies for future reliability studies. The Greek Research Reactor, GRR-1, is a case example. The LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) was chosen as the initiating event and from it, using ET, possible accidental sequences were developed, which could lead damage to the core. Moreover, for each of affected systems, probabilities of each event top of FT were developed and evaluated in possible accidental sequences. Also, the estimates of importance measures for basic events are presented in this work. The studies of this research were conducted using a commercial computational tool SAPHIRE. Additionally, achieved results thus were considered satisfactory for the performance or the failure of analyzed systems. (author)

  19. Action research as a method for changing patient education practice in a clinical diabetes setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Jane Rohde; Hansen, Ulla M.; Glindorf, Mette

    2014-01-01

    with researchers developed and implemented a participatory, group-based diabetes education program in a diabetes clinic in the Danish health care system. The research process included a variety of qualitative methods: workshops, classroom observations, video recordings and semi-structured interviews. These methods......Action research is potentially a useful method for changing clinical practice by involving practitioners in the process of change. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of action research in bridging the gap between research and practice. Diabetes educators in collaboration...... aimed at obtaining contextual sensitivity, allowing dynamic interactions with educators and people with diabetes. Despite challenges, the study demonstrates how action research methods contribute to development and change of diabetes education practice while simultaneously adding knowledge to the action...

  20. Research priorities for the influence of gender on diagnostic imaging choices in the emergency department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, John V; Cherney, Alan R; Evans, Elizabeth M; Kennedy Hall, Michael; Hess, Erik P; Kline, Jeffrey A; Mitchell, Alice M; Mills, Angela M; Weigner, Michael B; Moore, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is a cornerstone of patient evaluation in the acute care setting, but little effort has been devoted to understanding the appropriate influence of sex and gender on imaging choices. This article provides background on this issue and a description of the working group and consensus findings reached during the diagnostic imaging breakout session at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." Our goal was to determine research priorities for how sex and gender may (or should) affect imaging choices in the acute care setting. Prior to the conference, the working group identified five areas for discussion regarding the research agenda in sex- and gender-based imaging using literature review and expert consensus. The nominal group technique was used to identify areas for discussion for common presenting complaints to the emergency department where ionizing radiation is often used for diagnosis: suspected pulmonary embolism, suspected kidney stone, lower abdominal pain with a concern for appendicitis, and chest pain concerning for coronary artery disease. The role of sex- and gender-based shared decision-making in diagnostic imaging decisions is also raised. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. On the Demand for Consumer Credit: an Islamic Setting (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Bendjilali, Boualem

    1995-01-01

    The study discusses the economic implication of the main axioms that govern the consumer credit in an Islamic framework. It derives the demand function for consumer credit, using the Murabaha modes. A simple econometric model is built to estimate the demand for credit in an Islamic setting.

  2. Quantum Physics Principles and Communication in the Acute Healthcare Setting: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Heidi L; Peyerl, Colleen Kraft; Solheim-Witt, Marit

    This pilot study explores whether clinician awareness of quantum physics principles could facilitate open communication between patients and providers. In the spirit of action research, this study was conceptualized with a holistic view of human health, using a mixed method design of grounded theory as an emergent method. Instrumentation includes surveys and a focus group discussion with twelve registered nurses working in an acute care hospital setting. Findings document that the preliminary core phenomenon, energy as information, influences communication in the healthcare environment. Key emergent themes include awareness, language, validation, open communication, strategies, coherence, incoherence and power. Research participants indicate that quantum physics principles provide a language and conceptual framework for improving their awareness of communication and interactions in the healthcare environment. Implications of this pilot study support the feasibility of future research and education on awareness of quantum physics principles in other clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research priority setting in Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, James; Gadeke, Lisa; Lovat, Laurence; Hamdy, Shaheen; Hawkey, Chris; McLaughlin, John; Ang, Yeng

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus is increasing. Barrett's oesophagus is the main precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. In view of the vast potential burden of these diseases on patients and health-care resources, there is a real need to define and focus research efforts. This priority setting exercise aimed to produce a list of the top ten uncertainties in the field that reflect the priorities of patients and health-care providers. We adopted the robust and transparent methodologies previously outlined by the James Lind Alliance. This qualitative approach firstly involves an ideas gathering survey that, once distilled, generates a longlist of research uncertainties. These uncertainties are then prioritised via an interim ranking survey and a final workshop to achieve consensus agreement. The initial 629 uncertainties, generated from a survey of 170 individual respondents (47% professional, 53% non-professional) and one workshop, were narrowed down to the final top ten uncertainties of priority for future research. These priorities covered a range of issues, including a need for improved patient risk stratification, alternative diagnostic and surveillance tests, efficacy of a dedicated service for Barrett's oesophagus, cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of current surveillance, advances in development of non-drug treatments for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, safety of long-term drug treatment, and questions regarding the durability and role of different endoscopic therapies for dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus. This is the first patient-centred assessment of priorities for researchers in this chronic disease setting. We hope that recognition and dissemination of these results will shape the future direction of research and translate into meaningful gains for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Massage Therapy and Canadians’ Health Care Needs 2020: Proceedings of a National Research Priority Setting Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Trish; Sumpton, Bryn; Shipwright, Stacey; Kahn, Janet; Reece, Barbara (Findlay)

    2014-01-01

    Background The health care landscape in Canada is changing rapidly as forces, such as an aging population, increasingly complex health issues and treatments, and economic pressure to reduce health care costs, bear down on the system. A cohesive national research agenda for massage therapy (MT) is needed in order to ensure maximum benefit is derived from research on treatment, health care policy, and cost effectiveness. Setting A one-day invitational summit was held in Toronto, Ontario to build strategic alliances among Canadian and international researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders to help shape a national research agenda for MT. Method Using a modified Delphi method, the summit organizers conducted two pre-summit surveys to ensure that time spent during the summit was relevant and productive. The summit was facilitated using the principles of Appreciative Inquiry which included a “4D” strategic planning approach (defining, discovery, dreaming, designing) and application of a SOAR framework (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results). Participants Twenty-six researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders actively participated in the events. Results Priority topics that massage therapists believe are important to the Canadian public, other health care providers, and policy makers and massage therapists themselves were identified. A framework for a national massage therapy (MT) research agenda, a grand vision of the future for MT research, and a 12-month action plan were developed. Conclusion The summit provided an excellent opportunity for key stakeholders to come together and use their experience and knowledge of MT to develop a much-needed plan for moving the MT research and professionalization agenda forward. PMID:24592299

  5. A film set for the elicitation of emotion in research: A comprehensive catalog derived from four decades of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, T Lee; Shaheen, Razan; Nylocks, K Maria; Halachoff, Danielle; Chapman, Jessica; Flynn, Jessica J; Matt, Lindsey M; Coifman, Karin G

    2017-12-01

    Emotions are highly influential to many psychological processes. Indeed, research employing emotional stimuli is rapidly escalating across the field of psychology. However, challenges remain regarding discrete evocation of frequently co-elicited emotions such as amusement and happiness, or anger and disgust. Further, as much contemporary work in emotion employs college students, we sought to additionally evaluate the efficacy of film clips to discretely elicit these more challenging emotions in a young adult population using an online medium. The internet is an important tool for investigating responses to emotional stimuli, but validations of emotionally evocative film clips across laboratory and web-based settings are limited in the literature. An additional obstacle is identifying stimuli amidst the numerous film clip validation studies. During our investigation, we recognized the lack of a categorical database to facilitate rapid identification of useful film clips for individual researchers' unique investigations. Consequently, here we also sought to produce the first compilation of such stimuli into an accessible and comprehensive catalog. We based our catalog upon prior work as well as our own, and identified 24 articles and 295 film clips from four decades of research. We present information on the validation of these clips in addition to our own research validating six clips using online administration settings. The results of our search in the literature and our own study are presented in tables designed to facilitate and improve a selection of highly valid film stimuli for future research.

  6. Research on benefits of canine-assisted therapy for adults in nonmilitary settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, Janet S; Barker, Sandra B; Barker, Randolph T

    2012-01-01

    Research has examined the physiological and psychosocial impact of animal-assisted activities (AAA) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT). The current review article summarizes the benefits of AAA and AAT for hospitalized patients with medical disorders, psychiatric patients, and residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities. The literature regarding inclusion of animals in business and organizational settings is also reviewed. Although there is clear evidence of improved physical and psychological health from AAA and AAT in the civilian population, there is a dearth of published findings of the evaluation of such benefits for military personnel.

  7. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    Progress is reported in both experimental studies as well as theoretical understanding of the beam transport problem. Major highlights are: (a) the completion of the first channel section with 12 periods and two matching solenoids, (b) measurements of beam transmission and emittance in this 12-lens channel, (c) extensive analytical and numerical studies of the beam transport problem in collaboration with GSI (W. Germany), (d) detailed measurements and calculations of beam propagation through one lens with spherical aberration and space charge, and (e) completion of the emittance grids at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory. Our main objectives in Task B of our research program are: (a) study of collective acceleration of positive ions from a localized plasma source by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB), (b) external control of the IREB beam front by a slow-wave structure to achieve higher ion energies - the Beam Front Accelerator (BFA) concept, (c) study of ion and electron acceleration and other applications of a plasma focus device, and (d) theoretical studies in support of (a) and (b). Our research in these areas has been oriented towards obtaining an improved understanding of the physical processes at work in these experiments and, subsequently, achieving improved performance for specific potential applications

  8. Neutron polarizing set-up of the Sofia IRT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezhov, K.; Mikhajlova, V.; Okorokov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron polarizing set-up of one of the horizontal beam tubes of the IRT-200 research reactor of the Bulgarian Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is presented. Neutron mirrors are extensively used in an effort to compensate the moderate reactor beam intensity by the high reflected intensity and wide-band transmittance of the mirror neutron guides. Time-to-flight technique using a slotted neutron absorbing chopper with a horizontal rotation axis has been applied to obtain the exit neutron spectra. Beam polarization and flipping ratios have been determined. Cadmium ratio in the polarized beam has been found almost 10 4 and the average polarization has been measured to be higher than 96%. 3 figs, 3 refs

  9. Top ten research priorities for spinal cord injury: the methodology and results of a British priority setting partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, J J; Allison, H C; Ahuja, S; Bracher, D; Dyson, C; Fairbank, J; Gall, A; Glover, A; Gray, L; Masri, W El; Uttridge, A; Cowan, K

    2016-05-01

    This is a mixed-method consensus development project. The objective of this study was to identify a top ten list of priorities for future research into spinal cord injury (SCI). The British Spinal Cord Injury Priority Setting Partnership was established in 2013 and completed in 2014. Stakeholders included consumer organisations, healthcare professional societies and caregivers. This partnership involved the following four key stages: (i) gathering of research questions, (ii) checking of existing research evidence, (iii) interim prioritisation and (iv) a final consensus meeting to reach agreement on the top ten research priorities. Adult individuals with spinal cord dysfunction because of trauma or non-traumatic causes, including transverse myelitis, and individuals with a cauda equina syndrome (henceforth grouped and referred to as SCI) were invited to participate in this priority setting partnership. We collected 784 questions from 403 survey respondents (290 individuals with SCI), which, after merging duplicate questions and checking systematic reviews for evidence, were reduced to 109 unique unanswered research questions. A total of 293 people (211 individuals with SCI) participated in the interim prioritisation process, leading to the identification of 25 priorities. At a final consensus meeting, a representative group of individuals with SCI, caregivers and health professionals agreed on their top ten research priorities. Following a comprehensive, rigorous and inclusive process, with participation from individuals with SCI, caregivers and health professionals, the SCI research agenda has been defined by people to whom it matters most and should inform the scope and future activities of funders and researchers for the years to come. The NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre provided core funding for this project.

  10. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  11. Ethical considerations in HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Samual A; Anude, Chuka J; Adams, Elizabeth; Dawson, Liza

    2014-09-01

    HIV prevention research has been facing increasing ethical and operational challenges. Factors influencing the design and conduct of HIV prevention trials include a rapidly changing evidence base, new biomedical prevention methods and modalities being tested, a large diversity of countries, sites and populations affected by HIV and participating in trials, and challenges of developing and making available products that will be feasible and affordable for at-risk populations. To discuss these challenges, a meeting, Ethical considerations around novel combination prevention modalities in HIV prevention and vaccine trials in resource-limited settings, was convened by NIH/NIAID/Division of AIDS on April 22-23, 2013. Several themes emerged from the meeting: (1) because of both trial design and ethical complexities, choosing prevention packages and designing combination prevention research trials will need to be evaluated on a case by case basis in different clinical trials, countries, and health systems; (2) multilevel stakeholder engagement from the beginning is vital to a fair and transparent process and also to designing ethical and relevant trials; (3) research should generally be responsive to a host country's needs, and sponsors and stakeholders should work together to address potential barriers to future access; and finally, (4) another meeting including a broader group of stakeholders is needed to address many of the outstanding ethical issues raised by this meeting. We offer an overview of the meeting and the key discussion points and recommendations to help guide the design and conduct of future HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings.

  12. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shanda L. Hunt; Caitlin J. Bakker

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Methods: Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience ...

  13. Developing professional habits of hand hygiene in intensive care settings: An action-research intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giuseppe; Berto, Giuliana; Bazzo, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation. Five general workers, 16 staff nurses and 53 nurse students participated in the various stages. Social handwashing emerged as a structured and efficient habit, which follows automatically the pattern "cue/behaviour/gratification" when hands are perceived as "dirty". The perception of "dirt" starts unconsciously the process of social washing also in professional settings. Professional handwashing is perceived as goal-directed. The main concern identified is the fact that washing hands requires too much time to be performed in a setting of urgency. These findings addressed participants to develop a professional "habit-directed" hand hygiene procedure, to be implemented at beginning of workshifts. Handwashing is a ritualistic behaviour driven by deep and unconscious patterns, and social habits affect professional practice. Creating professional habits of hand hygiene could be a key solution to improve compliance in intensive care settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The experimental set for in situ research of benthic communities in marine and freshwater ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornijów Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented system of experimental trays permits conducting field experiments at considerable depths, all year round, and with no application of diving techniques. The deployed set can be entirely hidden under water, which is an advantage in crowded areas. The set is composed of single units, each composed of a tray filled with a substrate, four-legged bridles, and a hanging rope with a removable marker float fixed on top by means of a carabiner clip. The float provides information on the location of deployed trays, and permits proper distribution of next trays to be deployed. After deployment from a boat, the units are connected with a rope, extended on one end by a sinking retrieval rope. The floats are removed immediately after deployment. Any number of units can be deployed to the bottom. It depends on the experimental design and the number of replicates. Retrieval of the set starts with locating the trays by means of GPS, and searching for the retrieval rope by means of a grappling hook dragged behind the boat. Based on our own experience and the literature, the possibilities of development of the described system are proposed depending on the local field conditions and research objectives.

  15. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  16. Building Surgical Research Capacity Globally: Efficacy of a Clinical Research Course for Surgeons in Low-Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A. Miclau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal injury confers an enormous burden of preventable disability and mortality in low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs. Appropriate orthopedic and trauma care services are lacking. Leading international health agencies emphasize the critical need to create and sustain research capacity in the developing world as a strategic factor in the establishment of functional, independent health systems. One aspect of building research capacity is partnership between developing and developed countries, and knowledge sharing via these collaborations. This study evaluated the efficacy of a short, intensive course designed to educate surgeons on fundamental aspects of clinical research using evidence-based medicine (EBM principles. Orthopedic surgeons from the United States and Canada presented a one-day course on the fundamentals of clinical research in Havana, Cuba. Knowledge acquisition was assessed on the part of course participants and surveyed current involvement with and attitudes toward clinical research. Questionnaires were presented to participants immediately preceding and following the course. The mean pre-test score was 43.9% (95% CI: 41.1–46.6%. The mean post-test score was 59.3% (95% CI: 56.5–62.1%. There were relative score increases in each subgroup based on professional level, subjective level of familiarity with EBM concepts, and subjective level of experience in research. This study establishes the short-term efficacy of an intensive course designed to impart knowledge in EBM and clinical research. Further study is necessary to determine the long-term benefits of this type of course. This may be a useful part of an overall strategy to build health research capacity in LMICs, ultimately contributing to improved access to high-quality surgical care.

  17. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  18. Developing the Role of a Health Information Professional in a Clinical Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Seeley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This paper examines the role of a health information professional in a large multidisciplinary project to improve services for head injury.Methods ‐ An action research approach was taken, with the information professional acting as co‐ordinator. Change management processes were guided by theory and evidence. The health information professional was responsible for an ongoing literature review on knowledge management (clinical and political issues, data collection and analysis (from patient records, collating and comparing data (to help develop standards, and devising appropriate dissemination strategies.Results ‐ Important elements of the health information management role proved to be 1 co‐ordination; 2 setting up mechanisms for collaborative learning through information sharing; and 3 using the theoretical frameworks (identified from the literature review to help guide implementation. The role that emerged here has some similarities to the informationist role that stresses domain knowledge, continuous learning and working in context (embedding. This project also emphasised the importance of co‐ordination, and the ability to work across traditional library information analysis (research literature discovery and appraisal and information analysis of patient data sets (the information management role.Conclusion ‐ Experience with this project indicates that health information professionals will need to be prepared to work with patient record data and synthesis of that data, design systems to co‐ordinate patient data collection, as well as critically appraise external evidence.

  19. Anticipatory vigilance: A grounded theory study of minimising risk within the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brid; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Classic grounded theory. Ethical approval was granted for all aspects of the study. Thirty-seven nurses working in 11 different perioperative settings in Ireland were interviewed and 33 hr of nonparticipant observation was undertaken. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken using theoretical sampling. Constant comparative method, coding and memoing and were used to analyse the data. Participants' main concern was how to minimise risk. Participants resolved this through engaging in anticipatory vigilance (core category). This strategy consisted of orchestrating, routinising and momentary adapting. Understanding the strategies of anticipatory vigilance extends and provides an in-depth explanation of how nurses' behaviour ensures that risk is minimised in a complex high-risk perioperative setting. This is the first theory situated in the perioperative area for nurses. This theory provides a guide and understanding for nurses working in the perioperative setting on how to minimise risk. It makes perioperative nursing visible enabling positive patient outcomes. This research suggests the need for training and education in maintaining safety and minimising risk in the perioperative setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Setting the stage for a business case for leadership diversity in healthcare: history, research, and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Ebbin; Nuru-Jeter, Amani

    2012-01-01

    Leveraging diversity to successfully influence business operations is a business imperative for many healthcare organizations as they look to leadership to help manage a new era of culturally competent, patient-centered care that reduces health and healthcare disparities. This article presents the foundation for a business case in leadership diversity within healthcare organizations and describes the need for research on managerial solutions to health and healthcare disparities. It provides a discussion of clinical, policy, and management implications that will help support a business case for improving the diversity of leadership in healthcare organizations as a way to reduce health and healthcare disparities. Historical contexts introduce aspects of the business case for leveraging leadership diversity based on a desire for a culturally competent care organization. Little research exists on the impact that the role of leadership plays in addressing health disparities from a healthcare management perspective. This article provides practitioners and researchers with a rationale to invest in leadership diversity. It discusses three strategies that will help set the stage for a business case. First, provide empirical evidence of the link between diversity and performance. Second, link investments in diversity to financial outcomes and organizational metrics of success. Third, make organizational leadership responsible for cultural competence as a performance measure. In order to address health and healthcare disparities, collaborations between researchers and practitioners are necessary to effectively implement these strategies.

  1. Defining Priorities for Future Research: Results of the UK Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon R; Metcalfe, Leanne; O'Donoghue, Katriona; Ball, Simon T; Beale, Angela; Beale, William; Hilton, Rachel; Hodkinson, Keith; Lipkin, Graham W; Loud, Fiona; Marson, Lorna P; Morris, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the research priorities of those funding and performing research in transplantation may differ from those of end service users such as patients, carers and healthcare professionals involved in day-to-day care. The Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was established with the aim of involving all stakeholders in prioritising future research in the field. The PSP methodology is as outlined by the James Lind Alliance. An initial survey collected unanswered research questions from patients, carers and clinicians. Duplicate and out-of-scope topics were excluded and the existing literature searched to identify topics answered by current evidence. An interim prioritisation survey asked patients and professionals to score the importance of the remaining questions to create a ranked long-list. These were considered at a final consensus workshop using a modified nominal group technique to agree a final top ten. The initial survey identified 497 questions from 183 respondents, covering all aspects of transplantation from assessment through to long-term follow-up. These were grouped into 90 unanswered "indicative" questions. The interim prioritisation survey received 256 responses (34.8% patients/carers, 10.9% donors and 54.3% professionals), resulting in a ranked list of 25 questions that were considered during the final workshop. Participants agreed a top ten priorities for future research that included optimisation of immunosuppression (improved monitoring, choice of regimen, personalisation), prevention of sensitisation and transplanting the sensitised patient, management of antibody-mediated rejection, long-term risks to live donors, methods of organ preservation, induction of tolerance and bioengineering of organs. There was evidence that patient and carer involvement had a significant impact on shaping the final priorities. The final list of priorities relates to all stages of the transplant process, including access to

  2. Positron studies in catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During the past eight months, the authors have made progress in several areas relevant to the eventual use of positron techniques in catalysis research. They have come closer to the completion of their positron microscope, and at the same time have performed several studies in their non-microscopic positron spectrometer which should ultimately be applicable to catalysis. The current status of the efforts in each of these areas is summarized in the following sections: Construction of the positron microscope (optical element construction, data collection software, and electronic sub-assemblies); Doppler broadening spectroscopy of metal silicide; Positron lifetime spectroscopy of glassy polymers; and Positron lifetime measurements of pore-sizes in zeolites

  3. The use of questionnaires in colour research in real-life settings : In search of validity and methodological pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Vink, P.; de Boon, J

    2014-01-01

    This research discusses the validity of applying questionnaires in colour research in real life settings.
    In the literature the conclusions concerning the influences of colours on human performance and well-being are often conflicting. This can be caused by the artificial setting of the test

  4. Defining Effectiveness Using Finite Sets A Study on Computability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Haeusler, Edward H.; Garcia, Alex

    2016-01-01

    finite sets and uses category theory as its mathematical foundations. The model relies on the fact that every function between finite sets is computable, and that the finite composition of such functions is also computable. Our approach is an alternative to the traditional model-theoretical based works...... which rely on (ZFC) set theory as a mathematical foundation, and our approach is also novel when compared to the already existing works using category theory to approach computability results. Moreover, we show how to encode Turing machine computations in the model, thus concluding the model expresses...

  5. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  6. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems - from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. We conducted a series of analyses using data from a group of 91 scorers to explore the quantitative properties of their collective opinion. We were interested in the stability of their collective opinion as the sample size increases from 15 to 90. From a pool of 91 scorers who took part in a previous CHNRI exercise, we used sampling with replacement to generate multiple random samples of different size. First, for each sample generated, we identified the top 20 ranked research ideas, among 205 that were proposed and scored, and calculated the concordance with the ranking generated by the 91 original scorers. Second, we used rank correlation coefficients to compare the ranks assigned to all 205 proposed research ideas when samples of different size are used. We also analysed the original pool of 91 scorers to to look for evidence of scoring variations based on scorers' characteristics. The sample sizes investigated ranged from 15 to 90. The concordance for the top 20 scored research ideas increased with sample sizes up to about 55 experts. At this point, the median level of concordance stabilized at 15/20 top ranked questions (75%), with the interquartile range also generally stable (14-16). There was little further increase in overlap when the sample size increased from 55 to 90. When analysing the ranking of all 205 ideas, the rank correlation coefficient increased as the sample size increased, with a median correlation of 0.95 reached at the sample size of 45 experts (median of the rank

  7. Some numerical studies of interface advection properties of level set ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explicit computational elements moving through an Eulerian grid. ... location. The interface is implicitly defined (captured) as the location of the discontinuity in the ... This level set function is advected with the background flow field and thus ...

  8. Locating assistive technology research in a clinical setting: an occupational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Davis, Sally; Evans, Laura; Cudd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peer research was used to identify the experience and perceptions of assistive technology and telecare adoption in a UK healthcare context. A narrative account of participation and learning is intended to provoke further dialogue. There have been a range of policy and implementation initiatives that are within the direct experience of organisational actors over the last 15 years and this engagement allows for specific reflection on the service achievements and some of the barriers to implementation of technology changes in rehabilitation practice and service design. Insights are presented that suggest a reification of research priorities and a need to align technology, through patient and public engagement, to provider priorities. In addition, an improvement in adoption would be based on sustained capacity building within the Occupational Therapy workforce and a re-focus on specific knowledge sharing and learning about technology. Given the shared desire to promote the sustained adoption of appropriate technology for assistance and rehabilitation it is suggested the voice of practitioners is strengthened through research and knowledge exchange in the clinical setting.

  9. BACS: The Brussels Artificial Character Sets for studies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Camille; Content, Alain; Chetail, Fabienne

    2017-12-01

    Written symbols such as letters have been used extensively in cognitive psychology, whether to understand their contributions to written word recognition or to examine the processes involved in other mental functions. Sometimes, however, researchers want to manipulate letters while removing their associated characteristics. A powerful solution to do so is to use new characters, devised to be highly similar to letters, but without the associated sound or name. Given the growing use of artificial characters in experimental paradigms, the aim of the present study was to make available the Brussels Artificial Character Sets (BACS): two full, strictly controlled, and portable sets of artificial characters for a broad range of experimental situations.

  10. Genomic Research Data Generation, Analysis and Sharing – Challenges in the African Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mulder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomics is the study of the genetic material that constitutes the genomes of organisms. This genetic material can be sequenced and it provides a powerful tool for the study of human, plant and animal evolutionary history and diseases. Genomics research is becoming increasingly commonplace due to significant advances in and reducing costs of technologies such as sequencing. This has led to new challenges including increasing cost and complexity of data. There is, therefore, an increasing need for computing infrastructure and skills to manage, store, analyze and interpret the data. In addition, there is a significant cost associated with recruitment of participants and collection and processing of biological samples, particularly for large human genetics studies on specific diseases. As a result, researchers are often reluctant to share the data due to the effort and associated cost. In Africa, where researchers are most commonly at the study recruitment, determination of phenotypes and collection of biological samples end of the genomic research spectrum, rather than the generation of genomic data, data sharing without adequate safeguards for the interests of the primary data generators is a concern. There are substantial ethical considerations in the sharing of human genomics data. The broad consent for data sharing preferred by genomics researchers and funders does not necessarily align with the expectations of researchers, research participants, legal authorities and bioethicists. In Africa, this is complicated by concerns about comprehension of genomics research studies, quality of research ethics reviews and understanding of the implications of broad consent, secondary analyses of shared data, return of results and incidental findings. Additional challenges with genomics research in Africa include the inability to transfer, store, process and analyze large-scale genomics data on the continent, because this requires highly specialized skills

  11. Relative solidarity: Conceptualising communal participation in genomic research among potential research participants in a developing Sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi; Woolfall, Kerry; Gabbay, Mark; Frith, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    As genomic research gathers momentum in sub-Saharan Africa, it has become increasingly important to understand the reasons why individuals wish to participate in this kind of medical research. Against the background of communitarianism conceived as typical of African communities, it is often suggested that individuals consent to participate on the grounds of solidarity and to further the common good. In this paper, we seek to explore this contention by presenting data from focus groups with potential research participants about what would influence their decisions to participate in genomic research. These focus groups were conducted as part of a larger qualitative study with a purposively selected group of participants from a community situated in south west Nigeria. We conducted fifteen focus group sessions comprising 50 participants organized by age and sex, namely: 1) adult (>30 years) males, 2) adult females, 3) youth (18-30 years) males, and 4) youth females. A mixed age-group was conducted to probe different views between the age groups. There was discordance and clear division between the adults and youths regarding the decision to participate in genomic research based on commitment to communal values. Adults based their decision to participate on altruism and furthering the common good while youths based their decisions on personal benefits and preferences and also took into account the views and welfare of family members and neighbours. This discordance suggests a 'generational shift' and we advance a model of 'relative solidarity' among the youths, which is different from the communal solidarity model typical of African communitarianism. Our findings suggest the need for a closer look at strategies for implementation of community engagement and informed consent in genomic research in this region, and we recommend further studies to explore this emerging trend.

  12. Setting the top 10 research priorities to improve the health of people with Type 2 diabetes: a Diabetes UK-James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, S; Robb, P; Cowan, K; Daly, A; Shah, K; Farmer, A

    2018-07-01

    To describe processes and outcomes of a priority setting partnership to identify the 'top 10 research priorities' in Type 2 diabetes, involving people living with the condition, their carers, and healthcare professionals. We followed the four-step James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process which involved: gathering uncertainties using a questionnaire survey distributed to 70 000 people living with Type 2 diabetes and their carers, and healthcare professionals; organizing the uncertainties; interim priority setting by resampling of participants with a second survey; and final priority setting in an independent group of participants, using the nominal group technique. At each step the steering group closely monitored and guided the process. In the first survey, 8227 uncertainties were proposed by 2587 participants, of whom 18% were from black, Asian and minority ethnic groups. Uncertainties were formatted and collated into 114 indicative questions. A total of 1506 people contributed to a second survey, generating a shortlist of 24 questions equally weighted to the contributions of people living with diabetes and their carers and those of healthcare professionals. In the final step the 'top 10 research priorities' were selected, including questions on cure and reversal, risk identification and prevention, and self-management approaches in Type 2 diabetes. Systematic and transparent methodology was used to identify research priorities in a large and genuine partnership of people with lived and professional experience of Type 2 diabetes. The top 10 questions represent consensus areas of research priority to guide future research, deliver responsive and strategic allocation of research resources, and improve the future health and well-being of people living with, and at risk of, Type 2 diabetes. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  13. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring system. 4 figs

  14. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring

  15. Yoga in Correctional Settings: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of yoga in the reduction of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, anger as well as in the increased ability of behavioral control has been shown. These effects of yoga are highly relevant for prison inmates who often have poor mental health and low impulse control. While it has been shown that yoga and meditation can be effective in improving subjective well-being, mental health, and executive functioning within prison populations, only a limited number of studies have proved this, using randomized controlled settings.MethodsA total of 152 participants from nine Swedish correctional facilities were randomly assigned to a 10-week yoga group (one class a week; N = 77 or a control group (N = 75. Before and after the intervention period, participants answered questionnaires measuring stress, aggression, affective states, sleep quality, and psychological well-being and completed a computerized test measuring attention and impulsivity.ResultsAfter the intervention period, significant improvements were found on 13 of the 16 variables within the yoga group (e.g., less perceived stress, better sleep quality, an increased psychological and emotional well-being, less aggressive, and antisocial behavior and on two within the control group. Compared to the control group, yoga class participants reported significantly improved emotional well-being and less antisocial behavior after 10 weeks of yoga. They also showed improved performance on the computerized test that measures attention and impulse control.ConclusionIt can be concluded that the yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on inmates’ well-being and on considerable risk factors associated with recidivism, such as impulsivity and antisocial behavior. Accordingly, the results show that yoga practice can play an important part in the rehabilitation of prison inmates.

  16. Developing core economic outcome sets for asthma studies: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsome, Natalia; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Phillips, Ceri; Patel, Anita

    2017-08-11

    Core outcome sets are standardised lists of outcomes, which should be measured and reported in all clinical studies of a specific condition. This study aims to develop core outcome sets for economic evaluations in asthma studies. Economic outcomes include items such as costs, resource use or quality-adjusted life years. The starting point in developing core outcome sets will be conducting a systematic literature review to establish a preliminary list of reporting items to be considered for inclusion in the core outcome set. We will conduct literature searches of peer-reviewed studies published from January 1990 to January 2017. These will include any comparative or observational studies (including economic models) and systematic reviews reporting economic outcomes. All identified economic outcomes will be tabulated together with the major study characteristics, such as population, study design, the nature and intensity of the intervention, mode of data collection and instrument(s) used to derive an outcome. We will undertake a 'realist synthesis review' to analyse the identified economic outcomes. The outcomes will be summarised in the context of evaluation perspectives, types of economic evaluation and methodological approaches. Parallel to undertaking a systematic review, we will conduct semistructured interviews with stakeholders (including people with personal experience of asthma, health professionals, researchers and decision makers) in order to explore additional outcomes which have not been considered, or used, in published studies. The list of outcomes generated from the systematic review and interviews with stakeholders will form the basis of a Delphi survey to refine the identified outcomes into a core outcome set. The review will not involve access to individual-level data. Findings from our systematic review will be communicated to a broad range of stakeholders including clinical guideline developers, research funders, trial registries, ethics

  17. Updating the School Counseling Research Agenda: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Elizabeth; Dimmitt, Carey

    2017-01-01

    The authors updated an earlier Delphi study identifying the research priorities for school counseling (Dimmitt et al., 2005). A 29-member expert panel selected research questions from the prior study, generated new questions, and rank ordered the combined set. The results provide guidance for prioritizing dissertation topics, targeting future…

  18. Building the field of population health intervention research: The development and use of an initial set of competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara; Harvey, Jean; Di Ruggiero, Erica; Potvin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Population health intervention research (PHIR) is a relatively new research field that studies interventions that can improve health and health equity at a population level. Competencies are one way to give legitimacy and definition to a field. An initial set of PHIR competencies was developed with leadership from a multi-sector group in Canada. This paper describes the development process for these competencies and their possible uses. Methods to develop the competencies included key informant interviews; a targeted review of scientific and gray literature; a 2-round, online adapted Delphi study with a 24-member panel; and a focus group with 9 international PHIR experts. The resulting competencies consist of 25 items grouped into 6 categories. They include principles of good science applicable though not exclusive to PHIR, and more suitable for PHIR teams rather than individuals. This initial set of competencies, released in 2013, may be used to develop graduate student curriculum, recruit trainees and faculty to academic institutions, plan non-degree professional development, and develop job descriptions for PHIR-related research and professional positions. The competencies provide some initial guideposts for the field and will need to be adapted as the PHIR field matures and to meet unique needs of different jurisdictions.

  19. Undergraduate research: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Hoeven, Gerrit

    This paper describes a one semester research course for undergraduates of computing programs. Students formulate a research proposal, conduct research and write a full paper. They present the results at a one-day student conference. On the one hand we offer the students a lot of structure and

  20. Studies of the setting behavior of cement suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Luo, S.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-10-01

    The design of process for cementation of radioactive waste solutions is determined not only by the quality of the final product but also by the behavior of the cement grout before and during setting. For these reasons quantitative investigations were performed on the characteristics of the cement suspensions considered for solidification of intermediate-level liquid wastes which are composed mainly of cement, bentonite, simulated waste solution, and water. Particular interest was given to the differences in behavior of the various types of cement. The parameters investigated include viscosity, bleeding, volume change during setting, influence of compacting by vibration, time of setting, heat of hydration. At the end of the report the merits and drawbacks of the different cements are tabulated. These data may serve as a decision aid in selecting an appropriate type of cement

  1. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ganghua; Wang, Xiao Fan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Suo; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Tlatov, Andrey; Demidov, Mihail; Borovik, Aleksandr; Golovko, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces our ongoing project "Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research". Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a time span of more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant signs of progress are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  2. Short Research Report: Cyberbullying Levels of Impact in a Special School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Paula; Hallet, Fiona; Hawkins, Claire; Hewitson, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as "an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself" (Smith et al., 2008, p. 376). There are many quantitative studies on cyberbullying, but now researchers argue that we need…

  3. DESIGNING THE SET IN NIGERIAN HOME VIDEO FILMS: A STUDY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitch

    This paper takes a look at designing the set for the Nigerian home movie industry using Amazing ... Some film masterpieces use man only as an accessory ... environments of the scene, that the people in an action react in accordance with or in.

  4. Market and Impact Study Setting Up MMX Discount Store

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Irimie; Andreea Ionică; Virginia Băleanu; Cristina Osvath

    2008-01-01

    The paper is focused on the following elements of the impact study’s content: social and economic features of the area and the social, economic and commercial impact. Currently we witness the materialisation of the research’s results by setting up such a store MMX DISCOUNT in the town of Vulcan from the Jiu Valley

  5. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafdar Enayet; Yuan George Xian-Zhi; Tan Kok-Keong

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  6. Study of emergency setting for urban facility using microsimulation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Tiziana; Canale, Antonino; Tesoriere, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Today Public transport is growing not only in terms of high passenger capacity but also considering high efficiency and it has become one of the preferred alternatives to automobile travel. This is evident, as for example, in the case of airport terminal working and management. The same could be for Bus Transport station considering roadway. As a result, many railway stations experience high levels of pedestrian congestion especially during the morning and afternoon peak periods. Traditional design and evaluation procedures for pedestrian transit facilities aim to maintain a desirable Pedestrian Level-Of-Service (PLOS) for the individual pedestrian areas or sub precincts. More in general, transit facilities and their sub-precincts interact with one another so that pedestrian circulation might be better assessed from a broader systems perspective. Microsimulation packages that can model pedestrians (e.g. VISSIM-VISWALK) can be employed to assess these interactions. This research outlines a procedure for the potential implementation of pedestrian flow analysis in a bus/rail transit station using micro-simulation. Base model data requirements are identified which include static (facility layout and locations of temporary equipment) and dynamic data (pedestrian demand and public transport services). Possible model calibration criteria would be also identified. A VISSIM micro-simulation base model would be developed for one of the main Airport terminal in Sicily (Italy) for investigating proposed station operational and infrastructure changes. This case study provided a good example for the potential implementation of micro-simulation models in the analysis of pedestrian circulation.

  7. Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healthcare today, decisions are made in the face of serious resource constraints. Healthcare managers are struggling to provide high quality care, manage resources effectively, and meet changing patient needs. Healthcare managers who are constantly making difficult resource decisions desire a way to improve their priority setting processes. Despite the wealth of existing priority setting literature (for example, program budgeting and marginal analysis, accountability for reasonableness, the 'describe-evaluate-improve' strategy there are still no tools to evaluate how healthcare resources are prioritised. This paper describes the development and piloting of a process to evaluate priority setting in health institutions. The evaluation process was designed to examine the procedural and substantive dimensions of priority setting using a multi-methods approach, including a staff survey, decision-maker interviews, and document analysis. Methods The evaluation process was piloted in a mid-size community hospital in Ontario, Canada while its leaders worked through their annual budgeting process. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data. Results The evaluation process was both applicable to the context and it captured the budgeting process. In general, the pilot test provided support for our evaluation process and our definition of success, (i.e., our conceptual framework. Conclusions The purpose of the evaluation process is to provide a simple, practical way for an organization to better understand what it means to achieve success in its priority setting activities and identify areas for improvement. In order for the process to be used by healthcare managers today, modification and contextualization of the process are anticipated. As the evaluation process is applied in more health care organizations or applied repeatedly in an organization, it may become more streamlined.

  8. A Multi-Center Diabetes Eye Screening Study in Community Settings: Study Design and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Ann P; Friedman, David S; Gower, Emily W; Haller, Julia A; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia; Saaddine, Jinan; Insight Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20-74 years within the United States. The Innovative Network for Sight Research group (INSIGHT) designed the Diabetic Eye Screening Study (DESS) to examine the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of non-mydriatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening for adults with diabetes in community-based settings. Study enrollment began in December 2011 at four sites: an internal medicine clinic at a county hospital in Birmingham, Alabama; a Federally-qualified community healthcare center in Miami-Dade County, Florida; a university-affiliated outpatient pharmacy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and a medical home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. People 18 years or older with previously diagnosed diabetes were offered free DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography that was preceded by a brief questionnaire addressing demographic information and previous eye care use. Visual acuity was also measured for each eye. Images were evaluated at a telemedicine reading center by trained evaluators using the National Health System DR grading classification. Participants and their physicians were sent screening report results and telephoned for a follow-up survey 3 months post-screening to determine whether participants had sought follow-up comprehensive eye care and their experiences with the screening process. Target enrollment at each site was a minimum of 500 persons. Three of the four sites met this enrollment goal. The INSIGHT/DESS is intended to establish the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography in persons with diabetes who seek services in community-based clinic and pharmacy settings.

  9. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  10. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  11. Compressor blade setting angle accuracy study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, F. F.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic test of a small, single stage, highly loaded, axial flow transonic compressor is covered. The stage was modified by fabricating a 24 blade rotor with mis-set blades in a repeating pattern - two degrees closed from nominal, two degrees open from nominal and nominal. The unit was instrumented to determine overall performance and average blade element data. High-response, dynamic pressure probes were installed to record pressure patterns at selected points in the flowpath. Testing was conducted at speeds from 70 to 94% of design equivalent speed with a conventional casing and also with circumferential grooves over the rotor tip. Testing indicated severe performance penalties were incurred as a result of the mis-set blading. Lower flow, pressure ratio, and efficiency were observed for the stage with or without casing treatment. Periodic pressure variations were detected at every location where high response pressure sensors were located and were directly related to blading geometry.

  12. A qualitative study of gestational weight gain goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Shaniece; Oken, Emily; Guthrie, Lauren; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-10-20

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important predictor of short and long-term pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child, and women who set a GWG goal are more likely to gain within recommended ranges. Little information is available regarding potentially modifiable factors that underlie a woman's GWG goals. Our aims were to explore women's perceptions regarding factors that affect GWG, their understanding of appropriate GWG, their goal-setting experiences including patient-health care provider (HCP) conversations, and supportive interventions they would most like to help them achieve the recommended GWG. We conducted nine in-depth interviews and seven focus groups with a total of 33 Boston, Massachusetts (MA) area women who were pregnant and had delivered within the prior 6 months. We recorded and transcribed all interviews. Two investigators independently coded resulting transcripts. We managed data using MAXQDA2 and conducted a content analysis. Perceived factors that contributed to GWG goal-setting included the mother's weight control behaviors concerning exercise and diet-including a "new way of eating for two" and "semblance of control", experiences during prior pregnancies, conversations with HCPs, and influence from various information sources. Women focused on behaviors with consistent messaging across multiple sources of information, but mainly trusted their HCP, valued one-to-one conversations with them about GWG, preferred that the HCP initiate the conversation about GWG goals, and would be open to have the conversation started based on visual aid based on their own GWG progression. Pregnant women highly value discussions with their HCP to set GWG goals. Pregnant women view their clinicians as the most reliable source of information and believe that clinicians should open weight-related discussions throughout pregnancy.

  13. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarafdar Enayet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  14. A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Hannah; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P.; Minhas, Anum; Frush, D.; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. Methods: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. Results: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models

  15. A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Hannah, E-mail: Hannah.norris@duke.edu; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Minhas, Anum; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. Methods: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. Results: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models

  16. Perception of research and predictors of research career: a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acquisition of research experience by medical students is associated with good research pathway at the postgraduate level and also in the pursuit of a research career. Also, it assists the physician to make evidence based decisions in clinical practice. Objectives: Aim of study was to determine the perception of ...

  17. Is it design or is it inquiry? Exploring technology research in a Filipino school setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazon, Jessamyn Marie Olivares

    My case study explored Filipino secondary students' and teachers' experiences with technology research, project-based pedagogy. The study was conducted to examine the nature of a Technology Research (TR) Curriculum, and how it mediates non-Western students' learning, and interest in technology-based careers. The context for my study is Philippine Science High School's (PSHS) TR program wherein students outline a proposal, design an experiment or a device, and implement their design to address a real world problem. My data sources included semi-structured interviews of 27 students and 2 teachers; participant observations of classroom and group activities, teacher-student consultations, and Science-Technology Fair presentations; TR curriculum documents; and researcher journal logs. My examination of curriculum documents revealed that since the 1960s, the Philippine government has implemented specialized educational programs, such as the PSHS Science/Technology Streaming and TR programs, to support Filipino youth interested in science and technology courses and careers. Data analyses showed that the TR program provided a rich, practical learning environment where 'doing technology design' blended with 'doing science inquiry'. The TR activities enhanced student understanding of science and technology; helped them integrate and apply knowledge and skills learned from other school subjects; encouraged them to be creative, problem-solvers; and helped develop their lifelong learning skills. Students recognized that TR teachers adopted alternative instructional strategies that prompted students to adopt more active roles in their learning. Research findings revealed that student interest in pursuing technology-related careers was supported by their participation in the streaming and the TR programs. Data also showed that Filipino cultural practices mediated student learning, and career decision-making. My research findings suggest that present notions of scientific inquiry

  18. Research priorities for shoulder surgery: results of the 2015 James Lind Alliance patient and clinician priority setting partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Amar; Upadhaya, Sheela; Regan, Sandra; Toye, Francine; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-04-11

    To run a UK based James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership for 'Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems'. This was a nationally funded and conducted process. It was organised from a musculoskeletal research centre and Biomedical Research Unit in Oxford. UK shoulder patients, carers and clinicians, involved in treating patients with shoulder pain and shoulder problems that might require surgery. These were national electronic and paper surveys capturing treatment uncertainties that are important to shoulder patients, carers and clinicians. The outcomes relevant to this study were the survey results and rankings. The process took 18 months to complete, with 371 participants contributing 404 in scope questions. The James Lind process then produced a final 10 research priorities and uncertainties that relate to the scope of 'Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems'. The final top 10 UK research priorities have been produced and are now being disseminated to partner organisations and funders to guide funding of shoulder research for the next 5-10 years on topics that are important to patients, their carers and clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Navigating political minefields: partnerships in organizational case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine key challenges associated with conducting politically sensitive research within a workplace setting, and to highlight strategic partnerships that can be developed to address these challenges. The author's research on employee mental health issues within a large healthcare facility serves as the foundation for identification and description of "political minefields" that investigators may encounter when conducting organizational case study research. Key methodological principles from the literature on qualitative case study research will frame discussion of how to understand and address political sensitivities in the research process. The benefits of conducting organizational case study research will be outlined, followed by discussion of methodological challenges that can emerge in negotiating entry, collecting data (gatekeepers, researcher reflexivity, participant authenticity and non-maleficence), and communicating research findings. Courage, collaboration and clear communication with stakeholders at all levels of the organization are critical to the success of workplace based case study research.

  20. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Van Eenoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy, meso-level (care organisations and micro-level (clients are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe.

  1. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, Henriëtte; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy), meso-level (care organisations) and micro-level (clients) are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe. PMID:28435423

  2. Binge Drinking Episodes in Young Adults: How Should We Measure Them in a Research Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mariann R; Mazzuco, Adriana; Kang, Minkyung; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, consequences of binge drinking are a major health and policy concern. This article reviews contemporary binge drinking definitions as well as different questionnaires and biomarkers that have been used in research settings to examine binge drinking behavior among young adults. A review of electronic databases was conducted for binge drinking definitions, questionnaires, and biomarkers for the measurement of binge drinking in young adults (18-30 years). Binge drinking is often defined as four or more drinks for females and five or more drinks for males on an occasion or in one sitting within a designated time frame (2 weeks vs. past 30 days). Several tools and questionnaires are available to identify young adult repeated binge drinkers. Biomarkers have been used to corroborate self-reported alcohol consumption, of which direct biomarkers such as phosphatidylethanol may be useful in confirming recent heavy drinking. It is important to measure binge drinking along a continuum and to use questions that allow for assessment of intensity, frequency, duration, and daily versus weekend consumption patterns. Open-ended questions that allow for intensity (number of drinks) and frequency can be used to determine dose-response relationships with respect to specific outcome measures. Direct alcohol biomarkers reflecting alcohol consumption over a period of several days are useful in conjunction with questionnaire data for identifying young adult binge drinkers.

  3. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces our ongoing project “Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research”. Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a timespan more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant progresses are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  4. [Violence against the elderly in domestic care settings : Short profile of an interdisciplinary research project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedler, Anna; Konopik, Nadine; Heber, Lukas; Wellenhofer, Marina; Oswald, Frank; Zenz, Gisela; Salgo, Ludwig

    2017-06-01

    Most elderly people wish to remain and be cared for in their own home. Approximately 1.38 million people in Germany are cared for without professional support. However, domestic care by relatives can be a risk factor for violence against the elderly. This research project deals with the issue from a legal and social sciences perspective. The aim of the project is to develop a regulatory framework providing aid-oriented prevention and intervention in the family care of vulnerable elderly people by public agencies and courts. Firstly, empirical data on the situation in family care will be analyzed; secondly, the existing legal framework will be examined. In a third step, recommendations for legislation and administration will be developed in collaboration with practitioners. Initial findings show that, although various support, advice, and training services exist, the situation at home is not always safe. There is a lack of legal regulation on the issue of abuse in the family care setting, especially compared with German legislation on child protection. Thus, the legal framework should reinforce the prevention of care problems by giving more efficient support to carers and permitting legal intervention in the case of abuse. However, at the same time, the proposed legislation should take into account the importance of the individual's right to self-determination.

  5. Prayer Healing: A Case Study Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijthoff, Dirk J; van der Kooi, Cornelis; Glas, Gerrit; Abma, Tineke A

    2017-01-01

    Context • Prayer healing is a common practice in many religious communities around the world. Even in the highly secularized Dutch society, cases of prayer healing are occasionally reported in the media, often generating public attention. There is an ongoing debate regarding whether such miraculous cures do actually occur and how to interpret them. Objective • The aim of the article was to present a research protocol for the investigation of reported cases of remarkable and/or unexplained healing after prayer. Design • The research team developed a method to perform a retrospective, case-based study of prayer healing. Reported prayer healings can be investigated systematically in accordance with a step-by-step methodology. The focus is on understanding the healing by studying it from multiple perspectives, using both medical judgment and patients' narratives collected by qualitative methods Setting • The study occurred at Vrije Universiteit (VU) and VU Medical Center (Amsterdam, Netherlands) as well as the general medical practice of the first author. Participants • Potential participants could be any individuals in the Netherlands or neighboring countries who claim to have been healed through prayer. The reports of healing came from multiple sources, including the research team's medical practices and their direct vicinities, newspaper articles, prayer healers, and medical colleagues. Outcome Measures • Medical data were obtained before and after prayer. Subsequently, a member of a research team and of a medical assessment committee made a standardized judgment that evaluated whether a cure was clinically remarkable or scientifically unexplained. The participants' experiences and insider perspectives were studied, using in-depth interviews in accordance with a qualitative research methodology, to gain insight into the perceptions and explanations of the cures that were offered by participants and by the members of the medical assessment committee. The

  6. Using the Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist as a tool for evaluating the research priority setting process of a provincial research and program evaluation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, Rebecca L; Kornas, Kathy; Simard, Anne; Haroun, Vinita

    2016-03-23

    Given the context-specific nature of health research prioritization and the obligation to effectively allocate resources to initiatives that will achieve the greatest impact, evaluation of priority setting processes can refine and strengthen such exercises and their outcomes. However, guidance is needed on evaluation tools that can be applied to research priority setting. This paper describes the adaption and application of a conceptual framework to evaluate a research priority setting exercise operating within the public health sector in Ontario, Canada. The Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist, described by Viergever et al. (Health Res Policy Syst 8:36, 2010) was used as the conceptual framework to evaluate the research priority setting process developed for the Locally Driven Collaborative Projects (LDCP) program in Ontario, Canada. Multiple data sources were used to inform the evaluation, including a review of selected priority setting approaches, surveys with priority setting participants, document review, and consultation with the program advisory committee. The evaluation assisted in identifying improvements to six elements of the LDCP priority setting process. The modifications were aimed at improving inclusiveness, information gathering practices, planning for project implementation, and evaluation. In addition, the findings identified that the timing of priority setting activities and level of control over the process were key factors that influenced the ability to effectively implement changes. The findings demonstrate the novel adaptation and application of the 'Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist' as a tool for evaluating a research priority setting exercise. The tool can guide the development of evaluation questions and enables the assessment of key constructs related to the design and delivery of a research priority setting process.

  7. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of design science research (DSR) gained momentum as a research approach in information systems (IS), the adoption of a DSR approach in postgraduate studies became more acceptable. This paper reflects on a study to investigate how a...

  8. Reflections on the conceptualization and operationalization of a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and performance research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Christopher Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current commentary offers a reflection on the conceptualizations of Lee and Raschke's (2016 proposal for a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and organizational performance. The commentary is informed by the current author's operationalization of set-theoretic research on employee motivation which occurred contemporaneously to the work of Lee and Raschke. Observations on the state of current research on employee motivation, development of motivation theory and future directions of set-theoretic approaches to employee motivation and performance are offered.

  9. Psychological Flexibility and Set-Shifting Among Veterans Participating in a Yoga Program: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Timothy; Blasey, Christine; Rosen, Craig; Bayley, Peter

    2018-03-26

    Trauma-focused psychotherapies do not meet the needs of all veterans. Yoga shows some potential in reducing stress and perhaps even PTSD in veterans, although little is understood about the mechanisms of action. This study identifies preliminary correlates of change in PTSD and perceived stress for veterans participating in yoga. Nine veterans (seven males and two females) were recruited from an existing clinical yoga program and observed over 16 wk. Severity of PTSD symptoms (PCL-5) and perceived stress (PSS-10) were collected at baseline and weeks 4, 6, 8, and 16. Psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) and set-shifting (ratio of trail making test A to B) were collected at baseline and at week 6. Subjects attended yoga sessions freely, ranging from 1 to 23 classes over the 16 weeks. The Stanford University Institutional Review Board approved this research protocol. Self-reported PTSD symptoms significantly reduced while perceived stress did not. Lower baseline set-shifting predicted greater improvements in PTSD between baseline and 4 weeks; early improvements in set-shifting predicted overall reduction in PTSD. Greater psychological flexibility was associated with lower PTSD and perceived stress; more yoga practice, before and during the study, was associated with greater psychological flexibility. Other predictors were not supported. In a small uncontrolled sample, psychological flexibility and set-shifting predicted changes in PTSD symptoms in veterans participating in a clinical yoga program, which supports findings from prior research. Future research should include an active comparison group and record frequency of yoga practiced outside formal sessions.

  10. Work-Identity in Ethnographic Research: Developing Field Roles in a Demanding Workplace Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Jansson PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we problematize our field roles as two linguistic ethnographers who aim to study the communication and documentation practices drawn upon by care workers in elderly care facilities in Sweden. Our field roles are discussed in relation to the complex nature of care workers' knowledge and competence, which results from three different aspects of their work-identities: institutional, professional, and individual. As researchers, we found ourselves in constant dialogue with the research participants, and our field roles were continuously shaped and reshaped according to the individuals and the situations in which we became involved. Even aspects of our own identities taken into the field, such as our background and personal qualities, proved to be important in establishing good relations with the care staff. Coming closer to the participants' professional identity proved to be of utmost importance for interpreting their choices and decisions in the workplace. Identity negotiation is presented here as a constructive way of discussing ethnographic field roles in the research field.

  11. On-going collaborative priority-setting for research activity: a method of capacity building to reduce the research-practice translational gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Christine; Read, Jennifer

    2015-05-07

    International policy suggests that collaborative priority setting (CPS) between researchers and end users of research should shape the research agenda, and can increase capacity to address the research-practice translational gap. There is limited research evidence to guide how this should be done to meet the needs of dynamic healthcare systems. One-off priority setting events and time-lag between decision and action prove problematic. This study illustrates the use of CPS in a UK research collaboration called Collaboration and Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). Data were collected from a north of England CLAHRC through semi-structured interviews with 28 interviewees and a workshop of key stakeholders (n = 21) including academics, NHS clinicians, and managers. Documentary analysis of internal reports and CLAHRC annual reports for the first two and half years was also undertaken. These data were thematically coded. Methods of CPS linked to the developmental phase of the CLAHRC. Early methods included pre-existing historical partnerships with on-going dialogue. Later, new platforms for on-going discussions were formed. Consensus techniques with staged project development were also used. All methods demonstrated actual or potential change in practice and services. Impact was enabled through the flexibility of research and implementation work streams; 'matched' funding arrangements to support alignment of priorities in partner organisations; the size of the collaboration offering a resource to meet project needs; and the length of the programme providing stability and long term relationships. Difficulties included tensions between being responsive to priorities and the possibility of 'drift' within project work, between academics and practice, and between service providers and commissioners in the health services. Providing protected 'matched' time proved difficult for some NHS managers, which put increasing work pressure on them. CPS is more time

  12. Research and Setting the Modified Algorithm "Predator-Prey" in the Problem of the Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of algorithms for multi-objective optimization - Pareto-approximation algorithms, which suppose a preliminary building of finite-dimensional approximation of a Pareto set, thereby also a Pareto front of the problem. The article gives an overview of population and non-population algorithms of the Pareto-approximation, identifies their strengths and weaknesses, and presents a canonical algorithm "predator-prey", showing its shortcomings. We offer a number of modifications of the canonical algorithm "predator-prey" with the aim to overcome the drawbacks of this algorithm, present the results of a broad study of the efficiency of these modifications of the algorithm. The peculiarity of the study is the use of the quality indicators of the Pareto-approximation, which previous publications have not used. In addition, we present the results of the meta-optimization of the modified algorithm, i.e. determining the optimal values of some free parameters of the algorithm. The study of efficiency of the modified algorithm "predator-prey" has shown that the proposed modifications allow us to improve the following indicators of the basic algorithm: cardinality of a set of the archive solutions, uniformity of archive solutions, and computation time. By and large, the research results have shown that the modified and meta-optimized algorithm enables achieving exactly the same approximation as the basic algorithm, but with the number of preys being one order less. Computational costs are proportionally reduced.

  13. Compensating citizens for poor service delivery : Experimental research in public and private settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Jean Pierre; Leliveld, Marijke C.; Van de Walle, Steven; Ahaus, Kees

    2017-01-01

    After a service failure, citizens expect a recovery strategy that restores perceived justice and places a reasonable value on their loss. Offering monetary compensation is a strategy commonly used in private settings, but less so in public settings. To date, compensation effects have not been

  14. SU-F-P-33: Combining Research and Professional Practice in the Clinical Setting: A Medical Physicist Personal Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To initiate a discussion on the current and evolving role of Medical Physicists based on author’s professional and research experience in patient safety and quality control. Methods: Several professionals of the departments of Medical Physics and Radiation Oncology, chiefly devoted to clinical tasks, began a research program on patient safety and quality control in a framework provided by the implementation of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). We performed studies on virtual simulation for IORT, in vivo dosimetry, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and receiver operating characteristics of dosimetric equipment. This was done with the support of our research foundation and different grants while continuing with our departmental clinical routine involving about 1600 annual treatments with two linacs and different brachytherapy techniques. Results: We published 5 papers in international journals in the last two years. This author conducted a doctoral research which resulted in a dissertation in 2015. The extra time spent after treatments was essential to succeed. Funding and support achieved via our foundation played a crucial role; but this would have not been possible without punctual external mentoring and partnership. FMEA conclusions were able to be implemented only with staff commitment; however, conclusions concerning equipment cannot be easily communicated to manufacturers. These tasks required extra training in the appropriated methods. Conclusion: Research needed the support of a dedicated foundation, which would have been very difficult to obtain with the sole participation of our departments. FMEA and SPC results may need engagement of staff and manufacturers, respectively, hard to achieve without strong recommendations or even a regulatory framework. All these fields need evolution of Medical Physicists’ roles and additional training. Devotion to both clinical tasks and research could be unfeasible

  15. SU-F-P-33: Combining Research and Professional Practice in the Clinical Setting: A Medical Physicist Personal Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, J [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castello, Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To initiate a discussion on the current and evolving role of Medical Physicists based on author’s professional and research experience in patient safety and quality control. Methods: Several professionals of the departments of Medical Physics and Radiation Oncology, chiefly devoted to clinical tasks, began a research program on patient safety and quality control in a framework provided by the implementation of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). We performed studies on virtual simulation for IORT, in vivo dosimetry, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and receiver operating characteristics of dosimetric equipment. This was done with the support of our research foundation and different grants while continuing with our departmental clinical routine involving about 1600 annual treatments with two linacs and different brachytherapy techniques. Results: We published 5 papers in international journals in the last two years. This author conducted a doctoral research which resulted in a dissertation in 2015. The extra time spent after treatments was essential to succeed. Funding and support achieved via our foundation played a crucial role; but this would have not been possible without punctual external mentoring and partnership. FMEA conclusions were able to be implemented only with staff commitment; however, conclusions concerning equipment cannot be easily communicated to manufacturers. These tasks required extra training in the appropriated methods. Conclusion: Research needed the support of a dedicated foundation, which would have been very difficult to obtain with the sole participation of our departments. FMEA and SPC results may need engagement of staff and manufacturers, respectively, hard to achieve without strong recommendations or even a regulatory framework. All these fields need evolution of Medical Physicists’ roles and additional training. Devotion to both clinical tasks and research could be unfeasible

  16. Lessons learned obtaining informed consent in research with vulnerable populations in community health center settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riden Heather E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve equity in access to medical research, successful strategies are needed to recruit diverse populations. Here, we examine experiences of community health center (CHC staff who guided an informed consent process to overcome recruitment barriers in a medical record review study. Methods We conducted ten semi-structured interviews with CHC staff members. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and structurally and thematically coded. We used NVivo, an ethnographic data management software program, to analyze themes related to recruitment challenges. Results CHC interviewees reported that a key challenge to recruitment included the difficult balance between institutional review board (IRB requirements for informed consent, and conveying an appropriate level of risk to patients. CHC staff perceived that the requirements of IRB certification itself posed a barrier to allowing diverse staff to participate in recruitment efforts. A key barrier to recruitment also included the lack of updated contact information on CHC patients. CHC interviewees reported that the successes they experienced reflected an alignment between study aims and CHC goals, and trusted relationships between CHCs and staff and the patients they recruited. Conclusions Making IRB training more accessible to CHC-based staff, improving consent form clarity for participants, and developing processes for routinely updating patient information would greatly lower recruitment barriers for diverse populations in health services research.

  17. Snapshot science: new research possibilities facilitated by spatially dense data sets in limnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, E. H.; Loken, L. C.; Crawford, J.; Butitta, V.; Schramm, P.

    2017-12-01

    The recent increase in availability of high frequency sensors is transforming the study of inland aquatic ecosystems, allowing the detection of rare or difficult-to-capture events, revealing previously unappreciated temporal dynamics, and providing rich data sets that can be used to calibrate or inform process-based models in ways that have not previously been possible. Yet sensor deployment is typically a 1-D practice, so insights are tempered by device placement. Limnologists have long known that there can be substantial spatial variability in physical, chemical, and biological features within water bodies, but in most cases, logistical difficulties limit our ability to quantify this heterogeneity. Recent improvements in remote sensing are helping to overcome this deficit for a subset of variables. Alternatively, devices such as the Fast Limnology Automated Measurement platform that deploy sensors on watercraft can be used to quickly generate spatially-rich data sets. This expanded capacity leads to new questions about what can be seen and learned about underlying processes. Surveys of multiple Wisconsin lakes reveal both homogeneity and heterogeneity among sites and variables, indicating that the limnological tradition of sampling at a single fixed point is unlikely to represent the entire lake area. Initial inferences drawn from surface water maps include identification of biogeochemical hotspots or areas of elevated loading. At a more sophisticated level, evaluation of changes in spatial structure among sites or dates is commonly used to infer process by landscape ecologists, and these same practices can now be applied to lakes and rivers. For example, a recent study documented significant changes in spatial variance and the magnitude of spatial autocorrelation of phycocyanin prior to the onset of a cyanobacterial bloom. This may provide information on population growth dynamics of cyanobacteria, and be used as early warnings of impending algal blooms. As the

  18. Pitfalls in setting up genetic studies on preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laivuori, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    This presentation will consider approaches to discover susceptibility genes for a complex genetic disorder such as preeclampsia. The clinical disease presumably results from the additive effects of multiple sequence variants from the mother and the foetus together with environmental factors. Disease heterogeneity and underpowered study designs are likely to be behind non-reproducible results in candidate gene association studies. To avoid spurious findings, sample size and characteristics of the study populations as well as replication studies in an independent study population should be an essential part of a study design. In family-based linkage studies relationship with genotype and phenotype may be modified by a variety of factors. The large number of families needed in discovering genetic variants with modest effect sizes is difficult to attain. Moreover, the identification of underlying mutations has proven difficult. When pooling data or performing meta-analyses from different populations, disease and locus heterogeneity may become a major issue. First genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk loci for preeclampsia. Adequately powered replication studies are critical in order to replicate the initial GWAS findings. This approach requires rigorous multiple testing correction. The expected effect sizes of individual sequence variants on preeclampsia are small, but this approach is likely to decipher new clues to the pathogenesis. The rare variants, gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions as well as noncoding genetic variations and epigenetics are expected to explain the missing heritability. Next-generation sequencing technologies will make large amount of data on genomes and transcriptomes available. Complexity of the data poses a challenge. Different depths of coverage might be chosen depending on the design of the study, and validation of the results by different methods is mandatory. In order to minimize disease heterogeneity in

  19. Study on the setting of Reference Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Chen Rusong

    1998-01-01

    The procedures for internal and external dose estimation, the calculation of authorized limits and derived reference levels, and the development of phantoms in the field of radiation protection are based on values for the ICRP Reference Man. Many differences exist between Asians, Europeans and North Americans with respect to race, customs and the pattern of food consumption. The neglect of these differences in the parameters used may lead to errors in dose assessment and health effect prognosis. research described in this paper was conducted to obtain reference values for the Chinese population or other Asian countries which might have major demographic contribution of Chinese. Based on the agreements reached in the Project Formulation Meeting ''Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man'', the measurement of physique, organ mass and the food consumption were given the first priority for the first phase of the project. (author)

  20. Researching the Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Mark; Wainwright, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, with the focus being on how study abroad experiences affect psychological constructs as opposed to looking solely at study-abroad-related outcomes. Social learning theory is used as a possible theoretical basis for making testable hypotheses and guiding…

  1. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda L. Hunt

    2018-04-01

    Conclusions: Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment.

  2. Treatment of Encopresis in a Classroom Setting: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E.

    1977-01-01

    This study describes the procedure and results of a behavior modification program carried out in the classroom and aimed at eliminating encopresis (involuntary defecation) in an 8-year-old boy. (Editor/RK)

  3. How Are Health Research Priorities Set in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review of Published Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Skye; Henderson, Klara J.; Kaldor, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority setting is increasingly recognised as essential for directing finite resources to support research that maximizes public health benefits and drives health equity. Priority setting processes have been undertaken in a number of low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, using a variety of methods. We undertook a critical review of reports of these processes. Methods and Findings We searched electronic databases and online for peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed literature. We found 91 initiatives that met inclusion criteria. The majority took place at the global level (46%). For regional or national initiatives, most focused on Sub Saharan Africa (49%), followed by East Asia and Pacific (20%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (18%). A quarter of initiatives aimed to cover all areas of health research, with a further 20% covering communicable diseases. The most frequently used process was a conference or workshop to determine priorities (24%), followed by the Child Health and Nutrition Initiative (CHNRI) method (18%). The majority were initiated by an international organization or collaboration (46%). Researchers and government were the most frequently represented stakeholders. There was limited evidence of any implementation or follow-up strategies. Challenges in priority setting included engagement with stakeholders, data availability, and capacity constraints. Conclusions Health research priority setting (HRPS) has been undertaken in a variety of LMIC settings. While not consistently used, the application of established methods provides a means of identifying health research priorities in a repeatable and transparent manner. In the absence of published information on implementation or evaluation, it is not possible to assess what the impact and effectiveness of health research priority setting may have been. PMID:25275315

  4. Setting Priorities For Large Research Facility Projects Supported By the National Science Foundation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...) level has stalled in the face of a backlog of approved but unfunded projects. Second, the rationale and criteria used to select projects and set priorities among projects for MREFC funding have not been clearly and publicly articulated...

  5. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  6. Cultural Challenges in Adapting Lesson Study to a Philippines Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Promising improved student and teacher learning, Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators to try to implement it in their own contexts. However, a simple transference model of implementation is likely to meet difficulties. Key determinants of any adaptation will be differences between existing conventions of pedagogy and of…

  7. Employing Case Study Methodology in Special Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Angelise M.

    2016-01-01

    In general, case studies are a preferred strategy when "how" or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (Yin, 2009). This article will examine the advantages and disadvantages of employing case study…

  8. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: V. Quantitative properties of human collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Wazny, Kerri; Chan, Kit Yee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The CHNRI method for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component. It uses the collective opinion of a group of experts to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. It is difficult to compare the accuracy of human individual and collective opinions in predicting uncertain future outcomes before the outcomes are known. However, this limitation does not apply to existing knowledge, which is an important component underlying opinion. In this paper, we report several experiments to explore the quantitative properties of human collective knowledge and discuss their relevance to the CHNRI method. We conducted a series of experiments in groups of about 160 (range: 122-175) undergraduate Year 2 medical students to compare their collective knowledge to their individual knowledge. We asked them to answer 10 questions on each of the following: (i) an area in which they have a degree of expertise (undergraduate Year 1 medical curriculum); (ii) an area in which they likely have some knowledge (general knowledge); and (iii) an area in which they are not expected to have any knowledge (astronomy). We also presented them with 20 pairs of well-known celebrities and asked them to identify the older person of the pair. In all these experiments our goal was to examine how the collective answer compares to the distribution of students' individual answers. When answering the questions in their own area of expertise, the collective answer (the median) was in the top 20.83% of the most accurate individual responses; in general knowledge, it was in the top 11.93%; and in an area with no expertise, the group answer was in the top 7.02%. However, the collective answer based on mean values fared much worse, ranging from top 75.60% to top 95.91%. Also, when confronted with guessing the older of the two celebrities, the collective response was correct in 18/20 cases (90%), while the 8 most successful individuals among the

  9. Closing the mental health gap in low-income settings by building research capacity: perspectives from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Annika C; Oquendo, Maria A; Sidat, Mohsin; Santos, Palmira F; Vermund, Sten H; Duarte, Cristiane S; Arbuckle, Melissa; Wainberg, Milton L

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 22.7% of all years lived with disability. Despite this global burden, fewer than 25% of affected individuals ever access mental health treatment; in low-income settings, access is much lower, although nonallopathic interventions through traditional healers are common in many venues. Three main barriers to reducing the gap between individuals who need mental health treatment and those who have access to it include stigma and lack of awareness, limited material and human resources, and insufficient research capacity. We argue that investment in dissemination and implementation research is critical to face these barriers. Dissemination and implementation research can improve mental health care in low-income settings by facilitating the adaptation of effective treatment interventions to new settings, particularly when adapting specialist-led interventions developed in high-resource countries to settings with few, if any, mental health professionals. Emerging evidence from other low-income settings suggests that lay providers can be trained to detect mental disorders and deliver basic psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions when supervised by an expert. We describe a new North-South and South-South research partnership between Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique), Columbia University (United States), Vanderbilt University (United States), and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Brazil), to build research capacity in Mozambique and other Portuguese-speaking African countries. Mozambique has both the political commitment and available resources for mental health, but inadequate research capacity and workforce limits the country's ability to assess local needs, adapt and test interventions, and identify implementation strategies that can be used to effectively bring evidence-based mental health interventions to scale within the public sector. Global training and

  10. Influences on recruitment to randomised controlled trials in mental health settings in England: a national cross-sectional survey of researchers working for the Mental Health Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschmann, Rohan; Patterson, Sue; Poovendran, Dilkushi; Wilson, Danielle; Weaver, Tim

    2014-02-17

    Recruitment to trials is complex and often protracted; selection bias may compromise generalisability. In the mental health field (as elsewhere), diverse factors have been described as hindering researcher access to potential participants and various strategies have been proposed to overcome barriers. However, the extent to which various influences identified in the literature are operational across mental health settings in England has not been systematically examined. A cross-sectional, online survey of clinical studies officers employed by the Mental Health Research Network in England to recruit to trials from National Health Service mental health services. The bespoke questionnaire invited participants to report exposure to specified influences on recruitment, the perceived impact of these on access to potential participants, and to describe additional positive or negative influences on recruitment. Analysis employed descriptive statistics, the framework approach and triangulation of data. Questionnaires were returned by 98 (58%) of 170 clinical studies officers who reported diverse experience. Data demonstrated a disjunction between policy and practice. While the particulars of trial design and various marketing and communication strategies could influence recruitment, consensus was that the culture of NHS mental health services is not conducive to research. Since financial rewards for recruitment paid to Trusts and feedback about studies seldom reaching frontline services, clinicians were described as distanced from research. Facing continual service change and demanding clinical workloads, clinicians generally did not prioritise recruitment activities. Incentives to trial participants had variable impact on access but recruitment could be enhanced by engagement of senior investigators and integrating referral with routine practice. Comprehensive, robust feasibility studies and reciprocity between researchers and clinicians were considered crucial to

  11. Commentary: Leapfrogging as a Principle for Research on Children and Youth in Majority World Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This commentary was written while the author was visiting the 30th International Congress of Psychology in Cape Town, South Africa. Looking at the program, he could see that psychological research on non-Western populations and internationally comparative research seems to be much "en vogue"! However, much of the research he has seen…

  12. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Boney, O.; Bell, M.; Bell, N.; Conquest, A.; Cumbers, M.; Drake, S.; Galsworthy, M.; Gath, J.; Grocott, M. P.; Harris, E.; Howell, S.; Ingold, A.; Nathanson, M. H.; Pinkney, T.; Metcalf, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Design Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. Setting UK. Participants 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. Outcomes First ?ideas-gathering? survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second ?prioritisation? survey: Shortlist of ?summary? research questions (derived from the first survey) rank...

  13. Development of The Structural and Functional Design of the Laboratory Bench for Experimental Research Diesel Generator Sets on Variable Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuhov Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A diesel generator set working at variable speed to save fuel is studied. A description is provided of a laboratory bench for conducting experimental studies of a variable speed diesel generator set. Its component parts are described, and its technical characteristics are given.

  14. Application of human volunteer studies in setting exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Human volunteer studies can provide many of the quantitative data on human radionuclide biokinetics needed to relate organ doses to intakes. They are best suited to characterising parameters that apply to a wide range of compounds, e.g. particle deposition in the respiratory tract, and the retention and excretion of elements after injection into the blood. Their application to quantifying particle clearance from the respiratory tract is discussed, with particular reference to recent findings and the NRPB's programme of volunteer investigations. Evidence to support the view that particle clearance rates are similar for different materials is summarised. Rates of particle clearance from the human lung to the GI tract are calculated from the results of two recent studies. The fraction of the remaining lung content cleared per day is estimated to decrease from ∼ 3 x 10 -3 d -1 at 25 days to ∼ 5 x 10 -4 d -1 at 350 days. There is a large degree of inter-subject variation, with most results conforming to a log-normal distribution with σ g of 1.6. There remains considerable uncertainty about subsequent clearance, and about sites of long-term lung retention. (author)

  15. Nursing research. Components of a clinical research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagliotti, L A

    1988-09-01

    Nursing research is the systematic collection and analysis of data about clinically important phenomena. While there are norms for conducting research and rules for using certain research procedures, the reader must always filter the research report against his or her nursing knowledge. The most common questions a reader should ask are "Does it make sense? Can I think of any other reasonable explanation for the findings? Do the findings fit what I have observed?" If the answers are reasonable, research findings from carefully conducted studies can provide a basis for making nursing decisions. One of the earliest accounts of nursing research, which indicates the power of making systematic observations, was Florence Nightingale's study. It compared deaths among soldiers in the Crimean War with deaths of soldiers in the barracks of London. Her research demonstrated that soldiers in the barracks had a much higher death rate than did the soldiers at war. On the basis of the study, sanitary conditions in the barracks were changed substantially.

  16. Investing in nursing research in practice settings: a blueprint for building capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Smith, Orla; Beswick, Susan; Maoine, Maria; Ferris, Ella

    2013-12-01

    Engaging clinical nurses in practice-based research is a cornerstone of professional nursing practice and a critical element in the delivery of high-quality patient care. Practising staff nurses are well suited to identify the phenomena and issues that are clinically relevant and appropriate for research. In response to the need to invest in and build capacity in nursing research, hospitals have developed creative approaches to spark interest in nursing research and to equip clinical nurses with research competencies. This paper outlines a Canadian hospital's efforts to build research capacity as a key strategy to foster efficacious, safe and cost-effective patient care practices. Within a multi-pronged framework, several strategies are described that collectively resulted in enhanced research and knowledge translation productivity aimed at improving the delivery of safe and high-quality patient care.

  17. Research on Standard and Automatic Judgment of Press-fit Curve of Locomotive Wheel-set Based on AAR Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xiao, Jun; Gao, Dong Jun; Zong, Shu Yu; Li, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    In the production of the Association of American Railroads (AAR) locomotive wheel-set, the press-fit curve is the most important basis for the reliability of wheel-set assembly. In the past, Most of production enterprises mainly use artificial detection methods to determine the quality of assembly. There are cases of miscarriage of justice appear. For this reason, the research on the standard is carried out. And the automatic judgment of press-fit curve is analysed and designed, so as to provide guidance for the locomotive wheel-set production based on AAR standard.

  18. Considerations and recommendations for conducting qualitative research interviews with palliative and end-of-life care patients in the home setting: a consensus paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, Stephanie; Prout, Hayley; Hopewell-Kelly, Noreen; Baillie, Jessica; Byrne, Anthony; Edwards, Michelle; Harrop, Emily; Noble, Simon; Sampson, Catherine; Nelson, Annmarie

    2015-12-08

    To present and discuss the views of researchers at an academic palliative care research centre on research encounters with terminally ill patients in the home setting and to generate a list of recommendations for qualitative researchers working in palliative and end-of-life care. Eight researchers took part in a consensus meeting to discuss their experiences of undertaking qualitative interviews. The researchers were of varying backgrounds and all reported having experience in interviewing terminally ill patients, and all but one had experience of interviewing patients in their home environment. The main areas discussed by researchers included: whether participation in end-of-life research unintentionally becomes a therapeutic experience or an ethical concern; power relationships between terminally ill patients and researchers; researcher reflexivity and reciprocity; researchers' training needs. Qualitative methods can complement the home environment; however, it can raise ethical and practical challenges, which can be more acute in the case of research undertaken with palliative and patients at the end-of-life. The ethical and practical challenges researchers face in this context has the potential to place both participant and researcher at risk for their physical and psychological well-being. We present a set of recommendations for researchers to consider prior to embarking on qualitative research in this context and advocate researchers in this field carefully consider the issues presented on a study-by-study basis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Clinical presentation of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections in research and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedo, Susan E; Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described >15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). RESULTS were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86-92%), school issues (75-81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60-65%), urinary symptoms (42-81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association between GAS infection and symptom onset/exacerbations may

  20. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Service Company Case Study. Manufacturing Firm Case Study. Retail Store Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallek, Max

    This collection of case studies is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The first, a case study of the process of setting up a service company, covers analyzing the pros and cons of starting one's own business, assessing the competition and local market, and selecting a site for and financing the business. The principal…

  1. Postoperative laryngeal symptoms in a general surgery setting. Clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Girolamo; Cupido, Francesco; Lo Nigro, Chiara; Sciuto, Antonio; Sciumè, Carmelo; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord injuries (VI), postoperative hoarseness (PH), dysphonia (DN), dysphagia (DG) and sore throat (ST) are common complications after general anesthesia; there is actually a lack of consensus to support the proper timing for post-operative laryngoscopy that is reliable to support the diagnosis of laryngeal or vocal fold lesions after surgery and there are no valid studies about the entity of laryngeal trauma in oro-tracheal intubation. Aim of our study is to evaluate the statistical relation between anatomic, anesthesiological and surgical variables in the case of PH, DG or impaired voice register. 50 patients (30 thyroidectomies, 8 videolaparoscopic cholecistectomies, 2 right emicolectomies, 2 left emicolectomies, 1 gastrectomy, 1 hemorrhoidectomy, 1 nefrectomy, 1 diagnostic videothoracoscopy, 1 superior right lung lobectomy, 1 appendicectomy, 1 incisional hernia repair, 1 low anterior rectal resection, 1 radical hysterectomy) underwent clinical evaluation and direct laryngoscopy before surgery, within 6 hours, after 72 hours and after 30 days, to evaluate motility and breathing space, phonatory motility, true and false vocal folds and arytenoids oedema. We evaluated also mean age (56.6 ± 3.6 years), male:female ratio (1:1.5), cigarette smoke (20%), atopic comorbidity (17/50 = 34%), Mallampati class (32% 1, 38% 2, 26% 3, 2% 4), mean duration of intubation (159 minutes, range 50 - 405 minutes), Cormack-Lehane score (34% 1, 22% 2, 22% 3, 2% 4), difficult intubation in 9 cases (18%). No complication during the laryngoscopy were registered. We investigated the statistic relationship between pre and intraoperative variables and laryngeal symptoms and lesions. In our experience, statistically significant relations were found in prevalence of vocal folds oedema in smokers (p < 0.005), self limiting DG and DN in younger patients (p < 0.005) and in thyroidectomy (p < 0.01), DG after thyroidectomy (p < 0.01). The short preoperative use of steroids and antihistaminic

  2. Building Surgical Research Capacity Globally: Efficacy of a Clinical Research Course for Surgeons in Low-Resource Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore A. Miclau; Kathryn Chomsky-Higgins; Alfredo Ceballos; Roberto Balmaseda; Saam Morshed; Mohit Bhandari; Fernando de la Huerta; Theodore Miclau

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injury confers an enormous burden of preventable disability and mortality in low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs). Appropriate orthopedic and trauma care services are lacking. Leading international health agencies emphasize the critical need to create and sustain research capacity in the developing world as a strategic factor in the establishment of functional, independent health systems. One aspect of building research capacity is partnership between developing and deve...

  3. Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: study protocol for developing, disseminating, and implementing a core outcome set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Asma; Perry, Helen; Duffy, James; Reed, Keith; Baschat, Ahmet; Deprest, Jan; Hecher, Kurt; Lewi, Liesbeth; Lopriore, Enrico; Oepkes, Dick

    2017-07-14

    Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Several treatment interventions have been described for TTTS, including fetoscopic laser surgery, amnioreduction, septostomy, expectant management, and pregnancy termination. Over the last decade, fetoscopic laser surgery has become the primary treatment. The literature to date reports on many different outcomes, making it difficult to compare results or combine data from individual studies, limiting the value of research to guide clinical practice. With the advent and ongoing development of new therapeutic techniques, this is more important than ever. The development and use of a core outcome set has been proposed to address these issues, prioritising outcomes important to the key stakeholders, including patients. We aim to produce, disseminate, and implement a core outcome set for TTTS. An international steering group has been established to oversee the development of this core outcome set. This group includes healthcare professionals, researchers and patients. A systematic review is planned to identify previously reported outcomes following treatment for TTTS. Following completion, the identified outcomes will be evaluated by stakeholders using an international, multi-perspective online modified Delphi method to build consensus on core outcomes. This method encourages the participants towards consensus 'core' outcomes. All key stakeholders will be invited to participate. The steering group will then hold a consensus meeting to discuss results and form a core outcome set to be introduced and measured. Once core outcomes have been agreed, the next step will be to determine how they should be measured, disseminated, and implemented within an international context. The development, dissemination, and implementation of a core outcome set in TTTS will enable its use in future clinical trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. This is

  4. Assessing atmospheric temperature data sets for climate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Cederlöf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observed near-surface temperature trends during the period 1979–2014 show large differences between land and ocean, with positive values over land (0.25–0.27 °C/decade that are significantly larger than over the ocean (0.06–0.12 °C/decade. Temperature trends in the mid-troposphere of 0.08-0.11 °C/decade, on the other hand, are similar for both land and ocean and agree closely with the ocean surface temperature trend. The lapse rate is consequently systematically larger over land than over the ocean and also shows a positive trend in most land areas. This is puzzling as a response to external warming, such as from increasing greenhouse gases, is broadly the same throughout the troposphere. The reduced tropospheric warming trend over land suggests a weaker vertical temperature coupling indicating that some of the processes in the planetary boundary layer such as inversions have a limited influence on the temperature of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, the temperature of the free atmosphere is influenced by advection of colder tropospheric air from the oceans. It is therefore suggested to use either the more robust tropospheric temperature or ocean surface temperature in studies of climate sensitivity. We also conclude that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis Interim can be used to obtain consistent temperature trends through the depth of the atmosphere, as they are consistent both with near-surface temperature trends and atmospheric temperature trends obtained from microwave sounding sensors.

  5. The research on electronic commerce security payment system based on set protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongliang

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, online transactions have become more and more common. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principle and the basic principal and technical foundation of SET, and then we analyze the progress of designing a system in the foundation of the procedure of the electronic business based on SET. On this basis, we design a system of the Payment System for Electronic Business. It will not only take on crucial realism signification for large-scale, medium-sized and mini-type corporations, but also provide guide meaning with programmer and design-developer to realize Electronic Commerce (EC).

  6. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The major goal of this project is to study the effects that lead to emittance growth and limitation of beam current and brightness in periodic focusing systems (including linear accelerators). This problem is of great importance for all accelerator applications requiring high intensity beams with small emittance such as heavy ion fusion, spallation neutron sources and high energy physics. In the latter case, future machines must not only provide higher energies (in the range of 10 to 100 TeV), but also higher luminosities than the existing facilities. This implies considerably higher phase-space density of the particle beam produced by the injector linac, i.e., the detrimental emittance growth and concurrent beam loss observed in existing linacs must be avoided

  7. Setting priorities for a research agenda to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, B; Nair, D; Ramalingam, S; Perez-Velez, C M; Becerra, M C; Swaminathan, S

    2015-12-21

    Numerous knowledge gaps hamper the prevention and treatment of childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Identifying research priorities is vital to inform and develop strategies to address this neglected problem. To systematically identify and rank research priorities in childhood drug-resistant TB. Adapting the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology, we compiled 53 research questions in four research areas, then classified the questions into three research types. We invited experts in childhood drug-resistant TB to score these questions through an online survey. A total of 81 respondents participated in the survey. The top-ranked research question was to identify the best combination of existing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Highly ranked treatment-related questions centred on the reasons for and interventions to improve treatment outcomes, adverse effects of drugs and optimal treatment duration. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB was the highest-ranked question in the epidemiology area. The development type questions that ranked highest focused on interventions for optimal diagnosis, treatment and modalities for treatment delivery. This is the first effort to identify and rank research priorities for childhood drug-resistant TB. The result is a resource to guide research to improve prevention and treatment of drug-resistant TB in children.

  8. Visualization of big data security: a case study on the KDD99 cup data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichan Ruan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyber security has been thrust into the limelight in the modern technological era because of an array of attacks often bypassing untrained intrusion detection systems (IDSs. Therefore, greater attention has been directed on being able deciphering better methods for identifying attack types to train IDSs more effectively. Keycyber-attack insights exist in big data; however, an efficient approach is required to determine strong attack types to train IDSs to become more effective in key areas. Despite the rising growth in IDS research, there is a lack of studies involving big data visualization, which is key. The KDD99 data set has served as a strong benchmark since 1999; therefore, we utilized this data set in our experiment. In this study, we utilized hash algorithm, a weight table, and sampling method to deal with the inherent problems caused by analyzing big data; volume, variety, and velocity. By utilizing a visualization algorithm, we were able to gain insights into the KDD99 data set with a clear identification of “normal” clusters and described distinct clusters of effective attacks.

  9. Using the AHP in a Workshop Setting to Elicit and Prioritize Fire Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    The benefits of convening a group of knowledgeable specialists together in a workshop setting to tackle a difficult problem can often be offset by an over-abundance of unfocused and rambling discussion and by counterproductive group dynamics. In light of this workshop paradox, we have created a generic workshop framework based on the analytic hierarchy process, that...

  10. Lesbian and Gay Parents in Early Childhood Settings: A Systematic Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…

  11. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NeedsCONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT CYCLE Banco de Datos Organizaci ón Data Bank of the Organization ’s Projects Project Data Established Improvements Te m pl at es Te...25 From Bedini G, Alejandro. Calidad y conocimiento , Cartagena de Indias Colombia. CMU/SEI-2006-SR...135 4.3 A Pattern- Based Approach to Deploy Process Improvements in Small Settings

  12. Artful Dodgers: An Arts Education Research Project in Early Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Nóirín; Maguire, Jackie; Corcoran, Lucie; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Artful Dodgers is an arts education project developed by two artists and delivered in two early years settings located in two areas of urban disadvantage. It is a music and visual arts programme designed and implemented with early years teachers of children aged 3-5 years. It explored whether the provision of high-quality arts experiences could…

  13. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  14. The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss--researcher perspective. Part I: Systematic review of outcome measures identified in audiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Sarah; Dahlström, Jennie; Möller, Claes; Kähäri, Kim; Danermark, Berth

    2014-02-01

    To review the literature in order to identify outcome measures used in research on adults with hearing loss (HL) as part of the ICF Core Sets development project, and to describe study and population characteristics of the reviewed studies. A systematic review methodology was applied using multiple databases. A comprehensive search was conducted and two search pools were created, pool I and pool II. The study population included adults (≥ 18 years of age) with HL and oral language as the primary mode of communication. 122 studies were included. Outcome measures were distinguished by 'instrument type', and 10 types were identified. In total, 246 (pool I) and 122 (pool II) different measures were identified, and only approximately 20% were extracted twice or more. Most measures were related to speech recognition. Fifty-one different questionnaires were identified. Many studies used small sample sizes, and the sex of participants was not revealed in several studies. The low prevalence of identified measures reflects a lack of consensus regarding the optimal outcome measures to use in audiology. Reflections and discussions are made in relation to small sample sizes and the lack of sex differentiation/descriptions within the included articles.

  15. CROWN initiative and preterm birth prevention: researchers and editors commit to implement core outcome sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hooft, J.; Alfirevic, Z.; Asztalos, E. V.; Biggio, J. R.; Dugoff, L.; Hoffman, M.; Lee, G.; Mol, B. W.; Pacagnella, R. C.; Pajkrt, E.; Saade, G. R.; Shennan, A. H.; Vayssière, C.; Khan, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    The emphasis on research quality has taken great strides in recent years. Publication of clinical trial protocols (i.e. SPIRIT guideline), prospective registration (e.g. ClinicalTrials. gov, WHO registry), high standards in research conduct (i.e. ICH-Good Clinical Practice guidelines) and

  16. Spring Research Festival Set for May 4–7; Registration Deadline April 17 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The 19th Annual Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR), will be held May 4–7, at the same location as last year: just off Porter Street, in the back parking lot of Building 1507 (Odom Fitness Center).

  17. NICBR-Sponsored Spring Research Festival Set for May 8 and 9 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer For the first time, the Spring Research Festival (SRF), scheduled for May 8 and 9, will be sponsored by all of the agencies that are part of the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR).

  18. Authentic Collaborative Inquiry: Initiating and Sustaining Partner Research in the PDS Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jennifer Hauver; Kobe, Jessica; Shealey, Glennda; Foretich, Rita; Sabatini, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This is the story of our collaborative work as educators and researchers. Because writing as a collective is challenging, we have elected Jenn to serve as narrator, but the story is ours collectively. We are Glennda and Rita, elementary school teachers, Ellen, principal, and Jess, graduate research assistant. The story told here is distilled from…

  19. The Untapped Promise of Secondary Data Sets in International and Comparative Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudagr, Amita; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this commentary is to call attention to the feasibility and importance of large-scale, systematic, quantitative analysis in international and comparative education research. We contend that although many existing databases are under- or unutilized in quantitative international-comparative research, these resources present the…

  20. Enablers and Inhibitors to English Language Learners' Research Process in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un

    2015-01-01

    This researcher sought to examine enablers and inhibitors to English language learner (ELL) students' research process within the framework of Carol C. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP). At a high school forty-eight ELL students in three classes, an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher, and a biology teacher participated in the…

  1. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  2. Insider Research as Part of a Master's Programme: Opportunities Lost and Found within Action Learning Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Chloe; Lawless, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This account explores the role of action learning during and after an educational programme. We focus on the final stage of a master's programme and the insider research that is a key feature in many UK universities. Researching within one's own organization should lead to individual and organizational learning. However, there is relatively little…

  3. Setting and measuring team goals and objectives for improved management of forestry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott J. Josiah

    1999-01-01

    As our world becomes more complex and diverse, many forestry research organizations are responding by adopting more interdisciplinary and collaborative research programs. Our rapidly increasing knowledge of the ecological, social, and economic factors affecting forestry and natural resource management makes it simply untenable to expect that complex problems can be...

  4. Research on Motivation in Educational Settings: Implications for Hearing-Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Michael

    Part of a collection of papers commissioned by Foundations (a project designed to determine the career development needs of deaf postsecondary students), the paper reviews research on student motivation. The first section addresses research on normally hearing students in classrooms with different motivational orientations. Advantages and…

  5. Health professional perspectives on lifestyle behaviour change in the paediatric hospital setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole

    2014-03-13

    Research exists examining the challenges of delivering lifestyle behaviour change initiatives in practice. However, at present much of this research has been conducted with primary care health professionals, or in acute adult hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators associated with implementing routine lifestyle behaviour change brief advice into practice in an acute children's hospital. Thirty-three health professionals (nurses, junior doctors, allied health professionals and clinical support staff) from inpatient and outpatient departments at a UK children's hospital were interviewed about their attitudes and beliefs towards supporting lifestyle behaviour change in hospital patients and their families. Responses were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Health professionals identified a range of barriers and facilitators to supporting lifestyle behaviour change in a children's hospital. These included (1) personal experience of effectiveness, (2) constraints associated with the hospital environment, (3) appropriateness of advice delivery given the patient's condition and care pathway and (4) job role priorities, and (5) perceived benefits of the advice given. Delivery of lifestyle behaviour change advice was often seen as an educational activity, rather than a behaviour change activity. Factors underpinning the successful delivery of routine lifestyle behaviour change support must be understood if this is to be implemented effectively in paediatric acute settings. This study reveals key areas where paediatric health professionals may need further support and training to achieve successful implementation.

  6. Improving rehabilitation treatment in a local setting : a case study of prosthetic rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, Sacha; Postema, Klaas; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Hemminga, Titia; Lettinga, Ant T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To contribute to the discussion on the research-practice gap by illustrating obstacles and opportunities that arise in an evidence-informed improvement process of prosthetic rehabilitation in a local setting. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation centre. Presupposition: The improvement process

  7. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections in Research and Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described>15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. Methods: A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). Results were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). Results: As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86–92%), school issues (75–81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60–65%), urinary symptoms (42–81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association

  8. Identification of a Core Set of Exercise Tests for Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Delphi Survey of Researchers and Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Keefer, Daniel; Wright, Virginia; Butler, Jane; Ada, Louise; Maher, Carol; Reid, Siobhan; Wright, Marilyn; Dalziel, Blythe; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Unnithan, Viswanath; Maltais, Desiree B.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Evidence-based recommendations regarding which exercise tests to use in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are lacking. This makes it very difficult for therapists and researchers to choose the appropriate exercise-related outcome measures for this group. This study aimed to identify a core set of exercise tests for children…

  9. Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical Settings: Disease Transmission Risk and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    INVITED ARTICLE James M. Hughes and Mary E. Wilson, Section Editors Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical...for risk mitigation. Few data on the epidemiology of infectious diseases occurring among traveling health care workers (HCWs) exist. Surveillance... Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical Settings: Disease Transmission Risk and Mitigation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechopoulos, I.; Ali, E.S.; Badal, A.; Badano, A.; Boone, J.M.; Kyprianou, I.S.; Mainegra-Hing, E.; McMillan, K.L.; McNitt-Gray, M.F.; Rogers, D.W.; Samei, E.; Turner, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type

  11. Spanish translation and cross-language validation of a sleep habits questionnaire for use in clinical and research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carol M; Choi, Myunghan; McClain, Darya Bonds; Celaya, Alma; Quan, Stuart F

    2012-04-15

    To translate, back-translate and cross-language validate (English/Spanish) the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habits Questionnaire for use with Spanish-speakers in clinical and research settings. Following rigorous translation and back-translation, this cross-sectional cross-language validation study recruited bilingual participants from academic, clinic, and community-based settings (N = 50; 52% women; mean age 38.8 ± 12 years; 90% of Mexican heritage). Participants completed English and Spanish versions of the Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II one week apart in randomized order. Psychometric properties were assessed, including internal consistency, convergent validity, scale equivalence, language version intercorrelations, and exploratory factor analysis using PASW (Version18) software. Grade level readability of the sleep measure was evaluated. All sleep categories (duration, snoring, apnea, insomnia symptoms, other sleep symptoms, sleep disruptors, restless legs syndrome) showed Cronbach α, Spearman-Brown coefficients and intercorrelations ≥ 0.700, suggesting robust internal consistency, correlation, and agreement between language versions. The Epworth correlated significantly with snoring, apnea, sleep symptoms, restless legs, and sleep disruptors) on both versions, supporting convergent validity. Items loaded on 4 factors accounted for 68% and 67% of the variance on the English and Spanish versions, respectively. The Spanish-language Sleep Habits Questionnaire demonstrates conceptual and content equivalency. It has appropriate measurement properties and should be useful for assessing sleep health in community-based clinics and intervention studies among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. Both language versions showed readability at the fifth grade level. Further testing is needed with larger samples.

  12. Schematic representation of case study research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John P; Yates, Patsy M

    2007-11-01

    The paper is a report of a study to demonstrate how the use of schematics can provide procedural clarity and promote rigour in the conduct of case study research. Case study research is a methodologically flexible approach to research design that focuses on a particular case - whether an individual, a collective or a phenomenon of interest. It is known as the 'study of the particular' for its thorough investigation of particular, real-life situations and is gaining increased attention in nursing and social research. However, the methodological flexibility it offers can leave the novice researcher uncertain of suitable procedural steps required to ensure methodological rigour. This article provides a real example of a case study research design that utilizes schematic representation drawn from a doctoral study of the integration of health promotion principles and practices into a palliative care organization. The issues discussed are: (1) the definition and application of case study research design; (2) the application of schematics in research; (3) the procedural steps and their contribution to the maintenance of rigour; and (4) the benefits and risks of schematics in case study research. The inclusion of visual representations of design with accompanying explanatory text is recommended in reporting case study research methods.

  13. Soil and land use research in Europe: Lessons learned from INSPIRATION bottom-up strategic research agenda setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Boekhold, Alexandra E; Brils, Jos; Grimski, Detlef; Ferber, Uwe; Gorgon, Justyna; Guérin, Valérie; Makeschin, Franz; Maring, Linda; Nathanail, C Paul; Villeneuve, Jacques; Zeyer, Josef; Schröter-Schlaack, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the INSPIRATION bottom-up approach for the development of a strategic research agenda for spatial planning, land use and soil-sediment-water-system management in Europe. Research and innovation needs were identified by more than 500 European funders, endusers, scientists, policy makers, public administrators and consultants. We report both on the concept and on the implementation of the bottom-up approach, provide a critique of the process and draw key lessons for the development of research agendas in the future. Based on identified strengths and weaknesses we identified as key opportunities and threats 1) a high ranking and attentiveness for the research topics on the political agenda, in press and media or in public awareness, 2) availability of funding for research, 3) the resources available for creating the agenda itself, 4) the role of the sponsor of the agenda development, and 5) the continuity of stakeholder engagement as bases for identification of windows of opportunity, creating ownership for the agenda and facilitating its implementation. Our derived key recommendations are 1) a clear definition of the area for which the agenda is to be developed and for the targeted user, 2) a conceptual model to structure the agenda, 3) making clear the expected roles, tasks, input formats regarding the involvement and communication with the stakeholders and project partners, 4) a sufficient number of iterations and checks of the agenda with stakeholders to insure completeness, relevance and creation of co-ownership for the agenda, and 5) from the beginning prepare the infrastructure for the network to implement the agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Setting priorities for research in medical nutrition education: an international approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Barnes, Katelyn; Laur, Celia; Crowley, Jennifer; Ray, Sumantra

    2016-12-14

    To identify the research priorities for medical nutrition education worldwide. A 5-step stakeholder engagement process based on methodological guidelines for identifying research priorities in health. 277 individuals were identified as representatives for 30 different stakeholder organisations across 86 countries. The stakeholder organisations represented the views of medical educators, medical students, doctors, patients and researchers in medical education. Each stakeholder representative was asked to provide up to three research questions that should be deemed as a priority for medical nutrition education. Research questions were critically appraised for answerability, sustainability, effectiveness, potential for translation and potential to impact on disease burden. A blinded scoring system was used to rank the appraised questions, with higher scores indicating higher priority (range of scores possible 36-108). 37 submissions were received, of which 25 were unique research questions. Submitted questions received a range of scores from 62 to 106 points. The highest scoring questions focused on (1) increasing the confidence of medical students and doctors in providing nutrition care to patients, (2) clarifying the essential nutrition skills doctors should acquire, (3) understanding the effectiveness of doctors at influencing dietary behaviours and (4) improving medical students' attitudes towards the importance of nutrition. These research questions can be used to ensure future projects in medical nutrition education directly align with the needs and preferences of research stakeholders. Funders should consider these priorities in their commissioning of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Method research of fault diagnosis based on rough set for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhihui; Xia Hong

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power equipment fault feature is complicated and uncertain. Rough set theory can express and deal with vagueness and uncertainty, so that it can be introduced nuclear power fault diagnosis to analyze and process historical data to find rule of fault feature. Rough set theory treatment step: Data preprocessing, attribute reduction, attribute value reduction, rule generation. According to discernibility matrix definition and nature, we can utilize discernibility matrix in reduction algorithm that make attribute and attribute value reduction, so that it can minish algorithmic complication and simplify programming. This algorithm is applied to the nuclear power fault diagnosis to generate rules of diagnosis. Using these rules, we have diagnosed five kinds of model faults correctly. (authors)

  16. "Economic microscope": The agent-based model set as an instrument in an economic system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Akenov, Serik

    2017-07-01

    To create a valid model of a social or economic system one must consider a lot of parameters, conditions and restrictions. Systems and, consequently, the corresponding models are proved to be very complicated. The problem of such system model engineering can't be solved only with mathematical methods usage. The decision could be found in computer simulation. Simulation does not reject mathematical methods, mathematical expressions could become the foundation for a computer model. In these materials the set of agent-based computer models is under discussion. All the set models simulate productive agents communications, but every model is geared towards the specific goal, and, thus, has its own algorithm and its own peculiarities. It is shown that computer simulation can discover new features of the agents' behavior that can not be obtained by analytical solvation of mathematical equations and thus plays the role of some kind of economic microscope.

  17. Research of Strategic Alliance Stable Decision-making Model Based on Rough Set and DEA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yi

    2013-01-01

    This article uses rough set theory for stability evaluation system of strategic alliance at first. Uses data analysis method for reduction, eliminates redundant indexes. Selected 6 enterprises as a decision-making unit, then select 4 inputs and 2 outputs indexes data, using DEA model to calculate, analysis reasons for poor benefit of decision-making unit, find out improvement direction and quantity for changing, provide a reference for the alliance stability.

  18. A Clinical Librarian-Nursing Partnership to Bridge Clinical Practice and Research in an Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginex, Pamela K; Hernandez, Marisol; Vrabel, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nurses in clinical settings in which evidence-based, individualized care is expected are often the best resource to identify important clinical questions and gaps in practice. These nurses are frequently challenged by a lack of resources to fully develop their questions and identify the most appropriate methods to answer them. A strategic and ongoing partnership between medical library services and nursing can support nurses as they embark on the process of answering these questions and, ultimately, improving patient care and clinical outcomes

  19. Translating cognitive behavioral interventions from bench to bedside: The feasibility and acceptability of cognitive remediation in research as compared to clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalia, Alice; Erlich, Matthew D; Soumet-Leman, Charlotte; Saperstein, Alice M

    2017-07-30

    Cognitive remediation (CR) research typically addresses internal validity, and few studies consider CR in a real-world context. This study evaluated the fit between the program conditions and treatment model in research and clinical settings, with the goal of informing future research on the contextual challenges associated with the implementation of CR. Data was drawn from an initiative by New York State's Office of Mental Health (OMH), to implement CR programs for adults with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in 16 state operated outpatient clinics. One of these clinics first became a research site for a CR randomized clinical trial, which allowed for a comparison of the feasibility and acceptability of CR in a research as compared to a clinical setting. The research site averaged almost triple the number of referrals as the clinical sites. Over nine months 46.51% of clinic referrals were enrolled in the CR program whereas 64.29% of research referrals were enrolled. Clinical site utilization averaged 70.53% while research site utilization averaged 90.47%. At the clinical sites, 97% of respondents reported CR was an excellent or good experience. There was high treatment fidelity for program structure and content across sites. This comparison of CR in clinical and research sites highlights the decrease in referrals, enrollment and utilization that occurs when a program moves from a highly controlled setting to the real world. Still, the acceptability, fill rates and utilization indicated that CR can be successfully implemented in large scale, geographically diverse, publically funded clinic settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing Ethical Challenges to Mental Health Research in Post‐Conflict Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the need to strengthen mental health systems following emergencies, including natural and manmade disasters. Mental health services need to be informed by culturally attuned evidence that is developed through research. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish rigorous ethical research practice to underpin the evidence‐base for mental health services delivered during and following emergencies. PMID:25580875

  1. “Think Research” in Everyday Clinical Practice: Fostering Research Culture in Health Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsa Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “No development without research; No research without development” Yvo Nuyens1TThe quest for knowledge has helped mankind evolve over the years, from discovery of fire through Dolly the sheep clone to Chandrayan moon mission, leaving behind a record of discoveries and inventions in science and technology. Each generation can begin the search for knowledge where the last one left off and contribute their share to the benefit of humanity, cutting across culture and boundaries.

  2. Massage therapy and canadians' health care needs 2020: proceedings of a national research priority setting summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Trish; Sumpton, Bryn; Shipwright, Stacey; Kahn, Janet; Reece, Barbara Findlay

    2014-03-01

    The health care landscape in Canada is changing rapidly as forces, such as an aging population, increasingly complex health issues and treatments, and economic pressure to reduce health care costs, bear down on the system. A cohesive national research agenda for massage therapy (MT) is needed in order to ensure maximum benefit is derived from research on treatment, health care policy, and cost effectiveness. A one-day invitational summit was held in Toronto, Ontario to build strategic alliances among Canadian and international researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders to help shape a national research agenda for MT. Using a modified Delphi method, the summit organizers conducted two pre-summit surveys to ensure that time spent during the summit was relevant and productive. The summit was facilitated using the principles of Appreciative Inquiry which included a "4D" strategic planning approach (defining, discovery, dreaming, designing) and application of a SOAR framework (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results). Twenty-six researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders actively participated in the events. Priority topics that massage therapists believe are important to the Canadian public, other health care providers, and policy makers and massage therapists themselves were identified. A framework for a national massage therapy (MT) research agenda, a grand vision of the future for MT research, and a 12-month action plan were developed. The summit provided an excellent opportunity for key stakeholders to come together and use their experience and knowledge of MT to develop a much-needed plan for moving the MT research and professionalization agenda forward.

  3. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  4. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  5. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  6. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khidir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons’ responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI, a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Methods Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2–3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Results Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27 %—100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32 %; English-33 %; Hindi-18 %; Urdu-30 %. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up. Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant’s invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63 %; among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23 %. Conclusions Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants

  7. Unveiling Research Agendas: a study of the influences on research problem selection among academic researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, M.; Sutz, J.

    2016-07-01

    Research problem selection is central to the dynamics of scientific knowledge production. Research agendas result from the selection of research problems and the formulation of individual and/or collective academic strategies to address them. But, why researchers study what they study? This paper presents incipient research focused on the way different factors influence the construction of academic research agendas. It takes a researcher-oriented approach relying on opinions and perspectives of a wide range of researchers in all fields of knowledge. The empirical work is carried out in Uruguay, a country in the periphery of mainstream science, whose academic community struggles in search of a balance between the requirements of the world community of scholars and the demands from different national stakeholders. The methodology and research results from this study may be relevant to other countries, at different peripheries. Further, understanding the interplay of influences that shape research agendas is an important tool for policy analysis and planning everywhere. (Author)

  8. Investigating educational research. A study on dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Marini Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief historical survey on the emergence of educational research in Brazil, namely the rise and development of Science Education research, with special focus on research developed in Education and Science Education graduate programs. It highlights the relevance of the so-called ‘state-of-the-art” studies as a category of investigation that is fundamental for analytical studies on production in a given field of research, and addresses basic procedures to be carried out in investigations of this nature. Finally, this paper presents some trends in Biology Education research in Brazil as shown in Brazilian dissertations and theses produced between 1972 and 2003.

  9. Differences between patients' and clinicians' research priorities from the Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boney, O; Nathanson, M H; Grocott, M P W; Metcalf, L

    2017-09-01

    The James Lind Alliance Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care Priority Setting Partnership was a recent collaborative venture bringing approximately 2000 patients, carers and clinicians together to agree priorities for future research into anaesthesia and critical care. This secondary analysis compares the research priorities of 303 service users, 1068 clinicians and 325 clinicians with experience as service users. All three groups prioritised research to improve patient safety. Service users prioritised research about improving patient experience, whereas clinicians prioritised research about clinical effectiveness. Clinicians who had experience as service users consistently prioritised research more like clinicians than like service users. Individual research questions about patient experience were more popular with patients and carers than with clinicians in all but one case. We conclude that patients, carers and clinicians prioritise research questions differently. All groups prioritise research into patient safety, but service users also favour research into patient experience, whereas clinicians favour research into clinical effectiveness. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. A proposed minimum data set for international primary care optometry: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Christopher J; Slade, Sarah V; Shickle, Darren

    2017-07-01

    To identify a minimum list of metrics of international relevance to public health, research and service development which can be extracted from practice management systems and electronic patient records in primary optometric practice. A two stage modified Delphi technique was used. Stage 1 categorised metrics that may be recorded as being part of a primary eye examination by their importance to research using the results from a previous survey of 40 vision science and public health academics. Delphi stage 2 then gauged the opinion of a panel of seven vision science academics and achieved consensus on contentious metrics and methods of grading/classification. A consensus regarding inclusion and response categories was achieved for nearly all metrics. A recommendation was made of 53 metrics which would be appropriate in a minimum data set. This minimum data set should be easily integrated into clinical practice yet allow vital data to be collected internationally from primary care optometry. It should not be mistaken for a clinical guideline and should not add workload to the optometrist. A pilot study incorporating an additional Delphi stage prior to implementation is advisable to refine some response categories. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  11. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: the International Collaborative on Progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert J; Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-11-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS.

  12. Setting the research agenda for induced abortion in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel H; Filippi, Veronique; Moore, Ann M; Acharya, Rajib; Bankole, Akinrinola; Calvert, Clara; Church, Kathryn; Cresswell, Jenny A; Footman, Katharine; Gleason, Joanne; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Marston, Cicely; Mbizvo, Mike; Musheke, Maurice; Owolabi, Onikepe; Palmer, Jennifer; Smith, Christopher; Storeng, Katerini; Yeung, Felicia

    2018-05-10

    Provision of safe abortion is widely recognized as vital to addressing the health and wellbeing of populations. Research on abortion is essential to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Researchers in population health from university, policy, and practitioner contexts working on two multidisciplinary projects on family planning and safe abortion in Africa and Asia were brought together for a workshop to discuss the future research agenda on induced abortion. Research on care-seeking behavior, supply of abortion care services, and the global and national policy context will help improve access to and experiences of safe abortion services. A number of areas have potential in designing intervention strategies, including clinical innovations, quality improvement mechanisms, community involvement, and task sharing. Research on specific groups, including adolescents and young people, men, populations affected by conflict, marginalized groups, and providers could increase understanding of provision, access to and experiences of induced abortion. Methodological and conceptual advances, for example in the measurement of induced abortion incidence, complications, and client satisfaction, conceptualizations of induced abortion access and care, and methods for follow-up of patients who have induced abortions, will improve the accuracy of measurements of induced abortion, and add to understanding of women's experiences of induced abortions and abortion care. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: The International Collaborative on Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  14. Research of hydroelectric generating set low-frequency vibration monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, ShuJuan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    In order to satisfy hydroelectric generating set low-frequency vibration monitoring, the design of Passive low-frequency vibration monitoring system based on Optical fiber sensing in this paper. The hardware of the system adopts the passive optical fiber grating sensor and unbalanced-Michelson interferometer. The software system is used to programming by Labview software and finishing the control of system. The experiment show that this system has good performance on the standard vibration testing-platform and it meets system requirements. The frequency of the monitoring system can be as low as 0.2Hz and the resolution is 0.01Hz.

  15. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  16. The kidney cancer research priority-setting partnership: Identifying the top 10 research priorities as defined by patients, caregivers, and expert clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    It is critically important to define disease-specific research priorities to better allocate limited resources. There is growing recognition of the value of involving patients and caregivers, as well as expert clinicians in this process. To our knowledge, this has not been done this way for kidney cancer. Using the transparent and inclusive process established by the James Lind Alliance, the Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada (KCRNC) sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership (PSP) to identify research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. The final result was identification of 10 research priorities for kidney cancer, which are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. This process provided a systematic and effective way to collaboratively establish research priorities with patients, caregivers, and clinicians, and provides a valuable resource for researchers and funding agencies.

  17. Violence against new graduated nurses in clinical settings: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Hassankhani, Hadi; Negarandeh, Reza; Jeffrey, Carol; Azizi, Azim

    2017-09-01

    Ethical studies in nursing are very important topics, and it is particularly crucial with vulnerable populations such as new graduated nurses. Neglecting ethical principles and violence toward graduates can lead to their occupational burnout, job dissatisfaction, and leaving the nursing profession. This study was designed with the aim of understanding the experience of Iranian experienced nurses' use of lateral and horizontal violence against new graduated nurses. This qualitative study used a conventional content analysis approach; it was conducted with 18 experienced nurses. Data were collected through unstructured and semi-structured interviews of various general hospital departments in northwest of Iran and analyzed using methods as described by Graneheim and Lundman. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. "Psychological violence," "Verbal violence," "Physical violence," and "Source of violence" were four categories extracted through data analysis. Violence behaviors are instances of workplace maltreatment that damage individual nurses, quality of care, and the ethical climate of the healthcare settings. The lateral and hierarchical violence in nursing were explained by oppressed group model. This study provided the context for identifying details of various types of workplace violence against new graduated nurses. It should be approached as a health system priority that requires specific multi-dimensional methods to manage consisting of identification, strategic planning, policymaking, prevention, education, and research.

  18. The L3+C detector, a unique tool-set to study cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Akker, M. van den; Banerjee, S.; Baehr, J.; Betev, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bottai, S.; Bobbink, G.; Cartacci, A.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, H.S.; Chiarusi, T.; Dai, C.J.; Ding, L.K.; Duran, I.; Faber, G.; Fay, J.; Grabosch, H.J.; Groenstege, H.; Guo, Y.N.; Gupta, S.; Haller, Ch.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z.X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hofer, H.; Hoferjun, H.; Huo, A.X.; Ito, N.; Jing, C.L.; Jones, L.; Kantserov, V.; Kawakami, S.; Kittel, W.; Koenig, A.C.; Kok, E.; Korn, A.; Kuang, H.H.; Kuijpers, J.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Li, D.; Li, L.; Li, Z.C.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, H.T.; Lohmann, W.; Lu, Y.S.; Ma, X.H.; Ma, Y.Q.; Mil, A. van; Monteleoni, B.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pauss, F.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Petersen, B.; Pohl, M.; Qing, C.R.; Ramelli, R.; Ravindran, K.C.; Rewiersma, P.; Rojkov, A.; Saidi, R.; Schmitt, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schotanus, D.J.; Shen, C.Q.; Sulanke, H.; Tang, X.W.; Timmermans, C.; Tonwar, S.; Trowitzsch, G.; Unger, M.; Verkooijen, H.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Z.M.; Wijk, R. van; Wijnen, Th.A.M.; Wilkens, H.; Xu, Y.P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, X.F.; Yao, Z.G.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, S.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, Q.Q.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zwart, A.N.M.

    2002-01-01

    The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, has been employed for the study of cosmic ray muons. The muon spectrometer of L3 consists of a set of high-precision drift chambers installed inside a magnet with a volume of about 1000 m 3 and a field of 0.5 T. Muon momenta are measured with a resolution of a few percent at 50 GeV. The detector is located under 30 m of overburden. A scintillator air shower array of 54 m by 30 m is installed on the roof of the surface hall above L3 in order to estimate the energy and the core position of the shower associated with a sample of detected muons. Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied

  19. The L3+C detector, a unique tool-set to study cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Banerjee, S; Bähr, J; Betev, B L; Bourilkov, D; Bottai, S; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Cartacci, A M; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen He Sheng; Chiarusi, T; Dai Chang Jiang; Ding, L K

    2002-01-01

    The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, has been employed for the study of cosmic ray muons. The muon spectrometer of L3 consists of a set of high-precision drift chambers installed inside a magnet with a volume of about 1000 m**3 and a field of 0.5 T. Muon momenta are measured with a resolution of a few percent at 50 GeV. The detector is located under 30 m of overburden. A scintillator air shower array of 54 m by 30 m is installed on the roof of the surface hall above L3 in order to estimate the energy and the core position of the shower associated with a sample of detected muons. Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied.

  20. PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORS IN THE HOUSEHOLD AND HOLIDAY SETTING. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY AMONG BRASOV CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA-NICOLETA Untaru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate Brasov citizens’ pro-environmental behavior both in their household and holiday setting. In this sense, we conducted a qualitative research using the in-depth interview method on a 13 respondent sample which included self-declared environmentally friendly residents from the city of Brasov, Romania. Among them, six respondents are members of ecological NGOs and can be considered environmental activists. The interview guide was structured in two sections. First, we considered respondents' pro-environmental behaviors, the description of their activities, aimed at protecting the environment, as well as the tools and resources developed by public authorities in order to facilitate and stimulate citizens’ involvement in environmental protection. The second section was focused on the description of respondents’ last holiday, the choice of tourism destination, transportation, accommodation unit and activities in the destination; respondents’ pro-environmental behaviors; and the tools and instruments developed by local public authorities or hoteliers in order to facilitate tourists’ environmentally friendly behavior. The results of the present study outline the fact that respondents’ involvement in environmentally friendly activities is identical, or almost identical, in both household and holiday setting. For the environmental activists, such a behavior is difficult to change, even in a holiday setting, where environmental protection is one the individuals ‘priority’. The outcomes of our research can be used by both tourist services providers in order to adapt their offer to consumers’ pro-environmental behavior and local authorities who can identify the actions which have to be undertaken in order to facilitate such behavior.

  1. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  2. Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context...

  3. Spring Research Festival Set for May 3 and 4; Registration Deadline April 15 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SRF, which is celebrating its 20th anniversary this year, aims to “acquaint our [NCI at Frederick and Fort Detrick] neighbors––scientists, citizens, and especially students––with the nature of our research and to facilitate collaboration between partner agencies.” The event is open to the Fort Detrick and NCI at Frederick communities and invited guests.

  4. Lyme disease in the Dutch policy context: patient consultation in government research agenda setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Oudendammer, W.M.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Lyme disease (LD) is increasing in the Netherlands. The Dutch Association for Lyme Disease Patients (NVLP) presented a petition to the Dutch Parliament for more LD research and political attention. The Parliament requested advice from the Health Council of the Netherlands, which among

  5. Research priorities by professional background - A detailed analysis of the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Reay, Hannah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    The Intensive Care Foundation, in partnership with the James Lind Alliance, has supported a national project to identify and prioritise unanswered questions about adult intensive care that are important to people who have been critically ill, their families, and the health professionals who care for them. We conducted a secondary analysis to explore differences in priorities determined by different respondent groups in order to identify different groups' perceptions of gaps in knowledge. There were two surveys conducted as part of the original project. Survey 1 comprised a single open question to identify important research topics; survey 2 aimed to prioritise these topics using a 10-point Likert scale. In survey 1, despite clear differences in suggestions amongst the respondent groups, themes of comfort/communication and post-ICU rehabilitation were the within the top 2 suggestions across all groups. Patients and relatives suggested research topics to which they could easily relate, whereas there was a greater breadth of suggestions from clinicians. In survey 2, the number of research priorities that received a mode score of 10 varied from 1 to 36. Patients scored 36 out of the 37 topics with a mode score of 10. All other groups scored topics with more discrimination, with the number of topics with a mode score of 10 ranging from 1 to 20. Differences in the proportions of the representative groups are therefore unlikely to have translated to an impartial conclusion. Clinicians, patients, and family members have jointly identified the research priorities for UK ICM practice.

  6. Setting Global Research Priorities for Developmental Disabilities, Including Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M.; Yasamy, M. T.; Emerson, E.; Officer, A.; Richler, D.; Saxena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of intellectual disabilities (ID) has been estimated at 10.4/1000 worldwide with higher rates among children and adolescents in lower income countries. The objective of this paper is to address research priorities for development disabilities, notably ID and autism, at the global level and to propose the more rational…

  7. Place visitation, place avoidance, and attitudinal ambivalence: new concepts for place research in urban recreation settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Christine A. Vogt; Herbert W. Schroeder; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on recent developments in research on consumer behavior and attitudes to better understand the range of behaviors and attitudes inherent in a diverse urban area. Using a mail survey of Chicago-area residents, we collected data (1) to examine residents' past visitation behavior and recommendations of places to visit and to avoid for a range of...

  8. Preparing for Portfolio Careers in Australian Music: Setting a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Bennett, Dawn; Bridgstock, Ruth; Draper, Paul; Harrison, Scott; Schippers, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, Australian musicians increasingly maintain "portfolio" careers, in which they combine diverse employment arrangements and activities. Often, these incorporate industry sectors outside of music. This career pattern is widespread but not well understood, largely because of the limitations of existing research.…

  9. Addressing Language Variety in Educational Settings: Toward a Policy and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Wilkinson, Cheryl; Alexander, Celeste; Reyes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Improving minority academic achievement is a primary goal for education policy makers. Despite resource allocations, gaps in minority accomplishments persist. Emerging research suggests language variety may hinder minority students, thereby slowing academic progress. This article synthesizes suggestions from a panel composed of experts in the…

  10. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  11. The E-Learning Setting Circle: First Steps toward Theory Development in E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, Marco; Kaspar, Kai

    2017-01-01

    E-learning projects and related research generate an increasing amount of evidence within and across various disciplines and contexts. The field is very heterogeneous as e-learning approaches are often characterized by rather unique combinations of situational factors that guide the design and realization of e-learning in a bottom-up fashion.…

  12. Motivation of Volunteers to Work in Palliative Care Setting: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckaden, M A; Pandya, Sachi Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup.

  13. Motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care setting: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Muckaden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. Aims: The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. Results: The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. Conclusion: The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup.

  14. Urban research in a hostile setting: Godfrey Wilson in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia, 1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Tranberg Hansen

    Full Text Available Acknowledged for his pioneering urban anthropological research in Broken Hill through the publication of An Essay on the Economics of Detribalization in Northern Rhodesia (Parts I and II, 1940 and 1941, Godfrey Wilson's professional career was cut short by his death during World War II. The late 1990s transfer and cataloguing at the University of Cape Town of the Monica and Godfrey Wilson papers has made an enormously rich research archive accessible to the public. For the first time, Godfrey Wilson's notes from his fieldwork in Broken Hill enable us to examine his research project through his own observations. Based on a preliminary overview of these records and a tentative analysis of some of their contents, this article revisits the Broken Hill research project against the background of the published essay on the economics of detribalisation. Wilson's argument about temporary urbanisation is demonstrated through migration histories, information about length of stay in towns, and an analysis of the economics of urban livelihoods that focuses on wages including rations, household expenditures, and urban-rural transfers. But the published essay barely explains how in fact he conducted his field research. Although there are very few direct indications, we can infer some of his fieldwork practices and field methodology from notes that occasionally evoke an immediate sense of the trials and tribulations of everyday African life in Broken Hill in the early World War II years. How might experiences in the field have influenced Wilson's analysis? Overall, I discuss his work from two angles, first in the context of a time and place characterised by conflicting agendas, and secondly, in retrospect as the conceptual space and time of early World War II colonial Northern Rhodesia have yielded to different explanatory perspectives.

  15. Basic Laparoscopic Skills Assessment Study: Validation and Standard Setting among Canadian Urology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Andonian, Sero; Pace, Kenneth T; Grober, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    As urology training programs move to a competency based medical education model, iterative assessments with objective standards will be required. To develop a valid set of technical skills standards we initiated a national skills assessment study focusing initially on laparoscopic skills. Between February 2014 and March 2016 the basic laparoscopic skill of Canadian urology trainees and attending urologists was assessed using 4 standardized tasks from the AUA (American Urological Association) BLUS (Basic Laparoscopic Urological Surgery) curriculum, including peg transfer, pattern cutting, suturing and knot tying, and vascular clip applying. All performances were video recorded and assessed using 3 methods, including time and error based scoring, expert global rating scores and C-SATS (Crowd-Sourced Assessments of Technical Skill Global Rating Scale), a novel, crowd sourced assessment platform. Different methods of standard setting were used to develop pass-fail cut points. Six attending urologists and 99 trainees completed testing. Reported laparoscopic experience and training level correlated with performance (p standard setting methods to define pass-fail cut points for all 4 AUA BLUS tasks. The 4 AUA BLUS tasks demonstrated good construct validity evidence for use in assessing basic laparoscopic skill. Performance scores using the novel C-SATS platform correlated well with traditional time-consuming methods of assessment. Various standard setting methods were used to develop pass-fail cut points for educators to use when making formative and summative assessments of basic laparoscopic skill. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  17. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined

  18. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Engel

    Full Text Available Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems.In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers, patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors.In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is 'relationships' among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of 'infrastructure'. Challenges with both result in 'modified practices' often favouring empirical (symptomatic treatment over treatment guided by testing.Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined as such. Also, a test alone has only

  19. International Research Study of Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Harland, C.; Callender, G.; Harland, C.; Nassimbeni, G.; Schneller, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we examine the specific issue of public procurement, its importance to local, regional, national, and international economies as evidenced in a unique international comparative research study – the International Research Study of Public Procurement (IRSPP). First the public

  20. Theoretical Frameworks, Methods, and Procedures for Conducting Phenomenological Studies in Educational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of phenomenological research are to seek reality from individuals’ narratives of their experiences and feelings, and to produce in-depth descriptions of the phenomenon. Phenomenological research studies in educational settings generally embody lived experience, perception, and feelings of participants about a phenomenon. This study aims to provide a general framework for researchers who are interested in phenomenological studies especially in educational setting. Additionally, the study provides a guide for researchers on how to conduct a phenomenological research and how to collect and analyze phenomenal data. The first part of the paper explains the underpinnings of the research methodology consisting of methodological framework and key phenomenological concepts. The second part provides guidance for a phenomenological research in education settings, focusing particularly on phenomenological data collection procedure and phenomenological data analysis methods.Keywords: Phenomenology, phenomenological inquiry, phenomenological data analysis Eğitim Ortamlarında Fenomenal Çalışmaları Yürütmek İçin Teorik Çerçeveler, Yöntemler ve ProsedürlerÖzFenomenolojik araştırmaların temel amacı, bireyin deneyimlerinden ve duygularından yola çıkarak belli bir fenomenan üzerinde yaptığı anlatılarında gerçeği aramak ve bu fenomenana yönelik derinlemesine açıklamalar üretmektir. Eğitim ortamlarında fenomenolojik araştırmalar genellikle araştırmaya katılanların belli bir fenomenan hakkında yaşantıları, deneyimleri, algıları ve duyguları somutlaştırmak için kullanılır. Bu çalışma, özellikle eğitim ortamlarında fenomenolojik çalışmalarla ilgilenen araştırmacılar için genel bir çerçeve sunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca, çalışmada fenomenolojik araştırmalar için veri toplamak ve bu fenomenal verileri analiz yapmak için araştırmacılara yön gösterici bir k

  1. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Natalia; Winkler, Paula; Lopez, Jaime; Dennison, Meagen; Liang, Yuanyuan; Turner, Barbara J

    2016-10-28

    Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1) snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2) purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community). Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities' stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 %) consented, 52 (95 %) attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 %) attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 %) consented, 36 (58 %) attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 %) attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045) which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements/transportation services (P = 0.004) which was higher for the snowball sampling group. In each of the two similar hard-to-reach communities, a community advisory board partnered with researchers

  2. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Valerio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. Methods In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1 snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2 purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community. Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities’ stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Results Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 % consented, 52 (95 % attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 % attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 % consented, 36 (58 % attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 % attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P < 0.05. Despite differing recruitment strategies, stakeholders from the two communities identified largely similar ideas for research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045 which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements

  3. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  4. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  5. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: Evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balkrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally.

  6. Research Approaches in the Study of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.

  7. The training and use of research assistants for a survey in a third world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Hildebrandt

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an approach to gathering data in a black township. It emphasizes the importance of using indigenous interviewers and offers suggestions for their training. Innovative techniques were used to help the field workers to understand and apply the concept of randomization to the streets and houses of their Township. It emphasizes the need to supervise and reinforce the research standards throughout the data collection process.

  8. A Review of 10 Years of Vasectomy Programming and Research in Low-Resource Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Shattuck, Dominick; Perry, Brian; Packer, Catherine; Chin Quee, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vasectomy is a highly effective and safe contraceptive method for couples who want to stop childbearing, but only 2.4% of men around the world use this method. We conducted an extensive review of the vasectomy research literature and programmatic reports, published between April 2005 and April 2015, to synthesize barriers and facilitators to vasectomy adoption. Of the more than 230 documents initially retrieved in our search, we ultimately included 75 documents in our review and synt...

  9. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  10. Implementation of Subjective Cognitive Decline criteria in research studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo, José L; Rabin, Laura A.; Amariglio, Rebecca; Buckley, Rachel; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Ewers, Michael; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sikkes, Sietske; Smart, Colette M.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) manifesting prior to clinical impairment could serve as a target population for early intervention trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A working group, the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I), published SCD research criteria in the context of preclinical AD. To successfully apply them, a number of issues regarding assessment and implementation of SCD needed to be addressed. METHODS Members of the SCD-I met to identify and agree upon topics relevant to SCD criteria operationalization in research settings. Initial ideas and recommendations were discussed with other SCD-I working group members and modified accordingly. RESULTS Topics included SCD inclusion and exclusion criteria, together with the informant’s role in defining SCD presence and the impact of demographic factors. DISCUSSION Recommendations for the operationalization of SCD in differing research settings, with the aim of harmonization of SCD measurement across studies are proposed, to enhance comparability and generalizability across studies. PMID:27825022

  11. Clinical Research Informatics: Supporting the Research Study Lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S B

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this review is to summarize significant developments in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the years 2015-2016. The secondary goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of CRI as a field, through the development of a strategy for searching and classifying CRI publications. Methods: A search strategy was developed to query the PubMed database, using medical subject headings to both select and exclude articles, and filtering publications by date and other characteristics. A manual review classified publications using stages in the "research study lifecycle", with key stages that include study definition, participant enrollment, data management, data analysis, and results dissemination. Results: The search strategy generated 510 publications. The manual classification identified 125 publications as relevant to CRI, which were classified into seven different stages of the research lifecycle, and one additional class that pertained to multiple stages, referring to general infrastructure or standards. Important cross-cutting themes included new applications of electronic media (Internet, social media, mobile devices), standardization of data and procedures, and increased automation through the use of data mining and big data methods. Conclusions: The review revealed increased interest and support for CRI in large-scale projects across institutions, regionally, nationally, and internationally. A search strategy based on medical subject headings can find many relevant papers, but a large number of non-relevant papers need to be detected using text words which pertain to closely related fields such as computational statistics and clinical informatics. The research lifecycle was useful as a classification scheme by highlighting the relevance to the users of clinical research informatics solutions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  12. Set of thermal neutron-scattering experiments for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.

    1975-12-01

    Six classes of experiments form the base of a program of thermal neutron scattering at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility. Three classes are to determine the average microscopic positions of atoms in materials and three are to determine the microscopic vibrations of these atoms. The first three classes concern (a) powder sample neutron diffraction, (b) small angle scattering, and (c) single crystal Laue diffraction. The second three concern (d) small kappa inelastic scattering, (e) scattering surface phonon measurements, and (f) line widths. An instrument to couple with the WNR pulsed source is briefly outlined for each experiment

  13. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  14. Metabolic footprint of diabetes: a multiplatform metabolomics study in an epidemiological setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Suhre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol, ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate, and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate, lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids, and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids. Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population.

  15. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  16. Connecting Gaucher and Parkinson Disease: Considerations for Clinical and Research Genetic Counseling Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lola; Schulze, Jeanine

    2017-12-01

    There are multiple autosomal recessive disorders in which carriers may be at risk for other diseases. This observation calls into question the previous understanding that carriers of autosomal recessive disorders escape clinical consequences. We also know that childhood genetic conditions may have adult disease counterparts (Zimran et al., The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 16(11), 723-724, 2014). Individuals who have Gaucher disease and carriers of the disorder are at increased risk for a seemingly unrelated and complex neurological condition, Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is, in part, caused by the same mutations in the GBA gene that lead to Gaucher disease, and the two conditions are thought to have shared pathophysiology. Briefly reviewed are how these two diseases historically became linked, where their paths cross, potential problems and considerations in disclosure of the link, and current guidelines and research in this area. Genetic counseling experience with a large Parkinson disease cohort is used as a starting point to question the state of clinical and nonclinical practice in disclosing this unusual connection We conclude that more research and discussion are needed to inform practice regarding the crossroads of Gaucher and Parkinson disease.

  17. Application of fuzzy set theory for safety culture and safety management assessment of Kartini research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarip; Hauptmanns, U.

    2000-01-01

    The safety culture status of nuclear power plant is usually assessed through interview and/or discussions with personnel and management in plant, and an assessment of the pertinent documentation. The approach for safety culture assessment described in IAEA Safety Series, make uses of a questionnaire composed of questions which require 'Yes' or 'No' as an answer. Hence, it is basically a check-list approach which is quite common for safety assessments in industry. Such a procedure ignores the fact that the expert answering the question usually has knowledge which goes far beyond a mere binary answer. Additionally, many situations cannot readily be described in such restricted terms. Therefore, it was developed a checklist consisting of questions which are formulated such that they require more than a simple 'yes' or 'no' as an answer. This allows one to exploit the expert knowledge of the analyst appropriately by asking him to qualify the degree of compliance of each of the topics examined. The method presented has proved useful in assessing the safety culture and quality of safety management of the research reactor. The safety culture status and the quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is rated as 'average'. The method is also flexible and allows one to add questions to existing areas or to introduce new areas covering related topics

  18. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Ling [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rivadeneira, Fernando [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-79, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zillikens, M.C. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, Albert [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Uitterlinden, Andre G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-75B, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  19. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Ling; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  20. A methodology for a minimum data set for rare diseases to support national centers of excellence for healthcare and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Rémy; Maaroufi, Meriem; de Carrara, Albane; Messiaen, Claude; Luigi, Emmanuel; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rare disease patients make up approximately 6–8% of all patients in Europe, it is often difficult to find the necessary expertise for diagnosis and care and the patient numbers needed for rare disease research. The second French National Plan for Rare Diseases highlighted the necessity for better care coordination and epidemiology for rare diseases. A clinical data standard for normalization and exchange of rare disease patient data was proposed. The original methodology used to build the French national minimum data set (F-MDS-RD) common to the 131 expert rare disease centers is presented. Methods To encourage consensus at a national level for homogeneous data collection at the point of care for rare disease patients, we first identified four national expert groups. We reviewed the scientific literature for rare disease common data elements (CDEs) in order to build the first version of the F-MDS-RD. The French rare disease expert centers validated the data elements (DEs). The resulting F-MDS-RD was reviewed and approved by the National Plan Strategic Committee. It was then represented in an HL7 electronic format to maximize interoperability with electronic health records. Results The F-MDS-RD is composed of 58 DEs in six categories: patient, family history, encounter, condition, medication, and questionnaire. It is HL7 compatible and can use various ontologies for diagnosis or sign encoding. The F-MDS-RD was aligned with other CDE initiatives for rare diseases, thus facilitating potential interconnections between rare disease registries. Conclusions The French F-MDS-RD was defined through national consensus. It can foster better care coordination and facilitate determining rare disease patients’ eligibility for research studies, trials, or cohorts. Since other countries will need to develop their own standards for rare disease data collection, they might benefit from the methods presented here. PMID:25038198

  1. Transforming a conservative clinical setting: ICU nurses' strategies to improve care for patients' relatives through a participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaforteza, Concha; Gastaldo, Denise; Moreno, Cristina; Bover, Andreu; Miró, Rosa; Miró, Margalida

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on change strategies generated through a dialogical-reflexive-participatory process designed to improve the care of families of critically ill patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) using a participatory action research in a tertiary hospital in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Eleven professionals (representatives) participated in 11 discussion groups and five in-depth interviews. They represented the opinions of 49 colleagues (participants). Four main change strategies were created: (i) Institutionally supported practices were confronted to make a shift from professional-centered work to a more inclusive, patient-centered approach; (ii) traditional power relations were challenged to decrease the hierarchical power differences between physicians and nurses; (iii) consensus was built about the need to move from an individual to a collective position in relation to change; and (iv) consensus was built about the need to develop a critical attitude toward the conservative nature of the unit. The strategies proposed were both transgressive and conservative; however, when compared with the initial situation, they enhanced the care offered to patients' relatives and patient safety. Transforming conservative settings requires capacity to negotiate positions and potential outcomes. However, when individual critical capacities are articulated with a new approach to micropolitics, transformative proposals can be implemented and sustained. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Group intervention for siblings of children with disabilities: a pilot study in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Tina; Nordgren, Ingrid; Rein, George; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a group intervention in a clinical setting designed to increase knowledge of disability and improve sibling relationship among siblings of children with disabilities. A self-selected sample of 54 younger and older siblings with typical development (ages 8-12 years) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9), Asperger syndrome (7), autistic disorder (13), physical disability (8) and intellectual disability (17) participated in collateral sibling groups. The Sibling Knowledge Interview (SKI) and Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) were administered pre- and post-intervention. SKI scores increased (p sibling groups showed significantly different (p siblings of children with disabilities. In view of the limited empirical research on group interventions for siblings of children with disabilities future work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions. Particular attention should be given to siblings of children with autism and siblings of children with intellectual disability.

  3. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  4. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  5. Building the field of population health intervention research: The development and use of an initial set of competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riley

    2015-01-01

    This initial set of competencies, released in 2013, may be used to develop graduate student curriculum, recruit trainees and faculty to academic institutions, plan non-degree professional development, and develop job descriptions for PHIR-related research and professional positions. The competencies provide some initial guideposts for the field and will need to be adapted as the PHIR field matures and to meet unique needs of different jurisdictions.

  6. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Suzanne; Graettinger, Caroline; Kost, Keith

    2006-01-01

    ... enterprises, small organizations within large companies, and small projects. The presentations addressed starting and sustaining process improvement, qualitative and quantitative studies, and using Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI...

  7. Geologic setting of the proposed West Flank Forge Site, California: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Andrew; Blake, Kelly; Lazaro, Mike; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; McCullough, Jess; DeOreo, S.B.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kaven, Joern; Williams, Colin F.; Phelps, Geoffrey; Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Siler, Drew; Robertson-Tait, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The proposed West Flank FORGE site is within the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), China Lake, CA. The West Flank is west of the Coso geothermal field, an area of China Lake NAWS dominated by the Quaternary Coso volcanic field largely comprised of rhyolite domes and their volcaniclastic and epiclastic horizons. The largest dome flow complex, Sugarloaf Mountain, marks the northwestern margin of the geothermal field. The West Flank is situated due west of Sugarloaf. The geologic setting of the West Flank was determined from one deep well (83-11) drilled as a potential production hole in 2009. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) of well 83-11 approaches 600 oF (315˚C), but flow tests demonstrate very low, non-commercial permeabilities. With the exception of the upper 600 feet of volcaniclastic alluvium, well 83-11 is completed in granitic basement. The West Flank possesses the primary attributes of a FORGE site: non-commercial permeability (geothermal fieldThe Coso Mountains host the Coso volcanic field and are within a right-releasing stepover between the dextral Airport Lake (ALF) and Little Lake fault zones (LLFZ) and the Wild Horse Mesa and Owens Valley faults. Two distinct fault populations have been identified at Coso: WNW-trending and antithetical, NE-trending strike-slip faults and N- to NNE-trending normal faults. These faults are both high permeability drilling targets at depth within the main (productive) geothermal field and they locally segment the field into distinct hydrothermal regimes. The West Flank may be segmented from the rest of the field by one such northerly trending fault. The overall minimum principal stress orientation in the main geothermal field varies from 103˚ to 108˚; however, the minimum horizontal principal stress in 83-11 is rotated to 081˚.

  8. On the performance of atomic natural orbital basis sets: A full configuration interaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illas, F.; Ricart, J.M.; Rubio, J.; Bagus, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets has been studied by comparing self-consistant field (SCF) and full configuration interaction (CI) results obtained for the first row atoms and hydrides. The ANO results have been compared with those obtained using a segmented basis set containing the same number of contracted basis functions. The total energies obtained with the ANO basis sets are always lower than the one obtained by using the segmented one. However, for the hydrides, differential electronic correlation energy obtained with the ANO basis set may be smaller than the one recovered with the segmented set. We relate this poorer differential correlation energy for the ANO basis set to the fact that only one contracted d function is used for the ANO and segmented basis sets

  9. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Oral Prevalence in Scotland (HOPSCOTCH): A Feasibility Study in Dental Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I; Robertson, Chris; Gray, Heather; Young, Linda; McDaid, Lisa M; Winter, Andrew J; Campbell, Christine; Pan, Jiafeng; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Kean, Sharon; Bhatia, Ramya; Cubie, Heather; Clarkson, Jan E; Bagg, Jeremy; Pollock, Kevin G; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of undertaking a full population investigation into the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of oral Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Scotland via dental settings. Male and female patients aged 16-69 years were recruited by Research Nurses in 3 primary care and dental outreach teaching centres and 2 General Dental Practices (GDPs), and by Dental Care Teams in 2 further GDPs. Participants completed a questionnaire (via an online tablet computer or paper) with socioeconomic, lifestyle, and sexual history items; and were followed up at 6-months for further questionnaire through appointment or post/online. Saline oral gargle/rinse samples, collected at baseline and follow-up, were subject to molecular HPV genotyping centrally. 1213 dental patients were approached and 402 individuals consented (participation rate 33.1%). 390 completed the baseline questionnaire and 380 provided a baseline oral specimen. Follow-up rate was 61.6% at 6 months. While recruitment was no different in Research Nurse vs Dental Care Team models the Nurse model ensured more rapid recruitment. There were relatively few missing responses in the questionnaire and high levels of disclosure of risk behaviours (99% answered some of the sexual history questions). Data linkage of participant data to routine health records including HPV vaccination data was successful with 99.1% matching. Oral rinse/gargle sample collection and subsequent HPV testing was feasible. Preliminary analyses found over 95% of samples to be valid for molecular HPV detection prevalence of oral HPV infection of 5.5% (95%CI 3.7, 8.3). It is feasible to recruit and follow-up dental patients largely representative / reflective of the wider population, suggesting it would be possible to undertake a study to investigate the prevalence, incidence, and determinants of oral HPV infection in dental settings.

  10. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2018-01-01

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  11. Enhancing and expanding intersectional research for climate change adaptation in agrarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hall, Mary; Carr, Edward R; Pascual, Unai

    2016-12-01

    Most current approaches focused on vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation to climate change frame gender and its influence in a manner out-of-step with contemporary academic and international development research. The tendency to rely on analyses of the sex-disaggregated gender categories of 'men' and 'women' as sole or principal divisions explaining the abilities of different people within a group to adapt to climate change, illustrates this problem. This framing of gender persists in spite of established bodies of knowledge that show how roles and responsibilities that influence a person´s ability to deal with climate-induced and other stressors emerge at the intersection of diverse identity categories, including but not limited to gender, age, seniority, ethnicity, marital status, and livelihoods. Here, we provide a review of relevant literature on this topic and argue that approaching vulnerability to climate change through intersectional understandings of identity can help improve adaptation programming, project design, implementation, and outcomes.

  12. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability, PO Box 79, South Fremantle WA 6162 (Australia); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Integral Sustainability, PO Box 79, South Fremantle WA 6162 (Australia); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, South St, Murdoch WA 6150 (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2013-07-15

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.

  13. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential

  14. Personal Goal Setting and Quality of Life: A Mixed Methods Study of Adult Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to examine the potential impactful relationship between personal goal setting and the quality of life satisfaction (built upon the Goal Setting Theory of motivation and performance). The study aimed to determine how influential the goal achievement process is (or is not) regarding personal fulfillment and…

  15. Simpson's Paradox: A Data Set and Discrimination Case Study Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stanley A.; Mickel, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a data set and case study exercise that can be used by educators to teach a range of statistical concepts including Simpson's paradox. The data set and case study are based on a real-life scenario where there was a claim of discrimination based on ethnicity. The exercise highlights the importance of performing…

  16. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: Interpersonal Communication Research in Instructional Contexts: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Do we study too much interpersonal communication and not enough of other topics in the instructional communication literature? This forum provides a mixed bag of both affirmative and negative responses to this question. On one hand, answering "yes" is quite defensible because there are many recent studies examining interpersonal…

  17. The Development Of Learning Sets And Research Methodology Module Using Problem Based Learning For Accounting Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Partono; Nurkhin, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the learning process is very important for every lecturer by implement innovative learning methods or media. The purpose of this study is to develop a research methodology learning instruction and module based of problem based learning for accounting education students. This research applied research and development design in the research methodology course in Economics Education (Accounting) Department, Faculty Of Economics, Semarang State University. Data analysis was used to test...

  18. Integrating the hospital library with patient care, teaching and research: model and Web 2.0 tools to create a social and collaborative community of clinical research in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Blanca San José; Garcia Carretero, Rafael; Varela Entrecanales, Manuel; Pozuelo, Paz Martin

    2010-09-01

    Research in hospital settings faces several difficulties. Information technologies and certain Web 2.0 tools may provide new models to tackle these problems, allowing for a collaborative approach and bridging the gap between clinical practice, teaching and research. We aim to gather a community of researchers involved in the development of a network of learning and investigation resources in a hospital setting. A multi-disciplinary work group analysed the needs of the research community. We studied the opportunities provided by Web 2.0 tools and finally we defined the spaces that would be developed, describing their elements, members and different access levels. WIKINVESTIGACION is a collaborative web space with the aim of integrating the management of all the hospital's teaching and research resources. It is composed of five spaces, with different access privileges. The spaces are: Research Group Space 'wiki for each individual research group', Learning Resources Centre devoted to the Library, News Space, Forum and Repositories. The Internet, and most notably the Web 2.0 movement, is introducing some overwhelming changes in our society. Research and teaching in the hospital setting will join this current and take advantage of these tools to socialise and improve knowledge management.

  19. Cross-Calibration and Comparison of Variability in Two Bone Densitometers in a Research Setting: The Framingham Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, David R.; McLean, Robert R.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Hogan, Mary; Kiel, Douglas P.

    2010-01-01

    New technology introduced over time results in changes in densitometers during longitudinal studies of bone mineral density (BMD). This requires that a cross-calibration process be completed to translate measurements from the old densitometer to the new one. Previously described cross-calibration methods for research settings have collected single measures on each densitometer and used linear regression to estimate cross-calibration corrections. Thus, these methods may produce corrections that have limited precision and underestimate the variability in converted BMD values. Furthermore, most prior studies have included small samples recruited from specialized populations. Increasing the sample size, obtaining multiple measures on each machine, and utilizing linear mixed models to account for between- and within-subject variability may improve cross-calibration estimates. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in vivo cross-calibration of a Lunar DPX-L with a Lunar Prodigy densitometer using a sample of 249 healthy volunteers who were scanned twice on each densitometer, without repositioning, at both the femur and spine. Scans were analyzed using both automated and manual placement of regions of interest. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine possible differences between repeat scans within and across densitometers. We used linear mixed models to determine the cross-calibration equations for the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip and lumbar spine (L2-L4) regions. Results using automated and manual placement of the regions of interest did not differ significantly The DPX–L exhibited larger median absolute differences in repeat scans for femoral neck [0.016 vs. 0.012, p=0.1] and trochanter [0.011 vs. 0.009, p=0.06] BMD values compared to the Prodigy. The Bland-Altman plots revealed no statistically significant linear relation between the difference in paired measures between machines and mean BMD. In our large sample of healthy

  20. Effects of Research Setting on Observed Depressive Symptoms in Marijuana Users

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, John J.; Haney, Margaret; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    A post hoc analysis examined depressive symptoms in regular marijuana smokers interested in nontreatment, laboratory studies and marijuana-dependent treatment-seekers considering clinical trial participation. Among marijuana-dependent treatment-seeking patients screened for a clinical trial, the mean Beck Depression Inventory Score (BDI) was significantly higher than for marijuana-using volunteers screened for non-treatment laboratory studies. Mean self-reported baseline marijuana use was not...

  1. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Identification of Ambiguity in the Case Study Research Typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2015-01-01

    . Relevant to varied levels and scales of case study use, the aim of this collection is to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of where we are now with case study research, so that they may better judge their own applications of the case study. From definitions to interdisciplinary methods......The purpose of this four volume collection is to provide an accessible selection of the best writing on case study in the English language internationally. Such a collection is timely and highly relevant to students, researchers and academics in higher education, especially when the case......, this set will address the practical case study by offering a structured selection of some of the best modern and classic writing on the case study in article form, together with a synoptic editorial introduction and overview of the field of research....

  3. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  4. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VII. A review of the first 50 applications of the CHNRI method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Chan, Kit Yee; Sridhar, Devi; Wazny, Kerri; Nair, Harish; Sheikh, Aziz; Tomlinson, Mark; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bahl, Rajiv; Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Harry; El Arifeen, Shams; Black, Robert E; Cousens, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Several recent reviews of the methods used to set research priorities have identified the CHNRI method (acronym derived from the "Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative") as an approach that clearly became popular and widely used over the past decade. In this paper we review the first 50 examples of application of the CHNRI method, published between 2007 and 2016, and summarize the most important messages that emerged from those experiences. We conducted a literature review to identify the first 50 examples of application of the CHNRI method in chronological order. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed and so-called grey literature. Initially, between 2007 and 2011, the CHNRI method was mainly used for setting research priorities to address global child health issues, although the first cases of application outside this field (eg, mental health, disabilities and zoonoses) were also recorded. Since 2012 the CHNRI method was used more widely, expanding into the topics such as adolescent health, dementia, national health policy and education. The majority of the exercises were focused on issues that were only relevant to low- and middle-income countries, and national-level applications are on the rise. The first CHNRI-based articles adhered to the five recommended priority-setting criteria, but by 2016 more than two-thirds of all conducted exercises departed from recommendations, modifying the CHNRI method to suit each particular exercise. This was done not only by changing the number of criteria used, but also by introducing some entirely new criteria (eg, "low cost", "sustainability", "acceptability", "feasibility", "relevance" and others). The popularity of the CHNRI method in setting health research priorities can be attributed to several key conceptual advances that have addressed common concerns. The method is systematic in nature, offering an acceptable framework for handling many research questions. It is also transparent and replicable, because it

  5. Shared research priorities for pessary use in women with prolapse: results from a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Kate; Hagen, Suzanne; McClurg, Doreen; Pollock, Alex

    2018-04-28

    To identify the shared priorities for future research of women affected by and clinicians involved with pessary use for the management of prolapse. A priority setting project using a consensus method. A James Lind Alliance Pessary use for prolapse Priority Setting Partnership (JLA Pessary PSP) conducted from May 2016 to September 2017 in the UK. The PSP was run by a Steering Group of three women with experience of pessary use, three experienced clinicians involved with management of prolapse, two researchers with relevant experience, a JLA adviser and a PSP leader. Two surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017. The first gathered questions about pessaries, and the second asked respondents to prioritise a list of questions. A final workshop was held on 8 September 2017 involving 10 women and 13 clinician representatives with prolapse and pessary experience. A top 10 list of priorities for future research in pessary use for prolapse was agreed by consensus. Women with experience of pessary use and clinicians involved with prolapse management have worked together to determine shared priorities for future research. Aligning the top 10 results with existing research findings will highlight the gaps in current evidence and signpost future research to areas of priority. Effective dissemination of the results will enable research funding bodies to focus on gathering the evidence to answer the questions that matter most to those who will be affected. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Political Socialization Research and Canadian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, George S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a review of the burgeoning field of Canadian political socialization research as it applies to children and youth, and considers some implications of recent findings for the Canadian studies curriculum. (Editor)

  7. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  8. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  9. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  10. On the Analysis of Case-Control Studies in Cluster-correlated Data Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Rivera-Rodriguez, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, long-term evaluation of national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs often relies on aggregated data, the analysis of which may be subject to ecological bias. As researchers and policy makers consider evaluating individual-level outcomes such as treatment adherence or mortality, the well-known case-control design is appealing in that it provides efficiency gains over random sampling. In the context that motivates this article, valid estimation and inference requires acknowledging any clustering, although, to our knowledge, no statistical methods have been published for the analysis of case-control data for which the underlying population exhibits clustering. Furthermore, in the specific context of an ongoing collaboration in Malawi, rather than performing case-control sampling across all clinics, case-control sampling within clinics has been suggested as a more practical strategy. To our knowledge, although similar outcome-dependent sampling schemes have been described in the literature, a case-control design specific to correlated data settings is new. In this article, we describe this design, discuss balanced versus unbalanced sampling techniques, and provide a general approach to analyzing case-control studies in cluster-correlated settings based on inverse probability-weighted generalized estimating equations. Inference is based on a robust sandwich estimator with correlation parameters estimated to ensure appropriate accounting of the outcome-dependent sampling scheme. We conduct comprehensive simulations, based in part on real data on a sample of N = 78,155 program registrants in Malawi between 2005 and 2007, to evaluate small-sample operating characteristics and potential trade-offs associated with standard case-control sampling or when case-control sampling is performed within clusters.

  11. Nudging physician prescription decisions by partitioning the order set: results of a vignette-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, David; Doctor, Jason N; Persell, Stephen D; Friedberg, Mark W; Meeker, Daniella; Friesema, Elisha M; Goldstein, Noah J; Linder, Jeffrey A; Fox, Craig R

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare professionals are rapidly adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Within EHRs, seemingly innocuous menu design configurations can influence provider decisions for better or worse. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the grouping of menu items systematically affects prescribing practices among primary care providers. We surveyed 166 primary care providers in a research network of practices in the greater Chicago area, of whom 84 responded (51% response rate). Respondents and non-respondents were similar on all observable dimensions except that respondents were more likely to work in an academic setting. The questionnaire consisted of seven clinical vignettes. Each vignette described typical signs and symptoms for acute respiratory infections, and providers chose treatments from a menu of options. For each vignette, providers were randomly assigned to one of two menu partitions. For antibiotic-inappropriate vignettes, the treatment menu either listed over-the-counter (OTC) medications individually while grouping prescriptions together, or displayed the reverse partition. For antibiotic-appropriate vignettes, the treatment menu either listed narrow-spectrum antibiotics individually while grouping broad-spectrum antibiotics, or displayed the reverse partition. The main outcome was provider treatment choice. For antibiotic-inappropriate vignettes, we categorized responses as prescription drugs or OTC-only options. For antibiotic-appropriate vignettes, we categorized responses as broad- or narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Across vignettes, there was an 11.5 percentage point reduction in choosing aggressive treatment options (e.g., broad-spectrum antibiotics) when aggressive options were grouped compared to when those same options were listed individually (95% CI: 2.9 to 20.1%; p = .008). Provider treatment choice appears to be influenced by the grouping of menu options, suggesting that the layout of EHR order sets is not an arbitrary exercise

  12. Geologic setting of the proposed Fallon FORGE Site, Nevada: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, James E.; Blankenship, Douglas; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Sabin, Andrew; Nordquist, Josh; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kennedy, Mack; Siler, Drew; Robinson-Tait, Ann; Williams, Colin F.; Drakos, Peter; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Fallon FORGE site lies within and adjacent to the Naval Air Station Fallon (NASF) directly southeast of the town of Fallon, Nevada, within the large basin of the Carson Sink in west-central Nevada. The site is located on two parcels that include land owned by the NASF and leased and owned by Ormat Nevada, Inc. The Carson Sink in the vicinity of the Fallon site is covered by Quaternary deposits, including alluvial fan, eolian, and lacustrine sediments. Four wells penetrate the entire Neogene section and bottom in Mesozoic basement. Late Miocene to Quaternary basin-fill sediments are 0.5 to >1 km thick and overlie Oligocene-Miocene volcanic and lesser sedimentary rocks. The volcanic section is 0.5 to 1.0 km thick and dominated by Miocene mafic lavas. The Neogene section rests nonconformably on heterogeneous Mesozoic basement, which consists of Triassic-Jurassic metamorphic rocks intruded by Cretaceous granitic plutons. The structural framework is dominated by a gently west-tilted half graben cut by moderately to steeply dipping N- to NNEstriking normal faults that dip both east and west. Quaternary faults have not been observed within the proposed FORGE site. Fallon was selected for a potential FORGE site due to its extensional tectonic setting, abundance of available data, existing infrastructure, and documented temperatures, permeability, and lithologic composition of potential reservoirs that fall within the ranges specified by DOE for FORGE. Since the early 1970s, more than 45 wells have been drilled for geothermal exploration within the area. Four exploration wells within the FORGE site are available for use in the project. Several additional wells are available for monitoring outside the central FORGE site within the NASF and Ormat lease area, including numerous temperature gradient holes. There is an existing, ten-station micro-seismic earthquake (MEQ) array that has been collecting data since 2001; the MEQ array can be expanded to encompass the

  13. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    thickets that support a lower diversity of wildlife. No volunteer seedlings of heavy-seeded hardwoods or cypress have been found in the corridor areas. Research was conducted to determine methods to reintroduce tree species characteristic of more mature forested wetlands. Three restoration strategies were formulated to deal with the differing conditions of the Upper Corridor, the Lower Corridor, and the Delta regions of the impacted area. Site preparation and planting of each area with mixtures of tree species were carried out to speed the restoration of the ecosystem. Species composition and selection were altered based on the current and expected hydrological regimes that the reforestation areas will be experiencing. Because of the operational design of the restoration project, a research program naturally followed to document the success. Many of those efforts are detailed here

  14. Mapping Suitable Sites for Setting up Wind Farms: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Suitable Sites for Setting up Wind Farms: A Case Study of Nyanga District. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... sources and continuous power shortages make wind energy a very attractive alternative to ...

  15. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  16. Study of different effectives on wind energy by using mathematical methods and rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrouf, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of data plays an important role in all fields of life, a huge number of data that results from experimental data in all scientific and social sciences. The analysis of these data was carried out by statistical methods and its representation depended on classical Euclidean geometric concepts.In the 21 st century, new direction for data analysis have been started in applications. These direction depend basically on modern mathematical theories. The quality of data and information can be characterized as interfering and man is unable to distinguish between its vocabularies. The topological methods are the most compatible for this process of analysis for making decision. At the end of 20 th century, a new topological method appeared, this is known by R ough Set Theory Approach , this doesn't depend on external suppositions. It is known as (let data speak). This is good for all types of data. The theory was originated by Pawlak in 1982 [48] as a result of long term program of fundamental research on logical properties of information systems, carried out by him and a group of logicians from Phlish Academy of sciences and the University of Warsaw, Poland. Various real life application of rough sets have shown its usefulness in many domains as civil engineering, medical data analysis, generating of a cement kiln control algorithm from observation of stocker's actions, vibration analysis, air craft pilot performance evaluation, hydrology, pharmacology, image processing and ecology.Variable Precision Rough Set (VPRS)-model is proposed by W. Ziarko [80]. It is a new generalization of the rough set model. It is aimed at handling underlain information and is directly derived from the original model without any additional assumptions.Topology is a mathematical tool to study information systems and variable precision rough sets. Ziarko presumed that the notion of variable precision rough sets depend on special types of topological spaces. In this space, the families of

  17. A Step towards a Sharable Community Knowledge Base for WRF Settings -Developing a WRF Setting Methodology based on a case study in a Torrential Rainfall Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, Q.; Xu, Z.; Zhuo, L.; Han, D.

    2016-12-01

    base in this paper would be helpful to peer-researchers and operational communities by saving them from repeating each other's work. More importantly, the results by studying different events and locations could enrich this community knowledge base to benefit WRF users around the world in the future.

  18. Rigour in qualitative case-study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2013-03-01

    To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.

  19. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Drzezga, A. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  20. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O.; Drzezga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  1. A Review of 10 Years of Vasectomy Programming and Research in Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Dominick; Perry, Brian; Packer, Catherine; Chin Quee, Dawn

    2016-12-23

    Vasectomy is a highly effective and safe contraceptive method for couples who want to stop childbearing, but only 2.4% of men around the world use this method. We conducted an extensive review of the vasectomy research literature and programmatic reports, published between April 2005 and April 2015, to synthesize barriers and facilitators to vasectomy adoption. Of the more than 230 documents initially retrieved in our search, we ultimately included 75 documents in our review and synthesized the findings according to the Supply-Enabling Environment-Demand (SEED) Programming Model. Regarding promoting demand for vasectomy services, we found there was a general lack of awareness about the method among both men and women, which often fueled erroneous assumptions about how vasectomy affects men. Several types of programmatic activities directly addressed knowledge gaps and negative misperceptions, including community-based and mass media communications, employer-based promotion, and group counseling. For supply of services, the lack of or inaccurate knowledge about vasectomy was also prevalent among providers, particularly among community-based health workers. Programmatic activities to improve service delivery included the use of evidence-based vasectomy techniques such as no-scalpel vasectomy, whole-site trainings, task shifting, cascade training, and mobile outreach. Finally, programmatic approaches to building a more enabling environment included engagement of governments and other community and religious leaders as well as campaigns with gender transformative messaging that countered common myths and encouraged men's positive engagement in family planning and reproductive health. In summary, a successful vasectomy program is comprised of the mutually reinforcing components of continual demand for services and access to and supply of well-trained providers. In addition, there is an underlying need for enabling policies within the cultural and gender environments

  2. An Accurate Fire-Spread Algorithm in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Using the Level-Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Esparza, Domingo; Kosović, Branko; Jiménez, Pedro A.; Coen, Janice L.

    2018-04-01

    The level-set method is typically used to track and propagate the fire perimeter in wildland fire models. Herein, a high-order level-set method using fifth-order WENO scheme for the discretization of spatial derivatives and third-order explicit Runge-Kutta temporal integration is implemented within the Weather Research and Forecasting model wildland fire physics package, WRF-Fire. The algorithm includes solution of an additional partial differential equation for level-set reinitialization. The accuracy of the fire-front shape and rate of spread in uncoupled simulations is systematically analyzed. It is demonstrated that the common implementation used by level-set-based wildfire models yields to rate-of-spread errors in the range 10-35% for typical grid sizes (Δ = 12.5-100 m) and considerably underestimates fire area. Moreover, the amplitude of fire-front gradients in the presence of explicitly resolved turbulence features is systematically underestimated. In contrast, the new WRF-Fire algorithm results in rate-of-spread errors that are lower than 1% and that become nearly grid independent. Also, the underestimation of fire area at the sharp transition between the fire front and the lateral flanks is found to be reduced by a factor of ≈7. A hybrid-order level-set method with locally reduced artificial viscosity is proposed, which substantially alleviates the computational cost associated with high-order discretizations while preserving accuracy. Simulations of the Last Chance wildfire demonstrate additional benefits of high-order accurate level-set algorithms when dealing with complex fuel heterogeneities, enabling propagation across narrow fuel gaps and more accurate fire backing over the lee side of no fuel clusters.

  3. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  4. Setting up a glove box adoptable high temperature furnace for actinide chemistry research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, S.K.; Keskar, Meera; Kannan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Thermophysical and thermochemical properties of fuel materials and the compounds formed by the interaction of fuel with fission products and cladding materials are very important for the understanding of fuel behaviour under reactor operation condition. In order to find out various compounds formed during reactor operating condition, number of phase mixtures containing UO_2, ThO_2, PuO_2 and (U, Pu)O_2 with fission products and cladding materials have to be prepared and characterized using XRD, HTXRD, DSC, TG/DTA techniques. For carrying out solid-state reactions, the reaction mixtures have to be heated in different atmospheres between 1000 to 1600°C.Since, actinides are used in these studies, a control atmosphere high temperature furnace inside a glove box with appropriate safety features is indispensable