WorldWideScience

Sample records for research study designs

  1. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  2. Schematic representation of case study research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John P; Yates, Patsy M

    2007-11-01

    The paper is a report of a study to demonstrate how the use of schematics can provide procedural clarity and promote rigour in the conduct of case study research. Case study research is a methodologically flexible approach to research design that focuses on a particular case - whether an individual, a collective or a phenomenon of interest. It is known as the 'study of the particular' for its thorough investigation of particular, real-life situations and is gaining increased attention in nursing and social research. However, the methodological flexibility it offers can leave the novice researcher uncertain of suitable procedural steps required to ensure methodological rigour. This article provides a real example of a case study research design that utilizes schematic representation drawn from a doctoral study of the integration of health promotion principles and practices into a palliative care organization. The issues discussed are: (1) the definition and application of case study research design; (2) the application of schematics in research; (3) the procedural steps and their contribution to the maintenance of rigour; and (4) the benefits and risks of schematics in case study research. The inclusion of visual representations of design with accompanying explanatory text is recommended in reporting case study research methods.

  3. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of design science research (DSR) gained momentum as a research approach in information systems (IS), the adoption of a DSR approach in postgraduate studies became more acceptable. This paper reflects on a study to investigate how a...

  4. Research Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    Gunnar Scott Reinbacher (editor) Antology.  Research Design : Validation in Social Sciences. Gunnar Scott Reinbacher: Introduction. Research design and validity. 15p Ole Riis: Creative Research design. 16 p Lennart Nørreklit: Validity in Research Design. 24p Gitte Sommer Harrits: Praxeological...... Scott Reinbacher: Multidisciplinary Research Designs in Problem Based Research. The case of an european project on chronical diseases, the Tandem project (Training Alternmative Networking Skills in Diabetes Management). 15p Niels Nørgaard Kristensen: A qualitative bottom up approach to post modern...... knowledge: An integrated strategy for combining "explaining" and "understanding". 22p Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen & Viola Burau: Comparative research designs. 40p Rasmus Antoft & Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen: Studying organizations by a Pragmatic Research Design: the case of qualitative case study  designs. 31p...

  5. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  6. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  7. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  8. Research designs and making causal inferences from health care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the major types of research designs used in healthcare research, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. Observational studies are divided into survey studies (descriptive and correlational studies), case-studies and analytic studies, the last of which are commonly used in epidemiology: case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort studies. Similarities and differences among the research designs are described and the relative strength of evidence they provide is discussed. Emphasis is placed on five criteria for drawing causal inferences that are derived from the writings of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, especially his methods or canons. The application of the criteria to experimentation is explained. Particular attention is given to the degree to which different designs meet the five criteria for making causal inferences. Examples of specific studies that have used various designs in chaplaincy research are provided.

  9. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  10. Concussion Awareness Education: A Design and Development Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbeam, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    This research study looks at the design and development of an online concussion awareness education module. The Keep Your Head in the Game: Concussion Awareness Training for High School Athletes, or Brainbook, is a stand-alone e-learning module designed to run for fifty minutes and to be highly interactive using short video clips with associated…

  11. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...... ‘synergies from interdisciplinary perspectives’ by discussing and elaborating on differing academic perspectives, theoretical backgrounds, and design concept definitions, and evaluating their unique contribution to a general core of design research. This book is an exciting contribution to this little...

  12. Getting started in research: designing and preparing to conduct a research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Matthew D; Kisely, Steve; Loi, Samantha; Macfarlane, Stephen; Merry, Sally; Parker, Stephen; Power, Brian; Siskind, Dan; Smith, Geoff; Looi, Jeffrey C

    2015-02-01

    To discuss common pitfalls and useful tips in designing a quantitative research study, the importance and process of ethical approval, and consideration of funding. Through careful planning, based on formulation of a research question, early career researchers can design and conduct quantitative research projects within the framework of the Scholarly Project or in their own independent projects. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  13. Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design research studies: Still promising, still hazy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Bart; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Ormel, B., Pareja Roblin, N., McKenney, S., Voogt, J., & Pieters, J. (2012). Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design research studies: Still promising, still hazy. Educational Technology Research & Development, 60(6), 967-986. doi:10.1007/s11423-012-9261-6

  14. Research design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K.

    2018-01-01

    Many of today’s global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training

  15. Empirical research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis

  16. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  17. Design Research between Design and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The discourse on architecture and design research in Denmark in the past thirty years has been stuck in a unproductive dichotomy between research through design on the one hand and a phantom image of academic and theoretical, word-based research on the other. Advocates of the research through...... design strand have argued, that architecture and design research must follow an architecture and design methodology – designing – and be communicated by means of architecture and design media – images and artefacts. Essentially, this view sees no difference between architecture and design research...... and practice, as expressed in the notion of research as ‘artistic innovation work’. On the other hand, the pressure to expand research in architecture and design has seen a movement towards adopting traditional research paradigms from the technical and social sciences and humanities. For many architects...

  18. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  19. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    define conceptual designing as a constructive framing and re-framing activity, which is mediated by and targeted at the creation of new design concepts. Conceptual designing as an approach is valuable for addressing the fuzziness and ambiguity typical of research that explores novel areas with new...... partners, methods and resources. It is by no means a new phenomenon, and the main contribution of the article is the clarification of conceptual designing as a particular approach to designing and researching. The approach embraces openness, resource-construction and collaboration. We conclude...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...

  20. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  1. What Value Can Qualitative Research Add to Quantitative Research Design? An Example From an Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-08-09

    Using an example of qualitative research embedded in a non-surgical feasibility trial, we explore the benefits of including qualitative research in trial design and reflect on epistemological challenges. We interviewed 18 trial participants and used methods of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Our findings demonstrate that qualitative research can make a valuable contribution by allowing trial stakeholders to see things from alternative perspectives. Specifically, it can help to make specific recommendations for improved trial design, generate questions which contextualize findings, and also explore disease experience beyond the trial. To make the most out of qualitative research embedded in quantitative design it would be useful to (a) agree specific qualitative study aims that underpin research design, (b) understand the impact of differences in epistemological truth claims, (c) provide clear thematic interpretations for trial researchers to utilize, and (d) include qualitative findings that explore experience beyond the trial setting within the impact plan. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Applying Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Arnone, Marilyn P.; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the case-based method (CBM) instructional-design theory and its application in designing self-directed online instruction. The purpose of this study was to validate and refine the theory for a self-directed online instruction context. Guided by formative research methodology, this study first developed an online tutorial…

  3. Reconciling Rigour and Impact by Collaborative Research Design: Study of Teacher Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new way of working collaboratively on the development of a methodology for studying teacher agency for social justice. Increasing emphasis of impact on change as a purpose of social research raises questions about appropriate research designs. Large-scale quantitative research framed within externally set parameters has…

  4. Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design studies: Still promising, still hazy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Bart; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; McKenney, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Ormel, B., Pareja, N., & McKenney, S. (2011, 8-10 June). Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design studies: Still promising, still hazy. Paper presentation at the ORD annual meeting, Maastricht.

  5. The contribution of case study design to supporting research on Clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Psychosocial Clubhouses provide recovery-focused psychosocial rehabilitation to people with serious mental illness at over 300 sites in more than 30 countries worldwide. To deliver the services involved, Clubhouses employ a complex mix of theory, programs and relationships, with this complexity presenting a number of challenges to those undertaking Clubhouse research. This paper provides an overview of the usefulness of case study designs for Clubhouse researchers; and suggests ways in which the evaluation of Clubhouse models can be facilitated. The paper begins by providing a brief explanation of the Clubhouse model of psychosocial rehabilitation, and the need for ongoing evaluation of the services delivered. This explanation is followed by an introduction to case study design, with consideration given to the way in which case studies have been used in past Clubhouse research. It is posited that case study design provides a methodological framework that supports the analysis of either quantitative, qualitative or a mixture of both types of data to investigate complex phenomena in their everyday contexts, and thereby support the development of theory. As such, case study approaches to research are well suited to the Clubhouse environment. The paper concludes with recommendations for future Clubhouse researchers who choose to employ a case study design. While the quality of case study research that explores Clubhouses has been variable in the past, if applied in a diligent manner, case study design has a valuable contribution to make in future Clubhouse research.

  6. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  7. Using a Design-Based Research Study to Identify Principles for Training Instructors to Teach Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Julie; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Within the overall framework of design-based research, this paper reports on a study that focused on evaluating an online training course for online instructors. This intervention was designed as a possible solution to the problem facing some higher education institutions of how to provide quality, accessible training for mostly part-time…

  8. Comparative Study on Research Reactor Design Requirements between IAEA and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won Joon; Yune, Young Gill; Song, Myung Ho; Cho, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study has identified the gaps in the safety requirements for design of research reactors of Korea comparing with those of the IAEA. The review results showed that the gaps have arisen mainly from the following aspects: - The differences in the characteristics of design and operation between power reactor and research reactor - Enhancement of the level of safety of nuclear reactor facility - Consideration of advanced safety technologies. The review results will be utilized to reflect the IAEA safety requirements for design of research reactors into those of Korea, which will contribute to enhancing the level of safety and improving the technical standards of research reactors of Korea. The IAEA safety standards encompass international consensus to strengthen the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of nuclear safety technologies. Also, they provide reliable means to ensure the effective fulfillment of obligations under the various international safety conventions. Many countries have adopted the IAEA safety standards as their national standards in nuclear regulations. Since Korea has exported research reactor technologies abroad these days and will continue to export them in the future, it is desirable to harmonize domestic safety requirements for research reactor with those of the IAEA. The KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has performed a review of the IAEA safety requirements for design of research reactors comparing with those of Korea. The purpose of this comparative study is to harmonize the safety requirements for the design of research reactors of Korea with those of the IAEA as a member state of the IAEA, and to encompass global efforts to enhance the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of nuclear safety technologies into the safety requirements for the design of research reactors of Korea. Design requirements for structures, systems, and components of research reactors important to safety, which are required to

  9. Towards programmatic design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Löwgren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of design research entails research where design practice forms part of the knowledge production. Based on our characterization of the nature of design, we propose to conceptualize this kind of research as programmatic design research. Two ongoing PhD projects in interaction design are presented as examples of programmatic research processes, highlighting issues to do with the virtues and qualities of the processes, the interplay of optics and engagements in a hermeneutical dynamic, and the production of takeaways for the academic community.

  10. Publishing Single-Case Research Design Studies That Do Not Demonstrate Experimental Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Travers, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Demonstration of experimental control is considered a hallmark of high-quality single-case research design (SCRD). Studies that fail to demonstrate experimental control may not be published because researchers are unwilling to submit these papers for publication and journals are unlikely to publish negative results (i.e., the file drawer effect).…

  11. Research-Practice Interactions as Reported in Recent Design Studies: Still Promising, Still Hazy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Bart J. B.; Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    This study portrays recent research-practice connections found in 18 design research reports focusing on the creation of instructional solutions. Solutions in different stages of development varied greatly in duration, ranging from one lesson to a whole year curriculum, spanned all levels of education, many subjects (science, math, language,…

  12. An Action Research Study Designed to Implement Student Negotiation to Improve Speaking Classroom Practice in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the second stage of an action research study designed to improve the effectiveness of speaking classes through negotiating the lesson contents with students. The data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and observations as a way of eliciting students' views. The research, conducted in an English language teaching…

  13. Designing Difference in Difference Studies: Best Practices for Public Health Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Coady; Simon, Kosali; Bello-Gomez, Ricardo A

    2018-04-01

    The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Contemporary researchers should take an active approach to the design of DID studies, seeking to construct comparison groups, sensitivity analyses, and robustness checks that help validate the method's assumptions. We explain the key assumptions of the design and discuss analytic tactics, supplementary analysis, and approaches to statistical inference that are often important in applied research. The DID design is not a perfect substitute for randomized experiments, but it often represents a feasible way to learn about casual relationships. We conclude by noting that combining elements from multiple quasi-experimental techniques may be important in the next wave of innovations to the DID approach.

  14. Reconciling Rigour and Impact by Collaborative Research Design: Study of Teacher Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Pantic, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new way of working collaboratively on the development of a methodology for studying teacher agency for social justice. Increasing emphasis of impact on change as a purpose of social research raises questions about appropriate research designs. Large scale quantitative research framed within externally set parameters has often been criticised for its limited potential for capturing the contexts and impacting change, while smaller, locally embedded, mostly qualitative i...

  15. Creating Innovative Research Designs: The 10-Year Methodological Think Tank Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Crabtree, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Addressing important but complex research questions often necessitates the creation of innovative mixed methods designs. This report describes an approach to developing research designs for studying important but methodologically challenging research questions. METHODS The Methodological Think Tank has been held annually in conjunction with the Primary Care Research Methods and Statistics Conference in San Antonio since 1994. A group of 3 to 4 methodologists with expertise balanced between quantitative and qualitative backgrounds is invited by the think tank coordinators to serve on a 2-day think tank to discuss a research question selected from those submitted in response to a call for proposals. During the first half-day, these experts explore the content area with the investigator, often challenging beliefs and assumptions. During the second half-day, the think tank participants systematically prune potential approaches until a desirable research method is identified. RESULTS To date, the most recent 7 think tanks have produced fundable research designs, with 1 being funded by a K award and 4 by R01 grants. All participating investigators attributed much of their success to think tank participation. Lessons learned include (1) the importance of careful selection of participating methodologists, (2) all think tank communities of inquiry must go through 4 stages of development from pseudocommunity to community, and (3) the critical importance of listening by the investigator. CONCLUSION Researchers and academic departments could use this process locally to develop innovative research designs. PMID:17003146

  16. Teaching engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blessing, Lucienne; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    The importance og engineering design as an industrial activity, and the increasingly complex and dynamic context in which it takes place, has led to the wish to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of engineering design in practice as well as in education. Although attempts have been made...... to improve design for centuries, it was not until well in the second half of the 20th century that engineering design became a research topic (see pahl and Beitz (1996), Heymann (2004) for historical overviews). Engineering research, such as research into thermodynamics, mechanics and materials, has a much...... by PhD students. This has created the demand for a clear, efficient way of learning the crafmanship of doing design research, a demand which is in strong contrast to the state of design research in general. This article reflects the authors' efforts in running a summer school om engineering design...

  17. Sense of Community in a Blended Technology Integration Course: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. Buckley; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research study explored whether "sense of community" was maintained while flexibility in the course was increased through an adoption of a unique blended learning model. Data collected in this study show a significant drop in the sense of connectedness score from a mean of 50.8 out of 66 to a mean of 39.68 in the first…

  18. Study Links Learning Design to Changes in Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors. Lessons from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen

    2015-01-01

    In this study of 16 teachers in two primary schools in the Netherlands, researchers built on findings from previous studies to demonstrate that a thoughtfully designed professional development program can be "effective and sustainable, if certain conditions are met" (p. 772) in changing teachers' knowledge, beliefs, perceived problems,…

  19. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  20. Invited review: study design considerations for clinical research in veterinary radiology and radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivani, Peter V; Erb, Hollis N

    2013-01-01

    High quality clinical research is essential for advancing knowledge in the areas of veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. Types of clinical research studies may include experimental studies, method-comparison studies, and patient-based studies. Experimental studies explore issues relative to pathophysiology, patient safety, and treatment efficacy. Method-comparison studies evaluate agreement between techniques or between observers. Patient-based studies investigate naturally acquired disease and focus on questions asked in clinical practice that relate to individuals or populations (e.g., risk, accuracy, or prognosis). Careful preplanning and study design are essential in order to achieve valid results. A key point to planning studies is ensuring that the design is tailored to the study objectives. Good design includes a comprehensive literature review, asking suitable questions, selecting the proper sample population, collecting the appropriate data, performing the correct statistical analyses, and drawing conclusions supported by the available evidence. Most study designs are classified by whether they are experimental or observational, longitudinal or cross-sectional, and prospective or retrospective. Additional features (e.g., controlled, randomized, or blinded) may be described that address bias. Two related challenging aspects of study design are defining an important research question and selecting an appropriate sample population. The sample population should represent the target population as much as possible. Furthermore, when comparing groups, it is important that the groups are as alike to each other as possible except for the variables of interest. Medical images are well suited for clinical research because imaging signs are categorical or numerical variables that might be predictors or outcomes of diseases or treatments. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. Prevalence of Recommendations Made Within Dental Research Articles Using Uncontrolled Intervention or Observational Study Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M K; Chestnutt, I G

    2016-03-01

    Evidence to inform clinical practice is reliant on research carried out using appropriate study design. The objectives of this work were to (i) identify the prevalence of articles reporting on human studies using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs published in peer-reviewed dental journals and (ii) determine the nature of recommendations made by these articles. Six peer-reviewed dental journals were selected. Issues published in January to June 2013 were examined and the types of articles published categorized. Following pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, human studies classified as using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs were subject to detailed review by two independent investigators, to examine if they presented clinical, policy or research recommendations and if these recommendations were supported by the data presented. 52.9% (n = 156) of studies published during the time period met the inclusion criteria. Studies with uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs comprised a larger proportion of the primary research studies published in the journals with lower impact factors (73.3%; n = 107) compared to the high impact journals (38.9%; n = 49). Analysis showed that 60.9% (n = 95) of the included studies made recommendations for clinical practice/dental policy. In 28.2% (n = 44) of studies, the clinical/policy recommendations made were judged to not be fully supported by the data presented. Many studies published in the current dental literature, which are not considered to produce strong evidence, make recommendations for clinical practice or policy. There were some cases when the recommendations were not fully supported by the data presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design (research) practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    possibilities through experimentation (Brandt and Binder 2007). Likewise in relation to design research we have argued that “the possible is always contingent and though research may convincingly provide arguments for certain possibilities both search and arguments have to be guided by programs that set...... substantiate or challenge this view and the dialectic between program and probing is in our view central to any design practice” (Binder and Redström 2006: 4). Our suggestion is to see design research practices as fundamentally homologous to any other design practices both in terms of the way they are driven...

  3. Developing the DESCARTE Model: The Design of Case Study Research in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Clare M; Forbat, Liz; Smith, Annetta

    2016-04-01

    Case study is a long-established research tradition which predates the recent surge in mixed-methods research. Although a myriad of nuanced definitions of case study exist, seminal case study authors agree that the use of multiple data sources typify this research approach. The expansive case study literature demonstrates a lack of clarity and guidance in designing and reporting this approach to research. Informed by two reviews of the current health care literature, we posit that methodological description in case studies principally focuses on description of case study typology, which impedes the construction of methodologically clear and rigorous case studies. We draw from the case study and mixed-methods literature to develop the DESCARTE model as an innovative approach to the design, conduct, and reporting of case studies in health care. We examine how case study fits within the overall enterprise of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research, and the potential strengths of the model are considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  5. Note On Research Design For The Study Of Community Participation In Health Care Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Susan B

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available After describing types of research designs for the study of community participation in health care programmes, this paper examines one methodology, the quantitative methodology, the quantitative methodology, in detail. It presents some of the major attractions and limitations of this approach. The attractions include the need for evaluation of success and failure and of cost effectiveness of programmes. The limitations include the inability of the approach to deal with definitions and interventions that cannot be quantitified and the difficulty of identifying casual relationship between interventions and outcomes. These characteristics are illustrated by a case by a medical school in Asia. Research design, research developments and research outcomes are described and analysed. The paper concludes that an alternative analysis which examines the linkages between participation and health improvements would be more useful as it would allow the political, social and economic dimensions of community participation to be examined.

  6. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power plant (2). Safety design study of FNPP. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Shimazaki, Junya; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Masao [Niigata Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Kazuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    In the previous report of 'Conceptual Design Study of FNPP (Floating Nuclear Power Plant)', a design study on a concept for FNPP, which is sited off the sea coast on the open sea with water depth of 20m and it is moored on protected sea by the breakwater was conducted and the floating platform guarded by the breakwater was found to be stable enough to install the nuclear power plant from analysis simulating the movement of the platform due to sea wave or wind. In this report, studies on a basic safety design concept of the FNPP, setting natural phenomena for design condition, required safety functions and a review on dynamic analysis of the large floating structure are presented. The studies revealed that the stability of the floating platform is an essential issue for the FNPP soundness, and the design base natural phenomena such as S1 and S2-class storm including S1 and S2-class earthquake should be considered in evaluation of the stability of the floating platform, and it is one of key technical subjects how to set the magnitude of these storm in application of design evaluation on each FNPP case. (J.P.N.)

  7. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  8. Design study of underground facility of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU is consisted of surface and underground facilities down to the depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program which includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed last year, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  9. Collaborative ethnography for information systems research Studying knowledge work practices and designing supportive information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Maier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding knowledge work and supporting it with information systems (ISs are challenging tasks. Knowledge work has changed substantially recently and studies on how knowledge work is currently performed are scarce. Ethnography is the most suitable qualitative research method for studying knowledge work, yet too time-consuming, costly and unfocused for the fast changing IS domain. Moreover, results from qualitative studies need to be transformed into artefacts useful for IS requirements engineering and design. This paper proposes a procedure for collaborative ethnography to study knowledge work practices and inform IS requirements gathering and design illustrated with the case of a collaborative ethnographic study of seven organisations in four European countries performed in a large-scale international IS research and development project. The paper also critically discusses the procedure’s applicability and limitations.

  10. Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove; Petersen, Trine Brun

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel introduceres Design Based Research for første gang på dansk i et videnskabeligt tidsskrift. Artiklen præsenterer de grundlæggende antagelser, som ligger til grund for Design Based Research-traditionen, og artiklen diskuterer de principper, som ligger til grund for gennemførelse af...... et DBR-forskningsprojekt. Med udgangspunkt i forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ELYK: E-læring, Yderområder og Klyngedannelse, præsenteres den innovationsmodel, som projektet har udviklet med udgangspunkt i Design Based Research traditionen. ELYKs DBR innovationsmodel har vist sig effektiv i forhold...

  11. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems as a tool for landscape design research - investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions (architectonic plan analysis. The concept ‘composition’ refers to a conceivable arrangement, an architectural expression of a mental construct that is legible and open to interpretation. Landscape architectonic compositions and their representations embody a great wealth of design knowledge as objects of our material culture and reflect the possible treatment of the ground, space, image and program as a characteristic coherence. By exploring landscape architectonic compositions with GIS, design researchers can acquire design knowledge that can be used in the creation and refinement of a design.  The research aims to identify and illustrate the potential role of GIS as a tool in landscape design research, so as to provide insight into the possibilities and limitations of using GIS in this capacity. The critical, information-oriented case of Stourhead landscape garden (Wiltshire, UK, an example of a designed landscape that covers the scope and remit of landscape architecture design, forms the heart of the study. The exploration of Stourhead by means of GIS can be understood as a plausibility probe. Here the case study is considered a form of ‘quasi-experiment’, testing the hypothesis and generating a learning process that constitutes a prerequisite for advanced understanding, while using an adjusted version of the framework for landscape design analysis by Steenbergen and Reh (2003. This is a theoretically informed analytical method based on the formal interpretation of the landscape architectonic composition addressing four landscape architectonic categories: the basic, the spatial, the symbolic and the programmatic form. This study includes new aspects to be

  12. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  13. Against (Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Indrajaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of this article is an attempt to show that the word research in traditional sense (within the Cartesian scheme is hostile to design activity. It will reduce the process of design into a merely fix mechanical process, burying the aspect of imagination, creativity, and more importantly proposing in it that is a crucial aspect to design. This imposition might indiscipline (in a formal academic sense design as a discipline in human sciences. In order to achieve this, the article is divided in three sections. The first section will discuss what scientific research is and what traditionally presupposed in it: objective, neutral, and a-historical; simply the disinterestedness of research. As for the second, epistemological concerns on traditional scientific research from two philosophers of science will be discussed: Thomas S. Kuhn and Paul K. Feyerabend. As for the third, the closing section, an attempt to delineate design and what designers do in comparison to scientists’ will be discussed. It is how design and designers are different in their manners with traditional science and scientist. 

  14. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  15. Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    This workshop is an applied tutorial, aimed at novice and experienced researchers who wish to learn more about Design Science Research (DSR) and/or to develop and progress their own DSR work. During the workshop, attendees will be introduced to various DSR concepts and current trends, to create...

  16. Involving Latina/o parents in patient-centered outcomes research: Contributions to research study design, implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Jolles, Mónica; Martinez, Maria; Garcia, San Juanita; Stein, Gabriela L; Thomas, Kathleen C

    2017-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is supported by policymakers as a way to provide service providers and patients with evidence-based information to make better health-care decisions and ultimately improve services for patients. However, Latina/o patients are rarely involved as study advisors, and there is a lack of documentation on how their voices contribute to the research process when they are included as collaborators. The purpose of this article was to contribute to the literature by presenting concrete contributions of Latina/o parent involvement to study design, implementation and outcomes in the context of a CER study called Padres Efectivos (Parent Activation). Researchers facilitated a collaborative relationship with parents by establishing a mentor parent group. The contributions of parent involvement in the following stages of the research process are described: (i) proposal development, (ii) implementation of protocols, (iii) analysis plan and (iv) dissemination of results. Mentor parents' contributions helped tailor the content of the intervention to their needs during proposal, increased recruitment, validated the main outcome measure and added two important outcome measures, emphasized the importance of controlling for novice treatment status and developed innovative dissemination strategies. Mentor parents' guidance to the researchers has contributed to reaching recruitment goals, strengthened the study protocol, expanded findings, supported broad ownership of study implications and enriched the overall study data collection efforts. These findings can inform future research efforts seeking an active Latino parent collaboration and the timely incorporation of parent voices in each phase of the research process. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Board and card games for studying electrochemistry: Preliminary research and early design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Rizmahardian Ashari; Kurniasih, Dedeh; Jukardi

    2017-12-01

    Games in the chemistry classroom can offer engaging and fun alternative method of learning. However, only a few games in chemistry, especially in electrochemistry subject are available commercially. In this research, we developed board and card games for studying electrochemistry. We surveyed chemistry teacher and students from 10 different senior high schools in Pontianak to decide content and characteristic of the game. We have designed the game that can be played by four students or four group of students, either as a specific instruction in the classroom or as a supplementary learning material. The game was designed to help students understanding the voltaic cell configuration and its voltaic potential.

  18. Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed

  19. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power plant (1). Conceptual design study of FNPP. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Shimazaki, Junya; Ochiai, Masaaki; Takahashi, Masao; Nakazawa, Toshio

    2001-02-01

    Offshore siting methods for a nuclear power plant are classified into three types as a floating type, a settled type and a land reclamation type. The floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) has a number of advantages, such as seismic isolation, standardization of design and manufacturing, and reduction of construction period. It is, however, required for FNPP to establish the safety standards, which are different from ones for land based nuclear power plant. Investigations for this subject have not been conducted sufficiently. In this report, design study on a concept for FNPP and a review on stability evaluation for the floating platform, which were performed in order to study the safety concept of the FNPP are described. The basic concept of the FNPP are described. The basic concept for FNPP is as follows: The FNPP is sited approximately 1 - 2km off the sea coast on the open sea with water depth of about 20m and it is moored of protected sea by the breakwater, it provide a floating platform for a 1,100MWe class PWR plant. The results of design study show that the floating platform for 1,100MWe class PWR plant of 300m (L) x 80m (W) x 35m (H), and displacement of approximately 300,000 ton can be constructed in a dockyard. This floating platform guarded by the breakwater is found to be stable enough to install the nuclear power plant from the analysis simulating the movement of the platform due to sea wave or wind. (author)

  20. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power plant (1). Conceptual design study of FNPP. Construct research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Shimazaki, Junya; Ochiai, Masaaki [Department of Nuclear Energy System, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Takahashi, Masao [Niigata Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Kazuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Offshore siting methods for a nuclear power plant are classified into three types as a floating type, a settled type and a land reclamation type. The floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) has a number of advantages, such as seismic isolation, standardization of design and manufacturing, and reduction of construction period. It is, however, required for FNPP to establish the safety standards, which are different from ones for land based nuclear power plant. Investigations for this subject have not been conducted sufficiently. In this report, design study on a concept for FNPP and a review on stability evaluation for the floating platform, which were performed in order to study the safety concept of the FNPP are described. The basic concept of the FNPP are described. The basic concept for FNPP is as follows: The FNPP is sited approximately 1 - 2km off the sea coast on the open sea with water depth of about 20m and it is moored of protected sea by the breakwater, it provide a floating platform for a 1,100MWe class PWR plant. The results of design study show that the floating platform for 1,100MWe class PWR plant of 300m (L) x 80m (W) x 35m (H), and displacement of approximately 300,000 ton can be constructed in a dockyard. This floating platform guarded by the breakwater is found to be stable enough to install the nuclear power plant from the analysis simulating the movement of the platform due to sea wave or wind. (author)

  1. Fashion Research at Design Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2008-01-01

    as a continuation of the way teaching in fashion design and research on fashion is perceived in the various cases. This of course implements the fact that there are very diverse perceptions on what fashion research is.  A main discussion therefore concerns current methodological diversities in fashion research......The report “Fashion Research at Design Schools” (2008), which was commissioned by Institute for Fashion and Textiles at Designskolen Kolding,  appoints the potentials and challenges in relation to the ongoing academization of design schools, with a specific focus on fashion research. The key...... research question is: “What kind of fashion design education is Designskolen Kolding aiming to offer in the future, what kind of skills will the students need in their future work place, the fashion industry, and can research work as a potential in this process?”   The study is based on qualitative...

  2. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Strategies to design clinical studies to identify predictive biomarkers in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Bosch, Ana; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Schalper, Kurt A; Segura, Victor; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Tabernero, Josep; Sweeney, Christopher J; Choueiri, Toni K; Martín, Miguel; Fusco, Juan Pablo; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria Esperanza; Calvo, Alfonso; Prior, Celia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pio, Ruben; Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Enrique; Gonzalez Hernandez, Alvaro; Páez, David; Piulats, Jose María; Gurpide, Alfonso; Andueza, Mapi; de Velasco, Guillermo; Pazo, Roberto; Grande, Enrique; Nicolas, Pilar; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Garcia-Donas, Jesus; Castellano, Daniel; Pajares, María J; Suarez, Cristina; Colomer, Ramon; Montuenga, Luis M; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers. While some drugs will be systematically administered to many patients who will not benefit from them, leading to unnecessary toxicities and costs, others will never reach registration due to our inability to identify the specific patient population in which they are active. Despite these drawbacks, a limited number of outstanding predictive biomarkers have been successfully identified and validated, and have changed the standard practice of oncology. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary panel reviews how those key biomarkers were identified and, based on those experiences, proposes a methodological framework-the DESIGN guidelines-to standardize the clinical design of biomarker identification studies and to develop future research in this pivotal field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Queering Participatory Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  5. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  6. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  7. A Design Research Study of a Curriculum and Diagnostic Assessment System for a Learning Trajectory on Equipartitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Design research studies provide significant opportunities to study new innovations and approaches and how they affect the forms of learning in complex classroom ecologies. This paper reports on a two-week long design research study with twelve 2nd through 4th graders using curricular materials and a tablet-based diagnostic assessment system, both…

  8. Design, Research, and Design Research: Synergies and Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Notions of design, research, and design research in the field of educational technology are quite different from conceptualizations held by other design fields. Examining the ways that research is conducted and used in educational technology in comparison to other design fields can provide novel insights into how research and design practice can…

  9. A parametric study on characteristics for nuclear design of high-performance research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, D. G.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, B. C.; Seo, C. G.; Chae, H. T.; Park, C.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual design of advanced research reactor with high neutron performance has been performed at KAERI based on design and operation experience obtained from HANARO. In this study, nuclear characteristics of design parameters such as various types of fuel assemblies, structural materials of core and fuel assembly, and the number of absorber rods were analyzed. Among rod, plate and tube type fuel assemblies considered, tube type assembly seems to be preferable as a high performance research reactor fuel because of high thermal margin and neutron flux in reflector. Aluminium block as a structural material of core was shown to be superior to flow tube due to higher reactivity and thermal flux in reflector. The stiffener to fix plates in th fuel assembly had the no impact on fast flux in central trap. The reduction of thermal flux in reflector caused by the stiffener was about 7%. If the control absorber rods of 4 mm thickness were chosen, it would be possible to operate the reactor with fresh fuel assemblies from the initial core

  10. Cancer risks near nuclear facilities: the importance of research design and explicit study hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    In April 2010, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked the National Academy of Sciences to update a 1990 study of cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Prior research on this topic has suffered from problems in hypothesis formulation and research design. We review epidemiologic principles used in studies of generic exposure-response associations and in studies of specific sources of exposure. We then describe logical problems with assumptions, formation of testable hypotheses, and interpretation of evidence in previous research on cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Advancement of knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities depends on testing specific hypotheses grounded in physical and biological mechanisms of exposure and susceptibility while considering sample size and ability to adequately quantify exposure, ascertain cancer cases, and evaluate plausible confounders. Next steps in advancing knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities require studies of childhood cancer incidence, focus on in utero and early childhood exposures, use of specific geographic information, and consideration of pathways for transport and uptake of radionuclides. Studies of cancer mortality among adults, cancers with long latencies, large geographic zones, and populations that reside at large distances from nuclear facilities are better suited for public relations than for scientific purposes.

  11. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  12. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Study and implementation of the CADIS methodology to research reactor shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Gregorio S.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Santos, Adimir dos

    2013-01-01

    The Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) is a methodology that basically uses source biasing and a mesh-based importance map. Therefore, to make the best use of an importance map, the map must be consistent with the source biasing. To achieve this consistency, a Sn calculation could be made to improve the importance map and the computational performance. The MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations) code does that and this work intends to study the code options to generate the importance map. A pool type 10 MW research reactor was designed in a simple way just to study the prompt gamma rays penetration in the concrete and therefore study the CADIS methodology applied to point detectors and mesh tallies. By keeping constant the simulation time and the CPU (Central Processing Unit) power a significant improvement was achieved in the relative errors for the point detectors and for the mesh tally. (author)

  14. Leveraging Failure in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne; Walters, C. David; Hohensee, Charles; Gruver, John; Diamond, Jaime Marie

    2015-01-01

    Even in the resource-rich, more ideal conditions of many design-based classroom interventions, unexpected events can lead to disappointing results in student learning. However, if later iterations in a design research study are more successful, the previous failures can provide opportunities for comparisons to reveal subtle differences in…

  15. Big Data Research in Neurosurgery: A Critical Look at this Popular New Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Chesney S; Motiwala, Mustafa; Reed, Kevin; Kondziolka, Douglas; Barker, Fred G; Michael, L Madison; Klimo, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The use of "big data" in neurosurgical research has become increasingly popular. However, using this type of data comes with limitations. This study aimed to shed light on this new approach to clinical research. We compiled a list of commonly used databases that were not specifically created to study neurosurgical procedures, conditions, or diseases. Three North American journals were manually searched for articles published since 2000 utilizing these and other non-neurosurgery-specific databases. A number of data points per article were collected, tallied, and analyzed.A total of 324 articles were identified since 2000 with an exponential increase since 2011 (257/324, 79%). The Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group published the greatest total number (n = 200). The National Inpatient Sample was the most commonly used database (n = 136). The average study size was 114 841 subjects (range, 30-4 146 777). The most prevalent topics were vascular (n = 77) and neuro-oncology (n = 66). When categorizing study objective (recognizing that many papers reported more than 1 type of study objective), "Outcomes" was the most common (n = 154). The top 10 institutions by primary or senior author accounted for 45%-50% of all publications. Harvard Medical School was the top institution, using this research technique with 59 representations (31 by primary author and 28 by senior).The increasing use of data from non-neurosurgery-specific databases presents a unique challenge to the interpretation and application of the study conclusions. The limitations of these studies must be more strongly considered in designing and interpreting these studies.

  16. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  17. Novel study guides for biochemistry meaningful learning in biology: a design-based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano da Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To address the usually decontextualized transmission of information in biochemistry teaching, three interventions in a discipline (Metabolism for Biology majors were applied as innovative study guides. We describe the development, application, and evaluation of two study guides, contextualized with a real problem or an integrative view, using broad themes like evolution and metabolic adaptation. In order to evaluate the impact of both interventions on interest, motivation, and learning of the metabolic pathways, a design-based research with cycles of application and assessment was carried out, by means of classroom observation, grade analysis in written exams, and students’ interviews. Analysis and interpretation of the results point to benefits for teaching and learning, with helpful information to guide elaboration and refinement of new teaching materials and to make active learning more meaningful.

  18. Fashion Research at Design Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2008-01-01

    on fashion education and fashion research, that are “taken for granted” in the institutional culture of each case. Because of the diversity between the cases, a cultural-oriented comparison has been made, where every case is perceived as idiographically unique (Thyge Winther-Jensen 2004). Descriptions......The report “Fashion Research at Design Schools” (2008), which was commissioned by Institute for Fashion and Textiles at Designskolen Kolding,  appoints the potentials and challenges in relation to the ongoing academization of design schools, with a specific focus on fashion research. The key...... research question is: “What kind of fashion design education is Designskolen Kolding aiming to offer in the future, what kind of skills will the students need in their future work place, the fashion industry, and can research work as a potential in this process?”   The study is based on qualitative...

  19. A case study on the design and development of minigames for research methods and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Rosmalen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research methodology involves logical reasoning and critical thinking skills which are core competences in developing a more sophisticated understanding of the world. Acquiring expertise in research methods and statistics is not easy and poses a significant challenge for many students. The subject material is challenging because it is highly abstract and complex and requires the coordination of different but inter-related knowledge and skills that are all necessary to develop a coherent and usable skills base in this area. Additionally, while many students embrace research methods enthusiastically, others find the area dry, abstract and boring. In this paper we discuss the design and the first evaluation of a set of mini-games to practice research methods. Games are considered to be engaging and allow students to test out scenarios which provide concrete examples in a way that they typically only do once they are out in the field. The design of a game is a complex task. First, we describe how we used cognitive task analysis to identify the knowledge and competences required to develop a comprehensive and usable understanding of research methods. Next, we describe the games designed and how 4C-ID, an instructional design model, was used to underpin the games with a sound instructional design basis. Finally, the evaluation approach is discussed and how the findings of the first evaluation phase were used to improve the games.

  20. Novel Study Guides for Biochemistry Meaningful Learning in Biology: a Design-Based Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, C ; Galembeck, E. Costa, C ; Galembeck, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the difficulties for biochemistry learning is the persistence of traditional teaching methods, based on transmission and memorization of abstract and detailed information, usually in a decontextualized way. Such scenario results in surface learning and content reproduction. In order to address these problems, three interventions in a discipline (Metabolism for Biology majors were applied, in the form of innovative teaching tools (study guides. OBJECTIVES: The main goal is to evaluate the impact of these interventions on interest, motivation, and learning of the metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the development, application, and evaluation of two study guides – one created from a problem used as a contextual connection for glycogen metabolism study and another embedding an integrative view based on glutamate metabolism. Both materials were guided by broad themes like evolution, metabolic adaptation, and comparative biochemistry. The development of the study guides combined submicroscopic (molecular and macroscopic (body, environment levels, aiming to motivate reading and discussion. A design-based research with cycles of application and assessment was carried out, by means of classroom observation, grade analysis in written exams, and students’ interviews. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In general, based on in-class student feedback to professors and to the researcher in the interviews, the study guides arouse curiosity and fostered peer discussion. Final average grades indicate a good global performance in all proposed activities. Whole data from study guides’ application in classroom evidenced their impact on interest, motivation, and learning. The strategy of developing problem or integrative situation linking molecular (micro and contextual (macro levels were helpful to foster critical thinking and to value topics of scientific literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis and interpretation of the results point to benefits for

  1. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  2. A human dietary arachidonic acid supplementation study conducted in a metabolic research unit: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Emken, E A; Phinney, S D; Kyle, D; Ferretti, A

    1997-04-01

    While there are many reports of studies that fed arachidonic acid (AA) to animals, there are very few reports of AA feeding to humans under controlled conditions. This 130-d study was conceived as a controlled, symmetrical crossover design with healthy, adult male volunteers. They lived in the metabolic research unit (MRU) of the Western Human Nutrition Research (WHNRC) for the entire study. All food was prepared by the WHNRC kitchen. The basal (low-AA) diet consisted of natural foods (30 en% fat, 15 en% protein, and 55 en% carbohydrate), containing 210 mg/d of AA, and met the recommended daily allowance for all nutrients. The high-AA (intervention) diet was similar except that 1.5 g/d of AA in the form of a triglyceride containing 50% AA replaced an equal amount of high-oleic safflower oil in the basal diet. The subjects (ages 20 to 39) were within -10 to +20% of ideal body weight, nonsmoking, and not allowed alcohol in the MRU. Their exercise level was constant, and their body weights were maintained within 2% of entry level. Subjects were initially fed the low-AA diet for 15 d. On day 16, half of the subjects (group A) wee placed on the high-AA diet, and the other group (B) remained on the low-AA diets. On day 65, the two groups switched diets. On day 115, group B returned to the low-AA diet. This design, assuming no carryover effect, allowed us to merge the data from the two groups, with the data comparison days being 65 (low-AA) and 115 (high-AA) for group B and 130 (low-AA) and 65 (high-AA) for group A. The main indices studied were the fatty acid composition of the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and adipose tissue; in vitro platelet aggregation, bleeding times, clotting factors; immune response as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, cellular proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to various mitogens and antigens, natural killer cell activity, and response to measles/mumps/rubella and influenza vaccines; the

  3. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  4. Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD): study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Eby, David W; Santos, Robert; Mielenz, Thelma J; Molnar, Lisa J; Strogatz, David; Betz, Marian E; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Ryan, Lindsay H; Jones, Vanya; Pitts, Samantha I; Hill, Linda L; DiMaggio, Charles J; LeBlanc, David; Andrews, Howard F

    2017-12-01

    As an important indicator of mobility, driving confers a host of social and health benefits to older adults. Despite the importance of safe mobility as the population ages, longitudinal data are lacking about the natural history and determinants of driving safety in older adults. The Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) project is a multisite prospective cohort study designed to generate empirical data for understanding the role of medical, behavioral, environmental and technological factors in driving safety during the process of aging. A total of 2990 active drivers aged 65-79 years at baseline have been recruited through primary care clinics or health care systems in five study sites located in California, Colorado, Maryland, Michigan, and New York. Consented participants were assessed at baseline with standardized research protocols and instruments, including vehicle inspection, functional performance tests, and "brown-bag review" of medications. The primary vehicle of each participant was instrumented with a small data collection device that records detailed driving data whenever the vehicle is operating and detects when a participant is driving. Annual follow-up is being conducted for up to three years with a telephone questionnaire at 12 and 36 months and in-person assessment at 24 months. Medical records are reviewed annually to collect information on clinical diagnoses and healthcare utilization. Driving records, including crashes and violations, are collected annually from state motor vehicle departments. Pilot testing was conducted on 56 volunteers during March-May 2015. Recruitment and enrollment were completed between July 2015 and March 2017. Results of the LongROAD project will generate much-needed evidence for formulating public policy and developing intervention programs to maintain safe mobility while ensuring well-being for older adults.

  5. Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Normore, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues relayed to appropriate design and conduct of qualitative studies in educational leadership. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is a conceptual/logical argument that centers around the notion that while scholars in the field have at times paid attention to such dynamics, it is important…

  6. Synthesizing Knowledge in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter discusses knowledge synthesis in design research, bringing together the perspectives of experimental design research, or Research in Design Context that is treated extensively elsewhere in this book, and Design Inclusive Research as well as Practice-based Design Research. Specific...... attention is paid to the question of how practice-based or problem-driven design research processes can be rigorous and yield contributions to knowledge. The main argument in this chapter is that a key to knowledge synthesis and scientific contribution is setting explicit design propositions...... that are instantiated within design artefacts, and evaluated rigorously. The chapter starts with a discussion of knowledge creation and synthesis within design research.Following this, the chapter moves on to focus on setting a methodological framework for deriving design propositions. Lastly the chapter elaborates...

  7. QFD-ANP Approach for the Conceptual Design of Research Vessels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kambagowni; Yeshwanth Sai, Koneru; Suresh, Challa

    2016-10-01

    Conceptual design is a subset of concept art wherein a new idea of product is created instead of a visual representation which would directly be used in a final product. The purpose is to understand the needs of conceptual design which are being used in engineering designs and to clarify the current conceptual design practice. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer oriented design approach for developing new or improved products and services to enhance customer satisfaction. House of quality (HOQ) has been traditionally used as planning tool of QFD which translates customer requirements (CRs) into design requirements (DRs). Factor analysis is carried out in order to reduce the CR portions of HOQ. The analytical hierarchical process is employed to obtain the priority ratings of CR's which are used in constructing HOQ. This paper mainly discusses about the conceptual design of an oceanographic research vessel using analytical network process (ANP) technique. Finally the QFD-ANP integrated methodology helps to establish the importance ratings of DRs.

  8. A Clinical Reasoning Tool for Virtual Patients: Design-Based Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Inga; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Adler, Martin

    2017-11-02

    Clinical reasoning is a fundamental process medical students have to learn during and after medical school. Virtual patients (VP) are a technology-enhanced learning method to teach clinical reasoning. However, VP systems do not exploit their full potential concerning the clinical reasoning process; for example, most systems focus on the outcome and less on the process of clinical reasoning. Keeping our concept grounded in a former qualitative study, we aimed to design and implement a tool to enhance VPs with activities and feedback, which specifically foster the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills. We designed the tool by translating elements of a conceptual clinical reasoning learning framework into software requirements. The resulting clinical reasoning tool enables learners to build their patient's illness script as a concept map when they are working on a VP scenario. The student's map is compared with the experts' reasoning at each stage of the VP, which is technically enabled by using Medical Subject Headings, which is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary published by the US National Library of Medicine. The tool is implemented using Web technologies, has an open architecture that enables its integration into various systems through an open application program interface, and is available under a Massachusetts Institute of Technology license. We conducted usability tests following a think-aloud protocol and a pilot field study with maps created by 64 medical students. The results show that learners interact with the tool but create less nodes and connections in the concept map than an expert. Further research and usability tests are required to analyze the reasons. The presented tool is a versatile, systematically developed software component that specifically supports the clinical reasoning skills acquisition. It can be plugged into VP systems or used as stand-alone software in other teaching scenarios. The modular design allows an extension with new

  9. Analysis of Combined Data from Heterogeneous Study Designs: A Methodological Proposal from the Patient Navigation Research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzheim, Richard G.; Freund, Karen M.; Corle, Don K.; Murray, David M.; Snyder, Frederick R.; Kronman, Andrea C.; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Raich, Peter C.; Holden, Alan E. C.; Darnell, Julie S.; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Patierno, Steven; Design, PNRP; Committee, Analysis

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a cooperative effort of nine research projects, each employing its own unique study design. To evaluate projects such as PNRP, it is desirable to perform a pooled analysis to increase power relative to the individual projects. There is no agreed upon prospective methodology, however, for analyzing combined data arising from different study designs. Expert opinions were thus solicited from members of the PNRP Design and Analysis Committee Purpose To review possible methodologies for analyzing combined data arising from heterogeneous study designs. Methods The Design and Analysis Committee critically reviewed the pros and cons of five potential methods for analyzing combined PNRP project data. Conclusions were based on simple consensus. The five approaches reviewed included: 1) Analyzing and reporting each project separately, 2) Combining data from all projects and performing an individual-level analysis, 3) Pooling data from projects having similar study designs, 4) Analyzing pooled data using a prospective meta analytic technique, 5) Analyzing pooled data utilizing a novel simulated group randomized design. Results Methodologies varied in their ability to incorporate data from all PNRP projects, to appropriately account for differing study designs, and in their impact from differing project sample sizes. Limitations The conclusions reached were based on expert opinion and not derived from actual analyses performed. Conclusions The ability to analyze pooled data arising from differing study designs may provide pertinent information to inform programmatic, budgetary, and policy perspectives. Multi-site community-based research may not lend itself well to the more stringent explanatory and pragmatic standards of a randomized controlled trial design. Given our growing interest in community-based population research, the challenges inherent in the analysis of heterogeneous study design are likely to become

  10. Analysis of combined data from heterogeneous study designs: an applied example from the patient navigation research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzheim, Richard G; Freund, Karen M; Corle, Don K; Murray, David M; Snyder, Frederick R; Kronman, Andrea C; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Raich, Peter C; Holden, Alan Ec; Darnell, Julie S; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Patierno, Steven

    2012-04-01

    The Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a cooperative effort of nine research projects, with similar clinical criteria but with different study designs. To evaluate projects such as PNRP, it is desirable to perform a pooled analysis to increase power relative to the individual projects. There is no agreed-upon prospective methodology, however, for analyzing combined data arising from different study designs. Expert opinions were thus solicited from the members of the PNRP Design and Analysis Committee. To review possible methodologies for analyzing combined data arising from heterogeneous study designs. The Design and Analysis Committee critically reviewed the pros and cons of five potential methods for analyzing combined PNRP project data. The conclusions were based on simple consensus. The five approaches reviewed included the following: (1) analyzing and reporting each project separately, (2) combining data from all projects and performing an individual-level analysis, (3) pooling data from projects having similar study designs, (4) analyzing pooled data using a prospective meta-analytic technique, and (5) analyzing pooled data utilizing a novel simulated group-randomized design. Methodologies varied in their ability to incorporate data from all PNRP projects, to appropriately account for differing study designs, and to accommodate differing project sample sizes. The conclusions reached were based on expert opinion and not derived from actual analyses performed. The ability to analyze pooled data arising from differing study designs may provide pertinent information to inform programmatic, budgetary, and policy perspectives. Multisite community-based research may not lend itself well to the more stringent explanatory and pragmatic standards of a randomized controlled trial design. Given our growing interest in community-based population research, the challenges inherent in the analysis of heterogeneous study design are likely to become more salient

  11. Video-based multimedia designs: A research study testing learning effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reiss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes research conducted on three computer-based video models’ effectiveness for learning based on memory and comprehension. In this quantitative study, a two-minute video presentation was created and played back in three different types of media players, for a sample of eighty-seven college freshman. The three players evaluated include a standard QuickTime video/audio player, a QuickTime player with embedded triggers that launched HTML-based study guide pages, and a Macromedia Flash-based video/audio player with a text field, with user activated links to the study guides as well as other interactive on-line resources. An assumption guiding this study was that the enhanced designs presenting different types of related information would reinforce the material and produce better comprehension and retention. However, findings indicate that the standard video player was the most effective overall, which suggests that media designs able to control the focus of a learner’s attention to one specific stream of information, a single-stream focused approach, may be the most effective way to present media-based content. Résumé: Cet article résume une étude vérifiant l’efficacité de l’apprentissage basé sur la mémorisation et la compréhension, conduite à partir de trois modèles basés sur la vidéo informatisée. Dans cette étude quantitative, une vidéo de deux minutes a été créée et lue sur trois types de lecteurs différents, pour un échantillon de 87 étudiants universitaires de première année. Les trois lecteurs évalués comprenaient un lecteur standard audio/vidéo Quicktime, un lecteur Quicktime avec déclencheurs intégrés qui lançait un guide d’étude en HTML, et un lecteur audio/vidéo Flash Macromedia avec un champ texte, comprenant des liens activés par l’usager vers des guides d’étude et d’autres ressources interactives en ligne. Une supposition guidant cette étude était que les designs

  12. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  13. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  14. Towards non-conventional methods of designing register-based epidemiological studies: An application to pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tong; Brew, Bronwyn; Sjölander, Arvid; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Various epidemiological designs have been applied to investigate the causes and consequences of fetal growth restriction in register-based observational studies. This review seeks to provide an overview of several conventional designs, including cohort, case-control and more recently applied non-conventional designs such as family-based designs. We also discuss some practical points regarding the application and interpretation of family-based designs. Definitions of each design, the study population, the exposure and the outcome measures are briefly summarised. Examples of study designs are taken from the field of low birth-weight research for illustrative purposes. Also examined are relative advantages and disadvantages of each design in terms of assumptions, potential selection and information bias, confounding and generalisability. Kinship data linkage, statistical models and result interpretation are discussed specific to family-based designs. When all information is retrieved from registers, there is no evident preference of the case-control design over the cohort design to estimate odds ratios. All conventional designs included in the review are prone to bias, particularly due to residual confounding. Family-based designs are able to reduce such bias and strengthen causal inference. In the field of low birth-weight research, family-based designs have been able to confirm a negative association not confounded by genetic or shared environmental factors between low birth weight and the risk of asthma. We conclude that there is a broader need for family-based design in observational research as evidenced by the meaningful contributions to the understanding of the potential causal association between low birth weight and subsequent outcomes.

  15. Design of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Blaine, Rachel E; Davison, Kirsten K; Gortmaker, Steven; Anand, Shikha; Falbe, Jennifer; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Perkins, Meghan; Giles, Catherine; Criss, Shaniece; Colchamiro, Rachel; Baidal, Jennifer Woo; Land, Thomas; Smith, Lauren

    2015-02-01

    Childhood obesity is highly prevalent, is associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority and economically deprived children, and represents a major threat to public health. Among the most promising approaches for its prevention and management are multilevel, multisector strategies. The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study was a comprehensive, systematic intervention to prevent and reduce childhood obesity among low-income children ages 2-12 years in two selected cities in Massachusetts. Building on the Obesity Chronic Care Model, MA-CORD expanded a state public health department community-level obesity prevention initiative that incorporated evidence-based interventions in primary healthcare, the Women, Infants, and Children program, early care and education, schools/afterschool programs, as well as community-wide programs to improve food, beverage, physical activity (PA), and messaging environments. The study used a combination of pre- and post-time series and quasi-experimental designs to examine the extent to which the intervention resulted in changes in BMI, individual-level lifestyle behaviors, satisfaction with healthcare services, and quality of life among children, as well as changes in health policies, programs, and environments in the two intervention cities, compared to a comparison city. The intervention period was 2 years. MA-CORD will determine the extent to which a multisetting, multilevel intervention that integrates activities in primary care with broader public health interventions in schools, early care and education, and the community at large can improve children's dietary and PA behaviors and ultimately reduce obesity in low-income children.

  16. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  17. Research through designing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.; Poerschke, U.; Staub, A.; Pihlak, M.; Cooper, J.

    2011-01-01

    With this panel-contribution I will address a lacuna in landscape architecture theory on the connection of the role of ‘research through designing’. I consider the role of ‘research through designing’ crucial for the further production of new practical knowledge within landscape architecture. The

  18. Design study of eventual core conversion for the research reactor RA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M. V.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    Main options are specified for the future status of the 6.5 MW heavy water research reactor RA. Arguments pro and contra restarting the reactor are presented. When considering the option to restart the RA reactor, possibilities to improve its neutronic parameters, such as neutron flux values and irradiation capabilities are discussed, as well as the compliance with the worldwide activities of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. Possibility of core conversion is examined. Detailed reactor physics design calculations are performed for different fuel types and uranium loading. For different fuel management schemes results are presented for the effective, multiplication factor, power distribution, fuel burnup and consumption. It is shown that, as far as reactor core parameters are considered, conversion to lower enrichment fuel could be easily accomplished. However, conversion to the lower enrichment could only be justified if combined with improvement of some other reactor attributes. (author)

  19. The Design Researcher in Quandary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Fogtman, Majken Hillerup

    2011-01-01

    In the field of practice-based research we articulate the dilemma that emerges as the creative designer embraces the role of being an interaction design researcher. We exemplify the dilemma in a specific design case originating from a PhD project. In this case, we use sketching to illustrate how...... the design researcher embodies the creative designer at all times. We show how the dilemma becomes tangible in the conversation with the material when having to manage a set of design constraints, concerns and sensibilities. We acknowledge that when taking on both roles at the same time there are two...

  20. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  1. Game Design as STS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Dumit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Game design offers a powerful pedagogical paradigm for engaging students in thinking and researching sociotechnical systems. Using the example of designing a game around fracking, this paper describes how game design grapples with emergent dynamic processes, and how students are drawn into becoming STS researchers.

  2. Research oriented projects on design themese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian; Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    How can design students do research-oriented projects about design themes? At the 3rd semester at the Industrial Design Master Program at Aalborg University this is done by taking research oriented learning objectives on design theories and methods and combining them with experimental case studie...... and professional self-reflection amongst students are improved....

  3. Graphic Design for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Technology continues to radically change how we create and consume information. Today, news, reports, and other material are often delivered quickly through pictures, colors, or other eye-catching visual elements. Words still matter, but they may be tweeted, viewed on a smartphone, or placed in a call-out box in a report. The design of these items…

  4. Research Study of Modular Design of School Buildings in Europe. April 30, 1968 - May 20, 1968. Revised 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, S. T.

    Research for this comparative study consisted of school visits and discussions on the school building industry with leading men in the field in England, West Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. The study explored the use of prefabrication and modular school design, which provide economical and flexible school buildings to accommodate an increasing…

  5. STUDY TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN COLLEGE LIBRARIES. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historical Evaluation and Research Organization, McLean, VA.

    THIS STUDY FORMULATES A RESEARCH PROGRAM TO FACILITATE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LIBRARIES FOR SMALL LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES USING MODERN LIBRARY METHODS AND TECHNOLOGY AND NEW TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATION STORAGE, RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER. AS A RESULT OF INTERVIEWS WITH LIBRARIANS AND OTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE AND FROM A REVIEW OF CURRENT…

  6. Design Process-System and Methodology of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashier, Fathi

    2017-10-01

    Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.

  7. Sharing Video Datasets in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how design researchers, design practitioners and design education can benefit from sharing a dataset. We present the Design Thinking Research Symposium 11 (DTRS11) as an exemplary project that implied sharing video data of design processes and design activity in natural settings...... with a large group of fellow academics from the international community of Design Thinking Research, for the purpose of facilitating research collaboration and communication within the field of Design and Design Thinking. This approach emphasizes the social and collaborative aspects of design research, where...... a multitude of appropriate perspectives and methods may be utilized in analyzing and discussing the singular dataset. The shared data is, from this perspective, understood as a design object in itself, which facilitates new ways of working, collaborating, studying, learning and educating within the expanding...

  8. Dynamics of Research through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basballe, Ditte Amund; Halskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate Research through Design at a micro-level, by addressing the dynamic interplay of research and design as they unfold throughout a design process. As our principal case, we consider the design of a three-dimensional projection installation, a process that unfolded over...... a one-year period. We analyse material collected from 18 key events during the process, in order to identify the ongoing dynamics. Based on the analysis, we establish how the interplay evolves in a complex structure, where the design and research interests continuously couple, interweave, and decouple...

  9. Dynamics of Research through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basballe, Ditte Amund; Halskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    a one-year period. We analyse material collected from 18 key events during the process, in order to identify the ongoing dynamics. Based on the analysis, we establish how the interplay evolves in a complex structure, where the design and research interests continuously couple, interweave, and decouple......In this paper, we investigate Research through Design at a micro-level, by addressing the dynamic interplay of research and design as they unfold throughout a design process. As our principal case, we consider the design of a three-dimensional projection installation, a process that unfolded over...

  10. The Design Social: Framing social research methods for design postgraduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses approaches for framing social research methods within postgraduate design curricula, details the responses of postgraduate design students to the possibilities presented by social research methods, and concludes with a case study of the adoption experiences of PhD students in design when engaging with social research methods. Analysis of semi-structured interviews is employed to draw out perceptions and experiences of design postgraduates when engaging with social researc...

  11. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  12. Data to inform a social media component for professional development and practices: A design-based research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovich, Jeanette; Shaw, Steven; Miah, Sophia

    2017-02-01

    This DIB article includes the course artefacts, instruments, survey data, and descriptive statistics, along with in-depth correlational analysis for the first iteration of a design-based research study on designing curriculum for developing online professional identity and social media practices for a multi-major advanced professional writing course. Raw data was entered into SPSS software. For interpretation and discussion, please see the original article entitled, "Designing curriculum to shape professional social media skills and identity in virtual communities of practice" (J. Novakovich, S. Miah, S. Shaw, 2017) [1].

  13. Design research and industrial applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry.......Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry....

  14. Design and evaluation of custom 133Xe trapping and holding system for animal research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Pennock, R.E.; Bowman, G.; Hernandez, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A cell for the trapping and holding of 133 Xe by activated charcoal was designed and tested for use in animal experiments. The cell was made from copper tubing with end caps and nipples for attachment of tubing and valves. Results of test indicated that up to 4 animals per day could be studied with complete trapping of all activity in a single cell. 16 of such cells allow continuous studies to be made on 4 animals a day using a different cell each day. By the time each cell is re-used the trapped 132 Xe has decayed for at least 23 days thus greatly reducing any exhausted activity. The cells were arranged in a wall-mounted filter bank inside a shielded cabinet. The outlet of the filter bank was connected into the exhaust stream of a fume hood. (author)

  15. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  16. CASE STUDIES OF USE OF DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN MATERIAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Kumar Roy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes principles of factorial and fractional factorial design of experiments. The various ways of analysing data obtained by these procedures are shown via four case studies. Yates method was followed in case 1 where the effect of anode type, carbon content of steel, temperature, and agitation on cathodic protection of steel in seawater, on current density, was studied. In case 2, a glass was formulated within 10 constituante melted, quantity water and tested for flow caracteristics, from the result the factor effect was calculated. In case 3, analysis of results is done in a very simple way. In this case, the effect of carbon content, surface condition, temperature, and agitation on the corrosion of steel in seawater was studied. In case 4, the effect of eleven constituents on acid resistance of a cast iron enamel has been studied through sixteen experimental compositions. This case gives a method to find out which of the sixteen experimental compositions is nearest to a target value.

  17. Designing a Language Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    Some issues in the design of classroom research on second language teaching are discussed, with the intention of helping the researcher avoid conceptual pitfalls that may cripple the study later in the process. This begins with an examination of concerns in sampling, including definition of a population to be studied, alternative sampling…

  18. Recommended guideline for designing and interpreting of Ramadan fasting studies in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Shadman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan fasting is specific intermittent fasting comprising significant changes in routine lifestyle pattern and may affect body homeostasis and metabolism. In spite of several studies conducted on the effects of Ramadan fasting on various aspects of health and disease, because of heterogeneity in methodology and procedures (sometimes inevitable, a comprehensive concluding for reliable results as in most conditions is impossible. Based on basic studies and those have been conducted in this field, this paper suggests a checklist contains, as far as possible, important factors to be considered in designing, interpreting and comparing the results of Ramadan fasting studies. Accordingly, circadian rhythm, season/latitude sensitivity, serum osmolarity and, lifestyle changes (including dietary intakes, physical activity, sleep quality and duration, smoking and, etc. may be of great importance. Also, a close definition of the number of fasting days and it consecutively or alternatively must be presented with reference to sex. Appropriate time points for blood/urine sampling would be varied case by case.

  19. Design and baseline data from the Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C; Beale, Eleanor E; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Belcher, Arianna M; Moore, Shannon V; Suarez, Laura; Gandhi, Parul U; Motiwala, Shweta R; Gaggin, Hanna; Januzzi, James L

    2015-09-01

    Positive psychological constructs, especially optimism, have been linked with superior cardiovascular health. However, there has been minimal study of positive constructs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), despite the prevalence and importance of this condition. Furthermore, few studies have examined multiple positive psychological constructs and multiple cardiac-related outcomes within the same cohort to determine specifically which positive construct may affect a particular cardiac outcome. The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study examines the association between optimism/gratitude 2weeks post-ACS and subsequent clinical outcomes. The primary outcome measure is physical activity at 6months, measured via accelerometer, and key secondary outcome measures include levels of prognostic biomarkers and rates of nonelective cardiac rehospitalization at 6months. These relationships will be analyzed using multivariable linear regression, controlling for sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological factors; associations between baseline positive constructs and subsequent rehospitalizations will be assessed via Cox regression. Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessment; the cohort had a mean age of 61.5+/?10.5years and was 84% men; this was the first ACS for 58% of participants. The GRACE study will determine whether optimism and gratitude are prospectively and independently associated with physical activity and other critical outcomes in the 6months following an ACS. If these constructs are associated with superior outcomes, this may highlight the importance of these constructs as independent prognostic factors post-ACS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Research design and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Jerome L; Lorch Jr, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Research Design and Statistical Analysis provides comprehensive coverage of the design principles and statistical concepts necessary to make sense of real data.  The book's goal is to provide a strong conceptual foundation to enable readers to generalize concepts to new research situations.  Emphasis is placed on the underlying logic and assumptions of the analysis and what it tells the researcher, the limitations of the analysis, and the consequences of violating assumptions.  Sampling, design efficiency, and statistical models are emphasized throughout. As per APA recommendations

  2. Fashion Research at Design Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2008-01-01

    The report “Fashion Research at Design Schools” (2008), which was commissioned by Institute for Fashion and Textiles at Designskolen Kolding,  appoints the potentials and challenges in relation to the ongoing academization of design schools, with a specific focus on fashion research. The key......, interactionistic interviews (Järvinen and Mik-Meyer, 2005) with key persons from the respective research- and fashion departments from eight selected design schools in Holland, England and USA. The analysis of each case is inspired by Edgar E. Schein’s levels of culture (Schein 1994), that aims to pinpoint both...

  3. Design of VA Cooperative Study #591: CERV-PTSD, comparative effectiveness research in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Paula P; Chard, Kathleen M; Ruzek, Josef I; Chow, Bruce K; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resick, Patricia A; Foa, Edna B; Marx, Brian P; Huang, Grant D; Lu, Ying

    2015-03-01

    CERV-PTSD is a randomized controlled trial of two of the most effective treatments for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Despite solid evidence that both treatments are effective, there is limited evidence about their effectiveness relative to one another. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing PTSD symptom severity in a healthcare system that offers both treatments. The secondary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing the severity of comorbid mental health problems and service utilization as well as improving functioning and quality of life. The tertiary objective is to examine whether discrepancy between patient preferences and treatment assignment reduces the effectiveness of each treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine whether demographic and clinical characteristics predict differential response to PE and CPT. The study is designed to randomize 900 male and female veterans with PTSD due to any traumatic military event to receive PE or CPT. The standard dose of treatment is 12 weekly sessions but veterans who improve more rapidly may finish in fewer sessions and veterans who improve more slowly may have additional sessions. The primary outcome is improvement in PTSD symptoms, measured during and after treatment and then 3 and 6 months later. As a large multi-site trial with men and women, CERV-PTSD is designed to advance the delivery of care for PTSD by providing conclusive information about whether one treatment is better than the other, overall, and for different types of patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Design of the CHina Epidemiology Research in Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (CHERISH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Zhang, Jing Fen; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Ji Guang; Liu, Guo Rong; Li, Yue Chun; Wang, Min; Cheng, Guo Juan; Anderson, Craig S

    2010-12-01

    Limited epidemiological data exist on subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in China. Effective prevention requires knowledge of the rates and risk factors for SAH the most lethal type of stroke that most often affects younger adults. We report the methods and the initial experience of a new study to address this deficiency. To determine the incidence, risk factors, management and outcomes of SAH. The CHina Epidemiology Research In Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (CHERISH) is a prospective, population-based, case-control study in a defined region (study population 1.7 million) of the city of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China. Cases of spontaneous SAH are identified using standard definitions through prospective surveillance of all major acute care hospitals with neurology/neurosurgery facilities, small hospitals/clinics, and the single city crematorium over a 2-year period. Verbal autopsy procedures are used to ascertain the probable causes of deaths outside of hospital. For each case, two nonrelative controls without SAH are matched by age (5-year strata), gender, and district of residence. Data are collected on socio-demography, lifestyle factors, and medical history, and blood is taken for the extraction and storage of DNA. Details of the clinical features, presentation, and management of SAH are obtained from cases, and survivors provide details on health care utilisation, physical function, health-related quality of life, and complications, at 6-months. The primary outcomes are overall, age- and gender-specific incidence, relative (odds ratios) and population-attributable risks for defined exposures, and 28-day and 6-month case fatality ratios and other outcomes. Preliminary experience confirms the completeness of the surveillance methods, with no clear missed out-of-hospital cases of SAH with sudden death, and of high participation and reliable data collection procedures. CHERISH is well placed to provide reliable estimates of the burden of SAH in China. © 2010 The Authors

  5. Research Designs and Special Education Research: Different Designs Address Different Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide practitioners and other nonresearchers a basic understanding of research designs to aid in appropriately interpreting and applying research findings in special education. Research design provides the blueprint for conducting a research study and shapes what kind of knowledge is generated by the study. We…

  6. Design-based research as a “smart” methodology for studying learning in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    Although Design-based Research (DBR) was developed for investigating class-room training this paper discusses methodological issues when DBR is employed for investigating learning in the context of work, as it is an authentic learning environment, a real-world setting for fostering learning...... and creating usable knowledge and knowing. The purpose of this paper is to provide new perspectives on DBR regarding how to conduct DBR for studying learning from experience in the context of work. The research question is: What to consider to make DBR a smart methodology for exploring learning from experience...

  7. Social Media Resources for Participative Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Qaed, Fatema; Briggs, Jo; Cockton, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We present our experiences of novel value from online social media for Participative Design (PD) research. We describe how particular social media (e.g. Facebook, Pinterest, WhatsApp and Twitter) were used during a five-year project on learning space design by the researcher and interested teachers across all research phases (contextual review, user studies, PD action research). Social media were used to source and share comments, photographs and video documentation, supporting participation ...

  8. Immunization in pregnancy clinical research in low- and middle-income countries - Study design, regulatory and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Jones, Christine E; Muñoz, Flor M; Honrado, Angel; Bauwens, Jorgen; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2017-12-04

    Immunization of pregnant women is a promising public health strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality among both the mothers and their infants. Establishing safety and efficacy of vaccines generally uses a hybrid design between a conventional interventional study and an observational study that requires enrolling thousands of study participants to detect an unknown number of uncommon events. Historically, enrollment of pregnant women in clinical research studies encountered many barriers based on risk aversion, lack of knowledge, and regulatory ambiguity. Conducting research enrolling pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries can have additional factors to address such as limited availability of baseline epidemiologic data on disease burden and maternal and neonatal outcomes during and after pregnancy; challenges in recruiting and retaining pregnant women in research studies, variability in applying and interpreting assessment methods, and variability in locally acceptable and available infrastructure. Some measures to address these challenges include adjustment of study design, tailoring recruitment, consent process, retention strategies, operational and logistical processes, and the use of definitions and data collection methods that will align with efforts globally. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Considering Life Cycle during Design: A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Undergraduates. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Ken; Morozov, Andrew; Kilgore, Deborah; Atman, Cynthia; Loucks-Jaret, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this age of global warming and diminishing fossil fuel stores, society is becoming increasingly aware that seemingly small decisions can have surprisingly far-reaching implications on the environment and future generations. Accordingly, today's engineers must approach design problems with a holistic, broad view of the impacts,…

  10. A research approach for quality based design of healthy foods: Dried broccoli as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    An approach for process design based on optimization of product quality attributes is presented. Adsorption drying of broccoli with retention of its health benefits is taken as an example to illustrate the approach. Related to its content of glucosinolates, broccoli has a high potential to reduce

  11. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  12. Knowledge Building in an Online Environment: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This article explores knowledge-building in an online distance-learning environment. The research examines how knowledge-building principles can be translated into online classroom practice for graduate students. Specifically, how do the course components and the online learning environments created in two online graduate courses contribute to…

  13. Design and Development Website of Research Institute, Case Study: Universitas Negeri Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Saleh Ahmar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this paper was to develop a website of research institue at Universitas Negeri Makassar, that can be accessed by many people to check information about reseach anytime and anywhere without the limit of time and location so that the disclosure of information research can be done. The method used in this research is the Software Development Life Cycle method with the three stages namely Initiation Phase, Development/Acquisition Phase, and Implementation Phase. The development of this information system using PHP and CodeIgniter as a its framework. This system development using PHP programming language and CodeIgniter Framework with MySQL database. Abstrak: Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah dikembangkannya suatu Website Lembaga Penelitian di Universitas Negeri Makassar yang dapat diakses oleh berbagai pihak yang terkait dengan penelitian kapan saja dan dimana saja tanpa adanya batasan waktu dan lokasi sehingga keterbukaan informasi penelitian dapat terlaksana. Metode yang digunakan pada tulisan ini yaitu Metode Software Development Life Cycle dengan tiga tahapan yaitu fase awal, fase pengembangan, dan fase implementasi. Pengembangan sistem informasi ini menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP berbasis pada Framework CodeIgniter dengan basis data MySQL. Keywords: CodeIgniter, Information Systems, Website, Research Insitute, Universitas Negeri Makassar

  14. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 6: Preliminary design of a composite wing for tilt rotor research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, V. A.; Badri-Nath, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of the use of composite materials in the wing of a tilt rotor aircraft are presented. An all-metal tilt rotor aircraft was first defined to provide a basis for comparing composite with metal structure. A configuration study was then done in which the wing of the metal aircraft was replaced with composite wings of varying chord and thickness ratio. The results of this study defined the design and performance benefits obtainable with composite materials. Based on these results the aircraft was resized with a composite wing to extend the weight savings to other parts of the aircraft. A wing design was then selected for detailed structural analysis. A development plan including costs and schedules to develop this wing and incorporate it into a proposed flight research tilt rotor vehicle has been devised.

  15. Study on system layout and component design in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Akira; Uchida, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    The global warming becomes a significant issue in the world so that it needs to reduce the CO 2 emission. It is expected that hydrogen is in place of the fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and plays the important role to resolve the global warming. There are several hydrogen making processes such as water electrolysis and steam reforming of hydrocarbon. Steam reforming of hydrocarbon is a major hydrogen making process because of economy in industry. It utilizes the fossil fuels as process heat for chemical reaction and results in a large CO 2 emission. New steam reforming system without fossil fuel can contribute to resolve the global warming. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has a unique feature to be able to supply a hot helium gas whose temperature is approximately 950degC at the reactor outlet. This makes HTGR possible to utilize for not only power generation but also process heat utilization. JAERI constructed the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) that is a sort of HTGR in Oarai establishment and starts operation. Nuclear heat utilization is one of the R and D items of the HTTR. The steam reforming system coupling to the HTTR for hydrogen production has been designed. This report represents the system layout and design specification of key components in HTTR steam reforming system. (author)

  16. Study on system layout and component design in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Shoji [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The global warming becomes a significant issue in the world so that it needs to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission. It is expected that hydrogen is in place of the fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and plays the important role to resolve the global warming. There are several hydrogen making processes such as water electrolysis and steam reforming of hydrocarbon. Steam reforming of hydrocarbon is a major hydrogen making process because of economy in industry. It utilizes the fossil fuels as process heat for chemical reaction and results in a large CO{sub 2} emission. New steam reforming system without fossil fuel can contribute to resolve the global warming. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has a unique feature to be able to supply a hot helium gas whose temperature is approximately 950degC at the reactor outlet. This makes HTGR possible to utilize for not only power generation but also process heat utilization. JAERI constructed the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) that is a sort of HTGR in Oarai establishment and starts operation. Nuclear heat utilization is one of the R and D items of the HTTR. The steam reforming system coupling to the HTTR for hydrogen production has been designed. This report represents the system layout and design specification of key components in HTTR steam reforming system. (author)

  17. National Institutes of Health Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Late Effects Initiative: The Research Methodology and Study Design Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Bronwen E; Hahn, Theresa; Martin, Paul J; Mitchell, Sandra A; Petersdorf, Effie W; Armstrong, Gregory T; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Storer, Barry E; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-01-01

    The increasing numbers of hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) performed each year, the changing demographics of HCT recipients, the introduction of new transplantation strategies, incremental improvement in survival, and the growing population of HCT survivors demand a comprehensive approach to examining the health and well-being of patients throughout life after HCT. This report summarizes strategies for the conduct of research on late effects after transplantation, including consideration of the study design and analytic approaches; methodologic challenges in handling complex phenotype data; an appreciation of the changing trends in the practice of transplantation; and the availability of biospecimens to support laboratory-based research. It is hoped that these concepts will promote continued research and facilitate the development of new approaches to address fundamental questions in transplantation outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of a multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Rios, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of a research reactor is essential in any endeavor to improve the execution of a nuclear programme, since it is a very versatile tool which can make a decisive contribution to a country's scientific and technological development. Because of their design, however, many existing research reactors are poorly adapted to certain uses. In some nuclear research centres, especially in the advanced countries, changes have been made in the original designs or new research prototypes have been designed for specific purposes. These modifications have proven very costly and therefore beyond the reach of developing countries. For this reason, what the research institutes in such countries need is a single sufficiently versatile nuclear plant capable of meeting the requirements of a nuclear research programme at a reasonable cost. This is precisely what a multipurpose reactor does. The Mexican National Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) plans to design and build a multipurpose research reactor capable at the same time of being used for the development of reactor design skills and for testing nuclear materials and fuels, for radioisotopes production, for nuclear power studies and basic scientific research, for specialized training, and so on. For this design work on the ININ Multipurpose Research Reactor, collaborative relations have been established with various international organizations possessing experience in nuclear reactor design: Atomehnergoeksport of the USSR: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL); General Atomics (GA) of the USA; and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

  19. Reflection in Learning through a Self-monitoring Device: Design Research on EEG Self-Monitoring during a Study Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Durall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of self-monitoring technologies has created opportunities for gaining awareness about one’s own behavior and reflecting on it. In teaching and learning, there is interest in using self-monitoring technologies, but very few studies have explored the possibilities. In this paper, we present a design study that investigates a technology (called Feeler that guides students to follow a specific learning script, monitors changes in their electroencephalogram (EEG while studying, and later provides visualization of the EEG data. The results are two-fold: (1 the hardware/software prototype and (2 the conclusions from the proof-of-concept research conducted with the prototype and six participants. In the research, we collected qualitative data from interviews to identify whether the prototype supported students to develop their reflective skills. The thematic analysis of the interviews showed that the Feeler’s learning script and visualization of the EEG data supported greater levels of reflection by fostering students’ curiosity, puzzlement, and personal inquiry. The proof-of-concept research also provided insights into several factors, such as the value of personal experience, the challenge of assumptions, and the contextualization of the data that trigger reflective thinking. The results validate the design concept and the role of the prototype in supporting awareness of and reflection about students’ mental states when they perform academic tasks.

  20. Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (FY 2015). Development of design and construction planning and countermeasure technologies (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toguri, Satohito; Kobayashi, Shinji; Tsuji, Masakuni; Yahagi, Ryoji; Yamada, Toshiko; Matsui, Hiroya; Mikake, Shinichiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Toshinori

    2017-03-01

    The study on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project roughly consists of (1)development of design and construction planning technologies, (2)development of construction technology, (3)development of countermeasure technology, (4)development of technology for security, and (5) development of technologies regarding restoration and mitigating of the excavation effect. So far, the verification of the initial design based on the data obtained during excavation was mainly conducted as a research in the Construction Phase, also the countermeasure technologies to control groundwater inflow were examined as a research in the Operation Phase. In FY2015, as a part of the important issues on the research program, “Development of countermeasure technologies for reducing groundwater inflow” in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency 3rd Midterm Plan, water-tight grouting method has been developed. Grouting methods utilized in the MIU were evaluated and the post-excavation grouting at the -500m Access/Research Gallery-South was planned based on these evaluation results. Also, technology development from the viewpoint of geological disposal was summarized, and information on the alternative method to the grouting method was collected and organized. (author)

  1. Study of In-Pile test facility for fast reactor safety research: performance requirements and design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, N.; Kawatta, N.; Niwa, H.; Kondo, S.; Maeda, K

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a program and the main design features of a new in-pile safety facility SERAPH planned for future fast reactor safety research. The current status of R and D on technical developments in relation to the research objectives and performance requirements to the facility design is given.

  2. Using Network Science to Support Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and societal impact. This chapter contributes to the use of network science in empirical studies of design organisations. It focuses on introducing a network-based perspective on the design process and in particular on making use of network science to support design research and practice. The main contribution...... of this chapter is an overview of the methodological challenges and core decision points when embarking on network-based design research, namely defining the overall research purpose and selecting network features. We furthermore highlight the potential for using archival data, the opportunities for navigating...

  3. Design, Analysis, and Interpretation of Screening Studies for Human Factors Engineering Research. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    Ill-C 1 B1 .ANO SPACES "EPREIEN’r ZERO PERCENTj -ALL FACTORS PFE4 A T14jU61 F’ INCLuSIvj SPACES WITH4 ZEROES RHW*(tNT SOME PERCENT WLLjEp Tj EIMA2 THIS...4 so). l : b1 04 at m 0 aa 004 11 4 12 u t3 0. Ub 14 NSI33. ;. .* ** . U Z, L f0 Il 4NU A4. 1,41Jw 0 uMA WMA UN444<. H 43~IW a a. 1 A l13 93 .*L...Education Research Information Center Monash University Processing & Reference Facility Clayton, Victoria 3168 4833 Rugby Ave., Suite 303 Australia

  4. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L., E-mail: bhg@uw.edu [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Parvathaneni, Upendra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  5. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  6. A Case Study of Engaging Hard-to-Reach Participants in the Research Process: Community Advisors on Research Design and Strategies (CARDS)®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Betty L; Thomas, Gay R; Bowers, Barbara J

    2017-02-01

    Lack of diversity among study participants in clinical research limits progress in eliminating health disparities. The engagement of lay stakeholders, such as patient or community advisory boards (CABs), has the potential to increase recruitment and retention of underrepresented groups by providing a structure for gathering feedback on research plans and materials from this target population. However, many CABs intentionally recruit prominent stakeholders who are connected to or comfortable with research and academia and thus may not accurately represent the perspectives of underrepresented groups who have been labeled hard-to-reach, including racial minorities and low-income or low-literacy populations. We developed a partnership between the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Nursing and two community centers to deliberately engage hard-to-reach people in two lay advisory groups, the Community Advisors on Research Design and Strategies (CARDS)®. Community center staff recruited the CARDS from center programs, including parenting and childcare programs, women's support groups, food pantries, and senior meal programs. The CARDS model differs from other CABs in its participants, processes, and outcomes. Since 2010, the CARDS have met monthly with nurses and other researchers, helping them understand how research processes and the language, tone, appearance, and organization of research materials can discourage people from enrolling in clinical studies. We have successfully used the CARDS model to bring hard-to-reach populations into the research process and have sustained their participation. The model represents a promising strategy for increasing the diversity of participants in clinical research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Crowdsourcing user and design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.V.; Dhillon, G.S.; Piso, M.C.; Schelle, K.J.; Markopoulos, P.; Martens, J.B.; Malins, J.; Coninx, K.; Liapis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing can be defined as a task, which is usually performed by an employee, that is given out as an open call to a crowd of users to be completed. Although crowdsourcing has been growing in recent years, its application to design research and education has only scratched the surface of its

  8. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  9. Research Designs and Methods in Self-Assessment Studies: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Serafina

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on self-assessment studies in the higher education field. In the assessment for learning perspective, self-assessment is related to reflection, metacognition, and self-regulation: all these aspects are considered as fundamental prerequisites for students' future professional development. Despite the recognition of…

  10. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    and it is arguing that there is a lack of in-depth understanding of such collaborative radical innovation processes. The paper then suggests an abductive research design for an explorative in-depth case study of collaborative radical innovation involving a university and an established Danish manufacturing firm....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  11. POlish-Norwegian Study (PONS): research on chronic non-communicable diseases in European high risk countries - study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold A; Mańczuk, Marta

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale population study of health and disease would represent the most powerful tool to address these important issues in Poland. The aim is to extensively survey the study population with respect to important factors related to health and wellbeing, and subsequently, the intention is to follow-up the population for important health outcomes, including the incidence and mortality of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other major causes of morbidity and mortality. The infrastructure for establishing a large cohort of people in Poland is needed; therefore, the PONS (Polish-Norwegian Study) project represents an eff ort to establish such infrastructure. The PONS Study is enrolling individuals aged 45-64 years. Structured lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires are administered. Study participants undergo medical check-up, anthropometric measurements and provide blood and urine sample for long-term storage. Fasting glucose and lipids profile are checked in the laboratory. This report describes the design, justification and methodology of the presented prospective cohort study. Recruitment of participants began in September 2010, and by the end of 2011 it is planned to achieve a total of between 10,000 – 15,000 participants. The PONS study is the fi rst prospective cohort study with blood and urine collection ever conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. It will provide reliable new data on both established and emerging risk factors for several major chronic diseases in a range of different circumstances.

  12. Teaching Experiences for Graduate Student Researchers: A Study of the Design and Implementation of Science Courses for Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne Wrigley

    Modern science education reform recommends that teachers provide K-12 science students a more complete picture of the scientific enterprise, one that lies beyond content knowledge and centers more on the processes and culture of scientists. In the case of Research Experience for Teachers (RET) programs, the "teacher" becomes "researcher" and it is expected that he/she will draw from the short-term science research experience in his/her classroom, offering students more opportunities to practice science as scientists do. In contrast, this study takes place in a program that allows graduate students, engaged in research full-time, to design and implement a short-duration course for high school students on Saturdays; the "researcher" becomes "teacher" in an informal science program. In this study, I investigated eleven graduate students who taught in the Saturday Science (SS) program. Analyses revealed participants' sophisticated views of the nature of science. Furthermore, participants' ideas about science clearly resonated with the tenets of NOS recommended for K-12 education (McComas et al., 1998). This study also highlighted key factors graduate students considered when designing lessons. Instructors took great care to move away from models of traditional, "lecture"-based, university science teaching. Nonetheless, instruction lacked opportunities for students to engage in scientific inquiry. In instances when instructors included discussions of NOS in SS courses, opportunities for high school students to learn NOS were not explicit enough to align with current science reform recommendations (e.g., AAAS, 2009). Graduate students did, however, offer high school students access to their own science or engineering research communities. These findings have significant implications for K-12 classroom reform. Universities continue to be a valuable resource for K-12 given access to scientists, materials or equipment, and funding. Nonetheless, and as was the case with

  13. Designing Effective Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, S.

    2010-12-01

    I present a model for designing student research internships that is informed by the best practices of the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program. The dual strands of the CfAO education program include: the preparation of early-career scientists and engineers in effective teaching; and changing the learning experiences of students (e.g., undergraduate interns) through inquiry-based "teaching laboratories." This paper will focus on the carry-over of these ideas into the design of laboratory research internships such as the CfAO Mainland internship program as well as NSF REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates) and senior-thesis or "capstone" research programs. Key ideas in maximizing student learning outcomes and generating productive research during internships include: defining explicit content, scientific process, and attitudinal goals for the project; assessment of student prior knowledge and experience, then following up with formative assessment throughout the project; setting reasonable goals with timetables and addressing motivation; and giving students ownership of the research by implementing aspects of the inquiry process within the internship.

  14. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  15. The design and research of poverty alleviation monitoring and evaluation system: a case study in the Jiangxi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hong-yuan; Wang, Ying-jie; Yu, Zhuo-yuan

    2009-07-01

    The Poverty Alleviation Monitoring and Evaluation System (PAMES) is introduced in this paper. The authors present environment platform selection, and details of system design and realization. Different with traditional research of poverty alleviation, this paper develops a new analytical geo-visualization approach to study the distribution and causes of poverty phenomena within Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on the most detailed poverty population data, the spatial location and population statistical indicators of poverty village in Jiangxi province, the distribution characteristics of poverty population are detailed. The research results can provide much poverty alleviation decision support from a spatial-temporal view. It should be better if the administrative unit of poverty-stricken area to be changed from county to village according to spatial distribution pattern of poverty.

  16. Study on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) core design. Joint research report (FY1998-1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Reduce-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a next generation water-cooled reactor aiming at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up and long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started a joint research program for conceptual design of RMWR core in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) since 1998. The research area includes the RMWR core conceptual designs, development of analysis methods for rector physics and thermal-hydraulics to design the RMWR cores with higher accuracy and preparation of MOX critical experiment to confirm the feasibility from the reactor physics point of view. The present report describes the results of joint research program 'RMWR core design Phase 1' performed by JAERI and JAPC in FY 1998 and 1999. The results obtained from the joint research program are as follows: Conceptual design study on the RMWR core has been performed. A core concept with a conversion ratio more than about 1 is basically feasible to multiple recycling of plutonium. Investigating core characteristics at the equilibrium, some promising core concepts to satisfy above aims have been established. As for BWR-type concepts with negative void reactivity coefficients, three types of design have been obtained as follows; (1) one feasible to attain high conversion ratio about 1.1, (2) one feasible to attain operation cycle of about 2 years and burn-up of about 60 GWd/t with conversion ratio more than 1 or (3) one in simple design based on the ABWR assembly and without blanket attaining conversion ratio more than 1. And as for PWR-type concepts with negative void reactivity coefficients, two types of design have been obtained as follows; (1) one feasible to attain high conversion ratio about 1.05 by using heavy water as a coolant and (2) one feasible to attain conversion ratio about l by using light water. In the study of nuclear calculation method, a reactor analysis code

  17. Study design, objectives, hypotheses, main findings, health consequences for the population exposed, rationale of future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T.; Kocan, A. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Bencko, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Berg, M. van den [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosics (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In Slovakia, the Chemko Chemical Company, based in Strazske, in the Michalovce district, produced PCBs between 1959 and 1984, in the amount of more than 21,000 tons of commercial mixtures (Delor 103, 104, 105, 106, Delotherm DK and DH, Hydelor 137). PCBs were used for similar industrial purposes as in the west. Improper disposal from the Chemko plant via release of effluent directly into the Laborec River resulted in long-term contamination of sediment. As a result eastern Slovakia, the Michalovce district in particular, is recognized as one of the areas all over the world most heavily polluted with PCBs. Historical studies show that blood and adipose PCB levels were higher in Czechoslovakia than elsewhere in the 1970's and 1980's. Current data indicate that persons who eat locally raised food - pork, beef, poultry, eggs - in this district have elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Environmental exposure to organochlorines in the Michalovce district indicate association with higher rates of certain cancers, but an inverse association with risk of breast cancer. An increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the polluted area was also reported. This ''experimental setting in nature'' has attracted international scientific teams and two projects in the area are ongoing: Evaluating Human Health Risk from Low-dose and Long-term PCB Exposure, 5{sup th} FP Project QLK4-2000-00488, 2001- 2004; PCBRISK (http://www.pcbrisk.sk/) and Early Childhood Development and PCB Exposures in Slovakia, NCI/NIH, R01-CA96525 University of California, Davis, USA. This paper is serving as an introduction to papers of a session reporting on various health outcomes associated with PCB exposure. The objectives of the PCBRISK project were targeted at an evaluation of the human health risks of low-dose and long-term exposure to a group of persistent organochlorine pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites, organochlorine

  18. Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K

    2018-01-01

    Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework. The MIR framework was developed to help cross disciplinary borders, especially those between the natural sciences and the social sciences. The framework has been specifically constructed to facilitate the design of interdisciplinary scientific research, and can be applied in an educational program, as a reference for monitoring the phases of interdisciplinary research, and as a tool to design such research in a process approach. It is suitable for research projects of different sizes and levels of complexity, and it allows for a range of methods' combinations (case study, mixed methods, etc.). The different phases of designing interdisciplinary research in the MIR framework are described and illustrated by real-life applications in teaching and research. We further discuss the framework's utility in research design in landscape architecture, mixed methods research, and provide an outlook to the framework's potential in inclusive interdisciplinary research, and last but not least, research integrity.

  19. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  20. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 11: supporting the production and use of health systems research syntheses that draw on quasi-experimental study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Bärnighausen, Till; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-01

    To describe the infrastructure available to support the production of policy-relevant health systems research syntheses, particularly those incorporating quasi-experimental evidence, and the tools available to support the use of these syntheses. Literature review. The general challenges associated with the available infrastructure include their sporadic nature or limited coverage of issues and countries, whereas the specific ones related to policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence include the lack of mechanism to register synthesis titles and scoping review protocols, the limited number of groups preparing user-friendly summaries, and the difficulty of finding quasi-experimental studies for inclusion in rapid syntheses and research syntheses more generally. Although some new tools have emerged in recent years, such as guidance workbooks and citizen briefs and panels, challenges related to using available tools to support the use of policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence arise from such studies potentially being harder for policymakers and stakeholders to commission and understand. Policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers need to expand the coverage and institutionalize the use of the available infrastructure and tools to support the use of health system research syntheses containing quasi-experimental evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Challenges of implementation and implementation research: Learning from an intervention study designed to improve tumor registry reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Scheck McAlearney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Implementation of interventions designed to improve the quality of medical care often proceeds differently from what is planned. Improving existing conceptual models to better understand the sources of these differences can help future projects avoid these pitfalls and achieve desired effectiveness. To inform an adaptation of an existing theoretical model, we examined unanticipated changes that occurred in an intervention designed to improve reporting of adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients at a large, urban academic medical center. Methods: Guided by the complex innovation implementation conceptual framework, our study team observed and evaluated the implementation of an intervention designed to improve reporting to a tumor registry. Findings were assessed against the conceptual framework to identify boundary conditions and modifications that could improve implementation effectiveness. Results: The intervention successfully increased identification of the managing medical oncologist and treatment reporting. During implementation, however, unexpected external challenges including hospital acquisitions of community practices and practices’ responses to government incentives to purchase electronic medical record systems led to unanticipated changes and associated threats to implementation. We present a revised conceptual model that incorporates the sources of these unanticipated challenges. Conclusion: This report of our experience highlights the importance of monitoring implementation over time and accounting for changes that affect both implementation and measurement of intervention impact. In this article, we use our study to examine the challenges of implementation research in health care, and our experience can help future implementation efforts.

  2. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  3. Using customer-focused research and design to build a self-service online store: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi MB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Ahmadi,1 William Trefzger,2 Rich Morey,1 Ileana Quintas31Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, 2Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, 3IQ Solutions, Inc, Rockville, MD, USAAbstract: American government information centers need to be responsive to an increasingly customer driven information environment while ensuring the sustainability of operations. Enhanced self-service options offer one avenue for addressing both of these needs. This article presents a case study of how the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration used extensive stakeholder research and a customer-centric design to reframe its service model by building a self-service online store that integrates access to more than 1300 behavioral health publications previously housed in two separate clearinghouses. The redesigned Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Store offers users a modern e-commerce website that not only helps customers find, order, download, and share products, but also encourages serendipitous content exploration, which has led to increased orders containing both substance abuse and mental health publications.Keywords: customer research, taxonomy, usability testing, web analytics, web design

  4. Study of an electromagnetic pump in a sodium cooled reactor. Design study of secondary sodium main pumps (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kisohara, Naoyuki; Hishida, Masahiko; Fujii, Tadashi; Konomura, Mamoru; Ara, Kuniaki; Hori, Toru; Uchida, Akihito; Nishiguchi, Youhei; Nibe, Nobuaki

    2006-07-01

    In the feasibility study on commercialized fast breeder cycle system, a medium scale sodium cooled reactor with 750 MW electricity has been designed. In this study, EMPs are applied to the secondary sodium main pump. The EMPs type is selected to be an annular linear induction pump (ALIP) type with double stators which is used in the 160 m 3 /min EMP demonstration test. The inner structure and electromagnetic features are decided reviewing the 160 m 3 /min EMP. Two dimensional electromagnetic fluid analyses by EAGLE code show that Rms (magnetic Reynolds number times slip) is evaluated to be 1.08 which is less than the stability limit 1.4 confirmed by the 160 m 3 /min EMP test, and the instability of the pump head is evaluated to be 3% of the normal operating pump head. Since the EMP stators are cooled by contacting coolant sodium duct, reliability of the inner structures are confirmed by temperature distribution and stator-duct contact pressure analyses. Besides, a power supply system, maintenance and repair feature and R and D plan of EMP are reported. (author)

  5. A computer-based group discussion support tool for achieving consensus and culture change using the organisational culture assessment instrument (OCAI): an action design research study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee Mui Suan, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Organisational culture change is a long and complex process that typically takes years to complete and has a very low success rate. This Action Design Research Study in an educational setting, addresses the problem by the proposed use of an Action Design Research Methodology to build and deploy an

  6. Reflection: Research by Design: Design-Based Research and the Higher Degree Research Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The article "Research by design: Design-based research and the higher degree research student" (Kennedy-Clark, 2013) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 6, Issue 2 in 2013. Two years on, Shannon Kennedy-Clark reflects upon her original article. Upon being asked to revisit this article the author reflected upon…

  7. Study on usage of low enriched uranium Russian type fuel elements for design of an experimental ADS research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual design of an accelerator driven sub-critical experimental research reactor (ADSRR) was initiated in 1999 at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Serbia and Montenegro. Initial results of neutronic analyses of the proposed ADSRR-H were carried out by Monte Carlo based codes and available high-enriched uranium dioxide (HEU) dispersed Russian type TVR-S fuel elements (FE) placed in a lead matrix. Beam of charged particles (proton or deuteron) would be extracted from the high-energy channel H5B of the VINCY cyclotron of the TESLA Accelerator Installation. In 2002, the Vinca Institute has, in compliance with the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, returned fresh HEU TVR-S type FEs back to the Russian Federation. Since usage of HEU FEs in research reactors is not further recommended, a new study of an ADSRR-L conceptual design has initiated in Vinca Institute in last two years, based on assumed availability of low-enriched uranium (LEU) dispersed type TVR-S FEs. Initial results of numerical simulations of this new ADSRR-L, published for the first time in this paper, shows that such a small low neutron flux system can be used as an experimental - 'demonstration' - ADS with neutron characteristics similar to proposed well-known lead moderated and cooled power sub-critical ADS with intermediate neutron spectrum. Neutron spectrum characteristics of the ADSRR-L are compared to ones of the ADSRR-H with the same mass (7.7 g) of 235 U nuclide per TVR-S FE. (author)

  8. Case study in designing a research fundamentals curriculum for community health workers: a university-community clinic collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community's characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. An interactive training course on research fundamentals for CHWs was designed and implemented jointly by a community agency serving a primarily Latino, rural population and an academic health center. A focus group of community members and input from community leaders comprised a community-based participatory research model to create three 3-hour interactive training sessions. The resulting curriculum was interactive and successfully stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. By choosing course activities that elicited community-specific responses into each session's discussion, researchers learned about the community as much as the training course educated CHWs about research. The approach is readily adaptable, making it useful to other communities where CHWs are part of the health system.

  9. 20% Research & Design Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Beth A.

    2015-04-01

    A project allowing employees to use 15 % of their time on independent projects was established at 3M in the 1950's. The result of this project included products like post it notes and masking tape. Google allows its employees to use 20% of their time on independently pursued projects. The company values creativity and innovation. Employees are allowed to explore projects of interest to them one day out of the week, 20 % of their work week. Products like AdSense, Gmail, Google Transit, Google News, and Google Talk are the result of this 20 % program. My school is implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as part of our regularly scheduled curriculum review. These new standards focus on the process of learning by doing and designing. The NGSS are very hands on and active. The new standards emphasize learning how to define, understand and solve problems in science and technology. In today's society everyone needs to be familiar with science and technology. This project allows students to develop and practice skills to help them be more comfortable and confident with science and technology while exploring something of interest to them. This project includes three major parts: research, design, and presentation. Students will spend approximately 2-4 weeks defining a project proposal and educating themselves by researching a science and technology topic that is of interest to them. In the next phase, 2-4 weeks, students design a product or plan to collect data for something related to their topic. The time spent on research and design will be dependant on the topic students select. Projects should be ambitious enough to encompass about six weeks. Lastly a presentation or demonstration incorporating the research and design of the project is created, peer reviewed and presented to the class. There are some problems anticipated or already experienced with this project. It is difficult for all students to choose a unique topic when you have large class sizes

  10. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  11. Research Through Design & Research Through Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Bohemia, Erik; Kovacevic, Ahmed; Buck, Lyndon; Tollestrup, Christian; Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2016-01-01

    The very definition of a university is a place where research and education are intertwined. When there is no research, a university will look like a place for vocational training, and when there are no students to teach, the university is no more than a research institution. This convention of

  12. Design Research and the Solo Higher Degree Research Student: Strategies to Embed Trustworthiness and Validity into the Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a set of criteria for ensuring trustworthiness in design research studies undertaken by Higher Degree Research (HDR) students. Design research is aimed at exploring educational problems and refining theory and practice by defining a pedagogical outcome and is a methodological approach often associated with the Learning…

  13. Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Internet-mediated research has offered substantial advantages over traditional laboratory-based research in terms of efficiently and affordably allowing for the recruitment of large samples of participants for psychology studies. Core technical, ethical, and methodological issues have been addressed in recent years, but the important issue of participant dropout has received surprisingly little attention. Specifically, web-based psychology studies often involve undergraduates completing lengthy and time-consuming batteries of online personality questionnaires, but no known published studies to date have closely examined the natural course of participant dropout during attempted completion of these studies. The present investigation examined participant dropout among 1,963 undergraduates completing one of six web-based survey studies relatively representative of those conducted in university settings. Results indicated that 10% of participants could be expected to drop out of these studies nearly instantaneously, with an additional 2% dropping out per 100 survey items included in the study. For individual project investigators, these findings hold ramifications for study design considerations, such as conducting a priori power analyses. The present results also have broader ethical implications for understanding and improving voluntary participation in research involving human subjects. Nonetheless, the generalizability of these conclusions may be limited to studies involving similar design or survey content.

  14. Research on an innovative design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Fang, H.

    2018-03-01

    The design methods of furniture are different from east to west; it has been the hotspot of the scholars. However, in terms of the theory of modern design innovation, neither the early creation theory, the modern design theory, nor the widely applied TRIZ theory can fully fit the modern furniture design innovation, so it is urgent to study the modern furniture design theory. This paper is based on the idea of TRIZ theory, using lots of literatures as data, and uses the method of statistical stratification to analyze and sort out the research of modern sitting equipment, and finally put forward the modern furniture design model, which provides new ideas and perspectives for the modern design of Chinese furniture.

  15. Is Engineering Design Disappearing from Design Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Most systems and products need to be engineered during their design, based upon scientific insight into principles, mechanisms, materials and production pos-sibilities, leading to reliability, durability and value for the user. Despite the central importance and design’s crucial dependency...

  16. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  17. Case Study in Designing a Research Fundamentals Curriculum for Community Health Workers: A University - Community Clinic Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community health workers are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community’s characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. Approach and Strategies This pilot project involved the design and implementation of an interactive training course on research fundamentals for community health workers from clinics in a rural, predominately Latino setting. Curriculum development was guided by collaborative activities arising from a university - clinic partnership, a community member focus group, and the advice of community-based researchers. The resulting curriculum was interactive and stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. Discussion and Conclusions Collaboration between researchers and health agency professionals proved to be a practical method to develop curriculum for clinic staff. An interactive curriculum allowed trainees to incorporate community-specific themes into the discussion. This interaction educated course instructors from academia about the community as much as it educated course participants about research. The bidirectional engagement that occurs during the development and teaching of this course can potentially lead to research partnerships between community agencies and academia, better-informed members of the public, and research protocols that accommodate community characteristics. PMID:24121537

  18. Research by Design - a Research and Teaching Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Interweaving research and design-based architectural education is an important effort in most architect schools. All good design is informed by some kind of researchresearch-based design. And all architect schools involve research in their teaching – research based education. Research...... by design. The paper asks how “the new” in architectural production emerges and aims to find similarities between the tradition of practice based proposals and theorisation, and our own research and teaching practice. Grounded in this practice the paper investigates how research by design contributes...... to the construction of knowledge and student’s learning outcomes through research led workshops. The paper presents research inquiries, results and methodologies of two parallel research workshops and discusses the format by which this research tool is developed. Keywords: Research by Design, practice-based research...

  19. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  20. Hypothesis-based research on the causes of sick building symptoms: A design for Phases 2 and 3 of the California Healthy Building Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Faulkner, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Macher, J.M. [California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States). Air and Industrial Hygiene Lab.; Mendell, M.J. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Industrywide Studies Branch

    1992-07-01

    The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers` buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Phase-1 study was completed during 1990. The California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), through its Exploratory Research Program, supported the design of research plans for two future phases of the CHBS. The intent of the CIEE-supported effort was to design research to be conducted in the Phase-1 buildings that capitalizes on the Phase-1 research findings and also on recently-published results of research from other institutions. This report describes the research plans developed with CIEE support and presents the rationale for these research plans.

  1. Hypothesis-based research on the causes of sick building symptoms: A design for Phases 2 and 3 of the California Healthy Building Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Faulkner, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Macher, J.M. (California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States). Air and Industrial Hygiene Lab.); Mendell, M.J. (National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Industrywide Studies Branch)

    1992-07-01

    The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers' buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Phase-1 study was completed during 1990. The California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), through its Exploratory Research Program, supported the design of research plans for two future phases of the CHBS. The intent of the CIEE-supported effort was to design research to be conducted in the Phase-1 buildings that capitalizes on the Phase-1 research findings and also on recently-published results of research from other institutions. This report describes the research plans developed with CIEE support and presents the rationale for these research plans.

  2. Research by Design, Demarcation and Recoginition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Sap, H.A.; Langenhuizen, Anja; Ouwerkerk, Marieke van; Rosemann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong tendency to see designing as a form of research; research by design. On the other hand it is stated that the urban design discipline has ceased to exist or does not develop anymore. Is this correct and can 'research by design' change this situation? These are the questions of

  3. Research by design - a research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic....... Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking in consideration that the practise of architects stretch from natural science and sociology to art, and because the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition is through...... for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency - on the other hand they have different practices, using different methods...

  4. Research by Design - a research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic...... methods. Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking into consideration that the practice of architects stretches from natural science and sociology to art and that the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition...... for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency – and on the other hand, they have different practices, using different...

  5. Developing theory-driven design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Design research is increasingly weak in comparison with other fields; without action to increase scientific, theoretical, and methodological rigour there is a real possibility of the field being superseded and becoming obsolete through lack of impact. The aim of this paper is to show how design r....... I identify key learning indicating future directions for theory-driven design research. I conclude by providing some concrete recommendations for the field of design research and individual design researchers....

  6. Research design models: a new category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a research design model and how it differs from an engineering design model. Essentially, the research design model draws on the methods, materials and processes of engineering design models but more emphasis is placed on conceptualization in 3-D. Typically, equipment and processes in research are unique. Often, there are competing concepts from which to decide. The approach which is evolving at Sandia National Laboratories mixes preliminary, engineering and research design on the same model

  7. Reflections on Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Design-Based Research is an intervention method that researches educational design (products or processes) in real-life settings with the dual purpose of generating theories about the domain and develop the design iteratively. This paper is an integrative review with a personal ethnographic...... narrative that draws on Design-Based Research literature, and identifies and discusses elements from Interaction Design and Action Research that the Design-Based Research approach could apply, situating the research in online educational projects, where participants are distributed in time and space...

  8. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of School-Based Sexual Health Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Qualitative Study of Researchers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A. Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Mathews, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated facilitators and challenges to designing, implementing and evaluating school-based sexual health education in sub-Saharan Africa, using interviews with intervention designers and researchers. At the pre-planning and planning stages, participants reported that facilitating factors included addressing the reproductive health…

  9. Designing intervention in educational game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...

  10. Designing intervention in educational game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...

  11. The order and priority of research and design method application within an assistive technology new product development process: a summative content analysis of 20 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward

    2018-01-01

    Summative content analysis was used to define methods and heuristics from each case study. The review process was in two parts: (1) A literature review to identify conventional research methods and (2) a summative content analysis of published case studies, based on the identified methods and heuristics to suggest an order and priority of where and when were used. Over 200 research and design methods and design heuristics were identified. From the review of the 20 case studies 42 were identified as being applied. The majority of methods and heuristics were applied in phase two, market choice. There appeared a disparity between the limited numbers of methods frequently used, under 10 within the 20 case studies, when hundreds were available. Implications for Rehabilitation The communication highlights a number of issues that have implication for those involved in assistive technology new product development: •The study defined over 200 well-established research and design methods and design heuristics that are available for use by those who specify and design assistive technology products, which provide a comprehensive reference list for practitioners in the field; •The review within the study suggests only a limited number of research and design methods are regularly used by industrial design focused assistive technology new product developers; and, •Debate is required within the practitioners working in this field to reflect on how a wider range of potentially more effective methods and heuristics may be incorporated into daily working practice.

  12. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  13. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained in ...

  14. Research by Design: Design-Based Research and the Higher Degree Research student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Design-based research lends itself to educational research as the aim of this approach is to develop and refine the design of artefacts, tools and curriculum and to advance existing theory or develop new theories that can support and lead to a deepened understanding of learning. This paper provides an overview of the potential benefits of using a…

  15. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  16. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  17. Safety of research reactors (Design and Operation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirar, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to conduct a comprehensive up-to-date literature review on the current status of safety of research reactor both in design and operation providing the future trends in safety of research reactors. Data and technical information of variety selected historical research reactors were thoroughly reviewed and evaluated, furthermore illustrations of the material of fuel, control rods, shielding, moderators and coolants used were discussed. Insight study of some historical research reactors was carried with considering sample cases such as Chicago Pile-1, F-1 reactor, Chalk River Laboratories,. The National Research Experimental Reactor and others. The current status of research reactors and their geographical distribution, reactor category and utilization is also covered. Examples of some recent advanced reactors were studied like safety barriers of HANARO of Korea including safety doors of the hall and building entrance and finger print identification which prevent the reactor from sabotage. On the basis of the results of this research, it is apparent that a high quality of safety of nuclear reactors can be attained by achieving enough robust construction, designing components of high levels of efficiency, replacing the compounds of the reactor in order to avoid corrosion and degradation with age, coupled with experienced scientists and technical staffs to operate nuclear research facilities.(Author)

  18. Consumer energy research review. A compendium of selected studies and their implications for policy formulation and program design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, J.R.B.; McDougall, G.H.G. (comps.)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography covers studies of consumers of energy, their attitudes and patterns of consumption. Annotations are given in outline form with respect to the study's objectives, major findings, and implications for consumer energy policy and research. If the study was a survey, the location and nature of sample are given. Literature from Canada and the U.S.A. is included.

  19. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  20. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement...

  1. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent desig...

  2. Reconsidering the Utility of Case Study Designs for Researching School Reform in a Neo-Scientific Era: Insights from a Multiyear, Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmoyer, Robert; Galloway, Fred

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, policy makers and researchers once again have embraced the traditional idea that quasi-experimental research designs (or reasonable facsimiles) can provide the sort of valid and generalizable knowledge about "what works" that educational researchers had promised--but never really produced--during the previous century. Although…

  3. Research on early design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    This paper tells about the scientific bases for conceptual design. Presented on a course for Danish industrialists arranged by the Institute for Product Development 18th March, 1997.......This paper tells about the scientific bases for conceptual design. Presented on a course for Danish industrialists arranged by the Institute for Product Development 18th March, 1997....

  4. Review of research in feature based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Research in feature-based design is reviewed. Feature-based design is regarded as a key factor towards CAD/CAPP integration from a process planning point of view. From a design point of view, feature-based design offers possibilities for supporting the design process better than current CAD systems

  5. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  6. Exploring academics' views on designs, methods, characteristics and outcomes of inclusive health research with people with intellectual disabilities: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Meijering, J V; Leusink, G; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Medical Journal's (BMJ's) patient revolution strives for collaboration with patients in healthcare and health research. This paper studies collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research. Currently, transparency and agreement among academics is lacking regarding its main aspects, preventing upscaling of the patient revolution. Objective This study aims to gain agreement among academics on 3 aspects of inclusive health research for people with ID: (1) designs and methods, (2) most important characteristics and (3) outcomes. Design A Delphi study was conducted with academics with experience in inclusive (health) research and on people with ID. The study consisted of 2 sequential questionnaire rounds (n=24; n=17), followed by in-depth interviews (n=10). Results Academics agreed on (1) a collaborative approach to be most suitable to inclusive health research, (2) characteristics regarding the accessibility and facilitation of inclusive health research, and (3) several outcomes of inclusive health research for people with ID and healthcare. Other characteristics agreed on included: atmosphere, relationship, engagement, partnership and power. It was stressed that these characteristics ensure meaningful inclusion. Interviewed academics voiced the need for a tool supporting the facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. There was ambiguity as to what this tool should comprise and the extent to which it was possible to capture the complex process of inclusive health research. Discussion and conclusions This study underlines the need for transparency, facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. The need for in-depth interviews after 2 Delphi rounds underlines its complexity and context dependence. To increase process transparency, future research should focus on gaining insight into inclusive health research in its context. A tool could be developed

  7. Optimum study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C; Rao, D C

    2001-01-01

    Because simplistic designs will lead to prohibitively large sample sizes, the optimization of genetic study designs is critical for successfully mapping genes for complex diseases. Creative designs are necessary for detecting and amplifying the usually weak signals for complex traits. Two important outcomes of a study design--power and resolution--are implicitly tied together by the principle of uncertainty. Overemphasis on either one may lead to suboptimal designs. To achieve optimality for a particular study, therefore, practical measures such as cost-effectiveness must be used to strike a balance between power and resolution. In this light, the myriad of factors involved in study design can be checked for their effects on the ultimate outcomes, and the popular existing designs can be sorted into building blocks that may be useful for particular situations. It is hoped that imaginative construction of novel designs using such building blocks will lead to enhanced efficiency in finding genes for complex human traits.

  8. Conceptual design of Dipole Research Experiment (DREX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaogang; Xiao, Chijie; Yang, Xiaoyi; Zheng, Jinxing

    2017-03-01

    A new terrella-like device for laboratory simulation of inner magnetosphere plasmas, Dipole Research Experiment, is scheduled to be built at the Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China, as a major state scientific research facility for space physics studies. It is designed to provide a ground experimental platform to reproduce the inner magnetosphere to simulate the processes of trapping, acceleration, and transport of energetic charged particles restrained in a dipole magnetic field configuration. The scaling relation of hydromagnetism between the laboratory plasma of the device and the geomagnetosphere plasma is applied to resemble geospace processes in the Dipole Research Experiment plasma. Multiple plasma sources, different kinds of coils with specific functions, and advanced diagnostics are designed to be equipped in the facility for multi-functions. The motivation, design criteria for the Dipole Research Experiment experiments and the means applied to generate the plasma of desired parameters in the laboratory are also described. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505040, 11261140326 and 11405038), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Nos. 2016M591518, 2015M570283) and Project Supported by Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (No. 2017008).

  9. Design Research: Aesthetic Epistemology and Explanatory Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murphy

    Full Text Available The article explores the “what” and the “how” of design research. It discusses the epistemological assumptions of design and design research—the conception of true knowledge that underpins the quest to advance design knowledge through research. The article also examines the media and methods of doing design research—that is, the “how” of such research. As it developed over the past century, the design field has drawn extensively on three pivotal but often tacitly deployed epistemologies: the Platonic-Aristotelian, the pragmatic, and the postmodern. Platonic epistemology is latent in many commonplace design instruction texts. Pragmatic epistemology underscores the industrial-arts ethos of design. Postmodern epistemologies dominate in university programs—especially graduate and Ph.D. programs. The article considers how these competing epistemologies understand the role of imagination in the act of creation. The article then considers the role of explanation in the carrying out of research in creative design and arts fields. It addresses whether, and to what degree, design research ought to rely on explanatory words as its principal medium of research, or whether it is valid to substitute artifactual creation for intellectual explanation in the research process. Key words: Epistemology, Design, Imagination, Knowledge, Explanation, Practice-based research

  10. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno Summer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths. Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of

  11. A Research Study Using the Delphi Method to Define Essential Competencies for a High School Game Art and Design Course Framework at the National Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nayo Corenus-Geneva

    2011-01-01

    This research study reports the findings of a Delphi study conducted to determine the essential competencies and objectives for a high school Game Art and Design course framework at the national level. The Delphi panel consisted of gaming, industry and educational experts from all over the world who were members of the International Game…

  12. Research into Practice: The Influence of Discourse Studies on Language Descriptions and Task Design in Published ELT Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Discourse studies is a vast, multidisciplinary, and rapidly expanding area of research, embracing a range of approaches including discourse analysis, corpus analysis, conversation analysis, interactional sociolinguistics, critical discourse analysis, genre analysis and multimodal discourse analysis. Each approach offers its own unique perspective…

  13. User acceptance of location-tracking technologies in health research: Implications for study design and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jean; Veinot, Tiffany C; Yan, Xiang; Berrocal, Veronica J; Clarke, Philippa; Goodspeed, Robert; Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Romero, Daniel; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod

    2018-03-01

    Research regarding place and health has undergone a revolution due to the availability of consumer-focused location-tracking devices that reveal fine-grained details of human mobility. Such research requires that participants accept such devices enough to use them in their daily lives. There is a need for a theoretically grounded understanding of acceptance of different location-tracking technology options, and its research implications. Guided by an extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), we conducted a 28-day field study comparing 21 chronically ill people's acceptance of two leading, consumer-focused location-tracking technologies deployed for research purposes: (1) a location-enabled smartphone, and (2) a GPS watch/activity tracker. Participants used both, and completed two surveys and qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that all participants exerted effort to facilitate data capture, such as by incorporating devices into daily routines and developing workarounds to keep devices functioning. Nevertheless, the smartphone was perceived to be significantly easier and posed fewer usability challenges for participants than the watch. Older participants found the watch significantly more difficult to use. For both devices, effort expectancy was significantly associated with future willingness to participate in research although prosocial motivations overcame some concerns. Social influence, performance expectancy and use behavior were significantly associated with intentions to use the devices in participants' personal lives. Data gathered via the smartphone was significantly more complete than data gathered via the watch, primarily due to usability challenges. To make longer-term participation in location tracking research a reality, and to achieve complete data capture, researchers must minimize the effort involved in participation; this requires usable devices. For long-term location-tracking studies using similar devices

  14. [The values of different study designs on the levels of evidence: a descriptive analysis of the researches published in four general medical journals in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-yao; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Shan-shan; Zhou, Yuan; DU, Yu-kun; Zhan, Si-yan

    2010-12-01

    To discuss the levels of evidence provided by different study designs. Websites of N Engl J Med, JAMA, Lancet, and BMJ were accessed to identify research articles (systematic review and meta-analysis included) published in 2009. A standardized data collection form was established using Epidata 3.1 software to extract the "title", "country of lead author", "clinical problem" (such as treatment, diagnosis, etc.) and "study design" of eligible studies. Descriptive statistics was conducted with SPSS 13.0. Over all, 844 studies were included, among which 35.7% were RCT, 9.4% systematic review and Meta-analysis, and 54.9% other types of studies. Regarding clinical problems, 34.2%, 19.7%, 13.7%, 6.0% and 5.1% of the included researches addressed the issues of treatment, etiology/risk factors, prevention, disease frequency and prognosis, respectively. The study designs that were most frequently adopted to explore these problems were RCT (70.6%), cohort study (44.6%), RCT (68.1%), cross-sectional study (56.9%), and cohort study (93.0%), respectively. High-level evidence does not come exclusively from RCT and systematic review, as each type of study may have its unique value in health related research. The clinical problem of interest, the previous work that has been done to approach the same issue, as well as other factors should be taken into account when deciding whether the selected study design is appropriate.

  15. Embodying embodied design research techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Tomico, Oscar; Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The value of engaging the full gamut of sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart objects and systems is increasingly recognized. Yet methods for arriving at robust and reliable outcomes for their development are not fully understood, nor are they easily reported or transferred through ...

  16. Study on systematic integration technology of design and safety assessment for HLW geological disposal. 2. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito, Takaya; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kuwayama, Yuki

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out relating to basic design of the Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' that will be systematized as knowledge base for design analysis and safety assessment of HLW geological disposal system by integrating organically and hierarchically various technical information in three study field. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) As referring to the current performance assessment report, the technical information for R and D program of HLW geological disposal system was systematized hierarchically based on summarized information in a suitable form between the work flow (work item) and processes/characteristic flow (process item). (2) As the result of the systematized technical information, database structure and system functions necessary for development and construction to the computer system were clarified in order to secure the relation between technical information and data set for assessment of HLW geological disposal system. (3) The control procedure for execution of various analysis code used by design and safety assessment in HLW geological disposal study was arranged possibility in construction of 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' after investigating the distributed computing technology. (author)

  17. Eindhoven school for technological design : design education and design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, H.M.G.J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.Th.

    1995-01-01

    Nine years after starting the two-year post-graduate programme on technological design [Ackermans and Trum, 1988], Eindhoven University of Technology (EUT) decided to enhance the development of synthesis-oriented engineering education by establishing a post-graduate school for technological design.

  18. Research on conceptual design of mechatronic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems/components on holistic dynamic performance of mechatronic systems ... Conceptual design is a typical ill-definition solving problem. ..... Li R 2004 Research on theory and method of scheme creative design of mechatronic system. School.

  19. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  20. Applied statistical designs for the researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Paulson, Daryl S

    2003-01-01

    Research and Statistics Basic Review of Parametric Statistics Exploratory Data Analysis Two Sample Tests Completely Randomized One-Factor Analysis of Variance One and Two Restrictions on Randomization Completely Randomized Two-Factor Factorial Designs Two-Factor Factorial Completely Randomized Blocked Designs Useful Small Scale Pilot Designs Nested Statistical Designs Linear Regression Nonparametric Statistics Introduction to Research Synthesis and "Meta-Analysis" and Conclusory Remarks References Index.

  1. Experiential design landscapes: design research in the wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.M.R.; Megens, C.J.P.G.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brandt, E.; Ehn, P.; Johansson, T.; Johansson, T.D.; Hellström Reimer, M.; Markussen, T.; Vallgårda, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to the emergence of new sensing and behaviour tracking technologies, design research can take place anywhere and anytime in the real world. When doing design research, a trade-off has to be made between experimental control and ecological validity. In this paper, we compare Experiential

  2. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  3. Architectural design and the collaborative research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Roger N

    2006-10-20

    Given that science is a collaborative endeavor, architects are striving to design new research buildings that not only provide a more pleasant work space but also facilitate interactions among researchers.

  4. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  5. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according......, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors...

  6. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  7. A systematic and transparent approach for assessing the methodological quality of intervention effectiveness research: the Study Design and Implementation Assessment Device (Study DIAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris

    2008-06-01

    Assessments of studies meant to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, programs, and policies can serve an important role in the interpretation of research results. However, evidence suggests that available quality assessment tools have poor measurement characteristics and can lead to opposing conclusions when applied to the same body of studies. These tools tend to (a) be insufficiently operational, (b) rely on arbitrary post-hoc decision rules, and (c) result in a single number to represent a multidimensional construct. In response to these limitations, a multilevel and hierarchical instrument was developed in consultation with a wide range of methodological and statistical experts. The instrument focuses on the operational details of studies and results in a profile of scores instead of a single score to represent study quality. A pilot test suggested that satisfactory between-judge agreement can be obtained using well-trained raters working in naturalistic conditions. Limitations of the instrument are discussed, but these are inherent in making decisions about study quality given incomplete reporting and in the absence of strong, contextually based information about the effects of design flaws on study outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  10. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  11. Impacting Society through Engineering Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Following the recent ICED11 conference in Copenhagen, Thomas Howard, ICED11 Assistant Chair and Ass. Professor at DTU has written a reflection on design research and design practice, suggesting that in addition to benefiting society through the improved understanding of methods of and approaches...... to design, the academic design community should through design practice produce empowering products which address societal needs unbound by the necessity for profit....

  12. Data-driven engineering design research: Opportunities using open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    the already available and continuously growing body of open data sources to create opportunities for research in Engineering Design. Insights are illustrated by an examination of two examples: a study of open source software repositories and an analysis of open business registries in the cleantech industry....... We conclude with a discussion about the limitations, challenges and risks of using open data in Engineering Design research and practice.......Engineering Design research relies on quantitative and qualitative data to describe design-related phenomena and prescribe improvements for design practice. Given data availability, privacy requirements and other constraints, most empirical data used in Engineering Design research can be described...

  13. Conducting Classroom Design Research with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Michelle. L.

    2015-01-01

    Design research is usually motivated by university members with experience and interest in building theory and instructional designs in collaboration with one teacher. Typically, the teacher is considered as a member of the research team, with the primary responsibility of implementing instruction. However, in this chapter, I describe a Classroom…

  14. Reinventing Learning: A Design-Research Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2015-01-01

    Design research is a broad, practice-based approach to investigating problems of education. This approach can catalyze the development of learning theory by fostering opportunities for transformational change in scholars' interpretation of instructional interactions. Surveying a succession of design-research projects, I explain how challenges in…

  15. Evaluation in Design-Oriented Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, P.J.M.; Hartog, R.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Design has been recognized for a long time both as art and as science. In the sixties of the previous century design-oriented research began to draw the attention of scientific researchers and methodologists, not only in technical engineering but also in the social sciences. However, a rather

  16. Research and Design in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Bobbink, I.; Jauslin, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce the particular methodology of the author's and their colleagues at TU Delft Chair of Landscape Architecture. This approach is characterised by theories, methods and techniques converging towards design and research and research by design. The relation and interaction

  17. What Is This Thing Called "Design" in Design Research and Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper will consider the phenomenon of design research. It will then consider four research positions in social science research. The paper will show how the design perspectives map onto the research paradigms and how by rotating through these paradigms, a design research cycle is formed. Finally, the paper will discuss four research questions…

  18. Towards evidence-based computational statistics: lessons from clinical research on the role and design of real-data benchmark studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Rory; Hapfelmeier, Alexander

    2017-09-09

    The goal of medical research is to develop interventions that are in some sense superior, with respect to patient outcome, to interventions currently in use. Similarly, the goal of research in methodological computational statistics is to develop data analysis tools that are themselves superior to the existing tools. The methodology of the evaluation of medical interventions continues to be discussed extensively in the literature and it is now well accepted that medicine should be at least partly "evidence-based". Although we statisticians are convinced of the importance of unbiased, well-thought-out study designs and evidence-based approaches in the context of clinical research, we tend to ignore these principles when designing our own studies for evaluating statistical methods in the context of our methodological research. In this paper, we draw an analogy between clinical trials and real-data-based benchmarking experiments in methodological statistical science, with datasets playing the role of patients and methods playing the role of medical interventions. Through this analogy, we suggest directions for improvement in the design and interpretation of studies which use real data to evaluate statistical methods, in particular with respect to dataset inclusion criteria and the reduction of various forms of bias. More generally, we discuss the concept of "evidence-based" statistical research, its limitations and its impact on the design and interpretation of real-data-based benchmark experiments. We suggest that benchmark studies-a method of assessment of statistical methods using real-world datasets-might benefit from adopting (some) concepts from evidence-based medicine towards the goal of more evidence-based statistical research.

  19. Explaining Kansei design studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, P.D.; Vakamori, S.; Yamanaka, T.

    2008-01-01

    Within the last thirty years, Kansei studies have become an important field of research in Japan. More recently, foreign researchers have become more and more interested in understating the approach, despite the difficulties related to the cultural dimension of Kansei and Kansei studies. The aim of

  20. Towards evidence-based computational statistics: lessons from clinical research on the role and design of real-data benchmark studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Boulesteix

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of medical research is to develop interventions that are in some sense superior, with respect to patient outcome, to interventions currently in use. Similarly, the goal of research in methodological computational statistics is to develop data analysis tools that are themselves superior to the existing tools. The methodology of the evaluation of medical interventions continues to be discussed extensively in the literature and it is now well accepted that medicine should be at least partly “evidence-based”. Although we statisticians are convinced of the importance of unbiased, well-thought-out study designs and evidence-based approaches in the context of clinical research, we tend to ignore these principles when designing our own studies for evaluating statistical methods in the context of our methodological research. Main message In this paper, we draw an analogy between clinical trials and real-data-based benchmarking experiments in methodological statistical science, with datasets playing the role of patients and methods playing the role of medical interventions. Through this analogy, we suggest directions for improvement in the design and interpretation of studies which use real data to evaluate statistical methods, in particular with respect to dataset inclusion criteria and the reduction of various forms of bias. More generally, we discuss the concept of “evidence-based” statistical research, its limitations and its impact on the design and interpretation of real-data-based benchmark experiments. Conclusion We suggest that benchmark studies—a method of assessment of statistical methods using real-world datasets—might benefit from adopting (some concepts from evidence-based medicine towards the goal of more evidence-based statistical research.

  1. Conceptual Thermal Hydraulic Design of a 20MW Multipurpose Research Reactor (KAERI/VAEC joint study on a new research reactor for Vietnam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Hee Taek; Seo, Chul Gyo; Park, Jong Hark; Park, Cheol; Vinh, Le Vinh; Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Dang, Vo Doan Hai

    2007-08-01

    The conceptual thermal hydraulics design analyses for the 20 MW reference AHR core have been jointly performed by the KAERI and DNRI(VAEC). The preliminary core thermal hydraulic characteristics and safety margins for the AHR core were studied for various core flow rates, fuel assembly powers and core inlet temperatures. Statistical method was applied to the thermal hydraulic design of the reactor core. The MATRA h subchannel code has been applied to evaluate the thermal hydraulic performances of the AHR and the resulting thermal margins of the core under the forced convection cooling mode during a nominal power operation and the natural circulation mode during a reactor shutdown condition. In addition, typical accident analyses were carried out for a loss of flow accident by a primary pump seizure and a reactivity induced accident by a CAR rod withdrawal during a normal full power operation. The normal full power operation of the AHR was ensured with a sufficient safety margin for the onset of nucleate boiling phenomena. The AHR also had a sufficient natural circulation cooling capability to cool the core without the onset of nucleate boiling in the channel after a normal reactor shutdown and the anticipated transients. It was confirmed by the typical accident analyses that the AHR core was sufficiently protected from the loss of flow by the primary cooling pump seizure and the overpower transients by the CAR withdrawal from the MCHFR and fuel temperature points of view

  2. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  3. Design and Implementation of Collaborative Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venti, Mike W.; Berger, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the collarborative research approaches that NASA has been designing and implementing for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. The inputs for the technical plan are reviewed, the Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) WIKI, is used to create and propose a multi-themed and multi-partner research testing opportunities. The outputs are testing opportunities.

  4. Ubiquitous Surveys Reveal Shallow Research Designs (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Charles-Gene

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the large amount of often irrelevant, poorly designed, and poorly written quantitative journalism research. Notes that journalism education and mass communication education research published in scholarly journals is largely ignored by professional journalists, who find more value in the qualitative research reported in the journalism…

  5. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  6. Research Design – Composition, Configuration and Interdependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will present an integrative view on research design. I will introduce what I take to be the skeleton components of any research design within the social sciences, i.e. the elements of research question, philosophy of science, methodology, method and data. With this as my point...... of departure I will go on to focus on a presentation, a discussion and an evaluation of a new appreciation of the interdependencies of the elements in the research design. An appreciation that favors a relational rather than an atomistic outlook and which gives rise to an ecological conceptualization......). At a more concrete level, it aims at presenting an idea of research design which would – hopefully – be an inspiration to (young) scholars....

  7. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  8. Study of natural circulation for the design of a research reactor using computational fluid dynamics and evolutionary computation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andre Felipe da Silva de

    2012-01-01

    Safety is one of the most important and desirable characteristics in a nuclear plant Natural circulation cooling systems are noted for providing passive safety. These systems can be used as mechanism for removing the residual heat from the reactor, or even as the main cooling system for heated sections, such as the core. In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code called CFX is used to simulate the process of natural circulation in a research reactor pool after its shutdown. The physical model studied is similar to the Open Pool Australian Light water reactor (OPAL), and contains the core, cooling pool, reflecting tank, circulation pipes and chimney. For best computing performance, the core region was modeled as a porous medium, where the parameters were obtained from a separately detailed CFD analysis. This work also aims to study the viability of the implementation of Differential Evolution algorithm for optimization the physical and operational parameters that, obeying the laws of similarity, lead to a test section on a reduced scale of the reactor pool.

  9. Design research through practice : from the lab, field, and showroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koskinen, I.; Zimmerman, J.; Binder, T.; Redström, J.; Wensveen, S.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Businesses and the HCI and Interaction Design communities have embraced design and design research. Design research as a field blends methodologies from several disciplines - sociology, engineering, software, philosophy, industrial design, HCI/interaction design -- so designers can learn from past

  10. Research-based design & design-based research: Affordances, limitations and synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Research-based design is an orientation to educational development that is explicitly informed by existing research as well as formative evaluation. Design-based research is a genre of inquiry in which the design of innovative solutions to problems in educational practice provides the context for

  11. Design and construction of multi research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This is the report about design and construction of multi research reactor, which introduces the purpose and necessity of the project, business contents, plan of progress of project and budget for the project. There are three appendixes about status of research reactor in other country, a characteristic of research reactor, three charts about evaluation, process and budget for the multi research reactor and three drawings for the project.

  12. SPFC bus design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.; Reinkingh, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study assessing the design options for a solid polymer fuel cell bus. Commercial and operation requirements, environmental and market drivers, and fuel processor modeling are examined. Power train specifications and detailed system design are investigated covering fuel cell system dynamic response, hybrid system size, fuel cell system start-up time, system specifications, and hybrid bus component dimensions and costs. (UK)

  13. Study on a new design of Tehran Research Reactor for radionuclide production based on fast neutrons using MCNPX code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Nadia; Afarideh, Hossein; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Rajabifar, Saeed

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to increase the magnitude of the fast neutron flux inside the flux trap where radionuclides are produced. For this purpose, three new designs of the flux trap are proposed and the obtained fast and thermal neutron fluxes compared with each other. The first and second proposed designs were a sealed cube contained air and D 2 O, respectively. The results of calculated production yield all indicated the superiority of the latter by a factor of 55% in comparison to the first proposed design. The third proposed design was based on changing the surrounding of the sealed cube by locating two fuel plates near that. In this case, the production yield increased up to 70%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.

  15. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Design and evaluation The project will provide helpful guidance to IDRC management and ... scaling and programming for scalable research Offer the monograph in multiple forms, ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  16. Evaluating an artifact in design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the iterative evaluation of an artifact developed through the application of Design Science Research (DSR) methodology in a resource constrained environment. In the DSR process the aspect of evaluation is often done...

  17. The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation...... as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform...

  18. Using a Mixed Methods Research Design in a Study Investigating the "Heads of e-Learning" Perspective towards Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almpanis, Timos

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the research design, methodology and methods employed in research conducted in the context of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and focuses on the Heads of e-Learning (HeLs) perspective about Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) by campus-based UK institutions. This paper aims to expand on the research design and the research…

  19. Exploring academics' views on designs, methods, characteristics and outcomes of inclusive health research with people with intellectual disabilities: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Meijering, J V; Leusink, G; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H M J

    2016-08-18

    The British Medical Journal's (BMJ's) patient revolution strives for collaboration with patients in healthcare and health research. This paper studies collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research. Currently, transparency and agreement among academics is lacking regarding its main aspects, preventing upscaling of the patient revolution. This study aims to gain agreement among academics on 3 aspects of inclusive health research for people with ID: (1) designs and methods, (2) most important characteristics and (3) outcomes. A Delphi study was conducted with academics with experience in inclusive (health) research and on people with ID. The study consisted of 2 sequential questionnaire rounds (n=24; n=17), followed by in-depth interviews (n=10). Academics agreed on (1) a collaborative approach to be most suitable to inclusive health research, (2) characteristics regarding the accessibility and facilitation of inclusive health research, and (3) several outcomes of inclusive health research for people with ID and healthcare. Other characteristics agreed on included: atmosphere, relationship, engagement, partnership and power. It was stressed that these characteristics ensure meaningful inclusion. Interviewed academics voiced the need for a tool supporting the facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. There was ambiguity as to what this tool should comprise and the extent to which it was possible to capture the complex process of inclusive health research. This study underlines the need for transparency, facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. The need for in-depth interviews after 2 Delphi rounds underlines its complexity and context dependence. To increase process transparency, future research should focus on gaining insight into inclusive health research in its context. A tool could be developed to facilitate and evaluate inclusive health research. This tool

  20. Motor Phenotype in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Gait and Balance Platform Study Design Protocol for the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Bartha, Robert; Black, Sandra E; Finger, Elizabeth; Freedman, Morris; Greenberg, Barry; Grimes, David A; Hegele, Robert A; Hudson, Christopher; Kleinstiver, Peter W; Lang, Anthony E; Masellis, Mario; McLaughlin, Paula M; Munoz, Douglas P; Strother, Stephen; Swartz, Richard H; Symons, Sean; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Zinman, Lorne; Strong, Michael J; McIlroy, William

    2017-01-01

    The association of cognitive and motor impairments in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is thought to be related to damage in the common brain networks shared by cognitive and cortical motor control processes. These common brain networks play a pivotal role in selecting movements and postural synergies that meet an individual's needs. Pathology in this "highest level" of motor control produces abnormalities of gait and posture referred to as highest-level gait disorders. Impairments in cognition and mobility, including falls, are present in almost all neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting common mechanisms that still need to be unraveled. To identify motor-cognitive profiles across neurodegenerative diseases in a large cohort of patients. Cohort study that includes up to 500 participants, followed every year for three years, across five neurodegenerative disease groups: Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment, frontotemporal degeneration, vascular cognitive impairment, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Gait and balance will be assessed using accelerometers and electronic walkways, evaluated at different levels of cognitive and sensory complexity, using the dual-task paradigm. Comparison of cognitive and motor performances across neurodegenerative groups will allow the identification of motor-cognitive phenotypes through the standardized evaluation of gait and balance characteristics. As part of the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI), the gait and balance platform aims to identify motor-cognitive profiles across neurodegenerative diseases. Gait assessment, particularly while dual-tasking, will help dissect the cognitive and motor contribution in mobility and cognitive decline, progression to dementia syndromes, and future adverse outcomes including falls and mortality.

  1. Design Research through the Lens of Sociology of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Hilde Østerås; Seim, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    The use of an approach to design research inspired by Sociology of Technology offers a nuanced understanding of design processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how terminology derived from the socio-technical theory of Actor Network (ANT) can be used to understand the complexity of design...... processes by viewing these processes as building and alignment of networks. The applicability of ANT in design research is demonstrated in an analysis of an action research based case study. In this case study a socio-technical approach called “workspace design” is employed in a process of re......-design of existing workspace and work practice in an industrial company. The case study (i) illustrates a socio-technical approach to design research and (ii) shows how ANT terminology can be applied in an analysis of the course of events in a design process with numerous actors involved....

  2. Clinical research in implant dentistry: study design, reporting and outcome measurements: consensus report of Working Group 2 of the VIII European Workshop on Periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Maurizio; Palmer, Richard

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this working group was to assess and make specific recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of clinical research in implant dentistry and discuss ways to reach a consensus on choice of outcomes. Discussions were informed by three systematic reviews on quality of reporting of observational studies (case series, case-control and cohort) and experimental research (randomized clinical trials). An additional systematic review provided information on choice of outcomes and analytical methods. In addition, an open survey among all workshop participants was utilized to capture a consensus view on the limits of currently used survival and success-based outcomes as well as to identify domains that need to be captured by future outcome systems. The Workshop attempted to clarify the characteristics and the value in dental implant research of different study designs. In most areas, measurable quality improvements over time were identified. The Workshop recognized important aspects that require continued attention by clinical researchers, funding agencies and peer reviewers to decrease potential bias. With regard to choice of outcomes, the limitations of currently used systems were recognized. Three broad outcome domains that need to be captured by future research were identified: (i) patient reported outcome measures, (ii) peri-implant tissue health and (iii) performance of implant supported restorations. Peri-implant tissue health can be measured by marginal bone level changes and soft tissue inflammation and can be incorporated in time to event analyses. The Workshop recommended that collaboration between clinicians and epidemiologists/clinical trials specialists should be encouraged. Aspects of design aimed at limitation of potential bias should receive attention by clinical researchers, funding agencies and journal editors. Adherence to appropriate reporting guidelines such as STROBE and CONSORT are necessary standards. Research on outcome

  3. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 13: realizing the full potential of quasi-experiments for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Although the number of quasi-experiments conducted by health researchers has increased in recent years, there clearly remains unrealized potential for using these methods for causal evaluation of health policies and programs globally. This article proposes five prescriptions for capturing the full value of quasi-experiments for health research. First, new funding opportunities targeting proposals that use quasi-experimental methods should be made available to a broad pool of health researchers. Second, administrative data from health programs, often amenable to quasi-experimental analysis, should be made more accessible to researchers. Third, training in quasi-experimental methods should be integrated into existing health science graduate programs to increase global capacity to use these methods. Fourth, clear guidelines for primary research and synthesis of evidence from quasi-experiments should be developed. Fifth, strategic investments should be made to continue to develop new innovations in quasi-experimental methodologies. Tremendous opportunities exist to expand the use of quasi-experimental methods to increase our understanding of which health programs and policies work and which do not. Health researchers should continue to expand their commitment to rigorous causal evaluation with quasi-experimental methods, and international institutions should increase their support for these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An

  5. The networked student: A design-based research case study of student constructed personal learning environments in a middle school science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Wendy

    This design-based research case study applied a networked learning approach to a seventh grade science class at a public school in the southeastern United States. Students adapted emerging Web applications to construct personal learning environments for in-depth scientific inquiry of poisonous and venomous life forms. The personal learning environments constructed used Application Programming Interface (API) widgets to access, organize, and synthesize content from a number of educational Internet resources and social network connections. This study examined the nature of personal learning environments; the processes students go through during construction, and patterns that emerged. The project was documented from both an instructional and student-design perspective. Findings revealed that students applied the processes of: practicing digital responsibility; practicing digital literacy; organizing content; collaborating and socializing; and synthesizing and creating. These processes informed a model of the networked student that will serve as a framework for future instructional designs. A networked learning approach that incorporates these processes into future designs has implications for student learning, teacher roles, professional development, administrative policies, and delivery. This work is significant in that it shifts the focus from technology innovations based on tools to student empowerment based on the processes required to support learning. It affirms the need for greater attention to digital literacy and responsibility in K12 schools as well as consideration for those skills students will need to achieve success in the 21st century. The design-based research case study provides a set of design principles for teachers to follow when facilitating student construction of personal learning environments.

  6. Towards mHealth Systems for Support of Psychotherapeutic Practice: A Qualitative Study of Researcher-Clinician Collaboration in System Design and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Halje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined clinicians’ and researchers’ experiences from participation in collaborative research on the introduction of Internet and mobile information systems (mHealth systems in psychotherapeutic routines. The study used grounded theory methodology and was set in a collaboration that aimed to develop and evaluate mHealth support of psychotherapy provided to young people. Soundness of the central objects developed in the design phase (the collaboration contract, the trial protocol, and the system technology was a necessary foundation for successful collaborative mHealth research; neglect of unanticipated organizational influences during the trial phase was a factor in collaboration failure. The experiences gained in this study can be used in settings where collaborative research on mHealth systems in mental health is planned.

  7. An overview of research designs relevant to nursing: Part 1: quantitative research designs

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Valmi D.; Driessnack,Martha; Mendes,Isabel Amélia Costa

    2007-01-01

    This three part series of articles provides a brief overview of relevant research designs in nursing. The first article in the series presents the most frequently used quantitative research designs. Strategies for non-experimental and experimental research designs used to generate and refine nursing knowledge are described. In addition, the importance of quantitative designs and the role they play in developing evidence-based practice are discussed. Nursing care needs to be determined by the ...

  8. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  9. Research, design and education, Von Humboldt revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, M.F.T.; Doevendans, C.H.; Trum, H.M.G.J.; Langenhuizen, Anja; Ouwerkerk, Marieke van; Rosemann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a result of reflection on the interrelation design-research-cultivation, and on the interpretation of Von Humboldt's maxim: 'Einheit von Forschung und Lehre', which governed the academic world in the past two centuries. It is argued that 'Forschung' should be interpreted as 'Research

  10. Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Early, Adream

    2010-01-01

    University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

  11. How Design-based Research, Action Research and Interaction Design Contributes to the Development of Designs for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how action research, design based research and interaction design can be combined and used in the development of educational robotic tools. Our case study is the development of Number Blocks and it combines physical interaction, learning, and immediate feedback. Number Blocks...... supports the children's understanding of place value in the sense that it allows them to experiment with creating large numbers. The development was done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher. The article argues that elements from different research methods...... allowed a structured approach to projects that combines educational research and innovation of new learning technologies. Key elements of this approach is acknowledging the users input, developing a theoretical pre-analysis and using an iterative approach....

  12. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  13. Designing a Mathematical Model for Allocating Budget to University Research and Educational Goals: A Case Study in Shahed University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education, both public and private, are among the most important institutions of a country. Several economic factors have forced them to act for improving the cost-effectiveness of their activities and the quality of their products (outputs is strongly expected. Such issues have led universities to focus on profit-making activities and commercialization like manufacturing industries. This propensity is grounded in the fact that manufacturing industries working under an efficient management system can produce very high-quality products. As a matter of fact, there is no such a model for academic contexts. Therefore, this paper is aimed at offering such a model. The coefficients and constants used in this model have all been extracted based on analyzing research and educational aspects of Shahed University. The proposed model is a lexicographic model which has thirty six decision variables that are broken down into two classes of university sources variables (fifteen and university products variables. The model also includes forty nine goals, seven structural constraints and twenty integer variables. At the end of the paper, the current situation is compared with the recommended one and it shows that many of the variables are suboptimal except variables of research and educational officials (S9, graduate (P7 and PhD (P9 night course students number. The comprehensiveness of this model enables managers to plan the smallest research and educational activities and the solutions can be used by managers as applied guidelines.

  14. Studies and research concerning BNFP design and construction of a spent-fuel disassembly/encapsulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabolt, R.J.

    1981-04-01

    Commercial light water power reactor operation in the United States is developing a cumbersome inventory of spent fuel. Systems for interim storage and handling of this fuel are being developed by the Federal Government and industry. Disassembly and canning of the spent fuel elements is one of these systems. It has the potential to double the storage capacity of a prereprocessing storage facility or to triple the capacity of conventional shipping casks. Prototype equipment and controls required to perform this operation in a dry environment have been primarily designed and fabricated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Ridihalgh, Eggers, and Associates have provided design support and fabrication of the control system. This system is capable of extracting and canning the fuel pins and compacting the nonfuel-bearing components of spent fuel assemblies at processing rates of 10 to 12 assemblies per day. The process also provides the potential for enhanced inspection and assay of spent fuel by reducing the interference encountered from the high gamma fields of the nonfuel bearing hardware

  15. Invited review: Recommendations for reporting intervention studies on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: Improving design, analysis, and interpretation of research on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Lucy, Matthew C; McNamara, John P; Bradford, Barry J; Block, Elliot; Thomson, Jennifer M; Morton, John M; Celi, Pietro; Rabiee, Ahmad R; Santos, José E P; Thatcher, William W; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence from the medical, veterinary, and animal science literature demonstrates that there is substantial room for improvement of the clarity, completeness, and accuracy of reporting of intervention studies. More rigorous reporting guidelines are needed to improve the quality of data available for use in comparisons of outcomes (or meta-analyses) of multiple studies. Because of the diversity of factors that affect reproduction and the complexity of interactions between these, a systematic approach is required to design, conduct, and analyze basic and applied studies of dairy cattle reproduction. Greater consistency, clarity, completeness, and correctness of design and reporting will improve the value of each report and allow for greater depth of evaluation in meta-analyses. Each of these benefits will improve understanding and application of current knowledge and better identify questions that require additional modeling or primary research. The proposed guidelines and checklist will aid in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of intervention studies. We propose an adaptation of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety) statement to provide guidelines and a checklist specific to reporting intervention studies in dairy cattle reproduction. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that will assist investigators to produce studies with greater internal and external validity that can more often be included in systematic reviews and global meta-analyses. Such studies will also assist the development of models to describe the physiology of reproduction. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  17. The Roles of Technical Communication Researchers in Design Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Design has come to be understood as an essential aspect of the work that technical communicators claim. As a result, research in the field of technical communication has approached studies of design in numerous ways. This article showcases how technical communication researchers assume the roles of observers, testers, critics, creators, and…

  18. Taking into account a reactivity accident in research reactors design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Yehia, H.; Berry, J.L.; Sinda, T.

    1989-11-01

    The particular studies realized in France for research reactors design at a Borax accident type are described. The cases of ORPHEE and RHF reactors are particularly developed. The evolution of the studies and the conservatism used are given [fr

  19. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  20. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  1. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  2. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  3. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media...... of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed......., this research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number...

  4. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  5. Game design research: an introduction to theory & practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lankoski, Petri; Holopainen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Design research is an active academic field covering disciplines such as architecture, graphic, product, service, interaction, and systems design. Design research aims to understand not only the designed end products but also how design as an activity unfolds. The book demonstrates different approaches to design research in game design research.

  6. FY 1997 research and development of fusion domains. Part 2. Studies on bionic design; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (yugo ryoiki kenkyu kaihatsu). 1. Bionic design no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Studies were conducted on actuator function in bio materials, cells, structures, and living organisms, and on structuring a biological molecule machine. In the study on soft biological structures, biological compatibility of artificial glass bodies using ultra-polymeric PVA was found very high, raising expectation on feasibility of their practical use. Three-dimensional structure of glass bodies was made clear for the first time in the world. As a result of separating and purifying cells from a liver for the first time in the world, it was indicated that excellent proliferation performance and differentiation into cells are shown. With regard to hydroxyapatite in hard biological structure such as bones and teeth, single crystals were synthesized, and growth rate on the surface C was measured successfully. For molecular motors, studies are being performed on functions of twin-head structure in biological protein enzyme. In molecule structuring, studies were conducted on preparation of a hydrogenase LB membrane as an electric-hydrogen energy conversion element, and structuring of protein molecular structure using gene recombination. 69 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Building an mlearning research framework through design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of how Design Science research has been applied in order to develop a mobile learning framework for the ICT4RED project which is currently in progress in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province...

  8. Research by Design: A paradigm shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will argue that architectural research is becoming more and more important, not only in academia but also in architectural practice. Moreover, a shift is taking place from using and absorbing research methods from other disciplines towards building on the own specific strength...... of the discipline of architecture, i.e. using design and creative practice as a method to generate knowledge and disclose unknown aspects of reality. In doing so, this paper tries to place the Delft ARENA meeting Architectural Research Network Meeting (November 2013) in perspective....

  9. A Computational Lens on Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we briefly review the collective effort of design researchers to weave theory with empirical results, in order to gain a better understanding of the processes of learning. We seek to respond to this challenging agenda by centring on the evolution of one sub-field: namely that which involves investigations within a…

  10. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  11. Design, Research, and Feminism(s)'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Lindström, Kristina; Mazé, Ramia

    2018-01-01

    into practice-based, interventionist and activist modalities to propose, materialize and experience how things may become “otherwise”. This track invite contributions exploring notions of criticality and, or, feminism in design research. Possible topics among others may include: • feminist perspectives...

  12. Design research into mobile museum mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    2013-01-01

    community. 
The PhD research project “Mobile Mediation of Fashion by Museums” explores how aesthetic and ethnographic design methods can be used to develop mobile experiences and articulate museological matters of concern. Building on user perspectives, expressed in response to cultural probes, the project...

  13. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Resources · Publications. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 1: Proposal Development and Fieldwork ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  14. Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, Gyula J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.

  15. Tradeoffs in Design Research: Development Oriented Triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen van Turnhout; Sabine Craenmehr; Robert Holwerda; Mark Menijn; Jan-Pieter Zwart; René Bakker

    2013-01-01

    The Development Oriented Triangulation (DOT) framework in this paper can spark and focus the debate about mixed-method approaches in HCI. The framework can be used to classify HCI methods, create mixed-method designs, and to align research activities in multidisciplinary projects. The framework is

  16. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  17. Conceptual design of multipurpose compact research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Naohiko; Kaminaga, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual design of the high-performance and low-cost multipurpose compact research reactor which will be expected to construct in the nuclear power plant introduction countries, started from 2010 in JAEA and nuclear-related companies in Japan. The aims of this conceptual design are to achieve highly safe reactor, economical design, high availability factor and advanced irradiation utilization. One of the basic reactor concept was determined as swimming pool type, thermal power of 10MW and water cooled and moderated reactor with plate type fuel element same as the JMTR. It is expected that the research reactors are used for human resource development, progress of the science and technology, expansion of industry use, lifetime extension of LWRs and so on. (author)

  18. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  19. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...... is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product....

  20. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...

  1. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  2. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther

    2006-12-01

    How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER) and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6) developed during a year and a half (about 330h ), several lessons (minimodules) dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a) Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b) teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c) a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d) the formation of a community of practice; and (e) acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  3. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bagno

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330 h , several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  4. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-Sheva Eylon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330h, several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  5. Design research of uranium mine borehole database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaming; Hu Guangdao; Zhu Xianglin; Chen Dehua; Chen Miaoshun

    2008-01-01

    With short supply of energy sources, exploration of uranium mine have been enhanced, but data storage, analysis and usage of exploration data of uranium mine are not highly computerized currently in China, the data is poor shared and used that it can not adapt the need of production and research. It will be well done, if the data are stored and managed in a database system. The concept structure design, logic structure design and data integrity checks are discussed according to the demand of applications and the analysis of exploration data of uranium mine. An application of the database is illustrated finally. (authors)

  6. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  7. Nippon Storm Study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kurita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the clinical aspects of electrical storm (E-storms in patients with implantable cardiac shock devices (ICSDs: ICDs or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator [CRT-D] may provide important information for clinical management of patients with ICSDs. The Nippon Storm Study was organized by the Japanese Heart Rhythm Society (JHRS and Japanese Society of Electrocardiology and was designed to prospectively collect a variety of data from patients with ICSDs, with a focus on the incidence of E-storms and clinical conditions for the occurrence of an E-storm. Forty main ICSD centers in Japan are participating in the present study. From 2002, the JHRS began to collect ICSD patient data using website registration (termed Japanese cardiac defibrillator therapy registration, or JCDTR. This investigation aims to collect data on and investigate the general parameters of patients with ICSDs, such as clinical backgrounds of the patients, purposes of implantation, complications during the implantation procedure, and incidence of appropriate and inappropriate therapies from the ICSD. The Nippon Storm Study was planned as a sub-study of the JCDTR with focus on E-storms. We aim to achieve registration of more than 1000 ICSD patients and complete follow-up data collection, with the assumption of a 5–10% incidence of E-storms during the 2-year follow-up.

  8. BWID System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness

  9. Impact of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Management Information System (PROMIS) upon the design and operation of multi-center clinical trials: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Diener, Lawrence W; Nahm, Meredith; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2011-12-01

    New technologies may be required to integrate the National Institutes of Health's Patient Reported Outcome Management Information System (PROMIS) into multi-center clinical trials. To better understand this need, we identified likely PROMIS reporting formats, developed a multi-center clinical trial process model, and identified gaps between current capabilities and those necessary for PROMIS. These results were evaluated by key trial constituencies. Issues reported by principal investigators fell into two categories: acceptance by key regulators and the scientific community, and usability for researchers and clinicians. Issues reported by the coordinating center, participating sites, and study subjects were those faced when integrating new technologies into existing clinical trial systems. We then defined elements of a PROMIS Tool Kit required for integrating PROMIS into a multi-center clinical trial environment. The requirements identified in this study serve as a framework for future investigators in the design, development, implementation, and operation of PROMIS Tool Kit technologies.

  10. Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no

  11. Gifts to the Future: Design Reasoning, Design Research, and Critical Design Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McDonnell

    Full Text Available Set in the context of a particular orthodoxy about the history of design research over the last 50 years, this opinion piece selectively surveys some of the significant findings from research into what expert design reasoning entails. Using the conceit of a pool of knowledge—which has come about from many different design research agendas, using multiple methods, and with differing foci of attention—it indicates some of what we know about design reasoning as a phenomenon by taking three “scoops” from the pool. These scoops, respectively characterize design reasoning as navigating the swamp; having negative capability; and being concerned with framing. This material is then used to contrast expert design reasoning with salient features of some popular characterizations of design thinking. The contribution concludes with some comments on designer formation, centered on the necessity of proficiency in reflection implied by any goal to nurture critical design practitioners.

  12. Research Reactor Design for Export to Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win Naing, Lay Lay Myint and Myung-Hyun Kim

    2006-01-01

    Myanmar is striving to acquire the innovative technology in all field areas including maritime, aerospace and nuclear engineering. There is a high intention to construct a new research reactor for peaceful purposes. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Ministry of Education (MOE) are the important government organizations for Myanmar's education and they control most of institutes, universities and colleges. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), one of the departments under MOST, leads research projects such as for radiation protection as well as radiation application and coordinates government departments and institutions regarding nuclear energy and its applications. Myanmar's Scientific and Technological Research Department (MSTRD) under MOST guides researches in metallurgy, polymer, pharmacy and biotechnology and so on, and acts as an official body for Myanmar industrial standard. The Department of Higher Education (DHE) under MOE controls art and science universities and colleges including research centers such as Asia Research Center (ARC), Universities Research Center (URC), Microbiology Research Center and so on and does to expand research areas and to utilize advanced technology in science. The wide use of radiation and radioisotopes is developed in Myanmar especially for the field areas such as Medical Science and Agricultural Science. Co 60 , I 131 and Tc 99 are the major use of radioisotopes in diagnosis and therapy. In Agricultural Science, H 3 , C 14 , C 60 etc are used to provide biological effects of radiations on plants, radio-isotopic study of soil physics and tracer studies

  13. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  14. Improving quality and safety in nursing homes and home care: the study protocol of a mixed-methods research design to implement a leadership intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Ree, Eline; Johannessen, Terese; Strømme, Torunn; Storm, Marianne; Aase, Ingunn; Ullebust, Berit; Holen-Rabbersvik, Elisabeth; Hurup Thomsen, Line; Sandvik Pedersen, Anne Torhild; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Bal, Roland; Aase, Karina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Nursing homes and home care face challenges across different countries as people are living longer, often with chronic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation and impact of quality and safety interventions as most research evidence so far is generated in hospitals. Additionally, there is a lack of effective leadership tools for quality and safety improvement work in this context. Methods and analysis The aim of the ‘Improving Quality and Safety in Primary Care—Implementing a Leadership Intervention in Nursing Homes and Homecare’ (SAFE-LEAD) study is to develop and evaluate a research-based leadership guide for managers to increase quality and safety competence. The project applies a mixed-methods design and explores the implications of the leadership guide on managers’ and staffs’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Four nursing homes and four home care services from different Norwegian municipalities will participate in the intervention. Surveys, process evaluation (interviews, observations) and document analyses will be conducted to evaluate the implementation and impact of the leadership intervention. A comparative study of Norway and the Netherlands will establish knowledge of the context dependency of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (2017/52324 and 54855). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, two PhD dissertations, an anthology, presentations at national and international conferences, and in social media, newsletters and in the press. The results will generate knowledge to inform leadership practices in nursing homes and home care. Moreover, the study will build new theory on leadership interventions and the role of contextual factors in nursing homes and home care. PMID:29599394

  15. Improving quality and safety in nursing homes and home care: the study protocol of a mixed-methods research design to implement a leadership intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Ree, Eline; Johannessen, Terese; Strømme, Torunn; Storm, Marianne; Aase, Ingunn; Ullebust, Berit; Holen-Rabbersvik, Elisabeth; Hurup Thomsen, Line; Sandvik Pedersen, Anne Torhild; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Bal, Roland; Aase, Karina

    2018-03-28

    Nursing homes and home care face challenges across different countries as people are living longer, often with chronic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation and impact of quality and safety interventions as most research evidence so far is generated in hospitals. Additionally, there is a lack of effective leadership tools for quality and safety improvement work in this context. The aim of the 'Improving Quality and Safety in Primary Care-Implementing a Leadership Intervention in Nursing Homes and Homecare' (SAFE-LEAD) study is to develop and evaluate a research-based leadership guide for managers to increase quality and safety competence. The project applies a mixed-methods design and explores the implications of the leadership guide on managers' and staffs' knowledge, attitudes and practices. Four nursing homes and four home care services from different Norwegian municipalities will participate in the intervention. Surveys, process evaluation (interviews, observations) and document analyses will be conducted to evaluate the implementation and impact of the leadership intervention. A comparative study of Norway and the Netherlands will establish knowledge of the context dependency of the intervention. The study is approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (2017/52324 and 54855). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, two PhD dissertations, an anthology, presentations at national and international conferences, and in social media, newsletters and in the press. The results will generate knowledge to inform leadership practices in nursing homes and home care. Moreover, the study will build new theory on leadership interventions and the role of contextual factors in nursing homes and home care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A Design Science Research Methodology for Expert Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jahan Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of design science research (DSR can have applications for improving expert systems (ES development research. Although significant progress of utilising DSR has been observed in particular information systems design – such as decision support systems (DSS studies – only rare attempts can be found in the ES design literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the use of DSR for ES design. First, we explore the ES development literature to reveal the presence of DSR as a research methodology. For this, we select relevant literature criteria and apply a qualitative content analysis in order to generate themes inductively to match the DSR components. Second, utilising the findings of the comparison, we determine a new DSR approach for designing a specific ES that is guided by another result – the findings of a content analysis of examination scripts in Mathematics. The specific ES artefact for a case demonstration is designed for addressing the requirement of a ‘wicked’ problem in that the key purpose is to assist human assessors when evaluating multi-step question (MSQ solutions. It is anticipated that the proposed design knowledge, in terms of both problem class and functions of ES artefacts, will help ES designers and researchers to address similar issues for designing information system solutions.

  17. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...... with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge...

  18. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge......Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...

  19. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  20. Synchrotron radiation research facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A report is presented to define, in general outline, the extent and proportions, the type of construction, the schedule for accomplishment, and the estimated cost for a new Synchrotron Radiation Facility, as proposed to the Energy Research and Development Administration by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The report is concerned only indirectly with the scientific and technological justification for undertaking this project; the latter is addressed explicitly in separate documents. The report does consider user requirements, however, in order to establish a basis for design development. Preliminary drawings, outline specifications, estimated cost data, and other descriptive material are included as supporting documentation on the current status of the project in this preconstruction phase

  1. Mixed Methods Designs for Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Kucera, Kristen L

    2018-07-01

    Mixed methods research is a relatively new approach in the field of sports medicine, where the benefits of qualitative and quantitative research are combined while offsetting the other's flaws. Despite its known and successful use in other populations, it has been used minimally in sports medicine, including studies of the clinician perspective, concussion, and patient outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for this approach to be applied in other topic areas not easily addressed by one type of research approach in isolation, such as the retirement from sport, effects of and return from injury, and catastrophic injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Interdisciplinary and Active Research to Encourage Higher Resolution Research and Prototyping in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adream Blair-Early

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available University art and design programs are branching out and creating interdisciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to position industry and academic leaders to work alongside students, community leaders, artists and non-profits to develop creative and innovative solutions to the challenges facing contemporary society. But product design benefits even more from practices that engage users throughout the entire design process, often called participatory design. Participatory design process utilizes user feedback throughout the design process to spur innovation and improve design quality. It is possible in the classroom to engage in participatory design and participatory prototyping through the use of inexpensive 3D printers and laser cutters as well as traditional hand tools, requiring only mastery of a few simple techniques and technology readily available on laptop computers. The class research being presented was conceived as part of a new interdisciplinary classroom research space call the Digital Craft Research Lab (DCRL housed within the department of Art and Design. Courses taught within the DCRL offer students, researchers and faculty continual access to both low resolution and high-resolution prototyping machinery and materials. This paper looks at the role of action and participatory research in a design course that created printed hand innovations in collaboration with a nine-year-old female user. Students were asked to work on modeling new designs as well as capturing the progress in a final open source book and models. This paper asks the question can the use of classroom collaboration, action research and work spaces encourage creativity, innovation, and critical thinking in student and professional

  3. RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN THE DESIGN DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes findings from a national survey of interior design practitioners in the United States (N=366.  The study explored interior design practitioners' current preferences for conducting project research including: activities conducted and sources used, attraction to and recall from sources, and ideas for communicating research findings. Responses suggest that interior designers do value research, yet have little time to utilize research. While cross-tabulation analyses indicate no major differences in research activities between the study’s demographic groups, collectively, only 12% of the sample indicated they utilized academic journals and, at times, even incorrectly identified those sources. Open-ended responses allowed designers to offer ideas for communicating research and four key themes emerged, including: topic selection and relevancy, ideas for new dissemination methods, ideas for presentation style, and perceptions of the written language used.  It is hoped that this study’s findings may help design researchers better communicate their own findings to design practitioners.

  4. Connecting the Space between Design and Research: Explorations in Participatory Research Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Glenda Amayo; Osborne, Lindy; Mewburn, Inger; Nottingham, Anitra

    2016-01-01

    In this article we offer a single case study using an action research method for gathering and analysing data offering insights valuable to both design and research supervision practice. We do not attempt to generalise from this single case, but offer it as an instance that can improve our understanding of research supervision practice. We…

  5. Research by design: honouring the Stolen Generation a theoretical anti-memorial

    OpenAIRE

    Sue-Anne Ware

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical design frameworks and research methods for contemporary memorial design. It is a case study for research by design, an expanding area of design discourse, which offers an alternative to quantitative research practices and 'scientific' methodologies. It expands upon a design research studio, which explored formal design outcomes for an anti-memorial to The Stolen Generation. This essay focuses on ideas about progressive memorial design which prompts multiple re...

  6. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  7. Reporting Qualitative Research: Standards, Challenges, and Implications for Health Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peditto, Kathryn

    2018-04-01

    This Methods column describes the existing reporting standards for qualitative research, their application to health design research, and the challenges to implementation. Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this article provides multiple perspectives on both reporting and evaluating high-quality qualitative research. Two popular reporting standards exist for reporting qualitative research-the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Though compiled using similar procedures, they differ in their criteria and the methods to which they apply. Creating and applying reporting criteria is inherently difficult due to the undefined and fluctuating nature of qualitative research when compared to quantitative studies. Qualitative research is expansive and occasionally controversial, spanning many different methods of inquiry and epistemological approaches. A "one-size-fits-all" standard for reporting qualitative research can be restrictive, but COREQ and SRQR both serve as valuable tools for developing responsible qualitative research proposals, effectively communicating research decisions, and evaluating submissions. Ultimately, tailoring a set of standards specific to health design research and its frequently used methods would ensure quality research and aid reviewers in their evaluations.

  8. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  9. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  10. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger's Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss' Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts' opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency = 0

  11. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  12. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, M.V. [Grupo de Physica Nuclear, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Kadrev, D.N. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Bordeaux-Gradingnan (CENBG) (France); Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S. [CEA Saclay (France); Farget, F.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL Caen (France)

    2011-05-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  13. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Ivanov, M.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  14. Design for All in Social Research on Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Toboso-Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social studies on disability have increased in number and importance in Spain and other countries over the last few years. Nevertheless, the majority of the available sources and studies do not adequately represent this heterogeneous group, which currently makes up about 9 per cent of the Spanish population. The implementation of social measures requires representative sources and studies containing relevant information. The aim of this paper is to identify the main diffi culties involved in designing and developing social research methods concerning persons with disabilities, and offer proposals and recommendations in order to advance towards a more inclusive social research using the concepts of accessibility and design for all.

  15. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  16. Making Theory Come Alive through Practice-based Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva; Rind Christensen, Poul

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how practice-based design research is able not only to challenge, but also to push toward further development of some of the basic assumpstions in emotion theories as used within design research. In so doing, we wish to increase knolwedge on a central...... epistemological question for design research, namely how practice-based design research can be a vehicle for the construction of new theory for design research....

  17. The Role of Hypothesis in Constructive Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin; Markussen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    It is, today, widely appreciated that Research-through-Design – or Constructive Design Research as we will call it in this paper – allows for designers to produce knowledge based on the skills and capacities of the design field itself.However, most of the research fails to bridge the gap between the general notions of constructive design research and the detailed research activities of the field. We therefore suggest bridging this methodological gap in the academic discussion with what we hav...

  18. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions

  19. Identification of cultural determinants of antibiotic use cited in primary care in Europe: a mixed research synthesis study of integrated design "Culture is all around us".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul-Lundgren, Pia; Jensen, Siri; Drai, Johann; Lindbæk, Morten

    2015-09-17

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, particularly for respiratory tract infections (RTI) in ambulatory care, has become a worldwide public health threat due to resulting antibiotic resistance. In spite of various interventions and campaigns, wide variations in antibiotic use persist between European countries. Cultural determinants are often referred to as a potential cause, but are rarely defined. To our knowledge, so far no systematic literature review has focused on cultural determinants of antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to identify cultural determinants, on a country-specific level in ambulatory care in Europe, and to describe the influence of culture on antibiotic use, using a framework of cultural dimensions. A computer-based systematic literature review was conducted by two research teams, in France and in Norway. Eligible publications included studies exploring antibiotic use in primary care in at least two European countries based on primary study results, featuring a description of cultural determinants, and published between 1997 and 2015. Quality assessment was conducted independently by two researchers, one in each team, using appropriate checklists according to study design. Each included paper was characterized according to method, countries involved, sampling and main results, and cultural determinants mentioned in each selected paper were extracted, described and categorized. Finally, the influence of Hofstede's cultural dimensions associated with antibiotic consumption within a primary care setting was described. Among 24 eligible papers, 11 were rejected according to exclusion criteria. Overall, 13 papers meeting the quality assessment criteria were included, of which 11 used quantitative methods and two qualitative or mixed methods. The study participants were patients (nine studies) and general practitioners (two studies). This literature review identified various cultural determinants either patient-related (illness perception

  20. Design principles for simulation games for learning clinical reasoning: A design-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J-M; Haavisto, E; Niemi, H; Haho, P; Nylund, S; Multisilta, J

    2018-01-01

    Nurses sometimes lack the competence needed for recognising deterioration in patient conditions and this is often due to poor clinical reasoning. There is a need to develop new possibilities for learning this crucial competence area. In addition, educators need to be future oriented; they need to be able to design and adopt new pedagogical innovations. The purpose of the study is to describe the development process and to generate principles for the design of nursing simulation games. A design-based research methodology is applied in this study. Iterative cycles of analysis, design, development, testing and refinement were conducted via collaboration among researchers, educators, students, and game designers. The study facilitated the generation of reusable design principles for simulation games to guide future designers when designing and developing simulation games for learning clinical reasoning. This study makes a major contribution to research on simulation game development in the field of nursing education. The results of this study provide important insights into the significance of involving nurse educators in the design and development process of educational simulation games for the purpose of nursing education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  2. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  3. Scaffolds for design communication : research through design of shared understanding in design meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Lugt, van der R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the influence of the physical and social environment (the design space) son the formation of shared understanding in multidisciplinary design teams. We concentrate on the creative design meeting as a microenvironment for studying processes of design communication. Our

  4. Research on design connotation of hair drier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    After the analysis and summary of the research on the design of hair drier system, the system design is focused on. Product system design is not only to study its entity, but also is recognized as the part, element and component with a systematic feature to deeply analyze the innovation way of product system design, which is taken as its concept to carry out the association analysis on the component elements of hair driers and the overall analysis and study on the system design process of hair dryers. The product life cycle is taken as the main goal, through system analysis, system synthesis and system optimization, to solve the problems of product design. It is of great practical significance.

  5. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  6. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  7. A Neuroimaging Web Services Interface as a Cyber Physical System for Medical Imaging and Data Management in Brain Research: Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Gabriel; Li, Chunfei; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Barker, Warren; Loewenstein, David A; Duara, Ranjan; Adjouadi, Malek

    2018-04-26

    Structural and functional brain images are essential imaging modalities for medical experts to study brain anatomy. These images are typically visually inspected by experts. To analyze images without any bias, they must be first converted to numeric values. Many software packages are available to process the images, but they are complex and difficult to use. The software packages are also hardware intensive. The results obtained after processing vary depending on the native operating system used and its associated software libraries; data processed in one system cannot typically be combined with data on another system. The aim of this study was to fulfill the neuroimaging community’s need for a common platform to store, process, explore, and visualize their neuroimaging data and results using Neuroimaging Web Services Interface: a series of processing pipelines designed as a cyber physical system for neuroimaging and clinical data in brain research. Neuroimaging Web Services Interface accepts magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. These images are processed using existing and custom software packages. The output is then stored as image files, tabulated files, and MySQL tables. The system, made up of a series of interconnected servers, is password-protected and is securely accessible through a Web interface and allows (1) visualization of results and (2) downloading of tabulated data. All results were obtained using our processing servers in order to maintain data validity and consistency. The design is responsive and scalable. The processing pipeline started from a FreeSurfer reconstruction of Structural magnetic resonance imaging images. The FreeSurfer and regional standardized uptake value ratio calculations were validated using Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative input images, and the results were posted at the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging data archive. Notable

  8. A systematic review assessing non-pharmacological conservative treatment studies for people with non-inflammatory multi-joint pain: clinical outcomes and research design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, C; Smith, T O; Drew, B; Raja, R; Kingsbury, S R; Conaghan, Philip G

    2018-03-01

    To systematically review the evidence to determine the clinical outcomes and the important methodological quality features of interventional studies on adults with non-inflammatory multi-joint pain (MJP). Systematic search of published and unpublished literature using the databases: AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, OpenGrey, the EU Clinical Trials Register, World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov and the ISRCTN registry (search: inception to 19th October 2017). All papers reporting the clinical outcomes of non-pharmacological interventions for people with non-inflammatory MJP were included. Studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Critical Appraisal and the TIDieR reporting checklists. Data were analysed using a Best Evidence Synthesis approach. From 3824 citations, four papers satisfied the eligibility criteria. Three studies reported outcomes from multidisciplinary rehabilitation programmes and one study reported the findings of a spa therapy intervention. All interventions significantly improved pain, function and quality of life in the short-term. There was limited reporting of measures for absenteeism, presenteeism and psychosocial outcomes. The evidence was 'weak', and due to a lack of controlled trials, there is limited evidence to ascertain treatment effectiveness. Design consideration for future trials surround improved reporting of participant characteristics, interventions and the standardisation of core outcome measures. There is insufficient high-quality trial data to determine the effectiveness of treatments for non-inflammatory MJP. Given the significant health burden which this condition presents on both individuals and wider society, developing and testing interventions and accurately reporting these, should be a research priority. Registration PROSPERO (CRD42013005888).

  9. Using design science in educational technology research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Chard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design science is a research paradigm where the development and evaluation of a technology artefact is a key contribution. Design science is used in many domains and this paper draws on those domains to formulate a generic structure for design science research suitable for educational technology research projects. The paper includes guidelines for writing proposals using the design science research methodology for educational technology research and presents a generic research report structure. The paper presents ethical issues to consider in design science research being conducted in educational settings and contributes guidelines for assessment when the research contribution involves the creation of a technology artefact.

  10. Assessing Digital Student Productions, a Design-Based Research Study on the Development of a Criteria-Based Assessment Tool for Students’ Digital Multimodal Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Mikkeline; Jensen, Jesper Juellund; Olsen, Marie Veisegaard

    2017-01-01

    Digital multimodal production is becoming increasingly important as a 21st century skill and as a learning condition in school (K-12). Moreover, there is a growing attention to the significance of criteria-based assessment for learning. Nevertheless, assessment of students’ digital multimodal...... productions is often vague or lacking. Therefore, the research project aims at developing a tool to support assessment of student’s digital multimodal productions through a design-based research method. This paper presents a proposal for issues to be considered through a prototyping phase, based on interviews...

  11. Designing future learning. A posthumanist approach to researching design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    I investigate how a design process – leading up to the design of a new education building - enact, transform and highlight tacit everyday practices and experiences in an education setting, whereby becoming an art of managing. I apply a post-humanist performative perspective, highlighting entangled...... agencies rather than focusing on human agency. I focus on the design process rather than the designer. The design process accelerated and performed past and future experiences of schooling, learning, teaching. This called for analytical attention to agential forces of not only the material but also...... and temporalities matter in design processes. Furthermore, the analysis emphasise how design translate affective economies and that attention to those affective economies are vital for the result of the design process....

  12. Understanding Engagement with the Privacy Domain Through Design Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasalou, A.; Oostveen, A.; Bowers, Christopher; Beale, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from participatory design research aimed at uncovering how technological interventions can engage users in the domain of privacy. Our work was undertaken in the context of a new design concept “Privacy Trends” whose aspiration is to foster technology users’ digital literacy regarding ongoing privacy risks and elucidate how such risks fit within existing social, organizational and political systems, leading to a longer term privacy concern. Our study reveals two cha...

  13. Good research practices for comparative effectiveness research: approaches to mitigate bias and confounding in the design of nonrandomized studies of treatment effects using secondary data sources: the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Good Research Practices for Retrospective Database Analysis Task Force Report--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Emily; Martin, Bradley C; Van Staa, Tjeerd; Garbe, Edeltraut; Siebert, Uwe; Johnson, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    The goal of comparative effectiveness analysis is to examine the relationship between two variables, treatment, or exposure and effectiveness or outcome. Unlike data obtained through randomized controlled trials, researchers face greater challenges with causal inference with observational studies. Recognizing these challenges, a task force was formed to develop a guidance document on methodological approaches to addresses these biases. The task force was commissioned and a Chair was selected by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Board of Directors in October 2007. This report, the second of three reported in this issue of the Journal, discusses the inherent biases when using secondary data sources for comparative effectiveness analysis and provides methodological recommendations to help mitigate these biases. The task force report provides recommendations and tools for researchers to mitigate threats to validity from bias and confounding in measurement of exposure and outcome. Recommendations on design of study included: the need for data analysis plan with causal diagrams; detailed attention to classification bias in definition of exposure and clinical outcome; careful and appropriate use of restriction; extreme care to identify and control for confounding factors, including time-dependent confounding. Design of nonrandomized studies of comparative effectiveness face several daunting issues, including measurement of exposure and outcome challenged by misclassification and confounding. Use of causal diagrams and restriction are two techniques that can improve the theoretical basis for analyzing treatment effects in study populations of more homogeneity, with reduced loss of generalizability.

  14. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  15. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  16. Can emergency medicine research benefit from adaptive design clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A; Goodacre, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive design clinical trials use preplanned interim analyses to determine whether studies should be stopped or modified before recruitment is complete. Emergency medicine trials are well suited to these designs as many have a short time to primary outcome relative to the length of recruitment. We hypothesised that the majority of published emergency medicine trials have the potential to use a simple adaptive trial design. We reviewed clinical trials published in three emergency medicine journals between January 2003 and December 2013. We determined the proportion that used an adaptive design as well as the proportion that could have used a simple adaptive design based on the time to primary outcome and length of recruitment. Only 19 of 188 trials included in the review were considered to have used an adaptive trial design. A total of 154/165 trials that were fixed in design had the potential to use an adaptive design. Currently, there seems to be limited uptake in the use of adaptive trial designs in emergency medicine despite their potential benefits to save time and resources. Failing to take advantage of adaptive designs could be costly to patients and research. It is recommended that where practical and logistical considerations allow, adaptive designs should be used for all emergency medicine clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Designing and managing your research project: core skills for social and health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, David R; Hodges, Ian

    2010-01-01

    ... for Social and Health Research David R. Thomas and Ian D. Hodges© David R. Thomas and Ian D. Hodges 2010 First published 2010 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any ...

  18. How secondary school students conceptualize infrared radiation-matter interaction? Findings from a research study and implications for an instructional design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, María Isabel; Ríos, Raquel; Pintó, Roser

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out within the REVIR scenario, which is a project promoting that secondary school students have access to a computerized laboratory at the Faculty of Education of our university and work in small groups during four hours with specific instructional material. One of the laboratory sessions included in the REVIR project deals with IR radiation-matter interaction, and is addressed to post-compulsory secondary students (16–18 year-old students). Within this framework, we have conducted a research study to analyse students’ conceptualizations of the processes or mechanisms that take place in IR radiation-matter interaction (energy transfer, selective absorption), and its effects at a macroscopic level (temperature increase) and at a molecular level (vibration). For data collection, a question was posed to all students at the end of each REVIR session, asking students to relate what was described in an article about the application of an IR laser for acne treatment to what they had learnt throughout the session. The analysis of the 67 students’ answers to that question revealed that many students explained the effects of the IR laser in vague terms, often repeating information included in the article, without explaining absorption of IR radiation in terms of energy. In consecutive versions of the instructional material, more oriented application questions were added after the article and explicit discussion around synthesis and exploratory (of students’ previous ideas) questions was carried out during the session. From the analysis of 49 and 119 students’ answers in consecutive later versions, we found that the introduction of these changes resulted in a greater number of students’ descriptions in macroscopic and microscopic terms, and a lower number of answers simply repeating information extracted from the reading. Furthermore, more students explicitly explained absorption in terms of energy associated to IR light. Implications

  19. A social representations analysis of design science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Naidoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Design science research (DSR is a relatively unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in this paradigm, this study sought to explore DSR perspectives among local computing researchers. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT such as anchoring and objectification were used to explore how researchers construct their understanding of DSR. A visual approach was used to administer drawing and association tasks to two focus groups; each focus group comprised around 25 participants ranging from doctoral students to experienced researchers. The focus group discussions invoked interesting complementary and distinctive associations about the process and content of DSR – anchored in dominant and conventional research practices. The results also illustrated several ways in which DSR is objectified by the researchers in drawings and metaphorical constructions. We conclude that SRT is useful for exploring beliefs about novel and relatively unfamiliar research practices. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of how computing researchers go about making sense and assigning meaning to changing research practices. The findings are developed into recommendations for introducing changes to research practices. These recommendations can be used to direct efforts to more appropriately accommodate changing research practices within the computing community to broaden knowledge generation.

  20. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  1. Information Sharing in the Field of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilerot, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on an extensive research project which aimed at exploring information sharing activities in a scholarly context. The paper presents and synthesises findings from a literature review and three qualitative case studies. The empirical setting is a geographically distributed Nordic network of design scholars. Method:…

  2. PFERD Mission: Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Gary; Zayed, Husni; Herring, Jason; Fuehne, Doug; Sutton, Kevin; Sharkey, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design (PFERD) mission will consist of a flyby spacecraft to Pluto and its satellite, Charon. The mission lifetime is expected to be 18 years. The Titan 4 with a Centaur upper stage will be utilized to launch the craft into the transfer orbit. The proposal was divided into six main subsystems: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) command, communications, and control: (3) altitude and articulation control; (4) power and propulsion; (5) structures and thermal control; and (6) mission management and costing. Tradeoff studies were performed to optimize all factors of design, including survivability, performance, cost, and weight. Problems encountered in the design are also presented.

  3. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  4. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  5. Internal Validity: A Must in Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahit, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…

  6. 7 Things You Should Know About Educational Design Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, Thomas; McKenney, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Reeves, T., & McKenney, S. (2012). 7 Things You Should Know About Educational Design Research. Educause 7 Things Series. Available online: http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/7-things-you-should-know-about-educational-design-research.

  7. The Role of Hypothesis in Constructive Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    It is, today, widely appreciated that Research-through-Design – or Constructive Design Research as we will call it in this paper – allows for designers to produce knowledge based on the skills and capacities of the design field itself. However, most of the research fails to bridge the gap between...... the general notions of constructive design research and the detailed research activities of the field. We therefore suggest bridging this methodological gap in the academic discussion with what we have ended up calling the “entrance level of constructive design research”. As a step towards to a more nuanced...... and solid perspective on how to keep constructive design research on track, this paper offers a model for understanding the role of hypothesis in constructive design research. The model allows for understanding the hypothesis’s relation to research motivation, questions, experiments, evaluation...

  8. Research in Architecture & Design, Aalborg University 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Publication, presenting the research at Architecture & Design, Department of Architecture & Mediea Technology 2009-2012. Editor Gitte Marling......Publication, presenting the research at Architecture & Design, Department of Architecture & Mediea Technology 2009-2012. Editor Gitte Marling...

  9. Conducting Quantitative Medical Education Research: From Design to Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Erika L; Paul, Caroline R; Petershack, Jean; Serwint, Janet; Fischel, Janet E; Rocha, Mary; Treitz, Meghan; McPhillips, Heather; Lockspeiser, Tai; Hicks, Patricia; Tewksbury, Linda; Vasquez, Margarita; Tancredi, Daniel J; Li, Su-Ting T

    2018-03-01

    Rigorous medical education research is critical to effectively develop and evaluate the training we provide our learners. Yet many clinical medical educators lack the training and skills needed to conduct high-quality medical education research. We offer guidance on conducting sound quantitative medical education research. Our aim is to equip readers with the key skills and strategies necessary to conduct successful research projects, highlighting new concepts and controversies in the field. We utilize Glassick's criteria for scholarship as a framework to discuss strategies to ensure that the research question of interest is worthy of further study and how to use existing literature and conceptual frameworks to strengthen a research study. Through discussions of the strengths and limitations of commonly used study designs, we expose the reader to particular nuances of these decisions in medical education research and discuss outcomes generally focused on, as well as strategies for determining the significance of consequent findings. We conclude with information on critiquing research findings and preparing results for dissemination to a broad audience. Practical planning worksheets and comprehensive tables illustrating key concepts are provided in order to guide researchers through each step of the process. Medical education research provides wonderful opportunities to improve how we teach our learners, to satisfy our own intellectual curiosity, and ultimately to enhance the care provided to patients. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research study concerning the 3D printing adittion (FDM-fused deposition modeling) to design UAV (UAV-unconventional aerial vehicle) structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Nicoleta Elisabeta; CǎruÅ£aşu, Nicoleta LuminiÅ£a.; Geambaşu, Gabriel George; Adîr, Victor Gabriel; Arion, Aurel Florin; Ivaşcu, Laura

    2018-02-01

    Aerial vehicles have become indispensable. There are in this field UAV (Unconventional Aerial vehicle) and transportation airplanes and other aerospace vehicles for spatial tourism. Today, the research and development activity in aerospace industry is focused to obtain a good and efficient design for airplanes, to solve the problem of high pollution and to reduce the noise. For these goals are necessary to realize light and resistant components. The aerospace industry products are, generally, very complex concerning geometric shapes and the costs are high, usually. Due to the progress in this field (products obtained using FDM) was possible to reduce the number of used tools, welding belts, and, of course, to eliminate a lot of machine tools. In addition, the complex shapes are easier product using this high technology, the cost is more attractive and the time is lower. This paper allows to present a few aspects about FDM technology and the obtained structures using it, as follows: computer geometric modeling (different designing softs) to design and redesign complex structures using 3D printing, for this kind of vehicles; finite element analysis to identify what is the influence of design for different structures; testing the structures.

  11. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 2: Context, research questions and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstjens, Irene; Moser, Albine

    2017-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. This second article addresses FAQs about context, research questions and designs. Qualitative research takes into account the natural contexts in which individuals or groups function to provide an in-depth understanding of real-world problems. The research questions are generally broad and open to unexpected findings. The choice of a qualitative design primarily depends on the nature of the research problem, the research question(s) and the scientific knowledge one seeks. Ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory are considered to represent the 'big three' qualitative approaches. Theory guides the researcher through the research process by providing a 'lens' to look at the phenomenon under study. Since qualitative researchers and the participants of their studies interact in a social process, researchers influence the research process. The first article described the key features of qualitative research, the third article will focus on sampling, data collection and analysis, while the last article focuses on trustworthiness and publishing.

  12. Design of a new research reactor : 1st year conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    A new research reactor model satisfying the strengthened regulatory environments and the changed circumstances around nuclear society should be prepared for the domestic and international demand of research reactor. This can also lead to the improvement of technologies and fostering manpower obtained during the construction and the operation of HANARO. In this aspect, this study has been launched and the 1st year conceptual design has been carried out in 2003. The major tasks performed at the first year of conceptual design stage are as follows; Establishments of general design requirements of research reactors and experimental facilities, Establishment of fuel and reactor core concepts, Preliminary analysis of reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics for conceptual core, Conceptual design of reactor structure and major systems, International cooperation to establish foundations for exporting

  13. Reconceptualizing Design Research in the Age of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Brenda; Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to begin to examine how the intersection of mobile learning and design research prompts the reconceptualization of research and design individually as well as their integration appropriate for current, complex learning environments. To fully conceptualize and reconceptualize design research in mobile learning, the…

  14. Product Design: Research Trends and an Agenda for the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Academic research in product design is growing in popular- ity, and new challenging research questions are emerging. This article explores several of these product design research issues. We first explore the role of design as a driver of innovation and as a strategic resource to senior managers for

  15. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  16. Design and analysis of post-marketing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hua Andrew; Yang, Wei

    2013-07-01

    A post-marketing study is an integral part of research that helps to ensure a favorable risk-benefit profile for approved drugs used in the market. Because most of post-marketing studies use observational designs, which are liable to confounding, estimation of the causal effect of a drug versus a comparative one is very challenging. This article focuses on methodological issues of importance in designing and analyzing studies to evaluate the safety of marketed drugs, especially marketed traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. Advantages and limitations of the current designs and analytic methods for postmarketing studies are discussed, and recommendations are given for improving the validity of postmarketing studies in TCM products.

  17. A Capstone Wiki Knowledge Base: A Case Study of an Online Tool Designed to Promote Life-Long Learning through Engineering Literature Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James B.; Coyle, James R.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of a case study in which an experimental wiki knowledge base was designed, developed, and tested by the Brill Science Library at Miami University for an undergraduate engineering senior capstone project. The wiki knowledge base was created to determine if the science library could enhance the engineering literature…

  18. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  19. A study for the safety evaluation of geological disposal of TRU waste and influence on disposal site design by change of amount of TRU waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Kondo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Funabashi, Hideaki; Kawatsuma, Shinji; Kamei, Gento; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Ohi, Takao; Hyodo, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    In the safety evaluation of the geological disposal of the TRU waste, it is extremely important to share the information with the Research and development organization (JAEA: that is also the waste generator) by the waste disposal entrepreneur (NUMO). In 2009, NUMO and JAEA set up a technical commission to investigate the reasonable TRU waste disposal following a cooperation agreement between these two organizations. In this report, the calculation result of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system was described, by using the Tiger code and the GoldSim code at identical terms. Tiger code is developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment by JAEA. On the other hand, GoldSim code is the general simulation software that is used for the computation modeling of NUMO TRU disposal site. Comparing the calculation result, a big difference was not seen. Therefore, the reliability of both codes was able to be confirmed. Moreover, the influence on the disposal site design (Capacity: 19,000m 3 ) was examined when 10% of the amount of TRU waste increased. As a result, it was confirmed that the influence of the site design was very little based on the concept of the Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan. (author)

  20. Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Abobaker Mohammed Rahmtalla

    2014-09-01

    There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)

  1. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  2. CCD research. [design, fabrication, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassaway, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental problems encountered in designing, fabricating, and applying CCD's are reviewed. Investigations are described and results and conclusions are given for the following: (1) the development of design analyses employing computer aided techniques and their application to the design of a grapped structure; (2) the role of CCD's in applications to electronic functions, in particular, signal processing; (3) extending the CCD to silicon films on sapphire (SOS); and (4) all aluminum transfer structure with low noise input-output circuits. Related work on CCD imaging devices is summarized.

  3. The Multiple Faces of Reflexive Research Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexive research can be grouped into five clusters with circular relations between two elements x ↔ x, namely circular relations between observers, between scientific building blocks like concepts, theories or models, between systemic levels, between rules and rule systems or as circular relations or x ↔ y between these four components. By far the most important cluster is the second cluster which becomes reflexive through a re-entry operation RE into a scientific element x and which establishes its circular formation as x(x. Many of the research problems in these five clusters in reflexivity research are still unexplored and pose grand challenges for future research.

  4. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In June 1995, an OECD Support Group was set up to perform a broad study of the safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors. This Support Group was endorsed by the CSNI. The Support Group, which is composed of senior experts on safety research from several OECD countries and from Russia, prepared this Report. The Group reviewed the safety research performed to support Russian-designed reactors and set down its views on future needs. The review concentrates on the following main topics: Thermal-Hydraulics/Plant Transients for VVERs; Integrity of Equipment and Structures for VVERs; Severe Accidents for VVERs; Operational Safety Issues; Thermal-Hydraulics/Plant Transients for RBMKs; Integrity of Equipment and Structures for RBMKs; Severe Accidents for RBMKs. (K.A.)

  5. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  6. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola,Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  7. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel; Smith, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the partici...

  8. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available engineering screening methodology that could be used to screen potential systems engineers. According to their design, this can be achieved by defining a system engineering profile according to specific psychological attributes, and using this profile...

  9. Designing Research in Environmental Education Curriculum Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing dissatisfaction at many levels with existing environmental education curricula in southern Africa. The resulting change and innovation is opening up possibilities for innovative research into the construction, conceptualisation and implementation of the curriculum. However, researching the curriculum ...

  10. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  11. Designing interaction, voice, and inclusion in AAC research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Treviranus, Jutta; Patel, Rupal; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    The ISAAC 2016 Research Symposium included a Design Stream that examined timely issues across augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), framed in terms of designing interaction, designing voice, and designing inclusion. Each is a complex term with multiple meanings; together they represent challenging yet important frontiers of AAC research. The Design Stream was conceived by the four authors, researchers who have been exploring AAC and disability-related design throughout their careers, brought together by a shared conviction that designing for communication implies more than ensuring access to words and utterances. Each of these presenters came to AAC from a different background: interaction design, inclusive design, speech science, and social science. The resulting discussion among 24 symposium participants included controversies about the role of technology, tensions about independence and interdependence, and a provocation about taste. The paper concludes by proposing new directions for AAC research: (a) new interdisciplinary research could combine scientific and design research methods, as distant yet complementary as microanalysis and interaction design, (b) new research tools could seed accessible and engaging contextual research into voice within a social model of disability, and (c) new open research networks could support inclusive, international and interdisciplinary research.

  12. Designing interactive systems to support and augment creativity - a roadmap for research and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Frich Pedersen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    and developments, exemplary cases, and future initiatives to study and design systems and tools to augment creative practices. Participation in the workshop requires participants to contribute with a position paper on one of the above topics, and to read and comment on co-participants contributions before......The aims of the workshop are to examine and discuss the current state of research in designing interactive systems to support and augment creative work, and to outline a roadmap for future research initiatives. The workshop will explore methodological issues and approaches, overarching trends...

  13. Study designs may influence results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena

    2017-01-01

    appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies...... for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise...

  14. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  15. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Giving girls and women the power to decide. Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying sexual and reproductive and adolescent health research. View moreGiving girls and women the power to decide ...

  16. FEDS : A Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  17. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  18. 5th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 5th International Conference on Research into Design – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from across the world on design process, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design across boundaries. The special features of the book are the variety of insights into the product and system innovation process, and the host of methods and tools from all major areas of design research for the enhancement of the innovation process. The main benefit of the book for researchers in various areas of design and innovation are access to the latest quality research in this area, with the largest collection of research from India. For practitioners and educators, it is exposure to an empirically validated suite of theories, models, methods and tools that can be taught and practiced for design-led innovation.

  19. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors. Requirements situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R. Allan; Holmstrom, Heikki; Reocreux, Michel; Schulz, Helmut; Liesch, Klaus; Santarossa, Giampiero; Hayamizu, Yoshitaka; Asmolov, Vladimir; Bolshov, Leonid; Strizhov, Valerii; Bougaenko, Sergei; Nikitin, Yuri N.; Proklov, Vladimir; Potapov, Alexandre; Kinnersly, Stephen R.; Voronin, Leonid M.; Honekamp, John R.; Frescura, Gianni M.; Maki, Nobuo; Reig, Javier; ); Bekjord, Eric S.; Rosinger, Herbert E.

    1998-01-01

    In June 1995, an OECD Support Group was set up to perform a broad study of the safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors. The emphasis of the study is on the VVER-type reactors in part because of the larger base of knowledge within the NEA Member countries related to LWRs. For the RBMKs, the study does not make the judgement that such reactors can be brought to acceptable levels of safety but focuses on near term efforts that can contribute to reducing the risk to the public. The need for the safety research must be evaluated in context of the lifetime of the reactors. The principal outcome of the work of the Support Group is the identification of a number of research topics which the members believe should receive priority attention over the next several years if risk levels are to be reduced and public safety enhanced. These appear in the Conclusions and Recommendations section of the report, and are the following: - The most important near-term need for VVER and RBMK safety research is to establish a sound technical basis for the emergency operating procedures used by the plant staff to prevent or halt the progression of accidents (i.e., Accident Management) and for plant safety improvements. - Co-operation of Western and Eastern experts should help to avoid East-West know-how gaps in the future, as safety technology continues to improve. - Safety research in Eastern countries will make an important contribution to public safety as it has in OECD countries. - RBMK safety research, including verification of codes, starts from a smaller base of experience than VVER, and is at an earlier stage of development. Technical Conclusions: - Research to improve human performance and operational safety of VVER and RBMK plants is extremely important. - VVER thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics research should focus on full validation of codes to VVER-specific features, and on extension of experimental data base. - Methods of assessing VVER pressure boundary

  20. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  1. Research: Designing interprofessional modules for undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... financial constraints, administrative support, logistical issues and resistance to change. The designing and implementing of new modules were intense and time consuming, and required commitment. The development of the modules was an excellent example of interprofessional teamwork that needs to be transferred to ...

  2. Social things : design research on social computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Luen, P.; Rau, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of social networking and computing, things and people are more and more interconnected, giving rise to not only new opportunities but also new challenges in designing new products that are networked, and services that are adaptive to their human users and context aware in their physical

  3. Interactive design computation : A case study on quantum design paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of design processes fosters novel design computation models to be employed in architectural research and design in order to facilitate accurate data processing and refined decision making. These computation models have enabled designers to work with complex geometry

  4. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 12: strengthening global capacity for evidence synthesis of quasi-experimental health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global and local level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actors to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Finally, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Because of the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Building a Cohesive Body of Design Knowledge: Developments from a Design Science Research Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2015-01-01

    researchers have identified difficulties in building on past works, and combining insights from across the field. This work starts to dissolve some of these issues by drawing on Design Science Research to propose an integrated approach for the development of design research knowledge, coupled with pragmatic......Design is an extremely diverse field where there has been widespread debate on how to build a cohesive body of scientific knowledge. To date, no satisfactory proposition has been adopted across the field – hampering scientific development. Without this basis for bringing research together design...... advice for design researchers. This delivers a number of implications for researchers as well as for the field as a whole....

  6. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO 2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO 2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233 U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233 U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233 U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233 U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233 U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author) [fr

  7. Design Rework Prediction in Concurrent Design Environment: Current Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas; Roy, Rajkumar; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Shehab, Essam

    2009-01-01

    Organised by: Cranfield University This paper aims to present state-of-the-art and formulate future research areas on design rework in concurrent design environment. Related literatures are analysed to extract the key factors which impact design rework. Design rework occurs due to changes from upstream design activities and/or by feedbacks from downstream design activities. Design rework is considered as negative iteration; therefore, value in design activities will be increase...

  8. A Research Design for NASA-Funded Professional Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J.; Getty, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This proposal outlines a research plan designed to measure gains in student learning resulting from their teachers participating in professional development. Project Description Misconceptions about global climate change (GCC) are prevalent in the general public (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). One solution is to provide high school students with a better grounding in the basic science and data that underlie GCC. The overarching goal of a NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Change Literacy (PEL), is to increase GCC literacy in high school students. Research Design The research design is interpretative (Erickson, 2006), framed within a multi-method design, synthesizing both quantitative and qualitative data sources (Morse, 2003). Overall, the data will provide rich information about the PEL's impact on curriculum development, teacher pedagogical knowledge, and student learning. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation (E-V-C) (Fan, 2011; Wigfield & Eccles, 1994) provides a theoretical foundation for the research. Expectancy is the degree to which a teacher or student has reason to expect that they will be successful in school. Value indicates whether they think that performance at school will be worthwhile to them. Cost is the perceived sacrifices that must be undertaken, or factors that can inhibit, a successful performance at school. For students, data from an embedded E-V-C investigation will help articulate how E-V-C factors relate to student interest in science, continuing to study science, or embarking on STEM related careers. For teachers, the E-V-C measures will give insight into a key mediating variable on student achievement in science. The evaluation will seek to address research questions at the student and teacher levels. Table 1 presents a sample of research questions and data sources. This is a sample of a much larger set of questions that will be addressed in the project. Data

  9. Distribution Network Design--literature study based

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ANG

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is companies' outbound distribution network design in supply chain management. Within the present competitive market, it is a fundamental importance for companies to achieve high level business performance with an effective supply chain. Outbound distribution network design as an important part in supply chain management, to a large extent decides whether companies can fulfill customers' requirement or not. Therefore, such a study is important for manufacturers and ...

  10. Critical Race Design: An Emerging Methodological Approach to Anti-Racist Design and Implementation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Deena; Kier, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    This article is about introducing Critical Race Design (CRD), a research methodology that centers race and equity at the nucleus of educational opportunities by design. First, the authors define design-based implementation research (DBIR; Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, & Sabelli, 2011) as an equity-oriented education research methodology where…

  11. Depth of Field: Discursive design research through film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Arnall

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the role of film in interaction and product design research with technology, and the use of film in exploring and explaining emerging technologies in multiple contexts. We have engaged in a reflective design research process that uses graphical, audiovisual, and time-based media as a tool, a material and a communicative artefact that enables us to approach complex, obscure and often invisible emerging technologies. We give a discursive account of how film has played an intricate role in our design research practice, from revealing the materiality of invisible wireless technology, to explaining complex technical prototypes, to communicating to a public audience through online films that may fold broader social and cultural discourses back into our design research process. We conclude by elaborating on discursive design approaches to research that use film as a reflective and communicative medium that allows for design research to operate within a social and cultural frame.

  12. Using community-based participatory research to design and initiate a study on immigrant worker health and safety in San Francisco's Chinatown restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Meredith; Lee, Pam Tau; Tom, Alex; Chang, Charlotte; Morales, Alvaro; Liu, Shaw San; Salvatore, Alicia; Baker, Robin; Chen, Feiyi; Bhatia, Rajiv; Krause, Niklas

    2010-04-01

    Restaurant workers have among the highest rates of work-related illness and injury in the US, but little is known about the working conditions and occupational health status of Chinese immigrant restaurant workers. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was employed to study restaurant working conditions and worker health in San Francisco's Chinatown. A community/academic/health department collaborative was formed and 23 restaurant workers trained on research techniques and worker health and safety. A worker survey instrument and a restaurant observational checklist were collaboratively developed. The checklist was piloted in 71 Chinatown restaurants, and the questionnaire administered to 433 restaurant workers. Restaurant workers, together with other partners, made substantial contributions to construction of the survey and checklist tools and improved their cultural appropriateness. The utility of the checklist tool for restaurant-level data collection was demonstrated. CBPR holds promise for both studying worker health and safety among immigrant Chinese restaurant workers and developing culturally appropriate research tools. A new observational checklist also has potential for restaurant-level data collection on worker health and safety conditions. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Arctic research vessel design would expand science prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Robert; Kristensen, Dirk

    The U.S. polar marine science community has long declared the need for an arctic research vessel dedicated to advancing the study of northern ice-dominated seas. Planning for such a vessel began 2 decades ago, but competition for funding has prevented construction. A new design program is underway, and it shows promise of opening up exciting possibilities for new research initiatives in arctic marine science.With its latest design, the Arctic Research Vessel (ARV) has grown to a size and capability that will make it the first U.S. academic research vessel able to provide access to the Arctic Ocean. This ship would open a vast arena for new studies in the least known of the world's seas. These studies promise to rank high in national priority because of the importance of the Arctic Ocean as a source of data relating to global climate change. Other issues that demand attention in the Arctic include its contributions to the world's heat budget, the climate history buried in its sediments, pollution monitoring, and the influence of arctic conditions on marine renewable resources.

  14. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protocol for the process evaluation of a complex intervention designed to increase the use of research in health policy and program organisations (the SPIRIT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Carter, Stacy; O'Connor, Denise; Schneider, Carmen Huckel; Turner, Tari; Gallego, Gisselle

    2014-09-27

    Process evaluation is vital for understanding how interventions function in different settings, including if and why they have different effects or do not work at all. This is particularly important in trials of complex interventions in 'real world' organisational settings where causality is difficult to determine. Complexity presents challenges for process evaluation, and process evaluations that tackle complexity are rarely reported. This paper presents the detailed protocol for a process evaluation embedded in a randomised trial of a complex intervention known as SPIRIT (Supporting Policy In health with Research: an Intervention Trial). SPIRIT aims to build capacity for using research in health policy and program agencies. We describe the flexible and pragmatic methods used for capturing, managing and analysing data across three domains: (a) the intervention as it was implemented; (b) how people participated in and responded to the intervention; and (c) the contextual characteristics that mediated this relationship and may influence outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods include purposively sampled semi-structured interviews at two time points, direct observation and coding of intervention activities, and participant feedback forms. We provide examples of the data collection and data management tools developed. This protocol provides a worked example of how to embed process evaluation in the design and evaluation of a complex intervention trial. It tackles complexity in the intervention and its implementation settings. To our knowledge, it is the only detailed example of the methods for a process evaluation of an intervention conducted as part of a randomised trial in policy organisations. We identify strengths and weaknesses, and discuss how the methods are functioning during early implementation. Using 'insider' consultation to develop methods is enabling us to optimise data collection while minimising discomfort and burden for

  16. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  17. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and close relations, and professional caretakers. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and social life. As Alzheimer’s is a fatal disease that affects many people, there is a strong interest in finding...... and the outcome. This book is an edited version of their reports written by the students. Our hope is that it can be an inspiration for other people. Thomas Binder, Eva Brandt and Morten Noer Andersen Lecturers, The Danish Design School...

  18. Contextual Interaction Design Research: Enabling HCI

    OpenAIRE

    Murer , Martin; Meschtscherjakov , Alexander; Fuchsberger , Verena; Giuliani , Manuel; Neureiter , Katja; Moser , Christiane; Aslan , Ilhan; Tscheligi , Manfred

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has always been about humans, their needs and desires. Contemporary HCI thinking investigates interactions in everyday life and puts an emphasis on the emotional and experiential qualities of interactions. At the Center for Human-Computer Interaction we seek to bridge meandering strands in the field by following a guiding metaphor that shifts focus to what has always been the core quality of our research field: Enabling HCI, as a leitmo...

  19. Cinematic collage as architectural design research

    OpenAIRE

    Carless, T.; Troiani, I.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter argues that cinematic representation can, and must, be understood as a method of developing a form of critical architectural enquiry and thinking in the same manner as text - a textual analysis and a communication means for practice-based research. The proposition is that cinematic architectural drawing and the discourse of occupied space are inseparable and that the limits of both are products of specific ideological and cultural practices. In this chapter, two different bodies ...

  20. A systematic review of protocol studies on conceptual design cognition: design as search and exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Laura; Duffy, Alex H.B.; McTeague, Chris; Pidgeon, Laura M.; Vuletic, Tijana; Grealy, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the first systematic review of protocol studies focusing specifically on conceptual design cognition, aiming to answer the following research question: What is our current understanding of the cognitive processes involved in conceptual design tasks carried out by individual designers? We reviewed 47 studies on architectural design, engineering design and product design engineering. This paper reports 24 cognitive processes investigated in a subset of 33 studie...

  1. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  2. Design-based research – issues in connecting theory, research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette

    2015-01-01

    the gap. But is this as easy as it sounds? The purpose of the article is to identify and discuss issues involved in applying DBR. The article is based on methodology chapters and essays from three PhD studies applying the DBR framework to implement problem and project based learning (PBL). The findings......During the last 20 years, design-based research (DBR) has become a popular methodology for connecting educational theory, research and practice. The missing link between educational theory, research and educational practice is an ongoing issue and DBR is seen as an integrated methodology to bridge...... indicate several key issues at both the scientific and personal level. Scientifically, the main issues are contribution to theory and the role of the researcher. At the personal level, it is an investment beyond normal research procedures to involve yourself as a researcher in curriculum change....

  3. Evaluating a Dutch cardiology primary care plus intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes: study design of a practice-based quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2017-09-06

    In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+. The study is a practice-based, quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design, and an additional qualitative study to supplement, interpret and improve the quantitative study. The study population of the quantitative part will consist of adult patients (≥18 years) with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who will be referred to the cardiology PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient cardiology care (control group). All eligible patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at three different time points consisting of questions about their demographics, health status and experience of care. Additionally, quantitative data will be collected about health-care utilization and related health-care costs at the PC+ centre and the hospital. The qualitative part, consisting of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and observations, is designed to evaluate the process as well as to amplify, clarify and explain quantitative results. This study

  4. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  5. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  6. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  7. Dimensions of design space: a decision-theoretic approach to optimal research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Stefano; Claxton, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian decision theory can be used not only to establish the optimal sample size and its allocation in a single clinical study but also to identify an optimal portfolio of research combining different types of study design. Within a single study, the highest societal payoff to proposed research is achieved when its sample sizes and allocation between available treatment options are chosen to maximize the expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS). Where a number of different types of study informing different parameters in the decision problem could be conducted, the simultaneous estimation of ENBS across all dimensions of the design space is required to identify the optimal sample sizes and allocations within such a research portfolio. This is illustrated through a simple example of a decision model of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza. The possible study designs include: 1) a single trial of all the parameters, 2) a clinical trial providing evidence only on clinical endpoints, 3) an epidemiological study of natural history of disease, and 4) a survey of quality of life. The possible combinations, samples sizes, and allocation between trial arms are evaluated over a range of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The computational challenges are addressed by implementing optimization algorithms to search the ENBS surface more efficiently over such large dimensions.

  8. A systematic review of methodology applied during preclinical anesthetic neurotoxicity studies: important issues and lessons relevant to the design of future clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disma, Nicola; Mondardini, Maria C; Terrando, Niccolò; Absalom, Anthony R; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that anesthetic agents harm the developing brain thereby causing long-term neurocognitive impairments. It is not clear if these findings apply to humans, and retrospective epidemiological studies thus far have failed to show definitive evidence that anesthetic agents are harmful to the developing human brain. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the preclinical studies published over the past decade, with a focus on methodological issues, to facilitate the comparison between different preclinical studies and inform better design of future trials. The literature search identified 941 articles related to the topic of neurotoxicity. As the primary aim of this systematic review was to compare methodologies applied in animal studies to inform future trials, we excluded a priori all articles focused on putative mechanism of neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective agents. Forty-seven preclinical studies were finally included in this review. Methods used in these studies were highly heterogeneous-animals were exposed to anesthetic agents at different developmental stages, in various doses and in various combinations with other drugs, and overall showed diverse toxicity profiles. Physiological monitoring and maintenance of physiological homeostasis was variable and the use of cognitive tests was generally limited to assessment of specific brain areas, with restricted translational relevance to humans. Comparison between studies is thus complicated by this heterogeneous methodology and the relevance of the combined body of literature to humans remains uncertain. Future preclinical studies should use better standardized methodologies to facilitate transferability of findings from preclinical into clinical science. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  10. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  11. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches......, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements...

  12. Architecture Studio Archive: A Case Study in the Comprehensive Digital Capture and Repository of Student Design Work as an Aid to Teaching, Research, and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Arndell, Michael; Christensen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    The "Architecture Studio Archive" pilot sought to form a comprehensive digital archive of the diverse student work conducted in the first year of the Bachelor of Design in Architecture Degree at the University of Sydney. The design studio is the primary vehicle for teaching architectural design. It is a locus for creative activity, with…

  13. Basics of case report form designing in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Bellary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report form (CRF is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of data. CRF design should be standardized to address the needs of all users such as investigator, site coordinator, study monitor, data entry personnel, medical coder and statistician. Data should be organized in a format that facilitates and simplifies data analysis. Collection of large amount of data will result in wasted resources in collecting and processing it and in many circumstances, will not be utilized for analysis. Apart from that, standard guidelines should be followed while designing the CRF. CRF completion manual should be provided to the site personnel to promote accurate data entry by them. These measures will result in reduced query generations and improved data integrity. It is recommended to establish and maintain a library of templates of standard CRF modules as they are time saving and cost-effective. This article is an attempt to describe the methods of CRF designing in clinical research and discusses the challenges encountered in this process.

  14. Basics of case report form designing in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellary, Shantala; Krishnankutty, Binny; Latha, M S

    2014-10-01

    Case report form (CRF) is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS) are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of data. CRF design should be standardized to address the needs of all users such as investigator, site coordinator, study monitor, data entry personnel, medical coder and statistician. Data should be organized in a format that facilitates and simplifies data analysis. Collection of large amount of data will result in wasted resources in collecting and processing it and in many circumstances, will not be utilized for analysis. Apart from that, standard guidelines should be followed while designing the CRF. CRF completion manual should be provided to the site personnel to promote accurate data entry by them. These measures will result in reduced query generations and improved data integrity. It is recommended to establish and maintain a library of templates of standard CRF modules as they are time saving and cost-effective. This article is an attempt to describe the methods of CRF designing in clinical research and discusses the challenges encountered in this process.

  15. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns

    2014-09-01

    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  16. Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development......, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research...... fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas....

  17. The Role of Hypothesis in Constructive Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    and solid perspective on how to keep constructive design research on track, this paper offers a model for understanding the role of hypothesis in constructive design research. The model allows for understanding the hypothesis’s relation to research motivation, questions, experiments, evaluation...... and knowledge production. The intention of the model is to have it serve as a tool in the research process aiding the researcher to understand at what “level” discussions and claims are brought forward, and what consequences these might have for the research work at hand. Thus, the paper claims the central...

  18. Conjecture Mapping: An Approach to Systematic Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William

    2014-01-01

    Design research is strongly associated with the learning sciences community, and in the 2 decades since its conception it has become broadly accepted. Yet within and without the learning sciences there remains confusion about how to do design research, with most scholarship on the approach describing what it is rather than how to do it. This…

  19. Portraying the design research cycle: Professional development in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although para-teachers make up a substantial portion of the world’s educational work force, little empirical research has been conducted on their professional development. During the iterative process of analysis, design, evaluation, and revision, design research was conducted to gain insight into

  20. Integrating Mediators and Moderators in Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mediating variables and moderating variables and provide reasons for integrating them in outcome studies. Separate sections describe examples of moderating and mediating variables and the simplest statistical model for investigating each variable. The strengths and limitations of incorporating mediating…

  1. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system

  2. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system.

  3. Cold neutron source conceptual designing for Tehran Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajvand, N.; Mirvakili, S.M.; Faghihi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cold neutron source conceptual designing for Tehran research reactor is carried out. • Type and geometry of moderator and dimensions of cold neutron source are analyzed. • Liquid hydrogen with more ortho-concentration can be better option as moderator. - Abstract: A cold neutron source (CNS) conceptual designing for the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) were carried out using MCNPX code. In this study, a horizontal beam tube of the core which has appropriate the highest thermal flux is selected and parametric analysis to choose the type and geometry of the moderator, and the required CNS dimensions for maximizing the cold neutron production was performed. In this design the moderator cell has a spherical annulus structure, and the cold neutron flux and its brightness are calculated together with the nuclear heat load of the CNS for a variety of materials including liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and solid methane. Based on our study, liquid hydrogen with more ortho-concentration than para and solid methane are the best options.

  4. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  5. Action Design Research for Social Innovation: Lessons from Designing a Health and Wellbeing Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, G.A.; Keijzer-Broers, W.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    IT artifacts play an important role in solving societal problems and realizing social innovations. Existing practice-inspired design science research (DSR) approaches, such as Action Design Research (ADR), do not consider social innovation as an explicit starting point for design iterations. In this

  6. Gaining a Competitive Edge through Action Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, L.; Alexa, M.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2016-08-01

    The current business environment is characterized by increased competition and highly innovative approach, in order to create products and services to better respond to the costumers’ needs and expectations. In this specific context, the research approaches need to be more flexible and business oriented and so, throughout the paper we have used a research method that combines design research and action research, named Action Design Research which is a research method used for generating prescriptive design knowledge through building and evaluating IT artifacts in an organizational setting [1]. Following the Action Design Research stages and principles: problem identification, building, intervention and evaluation, reflection and learning and formalization of learning, the research team has developed an online instrument used to actively involve the consumer in the product development process, in order to generate a better consumers insight regarding their needs and desires and to design and/or adjust the product accordingly. The customer engagement IT tool created and tested by using Action Design Research, E-PICUS, has been developed within the framework of the research project „E-solutions for innovation through customer pro-active involvement in value creation to increase organisational competitiveness (E-PICUS)”, PN- II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1811, currently undergoing.

  7. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: research designs for usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.

  8. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  9. Implementing Clinical Research Using Factorial Designs: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Piper, Megan E; Collins, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Factorial experiments have rarely been used in the development or evaluation of clinical interventions. However, factorial designs offer advantages over randomized controlled trial designs, the latter being much more frequently used in such research. Factorial designs are highly efficient (permitting evaluation of multiple intervention components with good statistical power) and present the opportunity to detect interactions amongst intervention components. Such advantages have led methodologists to advocate for the greater use of factorial designs in research on clinical interventions (Collins, Dziak, & Li, 2009). However, researchers considering the use of such designs in clinical research face a series of choices that have consequential implications for the interpretability and value of the experimental results. These choices include: whether to use a factorial design, selection of the number and type of factors to include, how to address the compatibility of the different factors included, whether and how to avoid confounds between the type and number of interventions a participant receives, and how to interpret interactions. The use of factorial designs in clinical intervention research poses choices that differ from those typically considered in randomized clinical trial designs. However, the great information yield of the former encourages clinical researchers' increased and careful execution of such designs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n--3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Dunstan, J; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2011-09-01

    The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study is a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating whether the incidence of allergic disease can be reduced and developmental outcomes enhanced through supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Infants at high risk of developing allergic disease will be randomised to receive either fish oil or olive oil supplements until 6 months of age and followed up at six postnatal clinic visits to assess allergy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Study groups to consist of a treatment group allocated to receive 650 mg of fish oil daily (250-280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and at least 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and a placebo group (olive oil) from birth to 6 months of age. Allergy outcomes will be assessed by clinical history, clinical assessments and allergen skin prick tests at the 12, 30 and 60 month visits. Neurodevelopmental assessments to be conducted at 18 months, and language questionnaires at 12, 18 and 30 months. Samples will be collected from mothers antenatally, from infants at birth, and at clinic visits from 6 months onwards for immunological assessments. Fatty acid composition to be measured in erythrocytes and plasma (at birth and after the supplementation period) to assess the effect of the intervention on fatty acid status. Information on medical history, diet and other lifestyle factors at an antenatal clinic visit and postnatal clinic visits will also be collected. This study is designed to examine clinically relevant effects of a novel, non-invasive and potentially low cost approach to reduce the incidence of allergic disease and facilitate neurodevelopment during early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of MCNP code in the research and design for China advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng

    2006-01-01

    MCNP, which is the internationalized neutronics code, is used for nuclear research and design in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). MCNP is an important neutronics code in the research and design for CARR since many calculation tasks could be undertaken by it. Many nuclear parameters on reactor core, the design and optimization research for many reactor utilizations, much verification for other nuclear calculation code and so on are conducted with help of MCNP. (author)

  12. A Design-Based Research Case Study Documenting a Constructivist ID Process and Instructional Solution for a Cross-Cultural Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Monica W.; Unger, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    As the need for instructing a globalized workforce increases, instructional designers must embrace the constraints and the opportunities these projects provide in order to move the field of cross-cultural instructional design (ID) forward. Cross-cultural projects offer multiple avenues for growth in ID practice, overcoming cultural barriers, and a…

  13. Impact of design research on industrial practice tools, technology, and training

    CERN Document Server

    Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Showcasing exemplars of how various aspects of design research were successfully transitioned into and influenced, design practice, this book features chapters written by eminent international researchers and practitioners from industry on the Impact of Design Research on Industrial Practice. Chapters written by internationally acclaimed researchers of design analyse the findings (guidelines, methods and tools), technologies/products and educational approaches that have been transferred as tools, technologies and people to transform industrial practice of engineering design, whilst the chapters that are written by industrial practitioners describe their experience of how various tools, technologies and training impacted design practice. The main benefit of this book, for educators, researchers and practitioners in (engineering) design, will be access to a comprehensive coverage of case studies of successful transfer of outcomes of design research into practice; as well as guidelines and platforms for successf...

  14. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  15. Design, development and deployment of a Diabetes Research Registry to facilitate recruitment in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meng H; Bernstein, Steven J; Gendler, Stephen; Hanauer, David; Herman, William H

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in conducting clinical trials/studies is the timely recruitment of eligible subjects. Our aim is to develop a Diabetes Research Registry (DRR) to facilitate recruitment by matching potential subjects interested in research with approved clinical studies using study entry criteria abstracted from their electronic health records (EHR). A committee with expertise in diabetes, quality improvement, information technology, and informatics designed and developed the DRR. Using a hybrid approach, we identified and consented patients interested in research, abstracted their EHRs to assess common eligibility criteria, and contacted them about their interest in participating in specific studies. Investigators submit their requests with study entry criteria to the DRR which then provides a list of potential subjects who may be directly contacted for their study. The DRR meets all local, regional and federal regulatory requirements. After 5 years, the DRR has over 5000 registrants. About 30% have type 1 diabetes and 70% have type 2 diabetes. There are almost equal proportions of men and women. During this period, 31 unique clinical studies from 19 unique investigators requested lists of potential subjects for their studies. Eleven grant applications from 10 unique investigators used aggregated counts of potentially eligible subjects in their applications. The DRR matches potential subjects interested in research with approved clinical studies using study entry criteria abstracted from their EHR. By providing large lists of potentially eligible study subjects quickly, the DRR facilitated recruitment in 31 clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design Research and Practice for the Public Good: A Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Junginger

    Full Text Available Public sector managers and policymakers have begun to work with design researchers and design practitioners in an effort to create citizen-centric polices and user-centered public services. What role can design play in the approach taken by the public sector in organizational development and innovation? This paper reflects on an innovation project at a Brazilian Ministry where human-centered design was chosen as an approach to integrate innovation efforts among different government agencies and ministries. It offers an example of how human-centered design approaches can support efforts by civil servants to change their own design practices. Keywords: Design research, Design practice, Public sector, Civil servants, Organizational change & development

  17. Relational Research and Organisation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Lone Hersted

    , analyzing organizational dialoguing, and polyphonic future-forming ways of writing up research.  Relational Research and Organisation Studies does not only present and discuss guidelines for practice at a onto-epistemological level but also presents and discusses concrete cases of research projects building...... on relational constructionist ideas. Furthermore, excerpts of data are presented and analyzed in order to explain the co-constructed processes of the inquiries more in detail. Relational Research and Organisation Studies invites the reader into the process of planning and carrying out relational constructionist......This volume lays out a variety of ways of engaging in research projects focused on exploring the everyday relational practices of organizing and leading is presented. The main focus is through elaborate examples from the author’s own research to further the understanding of how it is possible...

  18. What is it that is being designed in design-based research and how does it qualify as research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann

    2015-01-01

    This article performs a comparative reading across a selection of seminal articles on Design based research in order to draw out and clarify key concepts that frame the approach. The article is a contribution to the ongoing discussion of how Design Based Research is or becomes a rigorous science....

  19. From a Disciplinary to an Interdisciplinary Design Research: Developing an Integrative Approach for Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen Huei; Wong, Ju-Joan

    2015-01-01

    As the new generation of designers face more complex design issues, the forms of design research start to shift towards a user-centred approach to problem-solving. The cooperation and communication among various fields and specialisations are becoming more complex; in many practical design cases, in particular, technology developers face…

  20. Design of the Graphite Reflectors in Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Graphite is often used as one of reflector materials for research reactors because of its low neutron absorption cross-section, good moderating properties, and relatively low and stable price. In addition, graphite has excellent properties at high temperatures, so it is widely used as a core material in high temperature reactors. However, its material characteristics such as strength, elastic modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, dimensional change, and thermal conductivity sensitively depend on neutron fluence, temperature, and its manufacturing process. In addition, the Wigner energy and the treatment of the graphite waste such as C-14 should also be considered. For the design of the graphite reflectors, it is therefore essential to understand the material characteristics of chosen graphite materials at given conditions. Especially, the dimensional changes and the thermal conductivity are very important factors to design the nuclear components using graphite as a nonstructural material. Hence, in this study, the material characteristics of graphite are investigated via some experiments in literature. Improving design methods for graphite reflectors in research reactors are then suggested to minimize the problems, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also discussed

  1. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  2. Reflective Drawing as a Tool for Reflection in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of drawing as a tool for reflection. It reports on a PhD research project that aims to identify and analyse the value that co-design processes can bring to participants and their communities. The research is associated with Leapfrog, a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).…

  3. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...... substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given...

  4. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  5. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Skoda Concern's cooperation with State Machinery Design Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchar, J.; Kuhn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main areas are presented of cooperation between the Skoda Plzen Concern and the State Machinery Design Research Institute in Prague-Bechovice. This is mainly the development of steam turbines, from 50 MW turbines to the present 1000 MW saturated steam turbines designed for nuclear power plants. Main attention is centred on conditions of the boiling crisis in the steam turbine circuit, and its consequences. This study is served by the experimental equipment of the institute and its computer. The cooperation of the two institutions in the field of testing and diagnostic equipment is centred on measuring natural oscillations of turbine blades, the diagnostics of vibrations of steam turbines, the measurement of the humidity of saturated steam, optical measurements of the parameters of saturated steam, ultrasound diagnostics and the measurement of turbine blade deformation caused by hydraulic effects. (Z.M.). 8 figs

  7. An agenda for research on the relationships between industrial design and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candi, M.; Gemser, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a research agenda for studying the relationships between industrial design and performance in the context of new product/service development. A review of existing research on relationships between industrial design and performance is used as a basis for identifying research

  8. Construction management research at the interface of design and explanatory science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to characterize construction management research at the interface of explanatory science and design science. Design/methodology/approach – The dual nature of construction management research is analyzed by relating this field of research to natural science,

  9. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  10. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...

  11. Involving Children in the Design and Development of Research Instruments and Data Collection Procedures: A Case Study in Primary Schools in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Kellie; McElearney, Aisling; Scott, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Children's right to participate as enshrined in Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is increasingly evident in the rhetoric of policy documents as well as in practice and research with children and young people. Children's participation in research is being facilitated in a range of creative ways, including as…

  12. Designing a behavioral intervention using the COM-B model and the theoretical domains framework to promote gas stove use in rural Guatemala: a formative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Weinstein, John R; Handley, Margaret A

    2018-02-14

    Three billion people use solid cooking fuels, and 4 million people die from household air pollution annually. Shifting households to clean fuels, like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), may protect health only if stoves are consistently used. Few studies have used an implementation science framework to systematically assess "de-implementation" of traditional stoves, and none have done so with pregnant women who are more likely to adopt new behaviors. We evaluated an introduced LPG stove coupled with a phased behavioral intervention to encourage exclusive gas stove use among pregnant women in rural Guatemala. We enrolled 50 women at < 20 weeks gestation in this prospective cohort study. All women received a free 3-burner LPG stove and ten tank refills. We conducted formative research using COM-B Model and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). This included thematic analysis of focus group findings and classes delivered to 25 pregnant women (Phase 1). In Phase 2, we complemented classes with a home-based tailored behavioral intervention with a different group of 25 pregnant women. We mapped 35 TDF constructs onto survey questions. To evaluate stove use, we placed temperature sensors on wood and gas stoves and estimated fraction of stove use three times during pregnancy and twice during the first month after infant birth. Class attendance rates were above 92%. We discussed feasible ways to reduce HAP exposure, proper stove use, maintenance and safety. We addressed food preferences, ease of cooking and time savings through cooking demonstrations. In Phase 2, the COM-B framework revealed that other household members needed to be involved if the gas stove was to be consistently used. Social identity and empowerment were key in decisions about stove repairs and LPG tank refills. The seven intervention functions included training, education, persuasion, incentivization, modelling, enablement and environmental restructuring. Wood stove use dropped upon introduction of the

  13. Attending to Objects as Outcomes of Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, Tom; Andersen, Kristina; Gaver, William

    2016-01-01

    outcomes. The premise of this workshop is simple: We need additional spaces for interacting with and reflecting upon material design outcomes at CHI. The goal of this workshop is to experiment with such a space, and to initially do so without a strong theoretical or conceptual framing.......The goal for this workshop is to provide a venue at CHI for research through design practitioners to materially share their work with each other. Conversation will largely be centered upon a discussion of objects produced through a research through design process. Bringing together researchers...

  14. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  15. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  16. [Saarland Growth Study: sampling design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, H; Zabransky, S

    2000-01-01

    The use of reference data to evaluate the physical development of children and adolescents is part of the daily routine in the paediatric ambulance. The construction of such reference data is based on the collection of extensive reference data. There are different kinds of reference data: cross sectional references, which are based on data collected from a big representative cross-sectional sample of the population, longitudinal references, which are based on follow-up surveys of usually smaller samples of individuals from birth to maturity, and mixed longitudinal references, which are a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional reference data. The advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of data collection and the resulting reference data are discussed. The Saarland Growth Study was conducted for several reasons: growth processes are subject to secular changes, there are no specific reference data for children and adolescents from this part of the country and the growth charts in use in the paediatric praxis are possibly not appropriate any more. Therefore, the Saarland Growth Study served two purposes a) to create actual regional reference data and b) to create a database for future studies on secular trends in growth processes of children and adolescents from Saarland. The present contribution focusses on general remarks on the sampling design of (cross-sectional) growth surveys and its inferences for the design of the present study.

  17. 6th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; ICoRD 2017; Research into design for communities

    2017-01-01

    This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 6th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2017) – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from across the world on design process, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design for communities. While design traditionally focused on the development of products for the individual, the emerging consensus on working towards a more sustainable world demands greater attention to designing for and with communities, so as to promote their sustenance and harmony - within each community and across communities. The special features of the book are the insights into the product and system innovation process, and the host of methods and tools from all major areas of design research for the enhancement of the innovation process. The main benefit of the book for researchers in various areas of design and innovation are access to the latest quality research in this area, with the...

  18. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  19. A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard; Venable, John

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a central and essential activity in conducting rigorous Design Science Research (DSR), yet there is surprisingly little guidance about designing the DSR evaluation activity beyond suggesting possible methods that could be used for evaluation. This paper extends the notable exception...... of the existing framework of Pries-Heje et al [11] to address this problem. The paper proposes an extended DSR evaluation framework together with a DSR evaluation design method that can guide DSR researchers in choosing an appropriate strategy for evaluation of the design artifacts and design theories that form...... the output from DSR. The extended DSR evaluation framework asks the DSR researcher to consider (as input to the choice of the DSR evaluation strategy) contextual factors of goals, conditions, and constraints on the DSR evaluation, e.g. the type and level of desired rigor, the type of artifact, the need...

  20. Code on the safety of nuclear research reactors: Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide a safety basis for the design of a research reactor and for the assessment of the design. Another objective is to cover certain aspects related to regulatory supervision, siting and quality assurance, as far as these are related to activities for the design of a research reactor. These objectives are expressed in terms of requirements and recommendations for the design of research reactors. Emphasis is placed on the safety requirements that shall be met rather than on ways in which they can be met. The requirements and recommendations may form the foundation necessary for a Member State to develop specific regulations and safety criteria for its research reactor programme.

  1. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  2. Research and Application of Autodesk Fusion360 in Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, P. P.; Qi, Y. M.; Cai, D. C.

    2018-05-01

    In 2016, Fusion 360, a productintroduced byAutodesk and integrating industrial design, structural design, mechanical simulation, and CAM, turns out a design platform supportingcollaboration and sharing both cross-platform and via the cloud. In previous products, design and manufacturing use to be isolated. In the course of design, research and development, the communication between designers and engineers used to go on through different software products, tool commands, and even industry terms. Moreover, difficulty also lies with the communication between design thoughts and machining strategies. Naturally, a difficult product design and R & D process would trigger a noticeable gap between the design model and the actual product. A complete product development process tends to cover several major areas, such as industrial design, mechanical design, rendering and animation, computer aided emulation (CAE), and computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Fusion 360, a perfect design solving the technical problems of cross-platform data exchange, realizes the effective control of cross-regional collaboration and presents an overview of collaboration and breaks the barriers between art and manufacturing, andblocks between design and processing. The “Eco-development of Fusion360 Industrial Chain” is both a significant means to and an inevitable trend forthe manufacturers and industrial designers to carry out innovation in China.

  3. Comparison of Design Research on Manufacturing Firms Moving Towards Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2007-01-01

    Corresponding to a steadily advancing integration of roducts and service operations in the manufacturing industry, a number of research groups within the design community are working with issues of integrated product and service development. Although closely related, the evolving groups focus...... on different research dimensions, and thus the terminologies and concepts used in research contributions are not fully compatible. This research attempts to promote and support an evolving collaboration between the different research groups within the design community, by analysing and comparing the key...... contribution areas of three of the existing groups, namely the groups of Integrated Product and Service Engineering, Service/Product Engineering and Product/Service-System development. A review of the groups’ research contributions is carried out and the main characteristics’ of their research is compared...

  4. Research and design of 3He pressure control loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Zhang Peisheng; Tang Guoliang; Zhang Aimin; Zhang Yingchao

    2008-01-01

    In order to carry out power transient tests for PWR fuel element in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), the research and conceptual design of 3He pressure control loop were completed. The working principle, design parameters and technological flow of the loop were described. It is seen that the a He loop can adjust the power of the tested PWR fuel element rapidly, evenly and flexibly and it is an optimal path to realize the power transient regulation for tested PWR fuel. (authors)

  5. More ethical and more efficient clinical research: multiplex trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2014-08-14

    Today's clinical research faces challenges such as a lack of clinical equipoise between treatment arms, reluctance in randomizing for multiple treatments simultaneously, inability to address interactions and increasingly restricted resources. Furthermore, many trials are biased by extensive exclusion criteria, relatively small sample size and less appropriate outcome measures. We propose a 'Multiplex' trial design that preserves clinical equipoise with a continuous and factorial trial design that will also result in more efficient use of resources. This multiplex design accommodates subtrials with appropriate choice of treatment arms within each subtrial. Clinical equipoise should increase consent rates while the factorial design is the best way to identify interactions. The multiplex design may evolve naturally from today's research limitations and challenges, while principal objections seem absent. However this new design poses important infrastructural, organisational and psychological challenges that need in depth consideration.

  6. Design-Based Research for Professional Learning for "Cultural Mathematics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravia, Geori; Owens, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research is being used to develop and refine the principles used in professional learning workshops with teachers from three different Papua New Guinean ecologies: highlands, coastal, and inland in a coastal province. The appropriateness of the design of principles for Papua New Guinean Elementary Schools is tried over several phases…

  7. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  8. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  9. Design, manufacture and performance research of double acting hydraulic press

    OpenAIRE

    Koc, Erdem; Unver, Ertu; Ozturk, Hidayet

    1990-01-01

    This research presents the design and production of a double acting 40 tons capacity hydraulic press. The issues in the design, engineering manufacturing of the hydraulic press are reported specifically on both cylinders generating the same pressure and velocity using a solenoid directional control valve and a flow separating valve. (In Turkish)

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  11. The State of Design : A Comprehensive Literature Review to Chart the Design Science Research Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakurta, Rahul; Mueller, Benjamin; Ahlemann, Frederik; Hoffman, David

    Design science is an increasingly popular research paradigm in the information systems discipline. De- spite a recognition of the design science research par- adigm, questions are being raised about the nature of its existence and its contributions. Central to this ar- gument is the understanding of

  12. Employing Design and Development Research (DDR): Approaches in the Design and Development of Online Arabic Vocabulary Learning Games Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrir, Muhammad Sabri; Alias, Nor Aziah; Ismail, Zawawi; Osman, Nurulhuda

    2012-01-01

    The design and development research, first proposed by Brown and Collins in the 1990s, is currently among the well-known methods in educational research to test theory and validate its practicality. The method is also known as developmental research, design research, design-based research, formative research and design-cased and possesses…

  13. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Ivanov, M. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.; Audouin, L.; Khan, E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Aumann, T.; Beller, P.; Boretzky, K.; Dolinskii, A.; Egelhof, P.; Emling, H.; Franzke, B.; Geissel, H.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kester, O.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Y.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Schmidt, K. -H.; Scheidenberger, Ch.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Weick, H.; Enders, J.; Pietralla, N.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Zilges, A.; Distler, M. O.; Merkel, H.; Mueller, U.; Junghans, A. R.; Lenske, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Suda, T.; Kato, S.; Adachi, T.; Hamieh, S.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Woertche, H.; Berg, G. P. A.; Koop, I. A.; Logatchov, P. V.; Otboev, A. V.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Shatilov, D. N.; Shatunov, P. Y.; Shatunov, Y. M.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvartz, D. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Chulkov, L. V.; Danilin, B. V.; Korsheninnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Volkov, V. A.; Grishkin, Y.; Lisin, V. P.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; Nedorezov, V.; Polonski, A. L.; Rudnev, N. V.; Turinge, A. A.; Artukh, A.; Avdeichikov, V.; Ershov, S. N.; Fomichev, A.; Golovkov, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Grigorenko, L.; Klygin, S.; Krupko, S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Rodin, A.; Sereda, Y.; Seleznev, I.; Sidorchuk, S.; Syresin, E.; Stepantsov, S.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Teterev, Y.; Vorontsov, A. N.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.; Litvinova, E. V.; Karataglidis, S.; Alvarez Rodriguez, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Ramirez, C. Fernandez; Garrido, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Vignote, J. R.; Fraile Prieto, L. M.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias-Moinelo, J.; Amaro Soriano, J. E.; Rojo, A. M. Lallena; Caballero, J. A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.; Golubev, P.; Rudolph, D.; Hencken, K.; Jourdan, J.; Krusche, B.; Rauscher, T.; Kiselev, D.; Trautmann, D.; Al-Khalili, J.; Catford, W.; Johnson, R.; Stevenson, P. D.; Barton, C.; Jenkins, D.; Lemmon, R.; Chartier, M.; Cullen, D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Heinz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the

  14. Design of controller for control rod of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zaid, R.M.F.M

    2008-01-01

    Designing and testing digital control system for any nuclear research reactor can be costly and time consuming. In this thesis, a rapid, low-cost proto typing and testing procedure for digital controller design is proposed using the concept of Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL). Some of the control loop components are real hardware components and the others are simulated. First, the whole system is modeled and tested by Real-Time Simulation (RTS) using conventional simulation techniques such as MATLAB / SIMULINK. Second the Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is tested using Real-Time Windows Target in MATLAB and Visual C ++ . The control parts are included as hardware components which are the reactor control rod and its drivers. Three kinds of controllers are studied, Proportional-Derivative (PD), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and Fuzzy controller. An experimental setup for the hardware used in HIL concept for the control of the nuclear research reactor has been realized. Experimental results are obtained and compared with the simulation results. The experimental results indicate the validation of HIL method in this domain.

  15. Using Design-Based Research in Higher Education Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Cristi; McNally, Darragh; Ford, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the design-based research approach used by the Center for Innovation in Learning and Student Success (CILSS) at the University of Maryland, University College (UMUC). CILSS is a laboratory for conducting applied research that focuses on continuous improvements to the university's instruction of curriculum, learning models, and…

  16. DATA MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING RESEARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darlington, Mansur; Howard, Thomas J.; Ball, Alex

    2011-01-01

    of research data and of the barriers to and opportunities for their re-use. The work reported here characterizes engineering design and manufacture research data and explores the context of their development and current management. Insights from the work have resulted in the authors proposing a number of new...

  17. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  18. Advances in mechanisms, robotics and design education and research

    CERN Document Server

    Schmiedeler, James; Sreenivasan, S; Su, Hai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This book contains papers on a wide range of topics in the area of kinematics, mechanisms, robotics, and design, addressing new research advances and innovations in design education. The content is divided into  five main categories headed ‘Historical Perspectives’, ‘Kinematics and Mechanisms’, ‘Robotic Systems’, ‘Legged Locomotion’, and ‘Design Engineering Education’. Contributions take the form of survey articles, historical perspectives, commentaries on trends on education or research, original research contributions, and papers on design education.   This volume celebrates the achievements of Professor Kenneth Waldron who has made innumerable and invaluable contributions to these fields in the last fifty years. His leadership and his pioneering work have influenced thousands of people in this discipline.

  19. Paper in architecture: Research by design, engineering and prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy F. Latka

    2017-11-01

    in terms of architecture, its material properties were researched on a micro, meso and macro level. This research of the possible applications of paper in architecture was informed by two main research questions: What is paper and to what extent can it be used in architecture? What is the most suitable way to use paper in emergency architecture? To answer the first research question, fundamental and material research on paper and paper products had to be conducted. The composition of the material, production methods and properties of paper were researched. Then paper products with the potential to be used in architecture were examined. The history of the development of paper and its influence on civilisation helped the author gain a better understanding of the nature of this material, which we encounter in our lives every day. Research on objects for everyday use, furniture, pavilions and architecture realised in the last 150 years allowed the author to distinguish various types of paper design and paper architecture. Analysis of realised buildings in which paper products were used as structural elements and parts of the building envelope resulted in a wide array of possible solutions. Structural systems, types of connections between the various elements, impregnation methods and the functionalities and lifespan of different types of buildings were systematised. The knowledge thus collected allowed the author to conduct a further exploration of paper architecture in the form of designs and prototypes. To answer the second research question, the analysed case studies were translated into designs and prototypes of emergency shelters. During the research-by-design, engineering and prototyping phases, more than a dozen prototypes were built. The prototypes differed in terms of structural systems, used materials, connections between structural elements, impregnation methods, functionality and types of building. The three versions of the Transportable Emergency Cardboard

  20. Design and research of fuel element for pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Sheng

    1994-05-01

    The fuel element is the key component for pulsed reactor and its design is one of kernel techniques for pulsed reactor. Following the GA Company of US the NPIC (Nuclear Power Institute of China) has mastered this technique. Up to now, the first pulsed reactor in China (PRC-1) has been safely operated for about 3 years. The design and research of fuel element undertaken by NPIC is summarized. The verification and evaluation of this design has been carried out by using the results of measured parameters during operation and test of PRC-1 as well as comparing the design parameters published by others