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Sample records for research statement heuristic

  1. The recognition heuristic: A decade of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Gigerenzer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic exploits the basic psychological capacity for recognition in order to make inferences about unknown quantities in the world. In this article, we review and clarify issues that emerged from our initial work (Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 1999, 2002, including the distinction between a recognition and an evaluation process. There is now considerable evidence that (i the recognition heuristic predicts the inferences of a substantial proportion of individuals consistently, even in the presence of one or more contradicting cues, (ii people are adaptive decision makers in that accordance increases with larger recognition validity and decreases in situations when the validity is low or wholly indeterminable, and (iii in the presence of contradicting cues, some individuals appear to select different strategies. Little is known about these individual differences, or how to precisely model the alternative strategies. Although some researchers have attributed judgments inconsistent with the use of the recognition heuristic to compensatory processing, little research on such compensatory models has been reported. We discuss extensions of the recognition model, open questions, unanticipated results, and the surprising predictive power of recognition in forecasting.

  2. The beauty of simple models: Themes in recognition heuristic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Goldstein

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of models that do not use flexible parameters is that one can precisely show to what degree they predict behavior, and in what situations. In three issues of this journal, the recognition heuristic has been examined carefully from many points of view. We comment here on four themes, the use of optimization models to understand the rationality of heuristics, the generalization of the recognition input beyond a binary judgment, new conditions for less-is-more effects, and the importance of specifying boundary conditions for cognitive heuristics.

  3. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Horeweg, Nanda; Jett, James R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodules are frequently detected during diagnostic chest imaging and as a result of lung cancer screening. Current guidelines for their evaluation are largely based on low-quality evidence, and patients and clinicians could benefit from more research in this area. METHODS......: In this research statement from the American Thoracic Society, a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates reviewed available evidence for pulmonary nodule evaluation, characterized six focus areas to direct future research efforts, and identified fundamental gaps in knowledge...... demographic and nodule characteristics with patient-level outcomes. Methods to share data from registries are also necessary. CONCLUSIONS: This statement may help researchers to develop impactful and innovative research projects and enable funders to better judge research proposals. We hope...

  5. Four challenges for cognitive research on the recognition heuristic and a call for a research strategy shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Tomlinson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic assumes that people make inferences based on the output of recognition memory. While much work has been devoted to establishing the recognition heuristic as a viable description of how people make inferences, more work is needed to fully integrate research on the recognition heuristic with research from the broader cognitive psychology literature. In this article, we outline four challenges that should be met for this integration to take place, and close with a call to address these four challenges collectively, rather than piecemeal.

  6. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  7. Heuristic Task Analysis on E-Learning Course Development: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing heuristic task analysis (HTA), a method developed for eliciting, analyzing, and representing expertise in complex cognitive tasks, a formative research study was conducted on the task of e-learning course development to further improve the HTA process. Three instructional designers from three different post-secondary institutions in the…

  8. Heuristic decision-making about research participation in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Emily; Dobson, Jennifer A; Solomon, Melinda; Waters, Valerie; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2016-08-01

    Traditional perspectives on informed consent assume that when faced with decisions about whether to participate in research, individuals behave according to principles of classical rationality, taking into account all available information to weigh risks and benefits to come to a decision that is optimal for them. However, theoretical and empirical research in psychology suggests that people may not make decisions in this way. Less is known about decision-making processes as they pertain to participating in biomedical research, particularly when the participants are children. We sought to better understand research decision processes especially in children who tend to participate extensively in research due to chronic illness. To learn more about children's decision-making in this context, we interviewed 19 young patients with cystic fibrosis (male n = 7; female n = 12) aged 8-18 years (M = 13 years) at a children's hospital in Canada between April and August 2013. We found that participants generally had a default approach to participation decisions, which they attributed to their parents' attitudes to research, experiences of having grown up participating in research, trusting the researchers, and wanting to help. Most of our participants made the decision to participate in research based on a heuristic with a baseline to say "yes", subject to change based on aspects of the research or particular preferences. In particular, concerns with the procedure, unwillingness to talk about cystic fibrosis, logistical challenges, and perceptions of risk all influenced the decision, as did the perceived importance or personal relevance of the research. Our study illustrates that rather than conducting risk/benefit analyses, participants tended to adopt a heuristic-like approach, consistent with decision theories that view heuristic decision-making as ecologically rational. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hospitality and Tourism Online Review Research: A Systematic Analysis and Heuristic-Systematic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hlee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With tremendous growth and potential of online consumer reviews, online reviews of hospitality and tourism are now playing a significant role in consumer attitude and buying behaviors. This study reviewed and analyzed hospitality and tourism related articles published in academic journals. The systematic approach was used to analyze 55 research articles between January 2008 and December 2017. This study presented a brief synthesis of research by investigating content-related characteristics of hospitality and tourism online reviews (HTORs in different market segments. Two research questions were addressed. Building upon our literature analysis, we used the heuristic-systematic model (HSM to summarize and classify the characteristics affecting consumer perception in previous HTOR studies. We believe that the framework helps researchers to identify the research topic in extended HTORs literature and to point out possible direction for future studies.

  10. A consensus statement on how to conduct inclusive health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Garcia Iriarte, E; Buchner, T; Brooker, K; Embregts, P; Joosa, E; Crowther, F; Fudge Schormans, A; Schippers, A; Walmsley, J; O'Brien, P; Linehan, C; Northway, R; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H; Leusink, G

    2018-04-11

    The active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in research, or inclusive research, is relatively common. However, inclusive health research is less common, even though it is expected to lead to appropriate healthcare and increased quality of life. Inclusive health research can build upon lessons learned from inclusive research. A total of 17 experts on inclusive (health) research without intellectual disabilities and 40 experts with intellectual disabilities collaborated in this consensus statement. The consensus statement was developed in three consecutive rounds: (1) an initial feedback round; (2) a roundtable discussion at the 2016 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress; and (3) a final feedback round. This consensus statement provides researchers with guidelines, agreed upon by experts in the field, regarding attributes, potential outcomes, reporting and publishing, and future research directions, for designing and conducting inclusive health research. Consensus was reached on how to design and conduct inclusive health research. However, this statement should be continuously adapted to incorporate recent knowledge. The focus of this consensus statement is largely on inclusive health research, but the principles can also be applied to other areas. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    As reflected in the amount of controversy, few areas in psychology have undergone such dramatic conceptual changes in the past decade as the emerging science of heuristics. Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information. Because using heuristics saves effort, the classical view has been that heuristic decisions imply greater errors than do "rational" decisions as defined by logic or statistical models. However, for many decisions, the assumptions of rational models are not met, and it is an empirical rather than an a priori issue how well cognitive heuristics function in an uncertain world. To answer both the descriptive question ("Which heuristics do people use in which situations?") and the prescriptive question ("When should people rely on a given heuristic rather than a complex strategy to make better judgments?"), formal models are indispensable. We review research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care, and legal institutions. This research indicates that (a) individuals and organizations often rely on simple heuristics in an adaptive way, and (b) ignoring part of the information can lead to more accurate judgments than weighting and adding all information, for instance for low predictability and small samples. The big future challenge is to develop a systematic theory of the building blocks of heuristics as well as the core capacities and environmental structures these exploit.

  12. HEURISTICS IN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I PUTU SUDANA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prinsip heuristics tidak dapat dikatakan sebagai sebuah pendekatanpengambilan keputusan yang non-rasional, karena penerapan atau penggunaanyang unconscious atau subtle mind tidak dapat dianggap sebagai tindakanyang irrational. Dengan alasan tersebut, terdapat cukup alasan untukmenyatakan bahwa pengklasifikasian pendekatan-pendekatan keputusansemestinya menggunakan terminologi analytical dan experiential, dan bukanmemakai istilah rational dan non-rational seperti yang umumnya diikuti.Penerapan pendekatan heuristics dapat ditemukan pada berbagai disiplin,termasuk bisnis dan akuntansi. Topik heuristics semestinya mendapatperhatian yang cukup luas dari para periset di bidang akuntansi. Bidangbehavioral research in accounting menawarkan banyak kemungkinan untukdikaji, karena prinsip heuristics bertautan erat dengan aspek manusia sebagaipelaku dalam pengambilan keputusan.

  13. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SECTOR CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS RESEARCHES

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    Andreea CÎRSTEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to track the evolution of this specific topic of consolidated financial statements in the public sector, in order to be able to present a global picture of the actual knowledge stage of this issue at international level. The study conducted for reaching the proposed objective is a quantitative one. We tried to find out how this issue of public sector consolidated financial statements has sparked the interest of researchers around the world and when the issue was most debated. We concluded that the research of consolidated financial statements in the public sector is in its infancy and nowadays the topic starts to be more and more in the attention of the researchers in this field.

  14. Stem cell research ethics: consensus statement on emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Nelson, Erin; Einsiedel, Edna; Knoppers, Bartha; McDonald, Michael; Brunger, Fern; Downey, Robin; Fernando, Kanchana; Galipeau, Jacques; Geransar, Rose; Griener, Glenn; Grenier, Glenn; Hyun, Insoo; Isasi, Rosario; Kardel, Melanie; Knowles, Lori; Kucic, Terrence; Lotjonen, Salla; Lyall, Drew; Magnus, David; Mathews, Debra J H; Nisbet, Matthew; Nisker, Jeffrey; Pare, Guillaume; Pattinson, Shaun; Pullman, Daryl; Rudnicki, Michael; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Zimmerman, Susan

    2007-10-01

    This article is a consensus statement by an international interdisciplinary group of academic experts and Canadian policy-makers on emerging ethical, legal and social issues in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) research in Canada. The process of researching consensus included consultations with key stakeholders in hESC research (regulations, stem cell researchers, and research ethics experts), preparation and distribution of background papers, and an international workshop held in Montreal in February 2007 to discuss the papers and debate recommendations. The recommendations provided in the consensus statement focus on issues of immediate relevance to Canadian policy-makers, including informed consent to hESC research, the use of fresh embryos in research, management of conflicts of interest, and the relevance of public opinion research to policy-making.

  15. Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie; Frossard, Nelly; Guignabert, Christophe; Inman, Mark; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Maes, Tania; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin; Uhlig, Stefan; White, Eric; Witzenrath, Martin; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Crestani, Bruno; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, Gisli; Joos, Guy; Magnan, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Maus, Ulrich A; Reinhold, Petra; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Richeldi, Luca; Kolb, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models. Focus was put on their specific benefits and limitations. This will result in more efficient use of resources and greater reduction in the numbers of animals employed, thereby enhancing the ethical standards and translational capacity of experimental research.The task force statement addresses general issues of experimental research (ethics, species, sex, age, ex vivo and in vitro models, gene editing). The statement also includes research recommendations on modelling asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung infections, acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension.The task force stressed the importance of using multiple models to strengthen validity of results, the need to increase the availability of human tissues and the importance of standard operating procedures and data quality. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  16. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  17. Heuristic decision making in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care.

  18. Working with Research Integrity-Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Anthun, Frank O; Bailey, Sharon; Birchley, Giles; Bout, Henriette; Casonato, Carlo; Fuster, Gloria González; Heinrichs, Bert; Horbach, Serge; Jacobsen, Ingrid Skjæggestad; Janssen, Jacques; Kaiser, Matthias; Lerouge, Inge; van der Meulen, Barend; de Rijcke, Sarah; Saretzki, Thomas; Sutrop, Margit; Tazewell, Marta; Varantola, Krista; Vie, Knut Jørgen; Zwart, Hub; Zöller, Mira

    2018-05-31

    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity-Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on the following key issues: § 1. Providing information about research integrity § 2. Providing education, training and mentoring § 3. Strengthening a research integrity culture § 4. Facilitating open dialogue § 5. Wise incentive management § 6. Implementing quality assurance procedures § 7. Improving the work environment and work satisfaction § 8. Increasing transparency of misconduct cases § 9. Opening up research § 10. Implementing safe and effective whistle-blowing channels § 11. Protecting the alleged perpetrators § 12. Establishing a research integrity committee and appointing an ombudsperson § 13. Making explicit the applicable standards for research integrity.

  19. Undergraduate Science Coursework: Teachers' Goal Statements and How Students Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Verloop, Nico; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relation between teachers' goal statements and students' experiences about the position of research in undergraduate coursework can give use insight into ways to integrate research and teaching and foster undergraduate research. In this study, we examined to what extent teachers' goal statements agreed with students' experiences…

  20. [Guidelines for research reports: an application of CONSORT 2010 statements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A; König, I R

    2011-02-01

    Reporting guidelines are not only useful for authors in compiling complete and transparent reports but they can use also be used by readers for the critical appraisal of the study. In this study, we apply the CONSORT 2010 reporting guideline to illustrate its value as the first step in the critical appraisal. We have applied the checklist of the CONSORT 201 statement to the publication of Richter et al. [7]. This has been done by both authors independently. We report for each item of the 25 item checklist whether it was adequately reported, and we comment on each item. The paper of Richter et al. does not comply with the CONSORT 2010 checklist and the CONSORT extension for summaries in all items. The most important reporting guidelines are now available in German (https://www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/toc/dmw/104011). They are useful for authors of research articles to compile complete and transparent reports. Readers can use items of these reporting guidelines for judging the quality of a published study. To this end, there is a need to distinguish between reporting quality and the quality of a specific study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Ethical aspects in tissue research: thematic analysis of ethical statements to the research ethics committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies. Methods The data were collected from all the applications received by the official regional ethics committee in the Hospital District of Northern Savo during 2004–2009 (n = 688). These included a total of 56 studies involving research on tissue other than blood. The statements by the researchers about the ethics about their own research in these applications were analyzed by thematic content analysis under the following themes: recruitment, informed consent, risks and benefits, confidentiality and societal meaning. Results The researchers tended to describe recruitment and informed consent process very briefly. Usually these descriptions simply stated who the recruiter was and that written consent would be required. There was little information provided on the recruitment situation and on how the study recruiters would be informed. Although most of the studies were clinical, the possibility was hardly ever discussed that patients could fail to distinguish between care and research. Conclusion The written guidelines, available on the webpages of the ethics committee, do not seem to be enough to help researchers achieve this goal. In addition to detailed guidelines for researchers, investigators need to be taught to appreciate the ethical aspects in their own studies. PMID:22873761

  2. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  3. MISSION STATEMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CONTEXT ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH AGENDA

    OpenAIRE

    Gordan Camelia; Pop Marius Dorel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the main issues that deal with higher education institutionsâ€(tm) mission statements, from a marketing perspective. It has long been argued in the literature that missions represent the foundation upon which institutions build their strategic plans, and that they should be the first step any institution takes before designing its strategy. Based on a review of the most recent literature in the field, the paper explains why missions appear as a relevant...

  4. A Heuristic Approach to Author Name Disambiguation in Bibliometrics Databases for Large-scale Research Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.A.; Giuffrida, C.; Abramo, G.

    2011-01-01

    National exercises for the evaluation of research activity by universities are becoming regular practice in ever more countries. These exercises have mainly been conducted through the application of peer-review methods. Bibliometrics has not been able to offer a valid large-scale alternative because

  5. The Case Study as Research Heuristic: Lessons from the R&D Value Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Klein, Hans K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of prototype case studies as the foundation for later evaluation through two studies from the "R&D Value Mapping Project," a study that will involve more than 30 cases. Explores the usefulness of case studies in defining and assessing subsequent research efforts. (SLD)

  6. Paradigms or Toolkits? Philosophical and Methodological Positions as Heuristics for Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author challenges the validity and usefulness of the concept of "paradigm," as this term has been used in the social sciences generally, and specifically in the debates over research methods. He emphasizes that in criticizing what he sees as the misuse of the paradigm concept, he is not arguing for dismissing or ignoring…

  7. Business research as an educational problem-solving heuristic - the case of Porter's diamond

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Laurence; Clancy, Paula; Van Egeraat, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Explores the link between research practice and business education. The work of Michael Porter has a long association with the field of marketing. Focuses on the Porter's diamond model of national competitive advantage (1990). Draws on recent experiences from an empirical investigation into sources of competitive advantage and suggests that the model is useful as a conceptual framework for practitioner-orientated discourse concerning developmental issues. Outlines the process o...

  8. Designing Visual Aids That Promote Risk Literacy: A Systematic Review of Health Research and Evidence-Based Design Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2017-06-01

    Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy. The systematic review covers scientific research published between January 1995 and April 2016, drawn from the following databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, Medline, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were investigation of the effect of numeracy and/or graph literacy, and investigation of the effect of visual aids or comparison of their effect with that of numerical information. Thirty-six publications met the criteria, providing data on 27,885 diverse participants from 60 countries. Results Transparent visual aids robustly improved risk understanding in diverse individuals by encouraging thorough deliberation, enhancing cognitive self-assessment, and reducing conceptual biases in memory. Improvements in risk understanding consistently produced beneficial changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, trust, and healthy behaviors. Visual aids were found to be particularly beneficial for vulnerable and less skilled individuals. Conclusion Well-designed visual aids tend to be highly effective tools for improving informed decision making among diverse decision makers. We identify five categories of practical, evidence-based guidelines for heuristic evaluation and design of effective visual aids.

  9. Characterizing web heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.T.; van der Geest, Thea

    2000-01-01

    This article is intended to make Web designers more aware of the qualities of heuristics by presenting a framework for analyzing the characteristics of heuristics. The framework is meant to support Web designers in choosing among alternative heuristics. We hope that better knowledge of the

  10. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  11. Effective Heuristics for New Venture Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are often under time pressure and may only have a short window of opportunity to launch their new venture. This means they often have no time for rational analytical decisions and rather rely on heuristics. Past research on entrepreneurial heuristics has primarily focused on predictive

  12. "... There's so much going on unspoken in the back of the mind ..." —The Use of Repertory Grid Technique as a Qualitative Heuristic Research Design to Understand Teachers' Perceptions of Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rangosch-Schneck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying subjective attitudes has to answer the question about the possibilities of expressing personal systems of meanings and about the possibilities of reconstructing the verbalized meanings by the researchers. Investigating teachers' perceptions of parents leads to two additional problems: teachers' rule of neutrality—which demands not making emotional and degrading statements—, and the normative orientation of "partnership" with parents—which is currently being increasingly discussed in the context of school-development and which makes teachers justify their working together with parents. The Repertory Grid Technique as a method of interview design supports the teachers who have been questioned in verbalizing individual perceptions of parents without using common phrases in their statements. But explicitly integrating the method in a qualitative design raises new questions: According to the currently prevailing orientation towards the typical quantitative Grid-data, qualitative designs are of little interest, so one cannot rely on proven procedures. The procedure described in this article is characterized by using the complete transcription of the interviews with teachers and the analysis of them as texts. The quantitative grid data are only collected for heuristic purposes. This article is a contribution to the discussion of the possibilities of realizing the qualitative potentials of Repertory Grid Technique. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070197

  13. Statement about the situation of radiation research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Association observes with profound concern the decline in radiation research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Among other consequences, this gives rise to the fear that Germany's influence on developments, decisions, and standards in international bodies is going to decline for lack of competence. Moreover, Germany will hardly be able to deal with the growing number of topical problems arising in radiation effects in cell biology and molecular biology. These aspects, and others, however, are going to be of overriding importance also in the future as by far most of the radiation exposure of persons is due to medical applications and is going to continue at least at the same level. It would therefore be desirable if the competent government agencies made available the necessary funds. A national coordinating agency yet to be established, which would be made up of representatives of the university and non-university institutions concerned, could define research goals and award research contracts within the framework of a research program. (orig.) [de

  14. Heuristic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Giunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the identification of a paradigm which fixes the basic concepts and the type of logical relationships between them, whereby direct, govern and evaluate choises on new technologies. The contribution is based on the assumption that the complexity of knowledge is correlated with the complexity of the learning environment. From the existence of this correlation will descend a series of consequences that contribute to the definition of a theoretical construct in which the logical categories of learning become the guiding criteria on which to design learning environments and, consequently, also the indicators on by which to evaluate its effectiveness.

  15. Heuristic Biases in Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the dual process account of reasoning, and explain the role of heuristic biases in human thought. Concentrating on the so-called matching bias effect, we describe a piece of research that indicates a correlation between success at advanced level mathematics and an ability to override innate and misleading…

  16. The researcher and the consultant: from testing to probability statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Ghassan B; Stang, Andreas; Poole, Charles

    2015-09-01

    In the first instalment of this series, Stang and Poole provided an overview of Fisher significance testing (ST), Neyman-Pearson null hypothesis testing (NHT), and their unfortunate and unintended offspring, null hypothesis significance testing. In addition to elucidating the distinction between the first two and the evolution of the third, the authors alluded to alternative models of statistical inference; namely, Bayesian statistics. Bayesian inference has experienced a revival in recent decades, with many researchers advocating for its use as both a complement and an alternative to NHT and ST. This article will continue in the direction of the first instalment, providing practicing researchers with an introduction to Bayesian inference. Our work will draw on the examples and discussion of the previous dialogue.

  17. Eight statements on environmental research in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prittwitz, V.

    1985-01-01

    Social science research on environmental problems has two main tasks: (1) to provide critical practice-oriented contributions to present and threatening environmental problems, and (2) to draw the humans-and-nature problematique into social science concepts and theoretical frameworks. In this paper, the prerequisites for achieving both tasks as well as the theoretical, political, and institutional aspects that affect them are discussed. The focus of the discussion is the interdependence between practical problem solving and development of theory. (orig.) [de

  18. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  19. Statements and discourses about the mathematics teacher. The research subjectivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The research fabricates an image of mathematics teachers, which shape our knowledge and truths about teachers. This image sustains the development of different discursive formations. The image’s configuration is entangled with spatio-temporal conditions, which are shaped by diverse social, cultural...... and political contexts. In this work, we are studying discourses —about the mathematics teacher that are circulating in the research— from some theoretical toolbox of Foucault (1980) and Deleuze (1994) and from the methodological toolbox of Pais and Valero (2012). We are seeking to explore how discourses...... are operating in the fabrication of the mathematics teacher as a subject and in the production of truths about them....

  20. Modeling reproductive decisions with simple heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Todd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Many of the reproductive decisions that humans make happen without much planning or forethought, arising instead through the use of simple choice rules or heuristics that involve relatively little information and processing. Nonetheless, these heuristic-guided decisions are typically beneficial, owing to humans' ecological rationality - the evolved fit between our constrained decision mechanisms and the adaptive problems we face. OBJECTIVE This paper reviews research on the ecological rationality of human decision making in the domain of reproduction, showing how fertility-related decisions are commonly made using various simple heuristics matched to the structure of the environment in which they are applied, rather than being made with information-hungry mechanisms based on optimization or rational economic choice. METHODS First, heuristics for sequential mate search are covered; these heuristics determine when to stop the process of mate search by deciding that a good-enough mate who is also mutually interested has been found, using a process of aspiration-level setting and assessing. These models are tested via computer simulation and comparison to demographic age-at-first-marriage data. Next, a heuristic process of feature-based mate comparison and choice is discussed, in which mate choices are determined by a simple process of feature-matching with relaxing standards over time. Parental investment heuristics used to divide resources among offspring are summarized. Finally, methods for testing the use of such mate choice heuristics in a specific population over time are then described.

  1. Establishing usability heuristics for heuristics evaluation in a specific domain: Is there a consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn

    2016-09-01

    Heuristics evaluation is frequently employed to evaluate usability. While general heuristics are suitable to evaluate most user interfaces, there is still a need to establish heuristics for specific domains to ensure that their specific usability issues are identified. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 70 studies related to usability heuristics for specific domains. The aim of this paper is to review the processes that were applied to establish heuristics in specific domains and identify gaps in order to provide recommendations for future research and area of improvements. The most urgent issue found is the deficiency of validation effort following heuristics proposition and the lack of robustness and rigour of validation method adopted. Whether domain specific heuristics perform better or worse than general ones is inconclusive due to lack of validation quality and clarity on how to assess the effectiveness of heuristics for specific domains. The lack of validation quality also affects effort in improving existing heuristics for specific domain as their weaknesses are not addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent`s response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO`s view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  3. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent's response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO's view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  4. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome R. Celli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  5. Arational heuristic model of economic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Grandori, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The article discuss the limits of both the rational actor and the behavioral paradigms in explaining and guiding innovative decision making and outlines a model of economic decision making that in the course of being 'heuristic' (research and discovery oriented) is also 'rational' (in the broad sense of following correct reasoning and scientific methods, non 'biasing'). The model specifies a set of 'rational heuristics' for innovative decision making, for the various sub-processes of problem ...

  6. Position statement on ethics, equipoise and research on charged particle radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Timlin, Claire; Peach, Ken; Binik, Ariella; Puthenparampil, Wilson; Lodge, Mark; Kehoe, Sean; Brada, Michael; Burnet, Neil; Clarke, Steve; Crellin, Adrian; Dunn, Michael; Fossati, Piero; Harris, Steve; Hocken, Michael; Hope, Tony; Ives, Jonathan; Kamada, Tadashi; London, Alex John; Miller, Robert; Parker, Michael; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Savulescu, Julian; Short, Susan; Skene, Loane; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tuan, Jeffrey; Weijer, Charles

    2014-08-01

    The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indications. Equipoise is the key ethical concept in determining which research studies are justified. However, there is a good deal of disagreement about how this concept is best understood and applied in the specific case of CPRT. This report is a position statement on these controversies that arises out of a workshop held at Wolfson College, Oxford in August 2011. The workshop brought together international leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, medical physics, radiobiology, research ethics and methodology), including proponents on both sides of the debate, in order to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with CPRT research. This position statement provides an ethical platform for future research and should enable further work to be done in developing international coordinated programmes of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs) are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45-0.90]). There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5-0.8]), although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.4-5.2]), and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.9-1.4]). This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r (2) = 0.26, range 0.18-1.0). Conclusion. The impact factor of the

  8. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Shanahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45–0.90]. There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5–0.8], although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [−0.4–5.2], and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [−0.9–1.4]. This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r2 = 0.26, range 0.18–1.0. Conclusion

  9. Pitfalls in Teaching Judgment Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Koch, Erika J.

    2005-01-01

    Demonstrations of judgment heuristics typically focus on how heuristics can lead to poor judgments. However, exclusive focus on the negative consequences of heuristics can prove problematic. We illustrate the problem with the representativeness heuristic and present a study (N = 45) that examined how examples influence understanding of the…

  10. An integral heuristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives a heuristic derivation of the skein relation for the Homfly polynomial in an integral formalism. The derivation is formally correct but highly simplified. In the light of Witten's proposal for invariants of links via functional integrals, it is useful to have a formal pattern to compare with the complexities of the full approach. The formalism is a heuristic. However, it is closely related to the actual structure of the Witten functional integral

  11. Heuristic thinking makes a chemist smart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulich, Nicole; Hopf, Henning; Schreiner, Peter R

    2010-05-01

    We focus on the virtually neglected use of heuristic principles in understanding and teaching of organic chemistry. As human thinking is not comparable to computer systems employing factual knowledge and algorithms--people rarely make decisions through careful considerations of every possible event and its probability, risks or usefulness--research in science and teaching must include psychological aspects of the human decision making processes. Intuitive analogical and associative reasoning and the ability to categorize unexpected findings typically demonstrated by experienced chemists should be made accessible to young learners through heuristic concepts. The psychology of cognition defines heuristics as strategies that guide human problem-solving and deciding procedures, for example with patterns, analogies, or prototypes. Since research in the field of artificial intelligence and current studies in the psychology of cognition have provided evidence for the usefulness of heuristics in discovery, the status of heuristics has grown into something useful and teachable. In this tutorial review, we present a heuristic analysis of a familiar fundamental process in organic chemistry--the cyclic six-electron case, and we show that this approach leads to a more conceptual insight in understanding, as well as in teaching and learning.

  12. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. ISRIA statement: ten-point guidelines for an effective process of research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Paula; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Grant, Jonathan; Graham, Kathryn E A; Boukhris, Omar F; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Balling, Gert V; Christensen, Rikke N; Pollitt, Alexandra; Taylor, Mark; Sued, Omar; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Chorzempa, Heidi

    2018-02-08

    As governments, funding agencies and research organisations worldwide seek to maximise both the financial and non-financial returns on investment in research, the way the research process is organised and funded is becoming increasingly under scrutiny. There are growing demands and aspirations to measure research impact (beyond academic publications), to understand how science works, and to optimise its societal and economic impact. In response, a multidisciplinary practice called research impact assessment is rapidly developing. Given that the practice is still in its formative stage, systematised recommendations or accepted standards for practitioners (such as funders and those responsible for managing research projects) across countries or disciplines to guide research impact assessment are not yet available.In this statement, we propose initial guidelines for a rigorous and effective process of research impact assessment applicable to all research disciplines and oriented towards practice. This statement systematises expert knowledge and practitioner experience from designing and delivering the International School on Research Impact Assessment (ISRIA). It brings together insights from over 450 experts and practitioners from 34 countries, who participated in the school during its 5-year run (from 2013 to 2017) and shares a set of core values from the school's learning programme. These insights are distilled into ten-point guidelines, which relate to (1) context, (2) purpose, (3) stakeholders' needs, (4) stakeholder engagement, (5) conceptual frameworks, (6) methods and data sources, (7) indicators and metrics, (8) ethics and conflicts of interest, (9) communication, and (10) community of practice.The guidelines can help practitioners improve and standardise the process of research impact assessment, but they are by no means exhaustive and require evaluation and continuous improvement. The prima facie effectiveness of the guidelines is based on the systematised

  14. The recognition heuristic : A review of theory and tests

    OpenAIRE

    Pachur, T.; Todd, P.; Gigerenzer, G.; Schooler, L.; Goldstein, D.

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) th...

  15. Comparative study of heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.

  16. Collective statement on the role of research in a nuclear regulatory context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the present context of deregulation and privatisation of the nuclear industry, maintaining an adequate level of nuclear safety research is a primary concern for nuclear regulators, researchers and nuclear power plant licensees, as well as for government officials and the public. While these different stakeholders may have common concerns and interests, there may also be differences. At the international level, it is important to understand that divisions exist both within and among countries, not only in national cultures but also in the way regulators, researchers and licensees view the rote of research. An international gathering under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) took place in June 2001, bringing together heads of nuclear regulatory bodies of NEA Member countries, senior regulators, senior executives of research organisations and leaders from the nuclear industry to discuss their perceptions of the rote of research in a nuclear regulatory context. This collective statement represents an international consensus on a rationale for regulatory research for currently operating nuclear reactors and for future reactors, and sets forth specific recommendations to NEA standing technical committees and Member countries. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, senior researchers and industry leaders. Government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  17. Safety research experiment facilities, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement was prepared for the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) Project. The purpose of the proposed project is to modify some existing facilities and provide a new test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for conducting fast breeder reactor (FBR) safety experiments. The SAREF Project proposal has been developed after an extensive study which identified the FBR safety research needs requiring in-reactor experiments and which evaluated the capability of various existing and new facilities to meet these needs. The proposed facilities provide for the in-reactor testing of large bundles of prototypical FBR fuel elements under a wide variety of conditions, ranging from those abnormal operating conditions which might be expected to occur during the life of an FBR power plant to the extremely low probability, hypothetical accidents used in the evaluation of some design options and in the assessment of the long-term potential risk associated with wide-acale deployment of the FBR

  18. Swift and Smart Decision Making: Heuristics that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings: A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision…

  19. A Statement of Values for Our Research on Music in Peacebuilding: A Synthesis of Galtung and Ikeda's Peace Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in research linking musicking and peacebuilding, and the establishment of the Min-On Music Research Institute (MOMRI) in 2014 in Tokyo follows this trend. Its mission statement is: "To pursue a multidisciplinary investigation of the potential application of music in peacebuilding activities," in…

  20. Proposing New Heuristic Approaches for Preventive Maintenance Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid Esmailian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of preventive maintenance management is to perform a series of tasks that prevent or minimize production breakdowns and improve reliability of production facilities. An important objective of preventive maintenance management is to minimize downtime of production facilities. In order to accomplish this objective, personnel should efficiently allocate resources and determine an effective maintenance schedule. Gopalakrishnan (1997 developed a mathematical model and four heuristic approaches to solve the preventive maintenance scheduling problem of assigning skilled personnel to work with tasks that require a set of corresponding skills. However, there are several limitations in the prior work in this area of research. The craft combination problem has not been solved because the craft combination is assumed as given. The craft combination problem concerns the computation of all combinations of assigning multi skilled workers to accomplishment of a particular task. In fact, determining craft combinations is difficult because of the exponential number of craft combinations that are possible. This research provides a heuristic approach for determining the craft combination and four new heuristic approach solution for the preventive maintenance scheduling problem with multi skilled workforce constraints. In order to examine the new heuristic approach and to compare the new heuristic approach with heuristic approach of Gopalakrishnan (1997, 81 standard problems have been generated based on the criterion suggested by from Gopalakrishnan (1997. The average solution quality (SQ of the new heuristic approaches is 1.86% and in old heuristic approaches is 8.32%. The solution time of new heuristic approaches are shorter than old heuristic approaches. The solution time of new heuristic approaches is 0.78 second and old heuristic approaches is 6.43 second, but the solution time of mathematical model provided by Gopalakrishnan (1997 is 152 second.

  1. Engaging with communities, engaging with patients: amendment to the NAPCRG 1998 Policy Statement on Responsible Research With Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Salsberg, Jon; Knot, Michaela; LeMaster, Joseph W; Felzien, Maret; Westfall, John M; Herbert, Carol P; Vickery, Katherine; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Ramsden, Vivian R; Zittleman, Linda; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Macaulay, Ann C

    2017-06-01

    In 1998, the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) adopted a groundbreaking Policy Statement endorsing responsible participatory research (PR) with communities. Since that time, PR gained prominence in primary care research. To reconsider the original 1998 Policy Statement in light of increased uptake of PR, and suggest future directions and applications for PR in primary care. This work contributed to an updated Policy Statement endorsed by NAPCRG in 2015. 32 university and 30 community NAPCRG-affiliated research partners, convened a workshop to document lessons learned about implementing processes and principles of PR. This document emerged from that session and reflection and discussion regarding the original Policy Statement, the emerging PR literature, and our own experiences. The foundational principles articulated in the 1998 Policy Statement remain relevant to the current PR environment. Lessons learned since its publication include that the maturation of partnerships is facilitated by participatory processes that support increased community responsibility for research projects, and benefits generated through PR extend beyond research outcomes. Future directions that will move forward the field of PR in primary care include: (i) improve assessment of PR processes to better delineate the links between how PR teams work together and diverse PR outcomes, (ii) increase the number of models incorporating PR into translational research from project inception to dissemination, and (iii) increase application of PR approaches that support patient engagement in clinical settings to patient-provider relationship and practice change research. PR has markedly altered the manner in which primary care research is undertaken in partnership with communities and its principles and philosophies continue to offer means to assure that research results and processes improve the health of all communities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  2. Case-Based Reasoning as a Heuristic Selector in a Hyper-Heuristic for Course Timetabling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Sanja; Qu, Rong

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies Knowledge Discovery (KD) using Tabu Search and Hill Climbing within Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) as a hyper-heuristic method for course timetabling problems. The aim of the hyper-heuristic is to choose the best heuristic(s) for given timetabling problems according to the knowledge stored in the case base. KD in CBR is a 2-stage iterative process on both case representation and the case base. Experimental results are analysed and related research issues for future work are dis...

  3. Heuristic Inquiry: A Personal Journey of Acculturation and Identity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuraskovic, Ivana; Arthur, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Heuristic methodology attempts to discover the nature and meaning of phenomenon through internal self-search, exploration, and discovery. Heuristic methodology encourages the researcher to explore and pursue the creative journey that begins inside one's being and ultimately uncovers its direction and meaning through internal discovery (Douglass &…

  4. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2012-05-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  5. Safety Research Experiment Facilities, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This environmental statement was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) in support of the Energy Research and Development Administration's (ERDA) proposal for legislative authorization and appropriations for the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) Project. The purpose of the proposed project is to modify some existing facilities and provide a new test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for conducting fast breeder reactor (FBR) safety experiments. The SAREF Project proposal has been developed after an extensive study which identified the FBR safety research needs requiring in-reactor experiments and which evaluated the capability of various existing and new facilities to meet these needs. The proposed facilities provide for the in-reactor testing of large bundles of prototypical FBR fuel elements under a wide variety of conditions, ranging from those abnormal operating conditions which might be expected to occur during the life of an FBR power plant to the extremely low probability, hypothetical accidents used in the evalution of some design options and in the assessment of the long-term potential risk associated with wide-scale deployment of the FBR

  6. An American Thoracic Society Official Research Statement: Future Directions in Lung Fibrosis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eric S; Borok, Zea; Brown, Kevin K; Eickelberg, Oliver; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, R Gisli; Kolb, Martin; Martinez, Fernando J; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis encompasses a group of lung-scarring disorders that occur owing to known or unknown insults and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. Despite intense investigation spanning decades, much remains to be learned about the natural history, pathophysiology, and biologic mechanisms of disease. To identify the most pressing research needs in the lung fibrosis community and to provide a roadmap of priorities to investigators, funding agencies, patient advocacy groups, and other interested stakeholders. An ad hoc international working group of the American Thoracic Society with experience in clinical, translational, and bench-based research in fibrotic lung diseases was convened. The group used an iterative consensus process to identify successes and challenges in pulmonary fibrosis research. The group identified five main priority areas in which substantial resources should be invested to advance our understanding and to develop novel therapies for patients with pulmonary fibrosis. These priorities include develop newer models of human lung fibrosis, engage current and new stakeholders to provide sustained funding for the initiatives, create a global infrastructure for storing patient-derived materials, establish collaborative preclinical and clinical research networks in fibrotic lung disease, and create a global lung fibrosis initiative that unites these multifaceted efforts into a single virtual umbrella structure. Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of lung fibrosis, many gaps in knowledge about natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment remain. Investment in the research priorities enumerated above will help address these shortcomings and enhance patient care worldwide.

  7. Implementation plan of the environmental impact statement on a proposed policy for acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of selected portions of the United States Department of Energy's ''Implementation Plan for the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'', DOE/EIS-0218, October 1994

  8. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  9. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  10. Developing heuristics for Web communication: an introduction to this special issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Spyridakis, Jan H.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the role of heuristics in the Web design process. The five sets of heuristics that appear in this issue are also described, as well as the research methods used in their development. The heuristics were designed to help designers and developers of Web pages or sites to

  11. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Implementation Science in Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Curtis H; Krishnan, Jerry A; Au, David H; Bender, Bruce G; Carson, Shannon S; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Cloutier, Michelle M; Cooke, Colin R; Erickson, Karen; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn B; Goss, Christopher H; Gould, Michael K; Hyzy, Robert; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mittman, Brian S; Mosesón, Erika M; Mularski, Richard A; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Patel, Sanjay R; Rand, Cynthia S; Redeker, Nancy S; Reiss, Theodore F; Riekert, Kristin A; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Tate, Judith A; Wilson, Kevin C; Thomson, Carey C

    2016-10-15

    Many advances in health care fail to reach patients. Implementation science is the study of novel approaches to mitigate this evidence-to-practice gap. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement on implementation science in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. The committee used an iterative consensus process to define implementation science and review the use of conceptual frameworks to guide implementation science for the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep community and to explore how professional medical societies such as the ATS can promote implementation science. The committee defined implementation science as the study of the mechanisms by which effective health care interventions are either adopted or not adopted in clinical and community settings. The committee also distinguished implementation science from the act of implementation. Ideally, implementation science should include early and continuous stakeholder involvement and the use of conceptual frameworks (i.e., models to systematize the conduct of studies and standardize the communication of findings). Multiple conceptual frameworks are available, and we suggest the selection of one or more frameworks on the basis of the specific research question and setting. Professional medical societies such as the ATS can have an important role in promoting implementation science. Recommendations for professional societies to consider include: unifying implementation science activities through a single organizational structure, linking front-line clinicians with implementation scientists, seeking collaborations to prioritize and conduct implementation science studies, supporting implementation science projects through funding opportunities, working with research funding bodies to set the research agenda in the field, collaborating with external bodies responsible for health care delivery, disseminating results of implementation

  12. Intelligent System Design Using Hyper-Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelishia Pillay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Determining the most appropriate search method or artificial intelligence technique to solve a problem is not always evident and usually requires implementation of the different approaches to ascertain this. In some instances a single approach may not be sufficient and hybridization of methods may be needed to find a solution. This process can be time consuming. The paper proposes the use of hyper-heuristics as a means of identifying which method or combination of approaches is needed to solve a problem. The research presented forms part of a larger initiative aimed at using hyper-heuristics to develop intelligent hybrid systems. As an initial step in this direction, this paper investigates this for classical artificial intelligence uninformed and informed search methods, namely depth first search, breadth first search, best first search, hill-climbing and the A* algorithm. The hyper-heuristic determines the search or combination of searches to use to solve the problem. An evolutionary algorithm hyper-heuristic is implemented for this purpose and its performance is evaluated in solving the 8-Puzzle, Towers of Hanoi and Blocks World problems. The hyper-heuristic employs a generational evolutionary algorithm which iteratively refines an initial population using tournament selection to select parents, which the mutation and crossover operators are applied to for regeneration. The hyper-heuristic was able to identify a search or combination of searches to produce solutions for the twenty 8-Puzzle, five Towers of Hanoi and five Blocks World problems. Furthermore, admissible solutions were produced for all problem instances.

  13. Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James A; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Schaaf, H Simon; Furin, Jennifer J; Marais, Ben J; Tebruegge, Marc; Detjen, Anne; Hesseling, Anneke C; Shah, Sarita; Adams, Lisa V; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-06-01

    Few children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) are identified, diagnosed, and given an appropriate treatment. The few studies that have described this vulnerable population have used inconsistent definitions. The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions used for adults with DR-TB and for children with drug-susceptible TB are not always appropriate for children with DR-TB. The Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis was formed in 2011 as a network of experts and stakeholders in childhood DR-TB. An early priority was to establish standardized definitions for key parameters in order to facilitate study comparisons and the development of an evidence base to guide future clinical management. This consensus statement proposes standardized definitions to be used in research. In particular, it suggests consistent terminology, as well as definitions for measures of exposure, drug resistance testing, previous episodes and treatment, certainty of diagnosis, site and severity of disease, adverse events, and treatment outcome. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  14. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... that is based on a relaxed placement principle. The heuristic starts with a random overlapping placement of items and large container dimensions. From the overlapping placement overlap is reduced iteratively until a non-overlapping placement is found and a new problem is solved with a smaller container size...... of this heuristic are among the best published in the literature both for two- and three-dimensional strip-packing problems for irregular shapes. In the third paper, we introduce a heuristic for two- and three-dimensional rectangular knapsack packing problems. The two-dimensional heuristic uses the sequence pair...

  15. Heuristics: foundations for a novel approach to medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemer, Nicolai; Hanoch, Yaniv; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V

    2015-03-01

    Medical decision-making is a complex process that often takes place during uncertainty, that is, when knowledge, time, and resources are limited. How can we ensure good decisions? We present research on heuristics-simple rules of thumb-and discuss how medical decision-making can benefit from these tools. We challenge the common view that heuristics are only second-best solutions by showing that they can be more accurate, faster, and easier to apply in comparison to more complex strategies. Using the example of fast-and-frugal decision trees, we illustrate how heuristics can be studied and implemented in the medical context. Finally, we suggest how a heuristic-friendly culture supports the study and application of heuristics as complementary strategies to existing decision rules.

  16. Experimental Matching of Instances to Heuristics for Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Scott, Jorge Humberto; Ortiz-Bayliss, José Carlos; Terashima-Marín, Hugo; Conant-Pablos, Santiago Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are of special interest for the artificial intelligence and operations research community due to their many applications. Although heuristics involved in solving these problems have largely been studied in the past, little is known about the relation between instances and the respective performance of the heuristics used to solve them. This paper focuses on both the exploration of the instance space to identify relations between instances and good performing heuristics and how to use such relations to improve the search. Firstly, the document describes a methodology to explore the instance space of constraint satisfaction problems and evaluate the corresponding performance of six variable ordering heuristics for such instances in order to find regions on the instance space where some heuristics outperform the others. Analyzing such regions favors the understanding of how these heuristics work and contribute to their improvement. Secondly, we use the information gathered from the first stage to predict the most suitable heuristic to use according to the features of the instance currently being solved. This approach proved to be competitive when compared against the heuristics applied in isolation on both randomly generated and structured instances of constraint satisfaction problems.

  17. A Tutorial on Heuristic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Werra, D. de; Silver, E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we define a heuristic method as a procedure for solving a well-defined mathematical problem by an intuitive approach in which the structure of the problem can be interpreted and exploited intelligently to obtain a reasonable solution. Issues discussed include: (i) the measurement...... of the quality of a heuristic method, (ii) different types of heuristic procedures, (iii) the interactive role of human beings and (iv) factors that may influence the choice or testing of heuristic methods. A large number of references are included....

  18. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  19. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  20. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of `As Low As Reasonably Achievable` would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  1. The source of the truth bias: Heuristic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in truth responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Entrepreneurial Learning, Heuristics and Venture Creation

    OpenAIRE

    RAUF, MIAN SHAMS; ZAINULLAH, MOHAMMAD

    2009-01-01

    After rigorous criticism on trait approach and with the emergence of behavioral approach in entrepreneurship during 1980s, the researchers started to introduce learning and cognitive theories in entrepreneurship to describe and explain the dynamic nature of entrepreneurship. Many researchers have described venture creation as a core and the single most important element of entrepreneurship. This thesis will discuss and present the role of entrepreneurial learning and heuristics in venture cre...

  3. Heuristics Reasoning in Diagnostic Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Eileen S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes three heuristics--short-cut mental strategies that streamline information--relevant to diagnostic reasoning: accessibility, similarity, and anchoring and adjustment. Analyzes factors thought to influence heuristic reasoning and presents interventions to be tested for nursing practice and education. (JOW)

  4. Reexamining Our Bias against Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kevin; Eva, Kevin W.; Norman, Geoff R.

    2014-01-01

    Using heuristics offers several cognitive advantages, such as increased speed and reduced effort when making decisions, in addition to allowing us to make decision in situations where missing data do not allow for formal reasoning. But the traditional view of heuristics is that they trade accuracy for efficiency. Here the authors discuss sources…

  5. HEURISTIC APPROACHES FOR PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Gilli, Evis Kellezi

    2000-01-01

    The paper first compares the use of optimization heuristics to the classical optimization techniques for the selection of optimal portfolios. Second, the heuristic approach is applied to problems other than those in the standard mean-variance framework where the classical optimization fails.

  6. The recognition heuristic: a review of theory and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Todd, Peter M; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Schooler, Lael J; Goldstein, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d) that its use can produce the less-is-more effect - the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference).

  7. The Recognition Heuristic: A Review of Theory and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten ePachur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d that its use can produce the less-is-more effect—the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference.

  8. The Recognition Heuristic: A Review of Theory and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Todd, Peter M.; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Schooler, Lael J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d) that its use can produce the less-is-more effect – the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference). PMID:21779266

  9. 75 FR 74146 - Office of Financial Research; Statement on Legal Entity Identification for Financial Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... information regarding this Statement contact the Office of Domestic Finance, Treasury, at (202) 622-1766. All... relationship to other entities. Identification of the legal entity is a fundamental ingredient in creating a... reassigned; (3) Persist over the life of an entity regardless of corporate actions or other business or...

  10. Theory of Randomized Search Heuristics in Combinatorial Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The rigorous mathematical analysis of randomized search heuristics(RSHs) with respect to their expected runtime is a growing research area where many results have been obtained in recent years. This class of heuristics includes well-known approaches such as Randomized Local Search (RLS), the Metr......The rigorous mathematical analysis of randomized search heuristics(RSHs) with respect to their expected runtime is a growing research area where many results have been obtained in recent years. This class of heuristics includes well-known approaches such as Randomized Local Search (RLS...... analysis of randomized algorithms to RSHs. Mostly, the expected runtime of RSHs on selected problems is analzyed. Thereby, we understand why and when RSHs are efficient optimizers and, conversely, when they cannot be efficient. The tutorial will give an overview on the analysis of RSHs for solving...

  11. Heuristic Evaluation for Novice Programming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kölling, Michael; McKay, Fraser

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a proliferation of novice programming tools. The availability of a large number of systems has made it difficult for many users to choose among them. Even for education researchers, comparing the relative quality of these tools, or judging their respective suitability for a given context, is hard in many instances. For designers of such systems, assessing the respective quality of competing design decisions can be equally difficult.\\ud Heuristic evaluation provides...

  12. Paranoid thinking as a heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Cella, Matteo

    2010-08-01

    Paranoid thinking can be viewed as a human heuristic used by individuals to deal with uncertainty during stressful situations. Under stress, individuals are likely to emphasize the threatening value of neutral stimuli and increase the reliance on paranoia-based heuristic to interpreter events and guide their decisions. Paranoid thinking can also be activated by stress arising from the possibility of losing a good opportunity; this may result in an abnormal allocation of attentional resources to social agents. A better understanding of the interplay between cognitive heuristics and emotional processes may help to detect situations in which paranoid thinking is likely to exacerbate and improve intervention for individuals with delusional disorders.

  13. Heuristics Miner for E-Commerce Visitor Access Pattern Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Kartina Diah Kesuma Wardhani; Wawan Yunanto

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce click stream data can form a certain pattern that describe visitor behavior while surfing the e-commerce website. This pattern can be used to initiate a design to determine alternative access sequence on the website. This research use heuristic miner algorithm to determine the pattern. σ-Algorithm and Genetic Mining are methods used for pattern recognition with frequent sequence item set approach. Heuristic Miner is an evolved form of those methods. σ-Algorithm assume that an activ...

  14. The rationality of intuition: Studying adaptive heuristics in project decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Geraldi, Joana

    This paper presents a research agenda for studying adaptive heuristics in project decision making. Project decisions are a potentially fruitful research field for adaptive heuristics. These decisions typically take place under time and information constraints, with high complexity and ambiguity...... - environments in which adaptive heuristics typically strive as effective decision tools. Yet, project decisions as a research topic introduce challenges that are currently not considered in the main body of adaptive heuristics research: the issue of group decision making, and the element of an unpredictable...... the limitations of these methods for project decision-making, and suggests alternative methodologies, suitable to cope with group decision-making and irreducible uncertainty....

  15. When decision heuristics and science collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Erica C; Sprenger, Amber M; Thomas, Rick P; Dougherty, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    The ongoing discussion among scientists about null-hypothesis significance testing and Bayesian data analysis has led to speculation about the practices and consequences of "researcher degrees of freedom." This article advances this debate by asking the broader questions that we, as scientists, should be asking: How do scientists make decisions in the course of doing research, and what is the impact of these decisions on scientific conclusions? We asked practicing scientists to collect data in a simulated research environment, and our findings show that some scientists use data collection heuristics that deviate from prescribed methodology. Monte Carlo simulations show that data collection heuristics based on p values lead to biases in estimated effect sizes and Bayes factors and to increases in both false-positive and false-negative rates, depending on the specific heuristic. We also show that using Bayesian data collection methods does not eliminate these biases. Thus, our study highlights the little appreciated fact that the process of doing science is a behavioral endeavor that can bias statistical description and inference in a manner that transcends adherence to any particular statistical framework.

  16. Structural Sustainability - Heuristic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostański, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, we are faced with a challenge of having to join building structures with elements of nature, which seems to be the paradigm of modern planning and design. The questions arise, however, with reference to the following categories: the leading idea, the relation between elements of nature and buildings, the features of a structure combining such elements and, finally, our perception of this structure. If we consider both the overwhelming globalization and our attempts to preserve local values, the only reasonable solution is to develop naturalistic greenery. It can add its uniqueness to any building and to any developed area. Our holistic model, presented in this paper, contains the above mentioned categories within the scope of naturalism. The model is divided into principles, actions related, and possible effects to be obtained. It provides a useful tool for determining the ways and priorities of our design. Although it is not possible to consider all possible actions and solutions in order to support sustainability in any particular design, we can choose, however, a proper mode for our design according to the local conditions by turning to the heuristic method, which helps to choose priorities and targets. Our approach is an attempt to follow the ways of nature as in the natural environment it is optimal solutions that appear and survive, idealism being the domain of mankind only. We try to describe various natural processes in a manner comprehensible to us, which is always a generalization. Such definitions, however, called artificial by naturalists, are presented as art or the current state of knowledge by artists and engineers. Reality, in fact, is always more complicated than its definitions. The heuristic method demonstrates the way how to optimize our design. It requires that all possible information about the local environment should be gathered, as the more is known, the fewer mistakes are made. Following the unquestionable principles, we can

  17. Heuristic introduction to gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rough and somewhat heuristic theoretical background and introduction to gravitational radiation, its generation, and its detection based on Einstein's general theory of relativity

  18. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  19. Heuristic reasoning and relative incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Treur, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an approach is presented in which heuristic reasoning is interpreted as strategic reasoning. This type of reasoning enables one to derive which hypothesis to investigate, and which observable information to acquire next (to be able to verify the chosen hypothesis). A compositional architecture for reasoning systems that perform such heuristic reasoning is introduced, called SIX (for Strategic Interactive eXpert systems). This compositional architecture enables user interaction a...

  20. Expanding the Possibilities of AIS Data with Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Brende Smestad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Identification System (AIS is primarily used as a tracking system for ships, but with the launch of satellites to collect these data, new and previously untested possibilities are emerging. This paper presents the development of heuristics for establishing the specific ship type using information retrieved from AIS data alone. These heuristics expand the possibilities of AIS data, as the specific ship type is vital for several transportation research cases, such as emission analyses of ship traffic and studies on slow steaming. The presented method for developing heuristics can be used for a wider range of vessels. These heuristics may form the basis of large-scale studies on ship traffic using AIS data when it is not feasible or desirable to use commercial ship data registers.

  1. Heuristic and algorithmic processing in English, mathematics, and science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Hess, Adam B; Price-Sharps, Jana L; Teh, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Many college students experience difficulties in basic academic skills. Recent research suggests that much of this difficulty may lie in heuristic competency--the ability to use and successfully manage general cognitive strategies. In the present study, the authors evaluated this possibility. They compared participants' performance on a practice California Basic Educational Skills Test and on a series of questions in the natural sciences with heuristic and algorithmic performance on a series of mathematics and reading comprehension exercises. Heuristic competency in mathematics was associated with better scores in science and mathematics. Verbal and algorithmic skills were associated with better reading comprehension. These results indicate the importance of including heuristic training in educational contexts and highlight the importance of a relatively domain-specific approach to questions of cognition in higher education.

  2. Relative level of occurrence of the principal heuristics in Nigeria property valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Iroham C.O.,; Ogunba, O.A.; Oloyede, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neglect of the other principal heuristics namely avaialability, representative and positivity in real estate behaviourial property research as against the exclusive focus on anchoring and adjustment heuristics invariably results to a lopsided research. This work studied the four principal heuristics in property behaviourial property valutaion in a bid to discovering its relative level of occurrence. The study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey approach of 159 of the 270 Head O...

  3. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep n...

  4. Heuristic space diversity management in a meta-hyper-heuristic framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of heuristic space diversity and investigates various strategies for the management of heuristic space diversity within the context of a meta-hyper-heuristic algorithm. Evaluation on a diverse set of floating...

  5. Heuristic space diversity control for improved meta-hyper-heuristic performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands on the concept of heuristic space diversity and investigates various strategies for the management of heuristic space diversity within the context of a meta-hyper-heuristic algorithm in search of greater performance benefits...

  6. Exact and Heuristic Algorithms for Runway Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Waqar A.; Jung, Yoon C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the Single Runway Scheduling (SRS) problem with arrivals, departures, and crossing aircraft on the airport surface. Constraints for wake vortex separations, departure area navigation separations and departure time window restrictions are explicitly considered. The main objective of this research is to develop exact and heuristic based algorithms that can be used in real-time decision support tools for Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) controllers. The paper provides a multi-objective dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that finds the exact solution to the SRS problem, but may prove unusable for application in real-time environment due to large computation times for moderate sized problems. We next propose a second algorithm that uses heuristics to restrict the search space for the DP based algorithm. A third algorithm based on a combination of insertion and local search (ILS) heuristics is then presented. Simulation conducted for the east side of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport allows comparison of the three proposed algorithms and indicates that the ILS algorithm performs favorably in its ability to find efficient solutions and its computation times.

  7. New insights into diversification of hyper-heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhilei; Jiang, He; Xuan, Jifeng; Hu, Yan; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing research trend of applying hyper-heuristics for problem solving, due to their ability of balancing the intensification and the diversification with low level heuristics. Traditionally, the diversification mechanism is mostly realized by perturbing the incumbent solutions to escape from local optima. In this paper, we report our attempt toward providing a new diversification mechanism, which is based on the concept of instance perturbation. In contrast to existing approaches, the proposed mechanism achieves the diversification by perturbing the instance under solving, rather than the solutions. To tackle the challenge of incorporating instance perturbation into hyper-heuristics, we also design a new hyper-heuristic framework HIP-HOP (recursive acronym of HIP-HOP is an instance perturbation-based hyper-heuristic optimization procedure), which employs a grammar guided high level strategy to manipulate the low level heuristics. With the expressive power of the grammar, the constraints, such as the feasibility of the output solution could be easily satisfied. Numerical results and statistical tests over both the Ising spin glass problem and the p -median problem instances show that HIP-HOP is able to achieve promising performances. Furthermore, runtime distribution analysis reveals that, although being relatively slow at the beginning, HIP-HOP is able to achieve competitive solutions once given sufficient time.

  8. Detached Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McBride

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Raz has introduced an interesting class of statements —detached statements— into the philosophical lexicon. In brief, such statements are (informa- tive normative statements, yet the speaker does not, in so uttering them, express or convey acceptance of the point of view of the hearer to whom they are addressed (as contrasted with committed statements, where the speaker does express or convey such acceptance. I propose to offer a novel analysis of such statements (and to clear away some confusions about them. In brief, such statements will be analysed as wide-scope normative conditionals.

  9. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Nur Arivina; Masrukan Masrukan; Ardhi Prabowo

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this research are: (1) Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2) to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3) test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik o...

  11. Systematic Heuristic Evaluation of Computerized Consultation Order Templates: Clinicians' and Human Factors Engineers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, April; Patel, Himalaya; Flanagan, Mindy E; Weiner, Michael; Russ, Alissa L

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the usability of consultation order templates and identified problems to prioritize in design efforts for improving referral communication. With a sample of 26 consultation order templates, three evaluators performed a usability heuristic evaluation. The evaluation used 14 domain-independent heuristics and the following three supplemental references: 1 new domain-specific heuristic, 6 usability goals, and coded clinicians' statements regarding ease of use for 10 sampled templates. Evaluators found 201 violations, a mean of 7.7 violations per template. Minor violations outnumbered major violations almost twofold, 115 (57%) to 62 (31%). Approximately 68% of violations were linked to 5 heuristics: aesthetic and minimalist design (17%), error prevention (16%), consistency and standards (14%), recognition rather than recall (11%), and meet referrers' information needs (10%). Severe violations were attributed mostly to meet referrers' information needs and recognition rather than recall. Recorded violations yielded potential negative consequences for efficiency, effectiveness, safety, learnability, and utility. Evaluators and clinicians demonstrated 80% agreement in usability assessment. Based on frequency and severity of usability heuristic violations, the consultation order templates reviewed may impede clinical efficiency and risk patient safety. Results support the following design considerations: communicate consultants' requirements, facilitate information seeking, and support communication. While the most frequent heuristic violations involved interaction design and presentation, the most severe violations lacked information desired by referring clinicians. Violations related to templates' inability to support referring clinicians' information needs had the greatest potential negative impact on efficiency and safety usability goals. Heuristics should be prioritized in future design efforts.

  12. Managing Heuristics as a Method of Inquiry in Autobiographical Graphic Design Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Welby

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on case studies undertaken in postgraduate research at AUT University, Auckland. It seeks to address a number of issues related to heuristic inquiries employed by graphic design students who use autobiographical approaches when developing research-based theses. For this type of thesis, heuristics as a system of inquiry may…

  13. Relative level of occurrence of the principal heuristics in Nigeria property valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iroham C.O.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The neglect of the other principal heuristics namely avaialability, representative and positivity in real estate behaviourial property research as against the exclusive focus on anchoring and adjustment heuristics invariably results to a lopsided research. This work studied the four principal heuristics in property behaviourial property valutaion in a bid to discovering its relative level of occurrence. The study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey approach of 159 of the 270 Head Offices of Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos Metropolis, while 29 and 30 questionnaire were distributed to the Head Offices of the entire Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in Abuja and Port-Harcourt respectively. The data gotten was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences first using frequency distributions/means and the data so analyzed was further analyzed using maximum and minimum values, means/standard deviations and ultimately ranking of such means. The result revealed that respondents use the various principal heuristics in this decreasing order of magnitude: availability heuristics (26.77%, anchoring and adjustment heuristics (18.62%; representative heuristics (15.63% and least of all positivity heuristics (10.41%. The authors thereby opined that emphasis be placed more on availability heuristics research particularly as usage of heuristcis (anchoring and adjustment has been seen to influence valuation inconsistency/accuracy

  14. Penjadwalan Produksi Garment Menggunakan Algoritma Heuristic Pour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Rachman

    2018-04-01

    resources efficiently. The basic calculation of Scheduling using Heuristic Pour algorithm. The research stages consist of data collection, standard time calculation, total time calculation based on job, scheduling with company start method, scheduling with Pour Heuristic method. Based on the results of scheduling using Pour Heuristik obtained savings compared with the current company method, so it can be used as an alternative method in scheduling the process of production process in Garment company. Keywords: Production Scheduling, Algorithms, Heuristic Pour.

  15. Heuristic thinking and human intelligence: a commentary on Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Over, David E

    2010-05-01

    Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer (2009) present a review of research on fast and frugal heuristics, arguing that complex problems are best solved by simple heuristics, rather than the application of knowledge and logical reasoning. We argue that the case for such heuristics is overrated. First, we point out that heuristics can often lead to biases as well as effective responding. Second, we show that the application of logical reasoning can be both necessary and relatively simple. Finally, we argue that the evidence for a logical reasoning system that co-exists with simpler heuristic forms of thinking is overwhelming. Not only is it implausible a priori that we would have evolved such a system that is of no use to us, but extensive evidence from the literature on dual processing in reasoning and judgement shows that many problems can only be solved when this form of reasoning is used to inhibit and override heuristic thinking.

  16. Heuristic Search Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Edelkamp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Search has been vital to artificial intelligence from the very beginning as a core technique in problem solving. The authors present a thorough overview of heuristic search with a balance of discussion between theoretical analysis and efficient implementation and application to real-world problems. Current developments in search such as pattern databases and search with efficient use of external memory and parallel processing units on main boards and graphics cards are detailed. Heuristic search as a problem solving tool is demonstrated in applications for puzzle solving, game playing, constra

  17. Decision-making behavior of experts at nuclear power plants. Regulatory focus influence on cognitive heuristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this research project was to examine factors, on the basis of regulatory focus theory and the heuristics and biases approach, that influence decision-making processes of experts at nuclear power plants. Findings show that this group applies anchoring (heuristic) when evaluating conjunctive and disjunctive events and that they maintain a constant regulatory focus characteristic. No influence of the experts' characteristic regulatory focus on cognitive heuristics could be established. Theoretical and practical consequences on decision-making behavior of experts are presented. Finally, a method for measuring the use of heuristics especially in the nuclear industry is discussed.

  18. Heuristic reasoning and relative incompleteness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an approach is presented in which heuristic reasoning is interpreted as strategic reasoning. This type of reasoning enables one to derive which hypothesis to investigate, and which observable information to acquire next (to be able to verify the chosen hypothesis). A compositional

  19. 77 FR 47077 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority; Office of Planning, Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... OPRE include: Priority setting and analysis; managing and coordinating major cross- cutting, leading-edge studies and special initiatives; and collaborating with states, communities, foundations...- program, leading-edge research, demonstration, and evaluation studies; develops policy-relevant research...

  20. Principles for research on ethnicity and health: the Leeds Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Ghazala; Salway, Sarah; Kai, Joe; Karlsen, Saffron; Bhopal, Raj; Ellison, George Th; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-06-01

    There is substantial evidence that health and health-care experiences vary along ethnic lines and the need to understand and tackle ethnic health inequalities has repeatedly been highlighted. Research into ethnicity and health raises ethical, theoretical and methodological issues and, as the volume of research in this area grows, so too do concerns regarding its scientific rigour and reporting, and its contribution to reducing inequalities. Guidance may be helpful in encouraging researchers to adopt standard practices in the design, conduct and reporting of research. However, past efforts at introducing such guidance have had limited impact on research practice, and the diversity of disciplinary perspectives on the key challenges and solutions may undermine attempts to derive and promote guiding principles. A consensus building Delphi exercise--the first of its kind in this area of research practice--was undertaken with leading academics, practitioners and policymakers from a broad range of disciplinary backgrounds to assess whether consensus on key principles could be achieved. Ten key principles for conducting research on ethnicity and health emerged, covering: the aims of research in this field; how such research should be framed and focused; key design-related considerations; and the direction of future research. Despite some areas of dispute, participants were united by a common concern that the generation and application of research evidence should contribute to better health-care experiences and health outcomes for minority ethnic people. The principles provide a strong foundation to guide future ethnicity-related research and build a broader international consensus.

  1. Research in assessment: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Colliver, Jerry; Gruppen, Larry

    2011-01-01

    educational research, a plethora of methodologies is available to cater to many different research questions. This article contains consensus positions and suggestions on various elements of medical education (assessment) research. Overarching is the position that without a good theoretical underpinning...... and good knowledge of the existing literature, good research and sound conclusions are impossible to produce, and that there is no inherently superior methodology, but that the best methodology is the one most suited to answer the research question unambiguously. Although the positions should...... not be perceived as dogmas, they should be taken as very serious recommendations. Topics covered are: types of research, theoretical frameworks, designs and methodologies, instrument properties or psychometrics, costs/acceptability, ethics, infrastructure and support....

  2. Memory-Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hidehito; Matsuka, Toshihiko; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in…

  3. Heuristic Processes in Ratings of Leader Behavior: Assessing Item-Induced Availability Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, John F.; Fernandez, Guadalupe

    Since observers' memory-based ratings of organizational phenomena provide data in research and decision-making contexts, bias in observers' judgments must be examined. A study was conducted to explore the extent to which leader behavior ratings are more generally biased by the availability heuristic. The availability heuristic is operative when a…

  4. Research in assessment: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Colliver, Jerry; Gruppen, Larry; Kreiter, Clarence; Mennin, Stewart; Onishi, Hirotaka; Pangaro, Louis; Ringsted, Charlotte; Swanson, David; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Medical education research in general is a young scientific discipline which is still finding its own position in the scientific range. It is rooted in both the biomedical sciences and the social sciences, each with their own scientific language. A more unique feature of medical education (and assessment) research is that it has to be both locally and internationally relevant. This is not always easy and sometimes leads to purely ideographic descriptions of an assessment procedure with insufficient general lessons or generalised scientific knowledge being generated or vice versa. For medical educational research, a plethora of methodologies is available to cater to many different research questions. This article contains consensus positions and suggestions on various elements of medical education (assessment) research. Overarching is the position that without a good theoretical underpinning and good knowledge of the existing literature, good research and sound conclusions are impossible to produce, and that there is no inherently superior methodology, but that the best methodology is the one most suited to answer the research question unambiguously. Although the positions should not be perceived as dogmas, they should be taken as very serious recommendations. Topics covered are: types of research, theoretical frameworks, designs and methodologies, instrument properties or psychometrics, costs/acceptability, ethics, infrastructure and support.

  5. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identification. Athletes and coaches should be discouraged from using direct-to-consumer genetic testing because of its lack of validation and replicability and the lack of involvement of a medical practitioner in the process. The transfer of genetic material or genetic modification of cells for performance enhancement is gene doping and should not be used on athletes. There are, however, valid roles for genetic research and the AIS supports genetic research which aims to enhance understanding of athlete susceptibility to injury or illness. Genetic research is only to be conducted after careful consideration of a range of ethical concerns which include the provision of adequate informed consent. The AIS is committed to providing leadership in delivering an ethical framework that protects the well-being of athletes and the integrity of sport, in the rapidly changing world of genomic science. PMID:27899345

  6. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identification. Athletes and coaches should be discouraged from using direct-to-consumer genetic testing because of its lack of validation and replicability and the lack of involvement of a medical practitioner in the process. The transfer of genetic material or genetic modification of cells for performance enhancement is gene doping and should not be used on athletes. There are, however, valid roles for genetic research and the AIS supports genetic research which aims to enhance understanding of athlete susceptibility to injury or illness. Genetic research is only to be conducted after careful consideration of a range of ethical concerns which include the provision of adequate informed consent. The AIS is committed to providing leadership in delivering an ethical framework that protects the well-being of athletes and the integrity of sport, in the rapidly changing world of genomic science. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Familiarity and recollection in heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwikert, Shane R; Curran, Tim

    2014-12-01

    Heuristics involve the ability to utilize memory to make quick judgments by exploiting fundamental cognitive abilities. In the current study we investigated the memory processes that contribute to the recognition heuristic and the fluency heuristic, which are both presumed to capitalize on the byproducts of memory to make quick decisions. In Experiment 1, we used a city-size comparison task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the potential contributions of familiarity and recollection to the 2 heuristics. ERPs were markedly different for recognition heuristic-based decisions and fluency heuristic-based decisions, suggesting a role for familiarity in the recognition heuristic and recollection in the fluency heuristic. In Experiment 2, we coupled the same city-size comparison task with measures of subjective preexperimental memory for each stimulus in the task. Although previous literature suggests the fluency heuristic relies on recognition speed alone, our results suggest differential contributions of recognition speed and recollected knowledge to these decisions, whereas the recognition heuristic relies on familiarity. Based on these results, we created a new theoretical framework that explains decisions attributed to both heuristics based on the underlying memory associated with the choice options. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. A heuristic for the distribution of point counts for random curves over a finite field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achter, Jeffrey D; Erman, Daniel; Kedlaya, Kiran S; Wood, Melanie Matchett; Zureick-Brown, David

    2015-04-28

    How many rational points are there on a random algebraic curve of large genus g over a given finite field Fq? We propose a heuristic for this question motivated by a (now proven) conjecture of Mumford on the cohomology of moduli spaces of curves; this heuristic suggests a Poisson distribution with mean q+1+1/(q-1). We prove a weaker version of this statement in which g and q tend to infinity, with q much larger than g. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. DO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS PROVIDE ADEQUATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CAPITALIZATION OF COSTS RELATED TO INTANGIBLE ASSETS?: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON ITALIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vignini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to verify if Italian listed companies financial statements provide adequate information about the capitalization of costs related to intangible assets and if the information provided are reliable. Moreover, we investigated if they merely comply with law or provide additional information on cost capitalization and reveal if internal control systems (especially managerial accounting systems or other information systems are applied to support the measurement process and the cost control, thus guaranteeing the verifiability and representational faithfulness of the information disclosed. This paper is an empirical analysis and is concerned to investigate the financial statements of 250 Italian listed companies.

  10. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Badr, M Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Patel, Sanjay R; Quan, Stuart F; Tasali, Esra

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Interim Report on Heuristics about Inspection Parameters: Updates to Heuristics Resulting from Refinement on Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Forrest; Seaman, Carolyn; Feldman, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, we have continued analyzing the inspection data in an effort to better understand the applicability and effect of the inspection heuristics on inspection outcomes. Our research goals during this period are: 1. Investigate the effect of anomalies in the dataset (e.g. the very large meeting length values for some inspections) on our results 2. Investigate the effect of the heuristics on other inspection outcome variables (e.g. effort) 3. Investigate whether the recommended ranges can be modified to give inspection planners more flexibility without sacrificing effectiveness 4. Investigate possible refinements or modifications to the heuristics for specific subdomains (partitioned, e.g., by size, domain, or Center) This memo reports our results to date towards addressing these goals. In the next section, the first goal is addressed by describing the types of anomalies we have found in our dataset, how we have addressed them, and the effect of these changes on our previously reported results. In the following section, on "methodology", we describe the analyses we have conducted to address the other three goals and the results of these analyses are described in the "results" section. Finally, we conclude with future plans for continuing our investigation.

  12. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compare...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  13. Collective statement on major nuclear safety research facilities and programmes at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety research remains necessary, since nuclear power programmes are dynamic. In addition to maintaining in-depth competencies, its aim is to provide information to plant designers, operators and regulators in support of the resolution of safety issues, to strengthen confidence in their solution and their implementation, and also to anticipate problems of potential significance. New fields of research open up as a result of plant ageing, plant life extension, plant up-rating, optimisation of plant economics and the associated need to further reduce uncertainties in safety margins quantification. The safety evaluation of future reactor systems being developed or considered in several Member countries also requires new research efforts. Accordingly, Member countries are encouraged to support efforts to maintain key research data, facilities and programmes through national support of international co-operation and funding. This should be under-pinned by development of short-, medium- and long-term strategic visions of the needs of the nuclear safety research community, including a strong component of international collaboration given the international nature of nuclear safety issues. (author)

  14. Special relativity a heuristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Sadri

    2017-01-01

    Special Relativity: A Heuristic Approach provides a qualitative exposition of relativity theory on the basis of the constancy of the speed of light. Using Einstein's signal velocity as the defining idea for the notion of simultaneity and the fact that the speed of light is independent of the motion of its source, chapters delve into a qualitative exposition of the relativity of time and length, discuss the time dilation formula using the standard light clock, explore the Minkowski four-dimensional space-time distance based on how the time dilation formula is derived, and define the components of the two-dimensional space-time velocity, amongst other topics. Provides a heuristic derivation of the Minkowski distance formula Uses relativistic photography to see Lorentz transformation and vector algebra manipulation in action Includes worked examples to elucidate and complement the topic being discussed Written in a very accessible style

  15. Research in assessment: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuwirth, L.; Colliver, J.; Gruppen, L.; Kreiter, C.; Mennin, S.; Onishi, H.; Pangaro, L.; Ringsted, C.; Swanson, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Wagner-Menghin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical education research in general is a young scientific discipline which is still finding its own position in the scientific range. It is rooted in both the biomedical sciences and the social sciences, each with their own scientific language. A more unique feature of medical education (and

  16. Derivation of Performance Statements for the Automotive Mechanics Basic Trade Course: Research Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A. P.; Kuhl, D. H.

    A project was conducted to derive a comprehensive list of the performances of a competence mechanic to satisfy the planning needs of automotive engineering lecturers, curriculum committees, researchers, course designers, and staff developers. A list of 127 tasks together with information about their relative importance and the frequency with which…

  17. The Dialectical Utility of Heuristic Processing in Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajchowski, Chris A. B.; Brownlee, Matthew T. J.; Furman, Nate N.

    2016-01-01

    Heuristics--cognitive shortcuts used in decision-making events--have been paradoxically praised for their contribution to decision-making efficiency and prosecuted for their contribution to decision-making error (Gigerenzer & Gaissmaier, 2011; Gigerenzer, Todd, & ABC Research Group, 1999; Kahneman, 2011; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky,…

  18. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan

  20. Statement of research in the field of solidification of high level radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.; Sombret, C.

    1975-01-01

    Researches undertaken in France on the solidification of fission products are presented. Examples of glass compositions suitable for several types of fuels are given. The irradiation effects, crystallization, leaching and effects of α emitters have been studied. Two processes, one discontinuous, the other continuous have been studied and developed. In Marcoule, a continuous vitrification plant is under building and an experimental air-cooling storage is carried out [fr

  1. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  2. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan figs., ills., refs. Prepared for Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  3. Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Baldwin, David S; Clayton, Anita H; Elgie, Rodney; Lecrubier, Yves; Montejo, Angel L; Papakostas, George I; Souery, Daniel; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Tylee, Andre

    2006-01-01

    During a special session, the faculty identified several specific areas related to the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment that either warrant the clinician's attention or are in need of more research. Areas of interest include fatigue and lethargy in depression, treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression, the somatic presentation of depression, neurobiology of fatigue and its role in determining treatment, symptom rating scales, and sexual side effects. In addition, the faculty discussed the importance of patient psychoeducation and self-management as well as the ways in which disease models of depression affect treatment.

  4. Guide to the assessment of physical activity: Clinical and research applications: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strath, Scott J; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Ekelund, Ulf; Freedson, Patty S; Gary, Rebecca A; Richardson, Caroline R; Smith, Derek T; Swartz, Ann M

    2013-11-12

    The deleterious health consequences of physical inactivity are vast, and they are of paramount clinical and research importance. Risk identification, benchmarks, efficacy, and evaluation of physical activity behavior change initiatives for clinicians and researchers all require a clear understanding of how to assess physical activity. In the present report, we have provided a clear rationale for the importance of assessing physical activity levels, and we have documented key concepts in understanding the different dimensions, domains, and terminology associated with physical activity measurement. The assessment methods presented allow for a greater understanding of the vast number of options available to clinicians and researchers when trying to assess physical activity levels in their patients or participants. The primary outcome desired is the main determining factor in the choice of physical activity assessment method. In combination with issues of feasibility/practicality, the availability of resources, and administration considerations, the desired outcome guides the choice of an appropriate assessment tool. The decision matrix, along with the accompanying tables, provides a mechanism for this selection that takes all of these factors into account. Clearly, the assessment method adopted and implemented will vary depending on circumstances, because there is no single best instrument appropriate for every situation. In summary, physical activity assessment should be considered a vital health measure that is tracked regularly over time. All other major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking) are assessed routinely. Physical activity status should also be assessed regularly. Multiple physical activity assessment methods provide reasonably accurate outcome measures, with choices dependent on setting-specific resources and constraints. The present scientific statement provides a guide to

  5. The power of simplicity: a fast-and-frugal heuristics approach to performance science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Performance science is a fairly new multidisciplinary field that integrates performance domains such as sports, medicine, business, and the arts. To give its many branches a structure and its research a direction, it requires a theoretical framework. We demonstrate the applications of this framework with examples from sport and medicine. Because performance science deals mainly with situations of uncertainty rather than known risks, the needed framework can be provided by the fast-and-frugal heuristics approach. According to this approach, experts learn to rely on heuristics in an adaptive way in order to make accurate decisions. We investigate the adaptive use of heuristics in three ways: the descriptive study of the heuristics in the cognitive "adaptive toolbox;" the prescriptive study of their "ecological rationality," that is, the characterization of the situations in which a given heuristic works; and the engineering study of "intuitive design," that is, the design of transparent aids for making better decisions.

  6. Deriving a Set of Privacy Specific Heuristics for the Assessment of PHRs (Personal Health Records).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Riccardo F; Kushniruk, Andre; Barnett, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of personal health record (PHR) platforms becoming more widely available, this research focused on the development of privacy heuristics to assess PHRs regarding privacy. Existing sets of heuristics are typically not application specific and do not address patient-centric privacy as a main concern prior to undergoing PHR procurement. A set of privacy specific heuristics were developed based on a scoping review of the literature. An internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application was evaluated using the derived set of privacy specific heuristics. The proposed set of privacy specific derived heuristics is explored in detail in relation to ISO 29100. The assessment of the internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application indicated numerous violations. These violations were noted within the study. It is argued that the new derived privacy heuristics should be used in addition to Nielsen's well-established set of heuristics. Privacy specific heuristics could be used to assess PHR portal system-level privacy mechanisms in the procurement process of a PHR application and may prove to be a beneficial form of assessment to prevent the selection of a PHR platform with a poor privacy specific interface design.

  7. Heuristic Approach for Balancing Shift Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Yun, Young Su; Lee, Yong Hee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach for balancing shift schedules is proposed. For the shift schedules, various constraints which have usually been considered in realworld industry are used, and the objective is to minimize the differences of the workloads in each workgroup. The constraints and objective function are implemented in the proposed heuristic approach. Using a simple instance, the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approach is proved

  8. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  9. A single cognitive heuristic process meets the complexity of domain-specific moral heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The inherence heuristic (a) offers modest insights into the complex nature of both the is-ought tension in moral reasoning and moral reasoning per se, and (b) does not reflect the complexity of domain-specific moral heuristics. Formal and general in nature, we contextualize the process described as "inherence heuristic" in a web of domain-specific heuristics (e.g., agent specific; action specific; consequences specific).

  10. Heuristics for Relevancy Ranking of Earth Dataset Search Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Quinn, Patrick; Norton, James

    2016-01-01

    As the Variety of Earth science datasets increases, science researchers find it more challenging to discover and select the datasets that best fit their needs. The most common way of search providers to address this problem is to rank the datasets returned for a query by their likely relevance to the user. Large web page search engines typically use text matching supplemented with reverse link counts, semantic annotations and user intent modeling. However, this produces uneven results when applied to dataset metadata records simply externalized as a web page. Fortunately, data and search provides have decades of experience in serving data user communities, allowing them to form heuristics that leverage the structure in the metadata together with knowledge about the user community. Some of these heuristics include specific ways of matching the user input to the essential measurements in the dataset and determining overlaps of time range and spatial areas. Heuristics based on the novelty of the datasets can prioritize later, better versions of data over similar predecessors. And knowledge of how different user types and communities use data can be brought to bear in cases where characteristics of the user (discipline, expertise) or their intent (applications, research) can be divined. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System has begun implementing some of these heuristics in the relevancy algorithm of its Common Metadata Repository search engine.

  11. Resonating Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...... as part of a feedback loop to re-attach the localized IT project to the broader national discourse. The paper concludes with reflections on how to actively build on resonating statements as a strategic resource for legitimizing IT projects...

  12. Financial Statements

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Financial Statements and accompanying notes provided on .... to good governance principles. there is the risk that ...... responsibilities of the centre's internal auditor includes reviewing internal controls, including accounting and financial.

  13. Traps and pitfalls in research on healthy food choices: On selective accessibility, assimilation and contrast, and the look-in-the-fridge heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    as a motivating factor. Situational factors dominated consumers' food choice considerations, often in patterns developing coherence over time. It is concluded that consumers hold elaborate health belief systems, but that a lack of situational accessibility generally prevents them from gaining influence on actual......Consumer research on healthy food choices often suffers from context effects and low predictive validity. Adopting a social cognition perspective, the paper proposes that consumers hold elaborate belief systems about food and health issues, but that these are only selectively accessed in different...... situations. Three studies are reported. In Study 1, 525 consumers answered a belief questionnaire. Structural equation modelling results demonstrate that health beliefs, when made accessible, form an interconnected system that can motivate successful self-regulation of healthy eating behaviour. Through...

  14. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Nur Arivina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are: (1 Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2 to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3 test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik on Trigonometry material of SMK on 10th grade using performance assessment is increase. This is a quantitative research. The population is students of 10th grade of SMK 10 Semarang academic year 2016/2017 and the subject of research is selected by clustering random sampling. The results show that (1 Learning by model LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete (2 there are differences in students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry materials between LAPS-Heuristic learning model using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model, and Expository learning model, (3 The ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristic on Trigonometry material of SMK class X using performance assessment increased.

  15. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  16. FC-TLBO: fully constrained meta-heuristic algorithm for abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Omprakash Tembhurne

    hyperspectral unmixing; meta-heuristic approach; teaching-learning-based optimisation (TLBO). 1. ... area of research due to its real-time applications. Satellite .... describes the detailed methodology of proposed FC-TLBO. Section 4 contains ...

  17. Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for optimal health. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and Sleep Research Society (SRS) developed a consensus recommendation for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in adults, using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method process. The recommendation is summarized here. A manuscript detailing the conference proceedings and evidence supporting the final recommendation statement will be published in SLEEP and the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

  18. Heuristics and representational change in two-move matchstick arithmetic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Öllinger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insight problems are problems where the problem solver struggles to find a solution until * aha! * the solution suddenly appears. Two contemporary theories suggest that insight problems are difficult either because problem solvers begin with an incorrect representation of the problem, or that problem solvers apply inappropriate heuristics to the problem. The relative contributions of representational change and inappropriate heuristics on the process of insight problem solving was studied with a task that required the problem solver to move two matchsticks in order to transform an incorrect arithmetic statement into a correct one. Problem solvers (N = 120 worked on two different types of two-move matchstick arithmetic problems that both varied with respect to the effectiveness of heuristics and to the degree of a necessary representational change of the problem representation. A strong influence of representational change on solution rates was found whereas the influence of heuristics hadminimal effects on solution rates. That is, the difficulty of insight problems within the two-move matchstick arithmetic domain is governed by the degree of representational change required. A model is presented that details representational change as the necessary condition for ensuring that appropriate heuristics can be applied on the proper problem representation.

  19. Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.

  20. The Probability Heuristics Model of Syllogistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick; Oaksford, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a probability heuristic model for syllogistic reasoning and confirms the rationality of this heuristic by an analysis of the probabilistic validity of syllogistic reasoning that treats logical inference as a limiting case of probabilistic inference. Meta-analysis and two experiments involving 40 adult participants and using generalized…

  1. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may

  2. "A Heuristic for Visual Thinking in History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article details a heuristic history teachers can use in assigning and evaluating multimedia projects in history. To use this heuristic successfully, requires more than simply following the steps in the list or stages in a recipe: in many ways, it requires a reorientation in what it means to think like an historian. This article, as much as…

  3. Religion, Heuristics, and Intergenerational Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rupert Read; Nassim Nicholas Taleb

    2014-01-01

    Religions come with risk-​managing interdicts and heuristics, and they carry such interdicts and heuristics across generations. We remark on such facets of religion in relation to a propensity among some decision scientists and others to regard practices that they cannot understand as being irrational, biased, and so on.

  4. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  5. Social welfare as small-scale help: evolutionary psychology and the deservingness heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2012-01-01

    Public opinion concerning social welfare is largely driven by perceptions of recipient deservingness. Extant research has argued that this heuristic is learned from a variety of cultural, institutional, and ideological sources. The present article provides evidence supporting a different view: that the deservingness heuristic is rooted in psychological categories that evolved over the course of human evolution to regulate small-scale exchanges of help. To test predictions made on the basis of this view, a method designed to measure social categorization is embedded in nationally representative surveys conducted in different countries. Across the national- and individual-level differences that extant research has used to explain the heuristic, people categorize welfare recipients on the basis of whether they are lazy or unlucky. This mode of categorization furthermore induces people to think about large-scale welfare politics as its presumed ancestral equivalent: small-scale help giving. The general implications for research on heuristics are discussed.

  6. Heuristic Strategies in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Gross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology is sometimes presented as providing a superior approach to the problem of biological complexity. Its use of ‘unbiased’ methods and formal quantitative tools might lead to the impression that the human factor is effectively eliminated. However, a closer look reveals that this impression is misguided. Systems biologists cannot simply assemble molecular information and compute biological behavior. Instead, systems biology’s main contribution is to accelerate the discovery of mechanisms by applying models as heuristic tools. These models rely on a variety of idealizing and simplifying assumptions in order to be efficient for this purpose. The strategies of systems biologists are similar to those of experimentalists in that they attempt to reduce the complexity of the discovery process. Analyzing and comparing these strategies, or ‘heuristics’, reveals the importance of the human factor in computational approaches and helps to situate systems biology within the epistemic landscape of the life sciences.

  7. Heuristic approach to train rescheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Snežana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the defined network topology and the timetable assigned beforehand, the paper considers a train rescheduling in respond to disturbances that have occurred. Assuming that the train trips are jobs, which require the elements of infrastructure - resources, it was done by the mapping of the initial problem into a special case of job shop scheduling problem. In order to solve the given problem, a constraint programming approach has been used. A support to fast finding "enough good" schedules is offered by original separation, bound and search heuristic algorithms. In addition, to improve the time performance, instead of the actual objective function with a large domain, a surrogate objective function is used with a smaller domain, if there is such. .

  8. THE HEURISTIC FUNCTION OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.

  9. Automatic Generation of Heuristics for Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.; Bresina, John L.; Rodgers, Stuart M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique, called GenH, that automatically generates search heuristics for scheduling problems. The impetus for developing this technique is the growing consensus that heuristics encode advice that is, at best, useful in solving most, or typical, problem instances, and, at worst, useful in solving only a narrowly defined set of instances. In either case, heuristic problem solvers, to be broadly applicable, should have a means of automatically adjusting to the idiosyncrasies of each problem instance. GenH generates a search heuristic for a given problem instance by hill-climbing in the space of possible multi-attribute heuristics, where the evaluation of a candidate heuristic is based on the quality of the solution found under its guidance. We present empirical results obtained by applying GenH to the real world problem of telescope observation scheduling. These results demonstrate that GenH is a simple and effective way of improving the performance of an heuristic scheduler.

  10. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  11. Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustos, Paul Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

  12. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, T.T.L.; Kroese, F.M.; Fennis, Bob; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to

  13. At the Crossroads: Portrait of an Undergraduate Composition Teacher Whose Heuristics Were Transformed by Computer-Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Susan Hendricks

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics are deeply-held, tacit knowledge structures connected to our feelings. A heuristic study explores a phenomenon crucial to the researcher's self-discovery (Moustakas, 1990). Like me, many undergraduate composition instructors feel both fear and hope at the crossroads of composition and technology. Technology and composition shape one…

  14. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  15. News at Biochemia Medica: research integrity corner, updated guidelines to authors, revised author statement form and adopted ICMJE Conflict-of-Interest Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    From the issue 23(1) we have implemented several major changes in the editorial policies and procedures. We hope that those changes will raise awareness of our potential authors and reviewers for research and publication integrity issues as well as to improve the quality of our submissions and published articles. Among those changes is the launch of a special journal section called Research Integrity Corner. In this section we aim to publish educational articles dealing with different research and publication misconduct issues. Moreover, we have done a comprehensive revision of our Instructions to authors. Whereas our former Instructions to authors have mostly been concerned with recommendations for manuscript preparation and submission, the revised document additionally describes the editorial procedure for all submitted articles and provides exact journal policies towards research integrity, authorship, copyright and conflict of interest. By putting these Guidelines into action, we hope that our main ethical policies and requirements are now visible and available to all our potential authors. We have also revised the former Authorship and copyright form which is now called the Author statement form. This form now contains statements on the authorship, originality of work, research ethics, patient privacy and confidentiality, and copyright transfer. Finally, Journal has adopted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. From this issue, for each submitted article, authors are requested to fill out the "ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest" as well as the Author statement form and upload those forms during the online manuscript submission process. We honestly believe that our authors and readers will appreciate such endeavors. In this Editorial article we briefly explain the background and the nature of those recent major editorial changes.

  16. Rio 2016 financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These documents include the report from independent auditors balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements.

  17. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David

    2016-01-01

    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identifica...

  18. examining the predictive power of the VRIO-Framework and the Recognition Heuristic

    OpenAIRE

    Powalla, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Boundedly rational managers regularly have to make complex strategic decisions under uncertainty. In this context heuristics can play an important supporting role. They are used to reasonably structure the decision making process, to reduce the information search, and to achieve a good solution with an acceptable problem-solving effort. This empirical research project analyzes the practical usefulness of several selected heuristic techniques, which can be used within strategic analysis, by...

  19. Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.

  20. The Effect of Incentive Structure on Heuristic Decision Making: The Proportion Heuristic

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oxoby

    2007-01-01

    When making judgments, individuals often utilize heuristics to interpret information. We report on a series of experiments designed to test the ways in which incentive mechanisms influence the use of a particular heuristic in decision-making. Specifically, we demonstrate how information regarding the number of available practice problems influences the behaviors of individuals preparing for an exam (the proportion heuristic). More importantly the extent to which this information influences be...

  1. Heuristic attacks against graphical password generators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peach, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors explore heuristic attacks against graphical password generators. A new trend is emerging to use user clickable pictures to generate passwords. This technique of authentication can be successfully used for - for example...

  2. A Direct Heuristic Algorithm for Linear Programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An (3) mathematically non-iterative heuristic procedure that needs no artificial variable is presented for solving linear programming problems. An optimality test is included. Numerical experiments depict the utility/scope of such a procedure.

  3. Heuristic for Stochastic Online Flowshop Problem with Preemption Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bayat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic flowshop model is one of the most widely studied problems; whereas its stochastic equivalent has remained a challenge. Furthermore, the preemptive online stochastic flowshop problem has received much less attention, and most of the previous researches have considered a nonpreemptive version. Moreover, little attention has been devoted to the problems where a certain time penalty is incurred when preemption is allowed. This paper examines the preemptive stochastic online flowshop with the objective of minimizing the expected makespan. All the jobs arrive overtime, which means that the existence and the parameters of each job are unknown until its release date. The processing time of the jobs is stochastic and actual processing time is unknown until completion of the job. A heuristic procedure for this problem is presented, which is applicable whenever the job processing times are characterized by their means and standard deviation. The performance of the proposed heuristic method is explored using some numerical examples.

  4. RELAXATION HEURISTICS FOR THE SET COVERING PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Umetani, Shunji; Yagiura, Mutsunori; 柳浦, 睦憲

    2007-01-01

    The set covering problem (SCP) is one of representative combinatorial optimization problems, which has many practical applications. The continuous development of mathematical programming has derived a number of impressive heuristic algorithms as well as exact branch-and-bound algorithms, which can solve huge SCP instances of bus, railway and airline crew scheduling problems. We survey heuristic algorithms for SCP focusing mainly on contributions of mathematical programming techniques to heuri...

  5. A heuristic forecasting model for stock decision

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, D.; Jiang, Q.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a heuristic forecasting model based on neural networks for stock decision-making. Some heuristic strategies are presented for enhancing the learning capability of neural networks and obtaining better trading performance. The China Shanghai Composite Index is used as case study. The forecasting model can forecast the buying and selling signs according to the result of neural network prediction. Results are compared with a benchmark buy-and-hold strategy. ...

  6. Psychology into economics: fast and frugal heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The present essay focuses on the fast and frugal heuristics program set forth by Gerd Gigerenzer and his fellows. In particular it examines the contribution of Gigerenzer and Goldstein (1996) ‘Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality’. This essay, following the theoretical propositions and the empirical evidence of Gigerenzer and Goldstein, points out that simple cognitive mechanisms such as fast and frugal heuristics can be capable of successful performance in real wo...

  7. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  8. An Efficient Heuristic Approach for Irregular Cutting Stock Problem in Ship Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient approach for solving a real two-dimensional irregular cutting stock problem in ship building industry. Cutting stock problem is a common cutting and packing problem that arises in a variety of industrial applications. A modification of selection heuristic Exact Fit is applied in our research. In the case referring to irregular shapes, a placement heuristics is more important to construct a complete solution. A placement heuristic relating to bottom-left-fill is presented. We evaluate the proposed approach using generated instance only with convex shapes in literatures and some instances with nonconvex shapes based on real problem from ship building industry. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are significantly better than some conventional heuristics.

  9. Mathematical models and heuristic solutions for container positioning problems in port terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2008-01-01

    presents an efficient solution algorithm for the CPP. Based on a number of new concepts, an event-based construction heuristic is developed and its ability to solve real-life problem instances is established. The backbone of the algorithm is a list of events, corresponding to a sequence of operations...... by constructing mathematical programming formulations of the problem and developing an efficient heuristic algorithm for its solution. The thesis consists of an introduction, two main chapters concerning new mathematical formulations and a new heuristic for the CPP, technical issues, computational results...... concerning the subject is reviewed. The research presented in this thesis is divided into two main parts: Construction and investigation of new mathematical programming formulations of the CPP and development and implementation of a new event-based heuristic for the problem. The first part presents three...

  10. The White ceiling heuristic and the underestimation of Asian-American income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris C; Nezlek, John B

    2014-01-01

    The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.

  11. Expert's statement on the research reactor Munich II (FRM-II); Gutachterliche Stellungnahme zum Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II (FRM-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Friess, Friederike; Gufler, Klaus; Arnold, Nikolaus [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur (BOKU), Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Sicherheits- und Risikowissenschaften (ISR)

    2017-12-15

    The Expert's statement on the research reactor FRM-II covers the following issues: The situation in Germany with respect to HEU (highly enriched uranium) fuel elements, the proliferation problems related to HEU fuel and the generated high-level radioactive wastes, possible safety hazards of an interim storage of HEU containing wastes, for instance in the interim storage facility Ahaus, possible safety hazards of final disposal of HEU containing radioactive wastes, possibilities to avoid the use of HEU fuel in order to prevent further production of these wastes, requirement of processing spent HEU containing fuel elements for final disposal.

  12. Recipient design in human communication: simple heuristics or perspective taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokpoel, Mark; van Kesteren, Marlieke; Stolk, Arjen; Haselager, Pim; Toni, Ivan; van Rooij, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable capacity for tuning their communicative behaviors to different addressees, a phenomenon also known as recipient design. It remains unclear how this tuning of communicative behavior is implemented during live human interactions. Classical theories of communication postulate that recipient design involves perspective taking, i.e., the communicator selects her behavior based on her hypotheses about beliefs and knowledge of the recipient. More recently, researchers have argued that perspective taking is computationally too costly to be a plausible mechanism in everyday human communication. These researchers propose that computationally simple mechanisms, or heuristics, are exploited to perform recipient design. Such heuristics may be able to adapt communicative behavior to an addressee with no consideration for the addressee's beliefs and knowledge. To test whether the simpler of the two mechanisms is sufficient for explaining the "how" of recipient design we studied communicators' behaviors in the context of a non-verbal communicative task (the Tacit Communication Game, TCG). We found that the specificity of the observed trial-by-trial adjustments made by communicators is parsimoniously explained by perspective taking, but not by simple heuristics. This finding is important as it suggests that humans do have a computationally efficient way of taking beliefs and knowledge of a recipient into account.

  13. Recipient design in human communication: Simple heuristics or perspective taking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eBlokpoel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a remarkable capacity for tuning their communicative behaviors to different addressees, a phenomenon also known as recipient design. It remains unclear how this tuning of communicative behavior is implemented during live human interactions. Classical theories of communication postulate that recipient design involves perspective taking, i.e., the communicator selects her behavior based on her hypotheses about beliefs and knowledge of the recipient. More recently, researchers have argued that perspective taking is computationally too costly to be a plausible mechanism in everyday human communication. These researchers propose that computationally simple mechanisms, or heuristics, are exploited to perform recipient design. Such heuristics may be able to adapt communicative behavior to an addressee with no consideration for the addressee's beliefs and knowledge. To test whether the simpler of the two mechanisms is sufficient for explaining the `how' of recipient design we studied communicators' behaviors in the context of a non-verbal communicative task (the Tacit Communication Game, TCG. We found that the specificity of the observed trial-by-trial adjustments made by communicators is parsimoniously explained by perspective taking, but not by simple heuristics. This finding is important as it suggests that humans do have a computationally efficient way of taking beliefs and knowledge of a recipient into account.

  14. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 'The main contribution of this study is...': An analysis of statements of contribution in English published research articles and L2 manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mur Dueñas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the widespread use of English for the international dissemination of scholars’ research results, numerous intercultural analyses have been undertaken in the field of English for Academic Purposes in diverse genres. Rhetorical and discursive conventions across languages and cultures have been studied to help non-native English scholars to be successful in the difficult endeavour of being granted publication in international English-medium publications. The increasing competition to get one’s research published in international journals in English has resulted in the authors’ need to clearly spell out what their contribution to their discipline is, a rhetorical convention which seems to be currently crucial especially in some fields. It is the aim of this paper to trace statements of contribution in the Introduction and Conclusion sections of research articles published in two international journals in finance and to compare the results with those obtained from an analysis of three manuscripts written in English by a team of Spanish scholars sent to the same journals but which received major revision or rejection reports. Reference to these statements made by reviewers in their reports will also be analysed to explore to what extent (non compliance with this rhetorical convention may influence their final decision (not to recommend publication.

  16. The emotional reasoning heuristic in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, P; Merckelbach, H; van Spauwen, I

    2003-03-01

    A previous study by Arntz, Rauner, and Van den Hout (1995; Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 917-925) has shown that adult anxiety patients tend to infer danger not only on the basis of objective danger information, but also on the basis of anxiety response information. The current study examined whether this so-called emotional reasoning phenomenon also occurs in children. Normal primary school children (N = 101) first completed scales tapping anxiety disorders symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety. Next, they were asked to rate danger levels of scripts in which objective danger versus objective safety and anxiety response versus no anxiety response were systematically varied. Evidence was found for a general emotional reasoning effect. That is, children's danger ratings were not only a function of objective danger information, but also, in the case of objective safety scripts, by anxiety response information. This emotional reasoning effect was predicted by levels of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety. More specifically, high levels of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety were accompanied by a greater tendency to use anxiety-response information as an heuristic for assessing dangerousness of safety scripts. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  17. Visualization for Hyper-Heuristics: Back-End Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Luke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Modern society is faced with increasingly complex problems, many of which can be formulated as generate-and-test optimization problems. Yet, general-purpose optimization algorithms may sometimes require too much computational time. In these instances, hyperheuristics may be used. Hyper-heuristics automate the design of algorithms to create a custom algorithm for a particular scenario, finding the solution significantly faster than its predecessor. However, it may be difficult to understand exactly how a design was derived and why it should be trusted. This project aims to address these issues by creating an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for hyper-heuristics and an easy-to-understand scientific visualization for the produced solutions. To support the development of this GUI, my portion of the research involved developing algorithms that would allow for parsing of the data produced by the hyper-heuristics. This data would then be sent to the front-end, where it would be displayed to the end user.

  18. Heuristic and analytic processing in online sports betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Astous, Alain; Di Gaspero, Marc

    2015-06-01

    This article presents the results of two studies that examine the occurrence of heuristic (i.e., intuitive and fast) and analytic (i.e., deliberate and slow) processes among people who engage in online sports betting on a regular basis. The first study was qualitative and was conducted with a convenience sample of 12 regular online sports gamblers who described the processes by which they arrive at a sports betting decision. The results of this study showed that betting online on sports events involves a mix of heuristic and analytic processes. The second study consisted in a survey of 161 online sports gamblers where performance in terms of monetary gains, experience in online sports betting, propensity to collect and analyze relevant information prior to betting, and use of bookmaker odds were measured. This study showed that heuristic and analytic processes act as mediators of the relationship between experience and performance. The findings stemming of these two studies give some insights into gamblers' modes of thinking and behaviors in an online sports betting context and show the value of the dual mediation process model for research that looks at gambling activities from a judgment and decision making perspective.

  19. Using tree diversity to compare phylogenetic heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Seung-Jin; Matthews, Suzanne; Williams, Tiffani L

    2009-04-29

    Evolutionary trees are family trees that represent the relationships between a group of organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics are used to search stochastically for the best-scoring trees in tree space. Given that better tree scores are believed to be better approximations of the true phylogeny, traditional evaluation techniques have used tree scores to determine the heuristics that find the best scores in the fastest time. We develop new techniques to evaluate phylogenetic heuristics based on both tree scores and topologies to compare Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3, two popular Maximum Parsimony search algorithms. Our results show that although Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3 find the trees with the same best scores, topologically these trees are quite different. Furthermore, the Rec-I-DCM3 trees cluster distinctly from the Pauprat trees. In addition to our heatmap visualizations of using parsimony scores and the Robinson-Foulds distance to compare best-scoring trees found by the two heuristics, we also develop entropy-based methods to show the diversity of the trees found. Overall, Pauprat identifies more diverse trees than Rec-I-DCM3. Overall, our work shows that there is value to comparing heuristics beyond the parsimony scores that they find. Pauprat is a slower heuristic than Rec-I-DCM3. However, our work shows that there is tremendous value in using Pauprat to reconstruct trees-especially since it finds identical scoring but topologically distinct trees. Hence, instead of discounting Pauprat, effort should go in improving its implementation. Ultimately, improved performance measures lead to better phylogenetic heuristics and will result in better approximations of the true evolutionary history of the organisms of interest.

  20. Analytic and heuristic processes in the detection and resolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário B; Mata, André; Donkin, Christopher; Sherman, Steven J; Ihmels, Max

    2016-10-01

    Previous research with the ratio-bias task found larger response latencies for conflict trials where the heuristic- and analytic-based responses are assumed to be in opposition (e.g., choosing between 1/10 and 9/100 ratios of success) when compared to no-conflict trials where both processes converge on the same response (e.g., choosing between 1/10 and 11/100). This pattern is consistent with parallel dual-process models, which assume that there is effective, rather than lax, monitoring of the output of heuristic processing. It is, however, unclear why conflict resolution sometimes fails. Ratio-biased choices may increase because of a decline in analytical reasoning (leaving heuristic-based responses unopposed) or to a rise in heuristic processing (making it more difficult for analytic processes to override the heuristic preferences). Using the process-dissociation procedure, we found that instructions to respond logically and response speed affected analytic (controlled) processing (C), leaving heuristic processing (H) unchanged, whereas the intuitive preference for large nominators (as assessed by responses to equal ratio trials) affected H but not C. These findings create new challenges to the debate between dual-process and single-process accounts, which are discussed.

  1. Prediction-based dynamic load-sharing heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Kumar K.; Devarakonda, Murthy; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present dynamic load-sharing heuristics that use predicted resource requirements of processes to manage workloads in a distributed system. A previously developed statistical pattern-recognition method is employed for resource prediction. While nonprediction-based heuristics depend on a rapidly changing system status, the new heuristics depend on slowly changing program resource usage patterns. Furthermore, prediction-based heuristics can be more effective since they use future requirements rather than just the current system state. Four prediction-based heuristics, two centralized and two distributed, are presented. Using trace driven simulations, they are compared against random scheduling and two effective nonprediction based heuristics. Results show that the prediction-based centralized heuristics achieve up to 30 percent better response times than the nonprediction centralized heuristic, and that the prediction-based distributed heuristics achieve up to 50 percent improvements relative to their nonprediction counterpart.

  2. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  3. Understanding place and health: a heuristic for using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Dunn, James R; McLaren, Lindsay; Shiell, Alan; Potvin, Louise; Hawe, Penelope; Dassa, Clément; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2007-06-01

    The increasing availability, use and limitations of administrative data for place-based population health research, and a lack of theory development, created the context for the current paper. We developed a heuristic to interrogate administrative data sets and to help us develop explanatory pathways for linking place and health. Guided by a worked example, we argue that some items in administrative data sets lend themselves to multiple theories, creating problems of inference owing to the implications of using inductive versus deductive reasoning during the research process, and that certain types of theories are privileged when used administrative data bases.

  4. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, NSW. Statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This submission demonstrates the manner in which the replacement research reactor project is to be undertaken in accordance with all relevant Commonwealth requirements and standards. Successive submissions to Government have shown that the construction and operation of the replacement reactor will result in a range of significant benefits to Australia in the areas of health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and in industrial applications. ANSTO is confident that the construction and operation of the replacement research reactor will: meet the identified needs for an ongoing neutron source for Australia into the next century in a cost-effective manner; be effectively managed to ensure that the project is delivered to the agreed schedule and budget; involve an effective community consultation process with ongoing community consultation a feature of ANSTO's approach; will have negligible environmental and public health implications taking account of the environmental management measures and commitments made by ANSTO in the Environmental Impact Statement and the stringent licensing arrangement by ARPANSA

  5. Can we trust module-respect heuristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuchang

    2013-01-01

    BDD (Binary Decision Diagrams) have proven to be a very efficient tool to assess Fault Trees. However, the size of BDD, and therefore the efficiency of the whole methodology, depends dramatically on the choice of variable ordering. The determination of the best variable ordering is intractable. Therefore, heuristics have been designed to select reasonably good variable orderings. One very important common feature for good static heuristics is to respect modules. In this paper, the notion of module-respect is studied in a systematic way. It is proved that under certain condition there always exists an optimal ordering that respects modules. This condition is that for each module there is always a smallest module BDD and each included module variable appears only once. On the other hand, it is shown that for the trees not satisfying the above sufficient condition the optimal orderings may not be able to be directly generated using module-respect heuristics, even when the shuffling strategy is used.

  6. Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, A; Kahneman, D

    1974-09-27

    This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgements and decisions in situations of uncertainty.

  7. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    . In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...... are combined in specific structures to ensure proper protection of the items during transportation and to simplify the problem. The solutions generated by the heuristic has an average loading utilization of 91.3% for the most general instances with average running times around 100 seconds....

  8. Heuristic extension of the Schwarzschild metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's equations of gravitation has several singularities. It is known that the singularity at r = 2Gm/c 2 is only apparent, a result of the coordinates in which the solution was found. Paradoxical results occuring near the singularity show the system of coordinates is incomplete. We introduce a simple, two-dimensional metric with an apparent singularity that makes it incomplete. By a straightforward, heuristic procedure we extend and complete this simple metric. We then use the same procedure to give a heuristic derivation of the Kruskal system of coordinates, which is known to extend the Schwarzschild manifold past its apparent singularity and produce a complete manifold

  9. Age Effects and Heuristics in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2012-05-01

    Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjects. Second, heuristics differ by age with older subjects relying more on suboptimal decision rules. In a heuristics validation experiment, older subjects make worse decisions than younger subjects.

  10. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill

    2013-01-01

    Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information) i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement frau...

  11. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as ca...

  12. Automated generation of constructive ordering heuristics for educational timetabling

    OpenAIRE

    Pillay, Nelishia; Özcan, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Construction heuristics play an important role in solving combinatorial optimization problems. These heuristics are usually used to create an initial solution to the problem which is improved using optimization techniques such as metaheuristics. For examination timetabling and university course timetabling problems essentially graph colouring heuristics have been used for this purpose. The process of deriving heuristics manually for educational timetabling is a time consuming task. Furthermor...

  13. Adaptive selection of heuristics for improving exam timetables

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Edmund; Qu, Rong; Soghier, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hyper-heuristic approach which hybridises low-level heuristic moves to improve timetables. Exams which cause a soft-constraint violation in the timetable are ordered and rescheduled to produce a better timetable. It is observed that both the order in which exams are rescheduled and the heuristic moves used to reschedule the exams and improve the timetable affect the quality of the solution produced. After testing different combinations in a hybrid hyper-heuristic approac...

  14. A New Approach to Tuning Heuristic Parameters of Genetic Algorithms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2006), s. 562-569 ISSN 1790-0832. [AIKED'06. WSEAS International Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Knowledge Engineering and Data Bases. Madrid, 15.02.2006-17.02.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0325; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary optimization * genetic algorithms * heuristic parameters * parameter tuning * artificial neural networks * convergence speed * population diversity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  15. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the international ankle consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribble, P.A.; Delahunt, E.; Bleakley, C.; Caulfield, B.; Docherty, C.L.; Fourchet, F.; Fong, D.; Hertel, J.; Hiller, C.; Kaminski, T.W.; McKeon, P.O.; Refshauge, K.M.; Wees, P.J. van der; Vicenzino, B.; Wikstrom, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The International Ankle Consortium is an international community of researchers and clinicians whose primary scholastic purpose is to promote scholarship and dissemination of research-informed knowledge related to pathologies of the ankle complex. The constituents of the International Ankle

  16. Applying usability heuristics to radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Heuristic evaluations have been used to evaluate safety of medical devices by identifying and assessing usability issues. Since radiotherapy treatment delivery systems often consist of multiple complex user-interfaces, a heuristic evaluation was conducted to assess the potential safety issues of such a system. Material and methods: A heuristic evaluation was conducted to evaluate the treatment delivery system at Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto, Canada). Two independent evaluators identified usability issues with the user-interfaces and rated the severity of each issue. Results: The evaluators identified 75 usability issues in total. Eighteen of them were rated as high severity, indicating the potential to have a major impact on patient safety. A majority of issues were found on the record and verify system, and many were associated with the patient setup process. While the hospital has processes in place to ensure patient safety, recommendations were developed to further mitigate the risks of potential consequences. Conclusions: Heuristic evaluation is an efficient and inexpensive method that can be successfully applied to radiotherapy delivery systems to identify usability issues and improve patient safety. Although this study was conducted only at one site, the findings may have broad implications for the design of these systems.

  17. Can the inherence heuristic explain vitalistic reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock

    2014-10-01

    Inherence is an important component of psychological essentialism. By drawing on vitalism as a way in which to explain this link, however, the authors appear to conflate causal explanations based on fixed features with those based on general causal forces. The disjuncture between these two types of explanatory principles highlights potential new avenues for the inherence heuristic.

  18. Fast heuristics for a dynamic paratransit problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, M.L.A.G.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; van der Vlerk, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper we developed a non-standard two-stage recourse model for the dynamic day-ahead paratransit planning problem. Two heuristics, which are frequently applied in the recourse model, contain many details which leads to large CPU times to solve instances of relatively small size. In

  19. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  20. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  1. Heuristics for speeding up gaze estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimberg, Denis; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the method with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic method is more...

  2. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  3. Heuristic Classification. Technical Report Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    A broad range of well-structured problems--embracing forms of diagnosis, catalog selection, and skeletal planning--are solved in expert computer systems by the method of heuristic classification. These programs have a characteristic inference structure that systematically relates data to a pre-enumerated set of solutions by abstraction, heuristic…

  4. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  5. A Heuristic for the Teaching of Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, John F.

    Interpreting Aristotle's criteria for persuasive writing--ethos, logos, and pathos--as a concern for writer, language, and audience creates both an effective model for persuasive writing and a structure around which to organize discussions of relevant rhetorical issues. Use of this heuristic to analyze writing style, organization, and content…

  6. Fourth Graders' Heuristic Problem-Solving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil S.

    1982-01-01

    Eight boys and eight girls from a rural elementary school participated in the investigation. Specific heuristics were adopted from Polya; and the students selected represented two substages of Piaget's concrete operational stage. Five hypotheses were generated, based on observed results and the study's theoretical rationale. (MP)

  7. Heuristic Decision Making in Network Linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.W. Harmsen - Van Hout (Marjolein); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); P.J.J. Herings (Jean-Jacques)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNetwork formation among individuals constitutes an important part of many OR processes, but relatively little is known about how individuals make their linking decisions in networks. This article provides an investigation of heuristic effects in individual linking decisions for

  8. Investigating Heuristic Evaluation: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Kate Haley; Bendoly, Laura

    When museum professionals speak of evaluating a web site, they primarily mean formative evaluation, and by that they primarily mean testing the usability of the site. In the for-profit world, usability testing is a multi-million dollar industry, while non-profits often rely on far too few dollars to do too much. Hence, heuristic evaluation is one…

  9. Internal Medicine residents use heuristics to estimate disease probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Phang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that despite previous exposure to the use of Bayesian reasoning, residents use heuristics, such as the representative heuristic and anchoring with adjustment, to estimate probabilities. Potential reasons for attribute substitution include the relative cognitive ease of heuristics vs. Bayesian reasoning or perhaps residents in their clinical practice use gist traces rather than precise probability estimates when diagnosing.

  10. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  11. A Variable-Selection Heuristic for K-Means Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J.; Cradit, J. Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Presents a variable selection heuristic for nonhierarchical (K-means) cluster analysis based on the adjusted Rand index for measuring cluster recovery. Subjected the heuristic to Monte Carlo testing across more than 2,200 datasets. Results indicate that the heuristic is extremely effective at eliminating masking variables. (SLD)

  12. The Historical Ideal-Type as a Heuristic Device for Academic Storytelling by Sport Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutka, Patrick; Seifried, Chad

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research endeavor is to take the previous calls of sport scholars to expand into alternative research approaches (e.g., history, case study, law reviews, philosophy, etc.) and to show how storytelling can be an effective tool through the use of a heuristic device. The present analysis attempts to focus on the usage of the…

  13. PENDEKATAN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN METODE PENCARIAN HEURISTIC UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN PROBLEM PEMILIHAN PERALATAN PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (FMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Activity Based Costing (ABC approach to select the set-machine that is used in the production of Flexible Manufacture System (FMS based on technical and economical criteria can be useful for producers to design FMS by considering the minimum production cost. In the other hand, Heuristic Search is known to have a short searching time. Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC approach as the weight in finding the solution to shorten the equipment selection time during the design / redesign process of the FMS in less than exponential time was designed in this research. The increasing speed is useful because with the faster time in design / redesign process, therefore the flexibility level of part variety that can be processed will become better. Theoretical and empirical analysis in Algorithm Heuristic shows that time searching to get appropriate set of equipment is not too long, so that we can assume that the designed Algorithm Heuristic can be implemented in the real world. By comparing the empirical result of Algorithm Heuristic to the Algorithm Exhaustive, we can also assume that Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC method as the weight for finding solution can optimise the equipment selection problem of FMS based on economical criteria too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penggunaan pendekatan Activity Based Costing (ABC untuk memilih set mesin yang digunakan dalam produksi pada Flexible Manufacture Systems (FMS berdasar atas kriteria teknis dan ekonomis, dapat membantu pelaku produksi untuk mendisain FMS dengan pertimbangan minimalisasi biaya produksi. Sementara itu, Heuristic Search dikenal memiliki waktu pencarian yang singkat. Pada riset ini didisain sebuah Algoritma Heuristic yang menggunakan pendekatan ABC sebagai bobot dalam pencarian solusi, untuk mempersingkat waktu pemilihan peralatan saat desain/redisain FMS dalam waktu kurang dari waktu Eksponensial. Peningkatan kecepatan ini bermanfaat, karena dengan cepatnya waktu

  14. Smart strategies for doctors and doctors-in-training: heuristics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2009-08-01

    How do doctors make sound decisions when confronted with probabilistic data, time pressures and a heavy workload? One theory that has been embraced by many researchers is based on optimisation, which emphasises the need to integrate all information in order to arrive at sound decisions. This notion makes heuristics, which use less than complete information, appear as second-best strategies. In this article, we challenge this pessimistic view of heuristics. We introduce two medical problems that involve decision making to the reader: one concerns coronary care issues and the other macrolide prescriptions. In both settings, decision-making tools grounded in the principles of optimisation and heuristics, respectively, have been developed to assist doctors in making decisions. We explain the structure of each of these tools and compare their performance in terms of their facilitation of correct predictions. For decisions concerning both the coronary care unit and the prescribing of macrolides, we demonstrate that sacrificing information does not necessarily imply a forfeiting of predictive accuracy, but can sometimes even lead to better decisions. Subsequently, we discuss common misconceptions about heuristics and explain when and why ignoring parts of the available information can lead to the making of more robust predictions. Heuristics are neither good nor bad per se, but, if applied in situations to which they have been adapted, can be helpful companions for doctors and doctors-in-training. This, however, requires that heuristics in medicine be openly discussed, criticised, refined and then taught to doctors-in-training rather than being simply dismissed as harmful or irrelevant. A more uniform use of explicit and accepted heuristics has the potential to reduce variations in diagnoses and to improve medical care for patients.

  15. Simple heuristics and rules of thumb: where psychologists and behavioural biologists might meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2005-05-31

    The Centre for Adaptive Behaviour and Cognition (ABC) has hypothesised that much human decision-making can be described by simple algorithmic process models (heuristics). This paper explains this approach and relates it to research in biology on rules of thumb, which we also review. As an example of a simple heuristic, consider the lexicographic strategy of Take The Best for choosing between two alternatives: cues are searched in turn until one discriminates, then search stops and all other cues are ignored. Heuristics consist of building blocks, and building blocks exploit evolved or learned abilities such as recognition memory; it is the complexity of these abilities that allows the heuristics to be simple. Simple heuristics have an advantage in making decisions fast and with little information, and in avoiding overfitting. Furthermore, humans are observed to use simple heuristics. Simulations show that the statistical structures of different environments affect which heuristics perform better, a relationship referred to as ecological rationality. We contrast ecological rationality with the stronger claim of adaptation. Rules of thumb from biology provide clearer examples of adaptation because animals can be studied in the environments in which they evolved. The range of examples is also much more diverse. To investigate them, biologists have sometimes used similar simulation techniques to ABC, but many examples depend on empirically driven approaches. ABC's theoretical framework can be useful in connecting some of these examples, particularly the scattered literature on how information from different cues is integrated. Optimality modelling is usually used to explain less detailed aspects of behaviour but might more often be redirected to investigate rules of thumb.

  16. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  17. Heuristics structure and pervade formal risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Brian H

    2014-04-01

    Lay perceptions of risk appear rooted more in heuristics than in reason. A major concern of the risk regulation literature is that such "error-strewn" perceptions may be replicated in policy, as governments respond to the (mis)fears of the citizenry. This has led many to advocate a relatively technocratic approach to regulating risk, characterized by high reliance on formal risk and cost-benefit analysis. However, through two studies of chemicals regulation, we show that the formal assessment of risk is pervaded by its own set of heuristics. These include rules to categorize potential threats, define what constitutes valid data, guide causal inference, and to select and apply formal models. Some of these heuristics lay claim to theoretical or empirical justifications, others are more back-of-the-envelope calculations, while still more purport not to reflect some truth but simply to constrain discretion or perform a desk-clearing function. These heuristics can be understood as a way of authenticating or formalizing risk assessment as a scientific practice, representing a series of rules for bounding problems, collecting data, and interpreting evidence (a methodology). Heuristics are indispensable elements of induction. And so they are not problematic per se, but they can become so when treated as laws rather than as contingent and provisional rules. Pitfalls include the potential for systematic error, masking uncertainties, strategic manipulation, and entrenchment. Our central claim is that by studying the rules of risk assessment qua rules, we develop a novel representation of the methods, conventions, and biases of the prior art. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. On the suitability of fast and frugal heuristics for designing values clarification methods in patient decision aids: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCMs) are being developed to support patients in making preference-sensitive health-care decisions. Many VCMs encourage extensive deliberation about options, without solid theoretical or empirical evidence showing that deliberation is advantageous. Research suggests that simple, fast and frugal heuristic decision strategies sometimes result in better judgments and decisions. Durand et al. have developed two fast and frugal heuristic-based VCMs. To critically analyse the suitability of the 'take the best' (TTB) and 'tallying' fast and frugal heuristics in the context of patient decision making. Analysis of the structural similarities between the environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have been proven successful and the context of patient decision making and of the potential of these heuristic decision processes to support patient decision making. The specific nature of patient preference-sensitive decision making does not seem to resemble environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have proven successful. Encouraging patients to consider less rather than more relevant information potentially even deteriorates their values clarification process. Values clarification methods promoting the use of more intuitive decision strategies may sometimes be more effective. Nevertheless, we strongly recommend further theoretical thinking about the expected value of such heuristics and of other more intuitive decision strategies in this context, as well as empirical assessments of the mechanisms by which inducing such decision strategies may impact the quality and outcome of values clarification. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Heuristic Evaluation of E-Learning Courses: A Comparative Analysis of Two E-Learning Heuristic Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharias, Panagiotis; Koutsabasis, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss heuristic evaluation as a method for evaluating e-learning courses and applications and more specifically to investigate the applicability and empirical use of two customized e-learning heuristic protocols. Design/methodology/approach: Two representative e-learning heuristic protocols were chosen…

  20. FEATURES OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KUCHER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the features of preparation and submission of the consolidated financial statements of the world countries of different systems of accounting standardization in order to identify the areas of accounting improvement for the process of consolidation of financial reporting indicators. The main problems of consolidated financial statements preparation by business entities in Ukraine are determined. The author determines the theoretical and practical problems of consolidation of financial statements of organizational and methodical character. The comparative analysis of the features of standardization process of financial statements consolidation in the world countries is carried out. The main differences in the requirements for the formation of consolidated financial statements indicators of such countries as the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Belarus and the People’s Republic of China are outlined. The main directions of scientific researches on the improvement of accounting and analytical support for the preparation of consolidated financial statements are formed.

  1. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from

  2. Identifying product development crises: The potential of adaptive heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münzberger, C.; Stingl, Verena; Oehmen, Josef

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces adaptive heuristics as a tool to identify crises in design projects and highlights potential applications of these heuristics as decision support tool for crisis identification. Crises may emerge slowly or suddenly, and often have ambiguous signals. Thus the identification...... for the application of heuristics in design sciences. To achieve this, the paper compares crises to 'business as usual', and presents sixteen indicators for emerging crises. These indicators are potential cues for adaptive heuristics. Specifically three adaptive heuristics, One-single-cue, Fast-and-Frugal-Trees...

  3. Learning process mapping heuristics under stochastic sampling overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1991-01-01

    A statistical method was developed previously for improving process mapping heuristics. The method systematically explores the space of possible heuristics under a specified time constraint. Its goal is to get the best possible heuristics while trading between the solution quality of the process mapping heuristics and their execution time. The statistical selection method is extended to take into consideration the variations in the amount of time used to evaluate heuristics on a problem instance. The improvement in performance is presented using the more realistic assumption along with some methods that alleviate the additional complexity.

  4. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  5. The power of simplicity: a fast-and-frugal heuristics approach to performance science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Performance science is a fairly new multidisciplinary field that integrates performance domains such as sports, medicine, business, and the arts. To give its many branches a structure and its research a direction, it requires a theoretical framework. We demonstrate the applications of this framework with examples from sport and medicine. Because performance science deals mainly with situations of uncertainty rather than known risks, the needed framework can be provided by the fast-and-frugal heuristics approach. According to this approach, experts learn to rely on heuristics in an adaptive way in order to make accurate decisions. We investigate the adaptive use of heuristics in three ways: the descriptive study of the heuristics in the cognitive “adaptive toolbox;” the prescriptive study of their “ecological rationality,” that is, the characterization of the situations in which a given heuristic works; and the engineering study of “intuitive design,” that is, the design of transparent aids for making better decisions. PMID:26579051

  6. The application of the heuristic-systematic processing model to treatment decision making about prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steginga, Suzanne K; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the utility of the Heuristic-Systematic Processing Model as a framework for the investigation of patient decision making. A total of 111 men recently diagnosed with localized prostate cancer were assessed using Verbal Protocol Analysis and self-report measures. Study variables included men's use of nonsystematic and systematic information processing, desire for involvement in decision making, and the individual differences of health locus of control, tolerance of ambiguity, and decision-related uncertainty. Most men (68%) preferred that decision making be shared equally between them and their doctor. Men's use of the expert opinion heuristic was related to men's verbal reports of decisional uncertainty and having a positive orientation to their doctor and medical care; a desire for greater involvement in decision making was predicted by a high internal locus of health control. Trends were observed for systematic information processing to increase when the heuristic strategy used was negatively affect laden and when men were uncertain about the probabilities for cure and side effects. There was a trend for decreased systematic processing when the expert opinion heuristic was used. Findings were consistent with the Heuristic-Systematic Processing Model and suggest that this model has utility for future research in applied decision making about health.

  7. Assessing the use of cognitive heuristic representativeness in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L; Crowley, Rebecca S; Crowley, Rebecca

    2008-11-06

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors.

  8. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors. PMID:18999140

  9. Reconsidering "evidence" for fast-and-frugal heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2010-12-01

    In several recent reviews, authors have argued for the pervasive use of fast-and-frugal heuristics in human judgment. They have provided an overview of heuristics and have reiterated findings corroborating that such heuristics can be very valid strategies leading to high accuracy. They also have reviewed previous work that implies that simple heuristics are actually used by decision makers. Unfortunately, concerning the latter point, these reviews appear to be somewhat incomplete. More important, previous conclusions have been derived from investigations that bear some noteworthy methodological limitations. I demonstrate these by proposing a new heuristic and provide some novel critical findings. Also, I review some of the relevant literature often not-or only partially-considered. Overall, although some fast-and-frugal heuristics indeed seem to predict behavior at times, there is little to no evidence for others. More generally, the empirical evidence available does not warrant the conclusion that heuristics are pervasively used.

  10. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Hornnes, Peter J.; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J.; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H.; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E.; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop

  11. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower...

  12. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  13. Solving Inventory Routing Problems Using Location Based Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Hanczar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problems (IRPs occur where vendor managed inventory replenishment strategies are implemented in supply chains. These problems are characterized by the presence of both transportation and inventory considerations, either as parameters or constraints. The research presented in this paper aims at extending IRP formulation developed on the basis of location based heuristics proposed by Bramel and Simchi-Levi and continued by Hanczar. In the first phase of proposed algorithms, mixed integer programming is used to determine the partitioning of customers as well as dates and quantities of deliveries. Then, using 2-opt algorithm for solving the traveling sales-person problem the optimal routes for each partition are determined. In the main part of research the classical formulation is extended by additional constraints (visit spacing, vehicle filling rate, driver (vehicle consistency, and heterogeneous fleet of vehicles as well as the additional criteria are discussed. Then the impact of using each of proposed extensions for solution possibilities is evaluated. The results of computational tests are presented and discussed. Obtained results allow to conclude that the location based heuristics should be considered when solving real life instances of IRP. (original abstract

  14. A practical implementation science heuristic for organizational readiness: R = MC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brittany S.; Lamont, Andrea; Wandersman, Abraham; Castellow, Jennifer; Katz, Jason; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges when an innovation (i.e., a program, process, or policy that is new to an organization) is actively introduced into an organization. One critical component for successful implementation is the organization’s readiness for the innovation. In this article, we propose a practical implementation science heuristic, abbreviated as R= MC2. We propose that organizational readiness involves: 1) the motivation to implement an innovation, 2) the general capacities of an organization, and 3) the innovation-specific capacities needed for a particular innovation. Each of these components can be assessed independently and be used formatively. The heuristic can be used by organizations to assess readiness to implement and by training and technical assistance providers to help build organizational readiness. We present an illustration of the heuristic by showing how behavioral health organizations differ in readiness to implement a peer specialist initiative. Implications for research and practice of organizational readiness are discussed. PMID:26668443

  15. Automatic-heuristic and executive-analytic processing during reasoning: Chronometric and dual-task considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neys, Wim

    2006-06-01

    Human reasoning has been shown to overly rely on intuitive, heuristic processing instead of a more demanding analytic inference process. Four experiments tested the central claim of current dual-process theories that analytic operations involve time-consuming executive processing whereas the heuristic system would operate automatically. Participants solved conjunction fallacy problems and indicative and deontic selection tasks. Experiment 1 established that making correct analytic inferences demanded more processing time than did making heuristic inferences. Experiment 2 showed that burdening the executive resources with an attention-demanding secondary task decreased correct, analytic responding and boosted the rate of conjunction fallacies and indicative matching card selections. Results were replicated in Experiments 3 and 4 with a different secondary-task procedure. Involvement of executive resources for the deontic selection task was less clear. Findings validate basic processing assumptions of the dual-process framework and complete the correlational research programme of K. E. Stanovich and R. F. West (2000).

  16. Adolescents' perceived risk and personal experience with natural disasters: an evaluation of cognitive heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, L; Dollinger, S J; Pitz, G

    1996-02-01

    Elevated risk judgments for negative life events have been linked to personal experience with events. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive heuristics are the underlying cognitive mechanism for this relation. The availability (i.e., memory for incidents) and simulation (i.e., imagery) heuristics were evaluated as possible mediators for the relation between personal experience and risk estimates for fatal weather events. Adolescents who had experienced weather disasters estimated their personal risk for weather events. Support was obtained for the simulation heuristic (imagery) as a mediator for the relation. Availability for lightning disaster experience was also found to be a mediator for the relation between personal lightning disaster experience and risk estimate for future events. The implications for risk perception research are discussed.

  17. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Delahunt, Eamonn; Bleakley, Chris; Caulfield, Brian; Docherty, Carrie; Fourchet, François; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hertel, Jay; Hiller, Claire; Kaminski, Thomas; McKeon, Patrick; Refshauge, Kathryn; van der Wees, Philip; Vincenzino, Bill; Wikstrom, Erik

    2014-07-01

    While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant/patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem properly. This major gap within the literature limits the ability to generalise this evidence to the target patient population. Therefore, there is a need to provide standards for patient/participant selection criteria in research focused on CAI with justifications using the best available evidence. The International Ankle Consortium provides this position paper to present and discuss an endorsed set of selection criteria for patients with CAI based on the best available evidence to be used in future research and study designs. These recommendations will enhance the validity of research conducted in this clinical population with the end goal of bringing the research evidence to the clinician and patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Heuristics and Cognitive Error in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Patel, Sohil H

    2018-05-01

    The field of cognitive science has provided important insights into mental processes underlying the interpretation of imaging examinations. Despite these insights, diagnostic error remains a major obstacle in the goal to improve quality in radiology. In this article, we describe several types of cognitive bias that lead to diagnostic errors in imaging and discuss approaches to mitigate cognitive biases and diagnostic error. Radiologists rely on heuristic principles to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values into simpler judgmental operations. These mental shortcuts allow rapid problem solving based on assumptions and past experiences. Heuristics used in the interpretation of imaging studies are generally helpful but can sometimes result in cognitive biases that lead to significant errors. An understanding of the causes of cognitive biases can lead to the development of educational content and systematic improvements that mitigate errors and improve the quality of care provided by radiologists.

  19. Heuristic program to design Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pereira Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The great development of today’s world determines that the world level of information increases day after day, however, the time allowed to transmit this information in the classrooms has not changed. Thus, the rational work in this respect is more than necessary. Besides, if for the solution of a given type of problem we do not have a working algorism, we have, first to look for a correct solution, then the heuristic programs are of paramount importance to succeed in these aspects. Having into consideration that the design of the database is, essentially, a process of problem resolution, this article aims at proposing a heuristic program for the design of the relating database.

  20. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, NSW. Statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This submission demonstrates the manner in which the replacement research reactor project is to be undertaken in accordance with all relevant Commonwealth requirements and standards. Successive submissions to Government have shown that the construction and operation of the replacement reactor will result in a range of significant benefits to Australia in the areas of health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and in industrial applications. ANSTO is confident that the construction and operation of the replacement research reactor will: meet the identified needs for an ongoing neutron source for Australia into the next century in a cost-effective manner; be effectively managed to ensure that the project is delivered to the agreed schedule and budget; involve an effective community consultation process with ongoing community consultation a feature of ANSTO`s approach; will have negligible environmental and public health implications taking account of the environmental management measures and commitments made by ANSTO in the Environmental Impact Statement and the stringent licensing arrangement by ARPANSA 24 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  2. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribble, P.A.; Delahunt, E.; Bleakley, C.M.; Caulfield, B.; Docherty, C.L.; Fong, D.T.; Fourchet, F.; Hertel, J.; Hiller, C.E.; Kaminski, T.W.; McKeon, P.O.; Refshauge, K.M.; Wees, P.J. van der; Vicenzino, W.; Wikstrom, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant or patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem

  3. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribble, P.A.; Delahunt, E.; Bleakley, C.; Caulfield, B.; Docherty, C.; Fourchet, F.; Fong, D.T.; Hertel, J.; Hiller, C.; Kaminski, T.; McKeon, P.; Refshauge, K.; Wees, P.J. van der; Vincenzino, B.; Wikstrom, E.

    2014-01-01

    While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant/patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem properly.

  4. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A L; Lopez Bracho, R; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  5. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P M; Bouvy, Nicole D

    2016-05-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower GIT published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 to assess currently used models. All corresponding authors were invited for a Delphi-based analysis that consisted of two online survey rounds followed by a final online recommendation survey to reach consensus on the discussed topics. Two hundred seventy-seven original articles were retrieved and 167 articles were included in the systematic review. Mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, and dogs are currently being used as animal models, with a large variety in surgical techniques and outcome measures. Forty-four corresponding authors participated in the Delphi analysis. In the first two rounds, 39/44 and 35/39 participants completed the survey. In the final meeting, 35 experts reached consensus on 76/122 items in six categories. Mouse, rat, and pig are considered appropriate animal models; rabbit and dog should be abandoned in research regarding bowel anastomoses. ARRIVE guidelines should be followed more strictly. Consensus was reached on several recommendations for the use of animal models and outcome measurements in research on anastomoses of the lower GIT. Future research should take these suggestions into account to facilitate comparison and clinical translation of results.

  6. Optimising agile development practices for the maintenance operation: nine heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Rose, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Agile methods are widely used and successful in many development situations and beginning to attract attention amongst the software maintenance community – both researchers and practitioners. However, it should not be assumed that implementing a well-known agile method for a maintenance department...... is therefore a trivial endeavour - the maintenance operation differs in some important respects from development work. Classical accounts of software maintenance emphasise more traditional software engineering processes, whereas recent research accounts of agile maintenance efforts uncritically focus...... on benefits. In an action research project at Aveva in Denmark we assisted with the optimisation of SCRUM, tailoring the standard process to the immediate needs of the developers. We draw on both theoretical and empirical learning to formulate nine heuristics for maintenance practitioners wishing to go agile....

  7. The affect heuristic in occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadori, Lucia; Caovilla, Jessica; Zaniboni, Sara; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2015-07-08

    The affect heuristic is a rule of thumb according to which, in the process of making a judgment or decision, people use affect as a cue. If a stimulus elicits positive affect then risks associated to that stimulus are viewed as low and benefits as high; conversely, if the stimulus elicits negative affect, then risks are perceived as high and benefits as low. The basic tenet of this study is that affect heuristic guides worker's judgment and decision making in a risk situation. The more the worker likes her/his organization the less she/he will perceive the risks as high. A sample of 115 employers and 65 employees working in small family agricultural businesses completed a questionnaire measuring perceived safety costs, psychological safety climate, affective commitment and safety compliance. A multi-sample structural analysis supported the thesis that safety compliance can be explained through an affect-based heuristic reasoning, but only for employers. Positive affective commitment towards their family business reduced employers' compliance with safety procedures by increasing the perceived cost of implementing them.

  8. A general heuristic for genome rearrangement problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ulisses; Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lintzmayer, Carla Négri; Dias, Zanoni

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present a general heuristic for several problems in the genome rearrangement field. Our heuristic does not solve any problem directly, it is rather used to improve the solutions provided by any non-optimal algorithm that solve them. Therefore, we have implemented several algorithms described in the literature and several algorithms developed by ourselves. As a whole, we implemented 23 algorithms for 9 well known problems in the genome rearrangement field. A total of 13 algorithms were implemented for problems that use the notions of prefix and suffix operations. In addition, we worked on 5 algorithms for the classic problem of sorting by transposition and we conclude the experiments by presenting results for 3 approximation algorithms for the sorting by reversals and transpositions problem and 2 approximation algorithms for the sorting by reversals problem. Another algorithm with better approximation ratio can be found for the last genome rearrangement problem, but it is purely theoretical with no practical implementation. The algorithms we implemented in addition to our heuristic lead to the best practical results in each case. In particular, we were able to improve results on the sorting by transpositions problem, which is a very special case because many efforts have been made to generate algorithms with good results in practice and some of these algorithms provide results that equal the optimum solutions in many cases. Our source codes and benchmarks are freely available upon request from the authors so that it will be easier to compare new approaches against our results.

  9. Investigating the Decision Heuristics of Candidate Teachers Who Are Different in Their Responsibility Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Yener

    2016-01-01

    In this study, decision heuristics used by individuals with different responsibility controls were investigated. In the research, 370 final grade university students studying at Erzincan University Faculty of Education were included. In order to collect data, Internally Controlled Responsibility-Externally Controlled Responsibility Scale of Özen…

  10. Mediators of the Availability Heuristic in Probability Estimates of Future Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ariel S.; Pryor, John B.

    Individuals often estimate the probability of future events by the ease with which they can recall or cognitively construct relevant instances. Previous research has not precisely identified the cognitive processes mediating this "availability heuristic." Two potential mediators (imagery of the event, perceived reasons or causes for the…

  11. The Development of a Culture of Problem Solving with Secondary Students through Heuristic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Petr; Novotná, Jarmila; Pribyl, Jirí; Brehovský, Jirí

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the results of a longitudinal research study conducted in three mathematics classes in Czech schools with 62 pupils aged 12-18 years. The pupils were exposed to the use of selected heuristic strategies in mathematical problem solving for a period of 16 months. This was done through solving problems where the solution was the…

  12. Relating Local to Global Spatial Knowledge: Heuristic Influence of Local Features on Direction Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Daniel W.; Montello, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has examined heuristics--simplified decision-making rules-of-thumb--for geospatial reasoning. This study examined at two locations the influence of beliefs about local coastline orientation on estimated directions to local and distant places; estimates were made immediately or after fifteen seconds. This study goes beyond…

  13. Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggrianto, Desi; Churiyah, Madziatul; Arief, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to know the effect of Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic learning model towards critical thinking skills of students of class X Office Administration (APK) in SMK Negeri 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia on material curve and equilibrium of demand and supply, subject Introduction to Economics and…

  14. Ethics approval in applications for open-access clinical trial data: An analysis of researcher statements to clinicalstudydatarequest.com.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek So

    Full Text Available Although there are a number of online platforms for patient-level clinical trial data sharing from industry sponsors, they are not very harmonized regarding the role of local ethics approval in the research proposal review process. The first and largest of these platforms is ClinicalStudyDataRequest.com (CSDR, which includes over three thousand trials from thirteen sponsors including GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Roche, Sanofi, and Bayer. CSDR asks applicants to state whether they have received ethics approval for their research proposal, but in most cases does not require that they submit evidence of approval. However, the website does require that applicants without ethical approval state the reason it was not required. In order to examine the perspectives of researchers on this topic, we coded every response to that question received by CSDR between June 2014 and February 2017. Of 111 applicants who stated they were exempt from ethics approval, 63% mentioned de-identification, 57% mentioned the use of existing data, 33% referred to local or jurisdictional regulations, and 20% referred to the approvals obtained by the original study. We conclude by examining the experience of CSDR within the broader context of the access mechanisms and policies currently being used by other data sharing platforms, and discuss how our findings might be used to help clinical trial data providers design clear and informative access documents.

  15. "The Gaze Heuristic:" Biography of an Adaptively Rational Decision Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II. As it was never discovered by the Luftwaffe, the technique conferred a decisive advantage upon the RAF throughout the war. After the end of the war in America, German technology was combined with the British heuristic to create the Sidewinder AIM9 missile, the most successful autonomous weapon ever built. There are no plans to withdraw it or replace its guiding gaze heuristic. The case study demonstrates that the gaze heuristic is a specific heuristic type that takes a single best input at the best time (take the best 2 ). Its use is an adaptively rational response to specific, rapidly evolving decision environments that has allowed those animals/humans/machines who use it to survive, prosper, and multiply relative to those who do not. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. The Heuristic Value of p in Inductive Statistical Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many statistical methods yield the probability of the observed data – or data more extreme – under the assumption that a particular hypothesis is true. This probability is commonly known as ‘the’ p-value. (Null Hypothesis Significance Testing ([NH]ST is the most prominent of these methods. The p-value has been subjected to much speculation, analysis, and criticism. We explore how well the p-value predicts what researchers presumably seek: the probability of the hypothesis being true given the evidence, and the probability of reproducing significant results. We also explore the effect of sample size on inferential accuracy, bias, and error. In a series of simulation experiments, we find that the p-value performs quite well as a heuristic cue in inductive inference, although there are identifiable limits to its usefulness. We conclude that despite its general usefulness, the p-value cannot bear the full burden of inductive inference; it is but one of several heuristic cues available to the data analyst. Depending on the inferential challenge at hand, investigators may supplement their reports with effect size estimates, Bayes factors, or other suitable statistics, to communicate what they think the data say.

  17. The Heuristic Value of p in Inductive Statistical Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joachim I; Heck, Patrick R

    2017-01-01

    Many statistical methods yield the probability of the observed data - or data more extreme - under the assumption that a particular hypothesis is true. This probability is commonly known as 'the' p -value. (Null Hypothesis) Significance Testing ([NH]ST) is the most prominent of these methods. The p -value has been subjected to much speculation, analysis, and criticism. We explore how well the p -value predicts what researchers presumably seek: the probability of the hypothesis being true given the evidence, and the probability of reproducing significant results. We also explore the effect of sample size on inferential accuracy, bias, and error. In a series of simulation experiments, we find that the p -value performs quite well as a heuristic cue in inductive inference, although there are identifiable limits to its usefulness. We conclude that despite its general usefulness, the p -value cannot bear the full burden of inductive inference; it is but one of several heuristic cues available to the data analyst. Depending on the inferential challenge at hand, investigators may supplement their reports with effect size estimates, Bayes factors, or other suitable statistics, to communicate what they think the data say.

  18. Heuristics Miner for E-Commerce Visitor Access Pattern Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartina Diah Kesuma Wardhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce click stream data can form a certain pattern that describe visitor behavior while surfing the e-commerce website. This pattern can be used to initiate a design to determine alternative access sequence on the website. This research use heuristic miner algorithm to determine the pattern. σ-Algorithm and Genetic Mining are methods used for pattern recognition with frequent sequence item set approach. Heuristic Miner is an evolved form of those methods. σ-Algorithm assume that an activity in a website, that has been recorded in the data log, is a complete sequence from start to finish, without any tolerance to incomplete data or data with noise. On the other hand, Genetic Mining is a method that tolerate incomplete data or data with noise, so it can generate a more detailed e-commerce visitor access pattern. In this study, the same sequence of events obtained from six-generated patterns. The resulting pattern of visitor access is that visitors are often access the home page and then the product category page or the home page and then the full text search page.

  19. A manpower scheduling heuristic for aircraft maintenance application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Sze, Jeeu-Fong; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2012-09-01

    This research studies a manpower scheduling for aircraft maintenance, focusing on in-flight food loading operation. A group of loading teams with flexible shifts is required to deliver and upload packaged meals from the ground kitchen to aircrafts in multiple trips. All aircrafts must be served within predefined time windows. The scheduling process takes into account of various constraints such as meal break allocation, multi-trip traveling and food exposure time limit. Considering the aircrafts movement and predefined maximum working hours for each loading team, the main objective of this study is to form an efficient roster by assigning a minimum number of loading teams to the aircrafts. We proposed an insertion based heuristic to generate the solutions in a short period of time for large instances. This proposed algorithm is implemented in various stages for constructing trips due to the presence of numerous constraints. The robustness and efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated in computational results. The results show that the insertion heuristic more efficiently outperforms the company's current practice.

  20. Storage costs and heuristics interact to produce patterns of aphasic sentence comprehension performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Despite general agreement that aphasic individuals exhibit difficulty understanding complex sentences, the nature of sentence complexity itself is unresolved. In addition, aphasic individuals appear to make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences, and the other based on dependency locality theory (DLT). Complexity metrics derived from these theories are evaluated under various assumptions of heuristic use. A set of complexity metrics was derived from each general theory of sentence complexity and paired with assumptions of heuristic use. Probability spaces were generated that summarized the possible patterns of performance across 16 different sentence structures. The maximum likelihood of comprehension scores of 42 aphasic individuals was then computed for each probability space and the expected scores from the best-fitting points in the space were recorded for comparison to the actual scores. Predictions were then compared using measures of fit quality derived from linear mixed effects models. All three of the metrics that provide the most consistently accurate predictions of patient scores rely on storage costs based on the DLT. Patients appear to employ an Agent-Theme heuristic, but vary in their tendency to accept heuristically generated interpretations. Furthermore, the ability to apply the heuristic may be degraded in proportion to aphasia severity. DLT-derived storage costs provide the best prediction of sentence comprehension patterns in aphasia. Because these costs are estimated by counting incomplete syntactic dependencies at each point in a sentence, this finding suggests that aphasia is associated with reduced availability of cognitive resources for maintaining these dependencies.

  1. Heuristic evaluation of online COPD respiratory therapy and education video resource center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Purpose: Because of limited accessibility to pulmonary rehabilitation programs, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are infrequently provided with patient education resources. To help educate patients with COPD on how to live a better life with diminished breathing capacity, we developed a novel social media resource center containing COPD respiratory therapy and education videos called "COPDFlix." A heuristic evaluation of COPDFlix was conducted as part of a larger study to determine whether the prototype was successful in adhering to formal Web site usability guidelines for older adults. A purposive sample of three experts, with expertise in Web design and health communications technology, was recruited (a) to identify usability violations and (b) to propose solutions to improve the functionality of the COPDFlix prototype. Each expert evaluated 18 heuristics in four categories of task-based criteria (i.e., interaction and navigation, information architecture, presentation design, and information design). Seventy-six subcriteria across these four categories were assessed. Quantitative ratings and qualitative comments from each expert were compiled into a single master list, noting the violated heuristic and type/location of problem(s). Sixty-one usability violations were identified across the 18 heuristics. Evaluators rated the majority of heuristic subcriteria as either a "minor hindrance" (n=32) or "no problem" (n=132). Moreover, only 2 of the 18 heuristic categories were noted as "major" violations, with mean severity scores of ≥3. Mixed-methods data analysis helped the multidisciplinary research team to categorize and prioritize usability problems and solutions, leading to 26 discrete design modifications within the COPDFlix prototype.

  2. A tabu-search heuristic for solving the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar D'Agostini Oliveira Casalinho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently the logistical problems are relying quite significantly on Operational Research in order to achieve greater efficiency in their operations. Among the problems related to the vehicles scheduling in a logistics system, the Multiple Depot Vehicle Scheduling Problem (MDVSP has been addressed in several studies. The MDVSP presupposes the existence of depots that affect the planning of sequences to which travel must be performed. Often, exact methods cannot solve large instances encountered in practice and in order to take them into account, several heuristic approaches are being developed. The aim of this study was thus to solve the MDVSP using a meta-heuristic based on tabu-search method. The main motivation for this work came from the indication that only recently the use of meta-heuristics is being applied to MDVSP context (Pepin et al. 2008 and, also, the limitations listed by Rohde (2008 in his study, which used the branch-and-bound in one of the steps of the heuristic presented to solve the problem, which has increased the time resolution. The research method for solving this problem was based on adaptations of traditional techniques of Operational Research, and provided resolutions presenting very competitive results for the MDVSP such as the cost of the objective function, number of vehicles used and computational time.

  3. The Use of 'No Evidence' Statements in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cummings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health communication makes extensive use of a linguistic formulation that will be called the “no evidence” statement. This is a written or spoken statement of the form “There is no evidence that P” where P stands for a proposition that typically describes a human health risk. Danger lurks in these expressions for the hearer or reader who is not logically perspicacious, as arguments that use them are only warranted under certain conditions. The extent to which members of the public are able to determine what those conditions are will be considered by examining data obtained from 879 subjects. The role of “no evidence” statements as cognitive heuristics in public health reasoning is considered.

  4. Opening statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, P.

    1985-01-01

    This introductory speech covered the following: allocation, within United Kingdom government departments, of responsibilities for radioactive waste management policy; non-departmental organizations concerned; public relations; inventories of radioactive waste; research programmes; high-level wastes - vitrification and underground disposal; low- and intermediate-level wastes - consultation with public before fixing disposal sites; sea disposal. (U.K.)

  5. Cultural heuristics in risk assessment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Behaviour change models in HIV prevention tend to consider that risky sexual behaviours reflect risk assessments and that by changing risk assessments behaviour can be changed. Risk assessment is however culturally constructed. Individuals use heuristics or bounded cognitive devices derived from broader cultural meaning systems to rationalize uncertainty. In this study, we identify some of the cultural heuristics used by migrant men in Goa, India to assess their risk of HIV infection from different sexual partners. Data derives from a series of in-depth interviews and a locally informed survey. Cultural heuristics identified include visual heuristics, heuristics of gender roles, vigilance and trust. The paper argues that, for more culturally informed HIV/AIDS behaviour change interventions, knowledge of cultural heuristics is essential.

  6. A HYBRID HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR THE CLUSTERED TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Mestria

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper proposes a hybrid heuristic algorithm, based on the metaheuristics Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure, Iterated Local Search and Variable Neighborhood Descent, to solve the Clustered Traveling Salesman Problem (CTSP. Hybrid Heuristic algorithm uses several variable neighborhood structures combining the intensification (using local search operators and diversification (constructive heuristic and perturbation routine. In the CTSP, the vertices are partitioned into clusters and all vertices of each cluster have to be visited contiguously. The CTSP is -hard since it includes the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP as a special case. Our hybrid heuristic is compared with three heuristics from the literature and an exact method. Computational experiments are reported for different classes of instances. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid heuristic obtains competitive results within reasonable computational time.

  7. Financial Statements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  9. A grouping hyper-heuristic framework: application on graph colouring

    OpenAIRE

    Elhag, Anas; Özcan, Ender

    2015-01-01

    Grouping problems are hard to solve combinatorial optimisation problems which require partitioning of objects into a minimum number of subsets while a given objective is simultaneously optimised. Selection hyper-heuristics are high level general purpose search methodologies that operate on a space formed by a set of low level heuristics rather than solutions. Most of the recently proposed selection hyper-heuristics are iterative and make use of two key methods which are employed successively;...

  10. Identifying Onboarding Heuristics for Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Weigert Petersen, Falko; Drachen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    a set of heuristics for the design of onboarding phases in mobile games is presented. The heuristics are identified by a lab-based mixed-methods experiment, utilizing lightweight psycho-physiological measures together with self-reported player responses, across three titles that cross the genres...... of puzzle games, base builders and arcade games, and utilize different onboarding phase design approaches. Results showcase how heuristics can be used to design engaging onboarding phases in mobile games....

  11. A heuristic evaluation of the Facebook's advertising tool beacon

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, A; Cole, M

    2009-01-01

    Interface usability is critical to the successful adoption of information systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate interface of Facebook's advertising tool Beacon by using privacy heuristics [4]. Beacon represents an interesting case study because of the negative media and user backlash it received. The findings of heuristic evaluation suggest violation of privacy heuristics [4]. Here, analysis identified concerns about user choice and consent, integrity and security of data, and awarene...

  12. Interliminal Design: Understanding cognitive heuristics to mitigate design distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew McCollough; DeAunne Denmark; Donald Harker

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive heuristics are mental shortcuts adapted over time to enable rapid interpretation of our complex environment. They are intrinsic to human cognition and resist modification. Heuristics applied outside the context to which they are best suited are termed cognitive bias, and are the cause of systematic errors in judgment and reasoning. As both a cognitive and intuitive discipline, design by individuals is vulnerable to context-inappropriate heuristic usage. Designing in groups can act p...

  13. Heuristic Portfolio Trading Rules with Capital Gain Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Gallmeyer, Michael

    in some cases. Overlaying simple tax trading heuristics on these trading strategies improves out-of-sample performance. In particular, the 1/N trading strategy's welfare gains improve when a variety of tax trading heuristics are also imposed. For medium to large transaction costs, no trading strategy can...... outperform a 1/N trading strategy augmented with a tax heuristic, not even the most tax- and transaction-cost efficient buy-and-hold strategy. Overall, the best strategy is 1/N augmented with a heuristic that allows for a fixed deviation in absolute portfolio weights. Our results show that the best trading...

  14. Intelligent process mapping through systematic improvement of heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Aizawa, Akiko N.; Schwartz, Steven R.; Wah, Benjamin W.; Yan, Jerry C.

    1992-01-01

    The present system for automatic learning/evaluation of novel heuristic methods applicable to the mapping of communication-process sets on a computer network has its basis in the testing of a population of competing heuristic methods within a fixed time-constraint. The TEACHER 4.1 prototype learning system implemented or learning new postgame analysis heuristic methods iteratively generates and refines the mappings of a set of communicating processes on a computer network. A systematic exploration of the space of possible heuristic methods is shown to promise significant improvement.

  15. A lack of appetite for information and computation. Simple heuristics in food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Sohn, Matthias; de Bellis, Emanuel; Martin, Nathalie; Hertwig, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    The predominant, but largely untested, assumption in research on food choice is that people obey the classic commandments of rational behavior: they carefully look up every piece of relevant information, weight each piece according to subjective importance, and then combine them into a judgment or choice. In real world situations, however, the available time, motivation, and computational resources may simply not suffice to keep these commandments. Indeed, there is a large body of research suggesting that human choice is often better accommodated by heuristics-simple rules that enable decision making on the basis of a few, but important, pieces of information. We investigated the prevalence of such heuristics in a computerized experiment that engaged participants in a series of choices between two lunch dishes. Employing MouselabWeb, a process-tracing technique, we found that simple heuristics described an overwhelmingly large proportion of choices, whereas strategies traditionally deemed rational were barely apparent in our data. Replicating previous findings, we also observed that visual stimulus segments received a much larger proportion of attention than any nutritional values did. Our results suggest that, consistent with human behavior in other domains, people make their food choices on the basis of simple and informationally frugal heuristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heuristic reasoning and cognitive biases: Are they hindrances to judgments and decision making in orthodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, E Preston; Kluemper, G Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Studies show that our brains use 2 modes of reasoning: heuristic (intuitive, automatic, implicit processing) and analytic (deliberate, rule-based, explicit processing). The use of intuition often dominates problem solving when innovative, creative thinking is required. Under conditions of uncertainty, we default to an even greater reliance on the heuristic processing. In health care settings and other such environments of increased importance, this mode becomes problematic. Since choice heuristics are quickly constructed from fragments of memory, they are often biased by prior evaluations of and preferences for the alternatives being considered. Therefore, a rigorous and systematic decision process notwithstanding, clinical judgments under uncertainty are often flawed by a number of unwitting biases. Clinical orthodontics is as vulnerable to this fundamental failing in the decision-making process as any other health care discipline. Several of the more common cognitive biases relevant to clinical orthodontics are discussed in this article. By raising awareness of these sources of cognitive errors in our clinical decision making, our intent was to equip the clinician to take corrective action to avoid them. Our secondary goal was to expose this important area of empirical research and encourage those with expertise in the cognitive sciences to explore, through further research, the possible relevance and impact of cognitive heuristics and biases on the accuracy of orthodontic judgments and decision making. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sponsorship statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the generous support of the following sponsors: National Authority for Scientific Research, RomaniaANCS logo Hidroelectrica S.A., RomaniaHidroelectrica_logo Machine Buiding Factory - UCM Reşiţa, RomaniaUCM Resita logo Hydro-Engineering S.A., RomaniaHydro Engineering logo Voith Hydro Holding GmbH, GermanyVoith_logo Andritz Hydro GmbH, AustriaAndritz_logo_large logo Alstom Hydro, FranceAlstom logo Advanced Design Technology Ltd., United Kingdomadt_logo logo

  18. Using heuristic search for optimizing maintenance plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, Teemu

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the maintenance action selection process. Maintenance personnel need to evaluate maintenance actions and costs to keep the machines in working condition. Group of actions are evaluated together as maintenance plans. The maintenance plans as output provide information to the user about which actions to take if any and what future actions should be prepared for. The heuristic search method is implemented as part of general use toolbox for analysis of measurements from movable work machines. Impacts from machine's usage restrictions and maintenance activities are analysed. The results show that once put on a temporal perspective, the prioritized order of the actions is different and provide additional information to the user.

  19. Efficient heuristics for the Rural Postman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GW Groves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A local search framework for the (undirected Rural Postman Problem (RPP is presented in this paper. The framework allows local search approaches that have been applied successfully to the well–known Travelling Salesman Problem also to be applied to the RPP. New heuristics for the RPP, based on this framework, are introduced and these are capable of solving significantly larger instances of the RPP than have been reported in the literature. Test results are presented for a number of benchmark RPP instances in a bid to compare efficiency and solution quality against known methods.

  20. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  1. Heuristics for the Robust Coloring Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gutiérrez Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Let $G$ and $\\bar{G}$ be complementary graphs. Given a penalty function defined on the edges of $G$, we will say that the rigidity of a $k$-coloring of $G$ is the sum of the penalties of the edges of G joining vertices of the same color. Based on the previous definition, the Robust Coloring Problem (RCP is stated as the search of the minimum rigidity $k$-coloring. In this work a comparison of heuristics based on simulated annealing, GRASP and scatter search is presented. These are the best results for the RCP that have been obtained.

  2. Further heuristics for $k$-means: The merge-and-split heuristic and the $(k,l)$-means

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Frank; Nock, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Finding the optimal $k$-means clustering is NP-hard in general and many heuristics have been designed for minimizing monotonically the $k$-means objective. We first show how to extend Lloyd's batched relocation heuristic and Hartigan's single-point relocation heuristic to take into account empty-cluster and single-point cluster events, respectively. Those events tend to increasingly occur when $k$ or $d$ increases, or when performing several restarts. First, we show that those special events ...

  3. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  4. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  5. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  6. READING TEXT POPULAR SONG INDONESIA: STUDY SEMIOTIC-HEURISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Widawati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper is the result of the research that based on the phenomenon in Indonesia today. The texts of Indonesian popular songs that part of the literature which create new vocabularies or make the modification of old language. The structure of this work seems to be odd. It means the new vocabulary is different from the standard of Indonesian structure. The aim of this descriptions are the correction of (1 the mistake of the phenomenon in the text of Indonesian popular songs (2 the meaning of indonesian popular songs must be based on reading of semiotics and heuristic.  To describe this purpose, we use semiotic theory and structuralism. While the sources of this research are adopted from the texts of Indonesian popular songs which are published in 2000-2010 periode. Both Indonesian popular songs, either good songs or odd songs which has the value of good literature, namely which consist of good structure, poetic, romantic with symbolic style. Heuristically readings of the two text Indonesian songs indicate violations of linguistic rules either syntagmatic, paradigmatic, meaningfulness relations and composition. Keywords: the text of Indonesian popular song, semiotic, heuristic Abstrak. Tulisan ini merupakan hasil penelitian yang didasari oleh fenomena bahwa dewasa ini teks lagu populer Indonesia sebagai bagian dari karya sastra banyak menampilkan kosakata baru ataupun modifikasi kosakata lama, dengan komposisi yang dipandang “menyimpang” dari kaidah tata bahasa baku maupun konvensi sastra. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan (1 fenomena struktur kebahasaan dalam teks lagu populer Indonesia dan (2 makna teks lagu populer Indonesia berdasarkan pembacaan semiotik-heuristik. Untuk mendeskripsikan hal tersebut digunakan teori semiotik dan strukturalisme. Sementara sumber data penelitian ini adalah teks lagu populer Indonesia tahun 2000 – 2010. Baik lagu-lagu yang dipandang menyimpang dari kaidah atau konvensi sastra maupun

  7. PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.

  8. A Modularity Degree Based Heuristic Community Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A community in a complex network can be seen as a subgroup of nodes that are densely connected. Discovery of community structures is a basic problem of research and can be used in various areas, such as biology, computer science, and sociology. Existing community detection methods usually try to expand or collapse the nodes partitions in order to optimize a given quality function. These optimization function based methods share the same drawback of inefficiency. Here we propose a heuristic algorithm (MDBH algorithm based on network structure which employs modularity degree as a measure function. Experiments on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks show that our algorithm gives competitive accuracy with previous modularity optimization methods, even though it has less computational complexity. Furthermore, due to the use of modularity degree, our algorithm naturally improves the resolution limit in community detection.

  9. Combined Heuristic Attack Strategy on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the existence of a complex network is considered an advantage feature and efforts are made to increase its robustness against an attack. However, there exist also harmful and/or malicious networks, from social ones like spreading hoax, corruption, phishing, extremist ideology, and terrorist support up to computer networks spreading computer viruses or DDoS attack software or even biological networks of carriers or transport centers spreading disease among the population. New attack strategy can be therefore used against malicious networks, as well as in a worst-case scenario test for robustness of a useful network. A common measure of robustness of networks is their disintegration level after removal of a fraction of nodes. This robustness can be calculated as a ratio of the number of nodes of the greatest remaining network component against the number of nodes in the original network. Our paper presents a combination of heuristics optimized for an attack on a complex network to achieve its greatest disintegration. Nodes are deleted sequentially based on a heuristic criterion. Efficiency of classical attack approaches is compared to the proposed approach on Barabási-Albert, scale-free with tunable power-law exponent, and Erdős-Rényi models of complex networks and on real-world networks. Our attack strategy results in a faster disintegration, which is counterbalanced by its slightly increased computational demands.

  10. Advances in heuristically based generalized perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1994-01-01

    A distinctive feature of heuristically based generalized perturbation theory methodology consists in the systematic use of importance conservation concepts. As well known, this use leads to fundamental reciprocity relationship. Instead, the alternative variational and differential one approaches make a consistent use of the properties and adjoint functions. The equivalence between the importance and the adjoint functions have been demonstrated in important cases. There are some instances, however, in which the commonly known operator governing the adjoint function are not adequate. In this paper ways proposed to generalize this rules, as adopted with the heuristic generalized perturbation theory methodology, are illustrated. When applied to the neutron/nuclide field characterizing the core evolution in a power reactor system, in which also an intensive control variable (ρ) is defined, these rules leas to an orthogonality relationship connected to this same control variable. A set of ρ-mode eigenfunctions may be correspondingly defined and an extended concept of reactivity (generalizing that commonly associated with the multiplication factor) proposed as more directly indicative of the controllability of a critical reactor system. (author). 25 refs

  11. 48 CFR 35.005 - Work statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (b) In basic research the emphasis is on achieving specified objectives and knowledge rather than on... between work statements for fixed-price contracts and cost-reimbursement contracts should be even clearer...

  12. Annual report and accounting statements 2007: ELETROBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the actives of the ELETROBRAS during the year 2007 related to: electricity market, international activities, strategic planning, financial indicators, business analysis, relationship with investors, energy marketing, operational research, technological development, financial statements, social responsibility and environment

  13. Closing Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    2015-01-01

    For me, this week has been a success. I have been impressed with the range and depth of discussion that has taken place, not only in the formal sessions, but also in the coffee breaks, over lunch and into the evening. When we placed an international call for papers earlier this year, we did not expect that we would receive 400 abstracts and end up arranging 237 oral presentations and 91 poster sessions. There have been over 600 participants originating from 54 Member States and 11 invited organizations. A wealth of information and analysis arising from this week's deliberations is now available on the Agency website. This provides you with the chance to catch up on any presentations that you may have missed the first time, as well as providing a resource for future research and application. If you recall, the purpose of the symposium was to foster dialogue and exchange of information involving Member States, the nuclear industry and members of the broader nuclear non-proliferation community, including civil society. I believe we have succeeded on that score. We are living in a rapidly changing world and the nuclear world is no exception. More nuclear material and facilities are coming under safeguards all the time. International nuclear cooperation between States is intensifying with an expansion of trade and services in nuclear and related equipment, items and materials. Also, technologies are changing. Many older nuclear plants are being modernized and becoming more technologically sophisticated. The geographical focus of these expanding programmes also continues to change. Yet, our budget remains static. This means that the only way we can maintain our effectiveness in the face of rising demand for our services, is to become more productive. That is the backdrop to this symposium. The overarching theme was to link strategy, implementation and people: the three core processes of any business. As I said on Monday, the strength of the link between these three

  14. Decision heuristic or preference? Attribute non-attendance in discrete choice problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Watson, Verity; Ryan, Mandy; Phimister, Euan

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates if respondents' choice to not consider all characteristics of a multiattribute health service may represent preferences. Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies account for attribute non-attendance (ANA) when using discrete choice experiments to elicit individuals' preferences. Most studies assume such behaviour is a heuristic and therefore uninformative. This assumption may result in misleading welfare estimates if ANA reflects preferences. This is the first paper to assess if ANA is a heuristic or genuine preference without relying on respondents' self-stated motivation and the first study to explore this question within a health context. Based on findings from cognitive psychology, we expect that familiar respondents are less likely to use a decision heuristic to simplify choices than unfamiliar respondents. We employ a latent class model of discrete choice experiment data concerned with National Health Service managers' preferences for support services that assist with performance concerns. We present quantitative and qualitative evidence that in our study ANA mostly represents preferences. We also show that wrong assumptions about ANA result in inadequate welfare measures that can result in suboptimal policy advice. Future research should proceed with caution when assuming that ANA is a heuristic. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Indoor Trajectory Tracking Scheme Based on Delaunay Triangulation and Heuristic Information in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junping; Sun, Shiwen; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Limin; Tian, Yonghong

    2017-06-02

    Object tracking and detection is one of the most significant research areas for wireless sensor networks. Existing indoor trajectory tracking schemes in wireless sensor networks are based on continuous localization and moving object data mining. Indoor trajectory tracking based on the received signal strength indicator ( RSSI ) has received increased attention because it has low cost and requires no special infrastructure. However, RSSI tracking introduces uncertainty because of the inaccuracies of measurement instruments and the irregularities (unstable, multipath, diffraction) of wireless signal transmissions in indoor environments. Heuristic information includes some key factors for trajectory tracking procedures. This paper proposes a novel trajectory tracking scheme based on Delaunay triangulation and heuristic information (TTDH). In this scheme, the entire field is divided into a series of triangular regions. The common side of adjacent triangular regions is regarded as a regional boundary. Our scheme detects heuristic information related to a moving object's trajectory, including boundaries and triangular regions. Then, the trajectory is formed by means of a dynamic time-warping position-fingerprint-matching algorithm with heuristic information constraints. Field experiments show that the average error distance of our scheme is less than 1.5 m, and that error does not accumulate among the regions.

  16. In Brief: Geoengineering draft statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) has prepared a draft policy statement on geoengineering the climate system, which the AMS Council is considering for approval. The statement notes, “Geoengineering will not substitute for either aggressive mitigation or proactive adaptation. It could contribute to a comprehensive risk management strategy to slow climate change and alleviate its negative impacts, but the potential for adverse and unintended consequences implies a need for adequate research, appropriate regulation, and transparent consideration.” The statement, if adopted, indicates that AMS recommends enhanced research on the scientific and technological potential for geoengineering the climate system; additional study of the historical, ethical, legal, political, and societal aspects of the geoengineering issues; and the development and analysis of policy options to promote transparency and international cooperation in exploring geoengineering options along with restrictions on reckless efforts to manipulate the climate system. AMS is accepting comments on the draft statement until 23 April. For more information, visit http://ametsoc.org/policy/draftstatements/index.html#draft.

  17. Use of Statistical Heuristics in Everyday Inductive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Richard E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In everyday reasoning, people use statistical heuristics (judgmental tools that are rough intuitive equivalents of statistical principles). Use of statistical heuristics is more likely when (1) sampling is clear, (2) the role of chance is clear, (3) statistical reasoning is normative for the event, or (4) the subject has had training in…

  18. A Priori Knowledge and Heuristic Reasoning in Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that the various classes of a priori knowledge incorporated in heuristic reasoning processes exert a strong influence over architectural design activity. Some design problems require exercise of some provisional set of rules, inference, or plausible strategy which requires heuristic reasoning. A case study illustrates this concept.…

  19. Refining a Heuristic for Constructing Bayesian Networks from Structured Arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, G.M.; Bex, F.J.; van der Gaag, L.C.; Prakken, H.; Renooij, S.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a heuristic was proposed for constructing Bayesian networks (BNs) from structured arguments. This heuristic helps domain experts who are accustomed to argumentation to transform their reasoning into a BN and subsequently weigh their case evidence in a probabilistic manner. While the

  20. Hyper-heuristics with low level parameter adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhilei; Jiang, He; Xuan, Jifeng; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the great success of hyper-heuristics applying to numerous real-world applications. Hyper-heuristics raise the generality of search methodologies by manipulating a set of low level heuristics (LLHs) to solve problems, and aim to automate the algorithm design process. However, those LLHs are usually parameterized, which may contradict the domain independent motivation of hyper-heuristics. In this paper, we show how to automatically maintain low level parameters (LLPs) using a hyper-heuristic with LLP adaptation (AD-HH), and exemplify the feasibility of AD-HH by adaptively maintaining the LLPs for two hyper-heuristic models. Furthermore, aiming at tackling the search space expansion due to the LLP adaptation, we apply a heuristic space reduction (SAR) mechanism to improve the AD-HH framework. The integration of the LLP adaptation and the SAR mechanism is able to explore the heuristic space more effectively and efficiently. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms, we choose the p-median problem as a case study. The empirical results show that with the adaptation of the LLPs and the SAR mechanism, the proposed algorithms are able to achieve competitive results over the three heterogeneous classes of benchmark instances.

  1. Proximity search heuristics for wind farm optimal layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A heuristic framework for turbine layout optimization in a wind farm is proposed that combines ad-hoc heuristics and mixed-integer linear programming. In our framework, large-scale mixed-integer programming models are used to iteratively refine the current best solution according to the recently...

  2. Heuristics for no-wait flow shop scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewal Krishan Nailwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available No-wait flow shop scheduling refers to continuous flow of jobs through different machines. The job once started should have the continuous processing through the machines without wait. This situation occurs when there is a lack of an intermediate storage between the processing of jobs on two consecutive machines. The problem of no-wait with the objective of minimizing makespan in flow shop scheduling is NP-hard; therefore the heuristic algorithms are the key to solve the problem with optimal solution or to approach nearer to optimal solution in simple manner. The paper describes two heuristics, one constructive and an improvement heuristic algorithm obtained by modifying the constructive one for sequencing n-jobs through m-machines in a flow shop under no-wait constraint with the objective of minimizing makespan. The efficiency of the proposed heuristic algorithms is tested on 120 Taillard’s benchmark problems found in the literature against the NEH under no-wait and the MNEH heuristic for no-wait flow shop problem. The improvement heuristic outperforms all heuristics on the Taillard’s instances by improving the results of NEH by 27.85%, MNEH by 22.56% and that of the proposed constructive heuristic algorithm by 24.68%. To explain the computational process of the proposed algorithm, numerical illustrations are also given in the paper. Statistical tests of significance are done in order to draw the conclusions.

  3. Fairness and other leadership heuristics: A four-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, A.; Levy, L.; Sitkin, S.B.; Lind, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Leaders' fairness may be just one of several heuristics - cognitive shortcuts - that followers use to decide quickly whether they can rely on a given leader to lead them to ends that are good for the collective, rather than just good for the leader. Other leadership heuristics might include leader

  4. HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...

  5. On Dual Processing and Heuristic Approaches to Moral Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the implications of dual-processing theories of cognition for the moral domain, with particular emphasis upon "System 1" theories: the Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt), moral heuristics (Sunstein), fast-and-frugal moral heuristics (Gigerenzer), schema accessibility (Lapsley & Narvaez) and moral expertise (Narvaez). We argue that these…

  6. Efficient Heuristics for Simulating Population Overflow in Parallel Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaburnenko, T.S.; Nicola, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a state-dependent importance sampling heuristic to estimate the probability of population overflow in networks of parallel queues. This heuristic approximates the “optimal��? state-dependent change of measure without the need for costly optimization involved in other

  7. Does the inherence heuristic take us to psychological essentialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmodoro, Anna; Murphy, Robin A; Baker, A G

    2014-10-01

    We argue that the claim that essence-based causal explanations emerge, hydra-like, from an inherence heuristic is incomplete. No plausible mechanism for the transition from concrete properties, or cues, to essences is provided. Moreover, the fundamental shotgun and storytelling mechanisms of the inherence heuristic are not clearly enough specified to distinguish them, developmentally, from associative or causal networks.

  8. Decision-making behavior of experts at nuclear power plants. Regulatory focus influence on cognitive heuristics; Entscheidungsverhalten von Experten in Kernkraftwerken. Der Einfluss des regulatorischen Fokus auf kognitive Heuristiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Johannes

    2015-09-15

    The goal of this research project was to examine factors, on the basis of regulatory focus theory and the heuristics and biases approach, that influence decision-making processes of experts at nuclear power plants. Findings show that this group applies anchoring (heuristic) when evaluating conjunctive and disjunctive events and that they maintain a constant regulatory focus characteristic. No influence of the experts' characteristic regulatory focus on cognitive heuristics could be established. Theoretical and practical consequences on decision-making behavior of experts are presented. Finally, a method for measuring the use of heuristics especially in the nuclear industry is discussed.

  9. Knowledge discovery in hyper-heuristic using case-based reasoning on course timetabling

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Edmund; MacCarthy, Bart L.; Petrovic, Sanja; Qu, Rong

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new hyper-heuristic method using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) for solving course timetabling problems. The term Hyper-heuristics has recently been employed to refer to 'heuristics that choose heuristics' rather than heuristics that operate directly on given problems. One of the overriding motivations of hyper-heuristic methods is the attempt to develop techniques that can operate with greater generality than is currently possible. The basic idea behind this is that we main...

  10. Ten heuristics to evaluate the user experience of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fitchat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of serious games to promote effective learning has been establishedin the literature. However, designing effective serious games that strike a balancebetween being entertaining and at the same time instructional, remains elusive.This research turns to the field of human-computer interaction (HCI toinvestigate the aspects that are most influential to the player’s experiences withserious games. From this, HCI principles to evaluate the user experience ofserious games are identified and described. User experience (UX refers to howindividuals perceive and respond to using interactive systems such as seriousgames. Since UX is regarded as subjective in nature, this study was conductedusing interpretative phenomenological analysis, which focuses on idiographicinquiry. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five participants afterthey were given time to play a serious game. The serious game, titledStoryTimes,aims to teach the user the multiplication tables by employing memory associationtechniques in a fun and innovative way.StoryTimeswas developed as part of thisresearch to investigate how HCI principles are applied during the developmentcycle of a serious game. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitativelyto determine which aspects of the serious game were regarded as the mostimportant from the participants’ point of view. The findings indicate that playersof serious games prefer mobile gaming platforms and have certain expectationsregarding how subject content is integrated into video games. It also reveals thedesign challenges associated with the attention spans and very diverse natures of individual players. These aspects were recast in the form of ten heuristics thatcould be applied when evaluating the UX of serious games. Designers of seriousgames can use these heuristics during the development process to create a learningenvironment that is both effective and fun.

  11. Financial Statement Math

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis

  12. THE HEURISTIC POTENTIAL OF ANOMIE THEORY IN MODERN CRIMINOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modern English theories of anomie. They can be used in Russian criminology.  The main goal of article consists in detection of actual theories of anomie and definition of prospects of their use. As modern theories of anomie are poorly submitted in the Russian sociological and criminological literature, the subject of research is actual. This work contains the analysis of opportunities for adoption of modern conceptions of anomie of individual in Russian practice. During research development of the theory of anomie in the history of sociology was considered. The problem of anomie was admitted actual antique Greece. Anomie which is today concerned with normlessness and related to alienation is associated primarily with the works of Durkheim and Merton. Anomia developed in research by MacIver and Srole as a characteristic of individuals and related to the breakdown of the individual’s sense of attachment to society. Results of theoretical research show that theories of anomie of the personality have the greatest heuristic potential for modern Russian science. Other important conclusion of research is one that the anomie can have some sources of emergence. Further studying of this subject is necessary because English-language theories of anomie contain a set of theoretical and empirical results which can be used in the Russian criminology.

  13. [The heuristics of reaching a diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Eduardo

    2009-12-01

    Making a diagnosis in medicine is a complex process in which many cognitive and psychological issues are involved. After the first encounter with the patient, an unconscious process ensues to suspect the presence of a particular disease. Usually, complementary tests are requested to confirm the clinical suspicion. The interpretation of requested tests can be biased by the clinical diagnosis that was considered in the first encounter with the patient. The awareness of these sources of error is essential in the interpretation of the findings that will eventually lead to a final diagnosis. This article discusses some aspects of the heuristics involved in the adjudication of priory probabilities and provides a brief review of current concepts of the reasoning process.

  14. Stakeholder Orientation in Cruise Lines’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Penco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the mission statement in the strategic management of tourism firms has not been sufficiently highlighted. The present paper tries to bridge this literature gap and aims to (i analyze the content of mission statements; and (ii investigate the stakeholder orientation of cruise line mission statements. We apply a content analysis method to analyze the mission statements of 44 cruise lines, employing three different perspectives: (1 the inclusion of stakeholder groups; (2 mentions of specific “mission” components; (3 reference to four goals usually assigned to mission statements. The analysis was performed using the software package QDA-Miner. The results suggest that it is possible to identify four clusters of firms that present similar content in their mission statements, and that cruise companies tend to reserve a major attention to customers. This contribution presents some valuable research implications mainly useful for researchers and academics, but also maybe of benefit to professionals and investors.

  15. Heuristics and bias in rectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Ewan; Young, Christopher J; Moug, Susan J; Anderson, Robert G; Shepherd, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    Deciding to defunction after anterior resection can be difficult, requiring cognitive tools or heuristics. From our previous work, increasing age and risk-taking propensity were identified as heuristic biases for surgeons in Australia and New Zealand (CSSANZ), and inversely proportional to the likelihood of creating defunctioning stomas. We aimed to assess these factors for colorectal surgeons in the British Isles, and identify other potential biases. The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) was invited to complete an online survey. Questions included demographics, risk-taking propensity, sensitivity to professional criticism, self-perception of anastomotic leak rate and propensity for creating defunctioning stomas. Chi-squared testing was used to assess differences between ACPGBI and CSSANZ respondents. Multiple regression analysis identified independent surgeon predictors of stoma formation. One hundred fifty (19.2%) eligible members of the ACPGBI replied. Demographics between ACPGBI and CSSANZ groups were well-matched. Significantly more ACPGBI surgeons admitted to anastomotic leak in the last year (p < 0.001). ACPGBI surgeon age over 50 (p = 0.02), higher risk-taking propensity across several domains (p = 0.044), self-belief in a lower-than-average anastomotic leak rate (p = 0.02) and belief that the average risk of leak after anterior resection is 8% or lower (p = 0.007) were all independent predictors of less frequent stoma formation. Sensitivity to criticism from colleagues was not a predictor of stoma formation. Unrecognised surgeon factors including age, everyday risk-taking, self-belief in surgical ability and lower probability bias of anastomotic leak appear to exert an effect on decision-making in rectal surgery.

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... development of research and innovative activities at Russian ... curriculum integration of scientific knowledge in project research .... settle research tasks, use of heuristic approaches, idea generation methods; development of.

  17. Need for closure and heuristic information processing: the moderating role of the ability to achieve the need for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Bar-Tal, Yoram

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to the ample research that shows a positive relationship between the need for closure (NFC) and heuristic information processing, this research examines the hypothesis that this relationship is moderated by the ability to achieve closure (AAC), that is, the ability to use information-processing strategies consistent with the level of NFC. Three different operationalizations of heuristic information processing were used: recall of information consistent with the impression (Study 1); pre-decisional information search (Study 2); and stereotypic impression formation (Study 3). The results of the studies showed that there were positive relationships between NFC and heuristic information processing when participants assessed themselves as being able to use cognitive strategies consistent with their level of NFC (high AAC). For individuals with low AAC, the relationships were negative. Our data show that motivation-cognition interactions influence the information-processing style. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Derived heuristics-based consistent optimization of material flow in a gold processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Christie; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2018-01-01

    Material flow in a chemical processing plant often follows complicated control laws and involves plant capacity constraints. Importantly, the process involves discrete scenarios which when modelled in a programming format involves if-then-else statements. Therefore, a formulation of an optimization problem of such processes becomes complicated with nonlinear and non-differentiable objective and constraint functions. In handling such problems using classical point-based approaches, users often have to resort to modifications and indirect ways of representing the problem to suit the restrictions associated with classical methods. In a particular gold processing plant optimization problem, these facts are demonstrated by showing results from MATLAB®'s well-known fmincon routine. Thereafter, a customized evolutionary optimization procedure which is capable of handling all complexities offered by the problem is developed. Although the evolutionary approach produced results with comparatively less variance over multiple runs, the performance has been enhanced by introducing derived heuristics associated with the problem. In this article, the development and usage of derived heuristics in a practical problem are presented and their importance in a quick convergence of the overall algorithm is demonstrated.

  19. Ethics of sharing scientific and technological data: a heuristic for coping with complexity & uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J E Sieber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing poses complex ethical questions for data management. Manifold conflicting and shifting values need to be reconciled in pursuing viable data-management policies. For example, how does one make data available in useable form to stakeholders including scientists, governments and businesses worldwide, while assuring confidentiality, satisfying one's research ethics committee, protecting intellectual property and national security, and containing costs? Increasingly, ethical problem solving requires integration of ethics with technological "know how" and empirical research on the presenting problem. Each problem is highly contextual; broad application of general ethical principles such as always practice openness, or prepare all data for sharing, may have harmful unintended consequences. Chaos theory provides a heuristic or vision for understanding and coping with complexity and uncertainty. It does not provide answers to problems of data management, but frames the issues, and provides appropriate expectations and heuristics for considering data management problems.

  20. Cognitive load during route selection increases reliance on spatial heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2018-05-01

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. This study tested a prediction from decision-making theory that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2) and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  1. Heuristics, biases and traps in managerial decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gál

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the impact of heuristics, biases and psychological traps on the decision making. Heuristics are unconscious routines people use to cope with the complexity inherent in most decision situations. They serve as mental shortcuts that help people to simplify and structure the information encountered in the world. These heuristics could be quite useful in some situations, while in others they can lead to severe and systematic errors, based on significant deviations from the fundamental principles of statistics, probability and sound judgment. This paper focuses on illustrating the existence of the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics, originally described by Tversky & Kahneman in the early 1970’s. The anchoring heuristic is a tendency to focus on the initial information, estimate or perception (even random or irrelevant number as a starting point. People tend to give disproportionate weight to the initial information they receive. The availability heuristic explains why highly imaginable or vivid information have a disproportionate effect on people’s decisions. The representativeness heuristic causes that people rely on highly specific scenarios, ignore base rates, draw conclusions based on small samples and neglect scope. Mentioned phenomena are illustrated and supported by evidence based on the statistical analysis of the results of a questionnaire.

  2. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  3. Evaluating common de-identification heuristics for personal health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Jabbouri, Sam; Sams, Scott; Drouet, Youenn; Power, Michael

    2006-11-21

    With the growing adoption of electronic medical records, there are increasing demands for the use of this electronic clinical data in observational research. A frequent ethics board requirement for such secondary use of personal health information in observational research is that the data be de-identified. De-identification heuristics are provided in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule, funding agency and professional association privacy guidelines, and common practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the re-identification risks due to record linkage are sufficiently low when following common de-identification heuristics and whether the risk is stable across sample sizes and data sets. Two methods were followed to construct identification data sets. Re-identification attacks were simulated on these. For each data set we varied the sample size down to 30 individuals, and for each sample size evaluated the risk of re-identification for all combinations of quasi-identifiers. The combinations of quasi-identifiers that were low risk more than 50% of the time were considered stable. The identification data sets we were able to construct were the list of all physicians and the list of all lawyers registered in Ontario, using 1% sampling fractions. The quasi-identifiers of region, gender, and year of birth were found to be low risk more than 50% of the time across both data sets. The combination of gender and region was also found to be low risk more than 50% of the time. We were not able to create an identification data set for the whole population. Existing Canadian federal and provincial privacy laws help explain why it is difficult to create an identification data set for the whole population. That such examples of high re-identification risk exist for mainstream professions makes a strong case for not disclosing the high-risk variables and their combinations identified here. For professional subpopulations with published

  4. The use of choice heuristic in daily activity travel behaviour: an expert system

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; WETS, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agentbased modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their daily activity space. Recorded interview...

  5. A comparison of Heuristic method and Llewellyn’s rules for identification of redundant constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiningsih, Y.; Farikhin; Tjahjana, R. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important techniques in linear programming is modelling and solving practical optimization. Redundant constraints are consider for their effects on general linear programming problems. Identification and reduce redundant constraints are for avoidance of all the calculations associated when solving an associated linear programming problems. Many researchers have been proposed for identification redundant constraints. This paper a compararison of Heuristic method and Llewellyn’s rules for identification of redundant constraints.

  6. TOUR CONSTRUCTION HEURISTICS FOR AN ORDER SEQUENCING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Villiers, A. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An order picking system that requires pickers to move in a clockwise direction around a picking line with fixed locations is considered. The problem is divided into three tiers. The tier in which orders must be sequenced is addressed. Eight tour construction heuristics are developed and implemented for an order picking system operating in unidirectional picking lines. Two classes of tour construction heuristics the tour construction starting position ( and the tour construction ending position ( are developed to sequence orders in a picking line. All algorithms are tested and compared using real life data sets. The best solution quality was obtained by a heuristic with adaptations.

  7. On the Importance of Elimination Heuristics in Lazy Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Læsø; Butz, Cory J.

    2012-01-01

    elimination orders on-line. This paper considers the importance of elimination heuristics in LP when using Variable Elimination (VE) as the message and single marginal computation algorithm. It considers well-known cost measures for selecting the next variable to eliminate and a new cost measure....... The empirical evaluation examines dierent heuristics as well as sequences of cost measures, and was conducted on real-world and randomly generated Bayesian networks. The results show that for most cases performance is robust relative to the cost measure used and in some cases the elimination heuristic can have...

  8. Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen

    In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...... problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta-heuristic...

  9. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices. Thus both motor heuristics and embodied choices explain complex behavior such as studied in sport and exercise psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heuristic Portfolio Trading Rules with Capital Gain Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Gallmeyer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the out-of-sample performance of portfolio trading strategies used when an investor faces capital gain taxation and proportional transaction costs. Overlaying simple tax trading heuristics on trading strategies improves out-of-sample performance. For medium to large transaction costs......, no trading strategy can outperform a 1/N trading strategy augmented with a tax heuristic, not even the most tax and transaction cost-efficient buy-and-hold strategy. Overall, the best strategy is 1/N augmented with a heuristic that allows for a fixed deviation in absolute portfolio weights. Our results thus...... show that the best trading strategies balance diversification considerations and tax considerations....

  11. Sophisticated approval voting, ignorance priors, and plurality heuristics: a behavioral social choice analysis in a Thurstonian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-10-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two types of plurality heuristics to model approval voting behavior. When using a sincere plurality heuristic, voters simplify their decision process by voting for their single favorite candidate. When using a strategic plurality heuristic, voters strategically focus their attention on the 2 front-runners and vote for their preferred candidate among these 2. Using a hierarchy of Thurstonian random utility models, the authors implemented these different decision rules and tested them statistically on 7 real world approval voting elections. They cross-validated their key findings via a psychological Internet experiment. Although a substantial number of voters used the plurality heuristic in the real elections, they did so sincerely, not strategically. Moreover, even though Thurstonian models do not force such agreement, the results show, in contrast to common wisdom about social choice rules, that the sincere social orders by Condorcet, Borda, plurality, and approval voting are identical in all 7 elections and in the Internet experiment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Relinquishing knowing and reclaiming being: a heuristic self-search inquiry of becoming a counsellor through learning to tolerate uncertainty by reflecting on experiences in life, counselling practice and research

    OpenAIRE

    Tweedie, Krista Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Previous research emphasises the importance of a counsellor’s ‘way of being’ in determining therapeutic effectiveness and outcome. The capacity to tolerate uncertainty is regarded as an important counsellor attribute. However, failing to show how counsellors learn this, limits the practical relevance of the existing literature for psychotherapy and counselling. This study questions how a counsellor can learn to bring his or her self more fully into relationship with clients and wh...

  13. Opening statements and general statements by delegation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    23 delegations have submitted general reports and statements on the situation and evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle. Each report reflects the particular interests of the country that submitted it. All in all, these reports provide general background information on the subject of the conference

  14. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy TL; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise TD

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to promote better consumption choices. Results indicate that consumers low in self-control especially benefited and selected more healthy choices when marketed as “scarce” (Study 1), and that a demand (vs supply) scarcity heuristic was most effective in promoting utilitarian products (Study 2) suggests low self-control involves both an enhanced reward orientation and increased tendency to conform to descriptive norms. PMID:28070377

  15. KEY ELEMENTS OF HEURISTIC METHODS USAGE IN FOREIGN THEORY OF EDUCATION (ON THE BASIS OF GREAT BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify key elements of employing heuristic teaching methods in foreign theory of education. Methodology: a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the issues of teaching creativity. Results: on the basis of theoretical analysis the main criteria of heuristic teaching methods are revealed: repeatability; absence of a single decision; need for group discussions; flexibility; wide variability; promotion of creative teaching; influence on the character of knowledge and relationships between the teacher and the students. Heuristic teaching methods have been divided into: methods of working with information, methods of working with problems, methods of research and methods of analyzing the decisions. The main characteristics of each group of methods are presented and certain recommendations for applying them in teaching creativity are given. Practical implications: the system of education.

  16. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  17. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  18. Complex Chemical Reaction Networks from Heuristics-Aided Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Dmitrij; Galvin, Cooper J; Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-03-11

    While structures and reactivities of many small molecules can be computed efficiently and accurately using quantum chemical methods, heuristic approaches remain essential for modeling complex structures and large-scale chemical systems. Here, we present a heuristics-aided quantum chemical methodology applicable to complex chemical reaction networks such as those arising in cell metabolism and prebiotic chemistry. Chemical heuristics offer an expedient way of traversing high-dimensional reactive potential energy surfaces and are combined here with quantum chemical structure optimizations, which yield the structures and energies of the reaction intermediates and products. Application of heuristics-aided quantum chemical methodology to the formose reaction reproduces the experimentally observed reaction products, major reaction pathways, and autocatalytic cycles.

  19. Impact of heuristics in clustering large biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafin, Md Kishwar; Kabir, Kazi Lutful; Ridwan, Iffatur; Anannya, Tasmiah Tamzid; Karim, Rashid Saadman; Hoque, Mohammad Mozammel; Rahman, M Sohel

    2015-12-01

    Traditional clustering algorithms often exhibit poor performance for large networks. On the contrary, greedy algorithms are found to be relatively efficient while uncovering functional modules from large biological networks. The quality of the clusters produced by these greedy techniques largely depends on the underlying heuristics employed. Different heuristics based on different attributes and properties perform differently in terms of the quality of the clusters produced. This motivates us to design new heuristics for clustering large networks. In this paper, we have proposed two new heuristics and analyzed the performance thereof after incorporating those with three different combinations in a recently celebrated greedy clustering algorithm named SPICi. We have extensively analyzed the effectiveness of these new variants. The results are found to be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The priority heuristic: making choices without trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Eduard; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph

    2006-04-01

    Bernoulli's framework of expected utility serves as a model for various psychological processes, including motivation, moral sense, attitudes, and decision making. To account for evidence at variance with expected utility, the authors generalize the framework of fast and frugal heuristics from inferences to preferences. The priority heuristic predicts (a) the Allais paradox, (b) risk aversion for gains if probabilities are high, (c) risk seeking for gains if probabilities are low (e.g., lottery tickets), (d) risk aversion for losses if probabilities are low (e.g., buying insurance), (e) risk seeking for losses if probabilities are high, (f) the certainty effect, (g) the possibility effect, and (h) intransitivities. The authors test how accurately the heuristic predicts people's choices, compared with previously proposed heuristics and 3 modifications of expected utility theory: security-potential/aspiration theory, transfer-of-attention-exchange model, and cumulative prospect theory. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Priority Heuristic: Making Choices Without Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Eduard; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Bernoulli's framework of expected utility serves as a model for various psychological processes, including motivation, moral sense, attitudes, and decision making. To account for evidence at variance with expected utility, we generalize the framework of fast and frugal heuristics from inferences to preferences. The priority heuristic predicts (i) Allais' paradox, (ii) risk aversion for gains if probabilities are high, (iii) risk seeking for gains if probabilities are low (lottery tickets), (iv) risk aversion for losses if probabilities are low (buying insurance), (v) risk seeking for losses if probabilities are high, (vi) certainty effect, (vii) possibility effect, and (viii) intransitivities. We test how accurately the heuristic predicts people's choices, compared to previously proposed heuristics and three modifications of expected utility theory: security-potential/aspiration theory, transfer-of-attention-exchange model, and cumulative prospect theory. PMID:16637767

  2. Exploring the heuristic value of nonpersonal data for sexual- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the heuristic value of nonpersonal data for sexual- and ... African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention ... African provinces and towns were analysed to identify trends, and visually represent the number of ...

  3. Usage of Major Heuristics in Property Investment Valuation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Key words: Investment Valuation, Major Heuristics, Nigeria,. Property. ... given, estimated, or implied and then proceeds to use this information as the basis of ..... study areas take into account the effect of costly floor and wall finishes in their ...

  4. Draft Statement of Work / Performance Work Statement SOL-R3-13-00006: Region 3 - National Remedial Action Contracts / Multiple Award Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region 3 - EPA is performing market research to determine if industry has the capability and capacity to perform the work, on a national level, as described in the attached draft Statement of Work /Performance Work Statement(SOW/PWS).

  5. A marketing science perspective on recognition-based heuristics (and the fast-and-frugal paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hauser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing science seeks to prescribe better marketing strategies (advertising, product development, pricing, etc.. To do so we rely on models of consumer decisions grounded in empirical observations. Field experience suggests that recognition-based heuristics help consumers to choose which brands to consider and purchase in frequently-purchased categories, but other heuristics are more relevant in durable-goods categories. Screening with recognition is a rational screening rule when advertising is a signal of product quality, when observing other consumers makes it easy to learn decision rules, and when firms react to engineering-design constraints by offering brands such that a high-level on one product feature implies a low level on another product feature. Experience with applications and field experiments suggests four fruitful research topics: deciding how to decide (endogeneity, learning decision rules by self-reflection, risk reduction, and the difference between utility functions and decision rules. These challenges also pose methodological cautions.

  6. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  7. A variable neighborhood descent based heuristic to solve the capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Jabal-Ameli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-routing problem (LRP is established as a new research area in the context of location analysis. The primary concern of LRP is on locating facilities and routing of vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this work, we address the capacitated LRP which arises in many practical applications within logistics and supply chain management. The objective is to minimize the overall system costs which include the fixed costs of opening depots and using vehicles at each depot site, and the variable costs associated with delivery activities. A novel heuristic is proposed which is based on variable neighborhood descent (VND algorithm to solve the resulted problem. The computational study indicates that the proposed VND based heuristic is highly competitive with the existing solution algorithms in terms of solution quality.

  8. Internal Medicine residents use heuristics to estimate disease probability

    OpenAIRE

    Phang, Sen Han; Ravani, Pietro; Schaefer, Jeffrey; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Training in Bayesian reasoning may have limited impact on accuracy of probability estimates. In this study, our goal was to explore whether residents previously exposed to Bayesian reasoning use heuristics rather than Bayesian reasoning to estimate disease probabilities. We predicted that if residents use heuristics then post-test probability estimates would be increased by non-discriminating clinical features or a high anchor for a target condition. Method: We randomized 55 In...

  9. No Need to Get Emotional? Emotions and Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Szigeti, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Many believe that values are crucially dependent on emotions. This paper focuses on epistemic aspects of the putative link between emotions and value by asking two related questions. First, how exactly are emotions supposed to latch onto or track values? And second, how well suited are emotions to detecting or learning about values? To answer the first question, the paper develops the heuristics-model of emotions. This approach models emotions as sui generis heuristics of value. The empirical...

  10. Neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Luo

    Full Text Available A number of major inventions in history have been based on bionic imitation. Heuristics, by applying biological systems to the creation of artificial devices and machines, might be one of the most critical processes in scientific innovation. In particular, prototype heuristics propositions that innovation may engage automatic activation of a prototype such as a biological system to form novel associations between a prototype's function and problem-solving. We speculated that the cortical dissociation between the automatic activation and forming novel associations in innovation is critical point to heuristic creativity. In the present study, novel and old scientific innovations (NSI and OSI were selected as experimental materials in using learning-testing paradigm to explore the neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype. College students were required to resolve NSI problems (to which they did not know the answers and OSI problems (to which they knew the answers. From two fMRI experiments, our results showed that the subjects could resolve NSI when provided with heuristic prototypes. In Experiment 1, it was found that the lingual gyrus (LG; BA18 might be related to prototype heuristics in college students resolving NSI after learning a relative prototype. In Experiment 2, the LG (BA18 and precuneus (BA31 were significantly activated for NSI compared to OSI when college students learned all prototypes one day before the test. In addition, the mean beta-values of these brain regions of NSI were all correlated with the behavior accuracy of NSI. As our hypothesis indicated, the findings suggested that the LG might be involved in forming novel associations using heuristic information, while the precuneus might be involved in the automatic activation of heuristic prototype during scientific innovation.

  11. Neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junlong; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Wei, Dongtao; Liu, Yijun; Zhang, Qinlin

    2013-01-01

    A number of major inventions in history have been based on bionic imitation. Heuristics, by applying biological systems to the creation of artificial devices and machines, might be one of the most critical processes in scientific innovation. In particular, prototype heuristics propositions that innovation may engage automatic activation of a prototype such as a biological system to form novel associations between a prototype's function and problem-solving. We speculated that the cortical dissociation between the automatic activation and forming novel associations in innovation is critical point to heuristic creativity. In the present study, novel and old scientific innovations (NSI and OSI) were selected as experimental materials in using learning-testing paradigm to explore the neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype. College students were required to resolve NSI problems (to which they did not know the answers) and OSI problems (to which they knew the answers). From two fMRI experiments, our results showed that the subjects could resolve NSI when provided with heuristic prototypes. In Experiment 1, it was found that the lingual gyrus (LG; BA18) might be related to prototype heuristics in college students resolving NSI after learning a relative prototype. In Experiment 2, the LG (BA18) and precuneus (BA31) were significantly activated for NSI compared to OSI when college students learned all prototypes one day before the test. In addition, the mean beta-values of these brain regions of NSI were all correlated with the behavior accuracy of NSI. As our hypothesis indicated, the findings suggested that the LG might be involved in forming novel associations using heuristic information, while the precuneus might be involved in the automatic activation of heuristic prototype during scientific innovation.

  12. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, M

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier LtdHuman performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions...

  13. Discovery of IPV6 Router Interface Addresses via Heuristic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS by Matthew D. Gray September...AND SUBTITLE DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CNS-1111445 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew D. Gray 7...Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude

  14. Gene selection heuristic algorithm for nutrigenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Grimard, B; Valour, B

    2013-07-15

    Large datasets from -omics studies need to be deeply investigated. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method (LEM method) for the search of transcriptome and metabolome connections. The heuristic algorithm here described extends the classical canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to a high number of variables (without regularization) and combines well-conditioning and fast-computing in "R." Reduced CCA models are summarized in PageRank matrices, the product of which gives a stochastic matrix that resumes the self-avoiding walk covered by the algorithm. Then, a homogeneous Markov process applied to this stochastic matrix converges the probabilities of interconnection between genes, providing a selection of disjointed subsets of genes. This is an alternative to regularized generalized CCA for the determination of blocks within the structure matrix. Each gene subset is thus linked to the whole metabolic or clinical dataset that represents the biological phenotype of interest. Moreover, this selection process reaches the aim of biologists who often need small sets of genes for further validation or extended phenotyping. The algorithm is shown to work efficiently on three published datasets, resulting in meaningfully broadened gene networks.

  15. Heuristic urban transportation network design method, a multilayer coevolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Manan, Mohd Shahrudin Abd; Li, Rong; Wu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    The design of urban transportation networks plays a key role in the urban planning process, and the coevolution of urban networks has recently garnered significant attention in literature. However, most of these recent articles are based on networks that are essentially planar. In this research, we propose a heuristic multilayer urban network coevolution model with lower layer network and upper layer network that are associated with growth and stimulate one another. We first use the relative neighbourhood graph and the Gabriel graph to simulate the structure of rail and road networks, respectively. With simulation we find that when a specific number of nodes are added, the total travel cost ratio between an expanded network and the initial lower layer network has the lowest value. The cooperation strength Λ and the changeable parameter average operation speed ratio Θ show that transit users' route choices change dramatically through the coevolution process and that their decisions, in turn, affect the multilayer network structure. We also note that the simulated relation between the Gini coefficient of the betweenness centrality, Θ and Λ have an optimal point for network design. This research could inspire the analysis of urban network topology features and the assessment of urban growth trends.

  16. PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA SISWA MELALUI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN LAPS-HEURISTIC DIKELAS X SMAN 2 BATANG ANAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Nofrianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa melalui model pembelajaran LAPS-Heuristic. Jenis penelitian ini yaitu penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini dipilih dua siswa dari kelas penelitian yaitu kelas X SMAN 2 Batang Anai. Subjek yang dipilih dalam merupakan siswa yang memiliki kemampuan matematika tinggi. Data dikumpulkan melalui tes pemecahan masalah dan wawancara. Hal ini dilakukan sebelum dan sesudah penerapa model pembelajaran LAPS-Heuristic. Berdasarkan hasil deskripsi dan analisis data, dapat dilihat perkembangan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa meningkat pada saat dilakukan tes akhir. Pada hasil penilaian berdasarkan rubrik pemecahan masalah matematika, diperoleh tingkat kategori sangat memuaskan dengan indikator pencapaian: memahami soal dengan benar, rencana strategi penyelesaian yang benar, mengarah pada jawaban yang benar dan adanya pengecekan kembali hasil perhitungan, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa model pembelajaran LAPS-Heuristic berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa kelas X SMAN 2 Batag Anai. Kata kunci: kesulitan matematika, pemecahan masalah, LAPS-Heuristic This research aims to determine the increase in mathematics problem solving ability of students through learning model LAPS-Heuristic. Type of research is a qualitative descriptive study. The subjects in this study were selected two students from class research that is class X SMAN 2 Batang Anai. Subjects selected were the students who have high math skills. Data were collected through a problem-solving test and interview. This data collection was done before and after the implementation of learning model LAPS-Heuristic. Based on the description and analysis of the test, it can be seen that the development of mathematical problem solving ability of students increased at the time of the final test. The results of the assessment under the rubric of

  17. A HYBRID HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PROJECT SCHEDULING PROBLEM (RCPSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rivera

    Full Text Available The Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP is a problem of great interest for the scientific community because it belongs to the class of NP-Hard problems and no methods are known that can solve it accurately in polynomial processing times. For this reason heuristic methods are used to solve it in an efficient way though there is no guarantee that an optimal solution can be obtained. This research presents a hybrid heuristic search algorithm to solve the RCPSP efficiently, combining elements of the heuristic Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP, Scatter Search and Justification. The efficiency obtained is measured taking into account the presence of the new elements added to the GRASP algorithm taken as base: Justification and Scatter Search. The algorithms are evaluated using three data bases of instances of the problem: 480 instances of 30 activities, 480 of 60, and 600 of 120 activities respectively, taken from the library PSPLIB available online. The solutions obtained by the developed algorithm for the instances of 30, 60 and 120 are compared with results obtained by other researchers at international level, where a prominent place is obtained, according to Chen (2011.

  18. Heuristic query optimization for query multiple table and multiple clausa on mobile finance application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrayana, I. N. E.; P, N. M. Wirasyanti D.; Sudiartha, I. KG

    2018-01-01

    Mobile application allow many users to access data from the application without being limited to space, space and time. Over time the data population of this application will increase. Data access time will cause problems if the data record has reached tens of thousands to millions of records.The objective of this research is to maintain the performance of data execution for large data records. One effort to maintain data access time performance is to apply query optimization method. The optimization used in this research is query heuristic optimization method. The built application is a mobile-based financial application using MySQL database with stored procedure therein. This application is used by more than one business entity in one database, thus enabling rapid data growth. In this stored procedure there is an optimized query using heuristic method. Query optimization is performed on a “Select” query that involves more than one table with multiple clausa. Evaluation is done by calculating the average access time using optimized and unoptimized queries. Access time calculation is also performed on the increase of population data in the database. The evaluation results shown the time of data execution with query heuristic optimization relatively faster than data execution time without using query optimization.

  19. Sophisticated Approval Voting, Ignorance Priors, and Plurality Heuristics: A Behavioral Social Choice Analysis in a Thurstonian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-01-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two…

  20. Heuristic Chemistry--A Qualitative Study on Teaching Domain-Specific Strategies for the Six-Electron Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulich, Nicole; Tiemann, Rudiger; Schreiner, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of domain-specific heuristic strategies in mastering and predicting pericyclic six-electron rearrangements. Based on recent research findings on these types of reactions a new concept has been developed that should help students identify and describe six-electron rearrangements more readily in complex molecules. The…

  1. Interliminal Design: Understanding cognitive heuristics to mitigate design distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCollough

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive heuristics are mental shortcuts adapted over time to enable rapid interpretation of our complex environment. They are intrinsic to human cognition and resist modification. Heuristics applied outside the context to which they are best suited are termed cognitive bias, and are the cause of systematic errors in judgment and reasoning. As both a cognitive and intuitive discipline, design by individuals is vulnerable to context-inappropriate heuristic usage. Designing in groups can act positively to counterbalance these tendencies, but is subject to heuristic misuse and biases particular to social environments. Mismatch between desired and actual outcomes– termed here, design distortion – occurs when such usage goes unnoticed and unaddressed, and can affect multiple dimensions of a system. We propose a methodology, interliminal design, emerging from the Program in Collaborative Design at Pacific Northwest College of Art, to specifically address the influence of cognitive heuristics in design. This adaptive approach involves reflective, dialogic, inquiry-driven practices intended to increase awareness of heuristic usage, and identify aspects of the design process vulnerable to misuse on both individual and group levels. By facilitating the detection and mitigation of potentially costly errors in judgment and decision-making that create distortion, such metacognitive techniques can meaningfully improve design.

  2. Beyond rational expectations: the effects of heuristic switching in an overlapping generations model

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Brecht; Quaghebeur, Ewoud

    2018-01-01

    We explore the transitional dynamics in an Overlapping Generations framework with and without heuristic switching. Agents use simple heuristics to forecast the interest rate and the real wage. The fraction of agents using a specific heuristic depends on its relative forecasting performance. In the absence of heuristic switching, the results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the transitional dynamics over different parameter values and heuristics. They might even oscillate or diverg...

  3. Design and usability of heuristic-based deliberation tools for women facing amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Wegwarth, Odette; Boivin, Jacky; Elwyn, Glyn

    2012-03-01

    Evidence suggests that in decision contexts characterized by uncertainty and time constraints (e.g. health-care decisions), fast and frugal decision-making strategies (heuristics) may perform better than complex rules of reasoning. To examine whether it is possible to design deliberation components in decision support interventions using simple models (fast and frugal heuristics). The 'Take The Best' heuristic (i.e. selection of a 'most important reason') and 'The Tallying' integration algorithm (i.e. unitary weighing of pros and cons) were used to develop two deliberation components embedded in a Web-based decision support intervention for women facing amniocentesis testing. Ten researchers (recruited from 15), nine health-care providers (recruited from 28) and ten pregnant women (recruited from 14) who had recently been offered amniocentesis testing appraised evolving versions of 'your most important reason' (Take The Best) and 'weighing it up' (Tallying). Most researchers found the tools useful in facilitating decision making although emphasized the need for simple instructions and clear layouts. Health-care providers however expressed concerns regarding the usability and clarity of the tools. By contrast, 7 out of 10 pregnant women found the tools useful in weighing up the pros and cons of each option, helpful in structuring and clarifying their thoughts and visualizing their decision efforts. Several pregnant women felt that 'weighing it up' and 'your most important reason' were not appropriate when facing such a difficult and emotional decision. Theoretical approaches based on fast and frugal heuristics can be used to develop deliberation tools that provide helpful support to patients facing real-world decisions about amniocentesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A novel heuristic method for optimization of straight blade vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahani, Mojtaba; Babayan, Narek; Mehrnia, Seyedmajid; Shadmehri, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel heuristic method has been proposed for optimization of VAWTs. • The proposed method is the combination of DMST model with heuristic algorithms. • A continuous/discrete optimization problem has been solved. • A novel continuous optimization algorithm has been developed. • The CFD simulation of the optimized geometry has been carried out. - Abstract: In this research study it is aimed to propose a novel heuristic method for optimizing the VAWT design. The method is the combination of continuous/discrete optimization algorithms with double multiple stream tube (DMST) theory. For this purpose a DMST code has been developed and is validated using available experimental data in literature. A novel continuous optimization algorithm is proposed which can be considered as the combination of three heuristic optimization algorithms namely elephant herding optimization, flower pollination algorithm and grey wolf optimizer. The continuous algorithm is combined with popular discrete ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO). The proposed method can be utilized for several engineering problems which are dealing with continuous and discrete variables. In this research study, chord and diameter of the turbine are selected as continuous decision variables and airfoil types and number of blades are selected as discrete decision variables. The average power coefficient between tip speed rations from 1.5 to 9.5 is considered as the objective function. The optimization results indicated that the optimized geometry can produce a maximum power coefficient, 44% higher than the maximum power coefficient of the original turbine. Also a CFD simulation of the optimized geometry is carried out. The CFD results indicated that the average vorticity magnitude around the optimized blade is larger than the original blade and this results greater momentum and power coefficient.

  5. More than one way to see it: Individual heuristics in avian visual computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Schlumpp, Martin M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Comparative pattern learning experiments investigate how different species find regularities in sensory input, providing insights into cognitive processing in humans and other animals. Past research has focused either on one species' ability to process pattern classes or different species' performance in recognizing the same pattern, with little attention to individual and species-specific heuristics and decision strategies. We trained and tested two bird species, pigeons (Columba livia) and kea (Nestor notabilis, a parrot species), on visual patterns using touch-screen technology. Patterns were composed of several abstract elements and had varying degrees of structural complexity. We developed a model selection paradigm, based on regular expressions, that allowed us to reconstruct the specific decision strategies and cognitive heuristics adopted by a given individual in our task. Individual birds showed considerable differences in the number, type and heterogeneity of heuristic strategies adopted. Birds' choices also exhibited consistent species-level differences. Kea adopted effective heuristic strategies, based on matching learned bigrams to stimulus edges. Individual pigeons, in contrast, adopted an idiosyncratic mix of strategies that included local transition probabilities and global string similarity. Although performance was above chance and quite high for kea, no individual of either species provided clear evidence of learning exactly the rule used to generate the training stimuli. Our results show that similar behavioral outcomes can be achieved using dramatically different strategies and highlight the dangers of combining multiple individuals in a group analysis. These findings, and our general approach, have implications for the design of future pattern learning experiments, and the interpretation of comparative cognition research more generally. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The inherence heuristic: an intuitive means of making sense of the world, and a potential precursor to psychological essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Salomon, Erika

    2014-10-01

    We propose that human reasoning relies on an inherence heuristic, an implicit cognitive process that leads people to explain observed patterns (e.g., girls wear pink) predominantly in terms of the inherent features of their constituents (e.g., pink is a delicate color). We then demonstrate how this proposed heuristic can provide a unified account for a broad set of findings spanning areas of research that might at first appear unrelated (e.g., system justification, nominal realism, is-ought errors in moral reasoning). By revealing the deep commonalities among the diverse phenomena that fall under its scope, our account is able to generate new insights into these phenomena, as well as new empirical predictions. A second main goal of this article, aside from introducing the inherence heuristic, is to articulate the proposal that the heuristic serves as a foundation for the development of psychological essentialism. More specifically, we propose that essentialism - which is the common belief that natural and social categories are underlain by hidden, causally powerful essences - emerges over the first few years of life as an elaboration of the earlier, and more open-ended, intuitions supplied by the inherence heuristic. In the final part of the report, we distinguish our proposal from competing accounts (e.g., Strevens's K-laws) and clarify the relationship between the inherence heuristic and related cognitive tendencies (e.g., the correspondence bias). In sum, this article illuminates a basic cognitive process that emerges early in life and is likely to have profound effects on many aspects of human psychology.

  8. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  9. Statement about researches relative to the operation stability of the MPS P230 of Ariane 5; Point sur les recherches relatives a la stabilite de fonctionnement du MPS P230 d'Ariane 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillot, F.

    1998-07-01

    This paper makes a statement about the researches carried out in the framework of the ASSM (Aerodynamics of Segmented Solid Motors) research program on the operation stability of the MPS P230 solid propellant engine of the French Ariane 5 launcher. After a brief historical recall of the works performed on this topic during the last 10 years, the present day situation is detailed. The feasibility of a numerical capture of the instability phenomenon is now achieved and 3 scenarios leading to swirl flow instabilities could be identified. These scenarios were validated using numerical simulation, simulation in cold gases, and launcher tests. However, one scenario based on a strong instability mechanism, seems to better fit with the observations made on the P230 engine and will deeply influence the scientific strategy of the research program. (J.S.)

  10. Heuristics for multiobjective multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Paquete, Luís; Pereira, Francisco B

    2016-07-15

    Aligning multiple sequences arises in many tasks in Bioinformatics. However, the alignments produced by the current software packages are highly dependent on the parameters setting, such as the relative importance of opening gaps with respect to the increase of similarity. Choosing only one parameter setting may provide an undesirable bias in further steps of the analysis and give too simplistic interpretations. In this work, we reformulate multiple sequence alignment from a multiobjective point of view. The goal is to generate several sequence alignments that represent a trade-off between maximizing the substitution score and minimizing the number of indels/gaps in the sum-of-pairs score function. This trade-off gives to the practitioner further information about the similarity of the sequences, from which she could analyse and choose the most plausible alignment. We introduce several heuristic approaches, based on local search procedures, that compute a set of sequence alignments, which are representative of the trade-off between the two objectives (substitution score and indels). Several algorithm design options are discussed and analysed, with particular emphasis on the influence of the starting alignment and neighborhood search definitions on the overall performance. A perturbation technique is proposed to improve the local search, which provides a wide range of high-quality alignments. The proposed approach is tested experimentally on a wide range of instances. We performed several experiments with sequences obtained from the benchmark database BAliBASE 3.0. To evaluate the quality of the results, we calculate the hypervolume indicator of the set of score vectors returned by the algorithms. The results obtained allow us to identify reasonably good choices of parameters for our approach. Further, we compared our method in terms of correctly aligned pairs ratio and columns correctly aligned ratio with respect to reference alignments. Experimental results show

  11. Illusory correlation: a function of availability or representativeness heuristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M G

    2000-08-01

    The present study sought to investigate the illusory correlation phenomenon by experimentally manipulating the availability of information through the use of the "lag" effect (Madigan, 1969). Seventy-four university students voluntarily participated in this study. Similar to Starr and Katkin's (1969) methodology, subjects were visually presented with each possible combination of four experimental problem descriptions and four sentence completions that were paired and shown twice at each of four lags (i.e., with 0, 2, 8 and 20 intervening variables). Subjects were required to make judgements concerning the frequency with which sentence completions and problem descriptions co-occurred. In agreement with previous research (Starr & Katkin, 1969), the illusory correlation effect was found for specific descriptions and sentence completions. Results also yielded a significant effect of lag for mean ratings between 0 and 2 lags; however, there was no reliable increase in judged co-occurrence at lags 8 and 20. Evidence failed to support the hypothesis that greater availability, through the experimental manipulation of lag, would result in increased frequency of co-occurrence judgements. Findings indicate that, in the present study, the illusory correlation effect is probably due to a situational bias based on the representativeness heuristic.

  12. Node fingerprinting: an efficient heuristic for aligning biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Alex; Charleston, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the continuing increase in availability of biological data and improvements to biological models, biological network analysis has become a promising area of research. An emerging technique for the analysis of biological networks is through network alignment. Network alignment has been used to calculate genetic distance, similarities between regulatory structures, and the effect of external forces on gene expression, and to depict conditional activity of expression modules in cancer. Network alignment is algorithmically complex, and therefore we must rely on heuristics, ideally as efficient and accurate as possible. The majority of current techniques for network alignment rely on precomputed information, such as with protein sequence alignment, or on tunable network alignment parameters, which may introduce an increased computational overhead. Our presented algorithm, which we call Node Fingerprinting (NF), is appropriate for performing global pairwise network alignment without precomputation or tuning, can be fully parallelized, and is able to quickly compute an accurate alignment between two biological networks. It has performed as well as or better than existing algorithms on biological and simulated data, and with fewer computational resources. The algorithmic validation performed demonstrates the low computational resource requirements of NF.

  13. Teaching Evolution: A Heuristic Study of Personal and Cultural Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Larry G.

    Darwinian evolution is a robustly supported scientific theory. Yet creationists continue to challenge its teaching in American public schools. Biology teachers in all 50 states are responsible for teaching science content standards that include evolution. As products of their backgrounds and affiliations teachers bring personal attitudes and beliefs to their teaching. The purpose of this study was to explore how biology teachers perceive, describe, and value their teaching of evolution. This research question was explored through a heuristic qualitative methodology. Eight veteran California high school biology teachers were queried as to their beliefs, perceptions, experiences and practices of teaching evolution. Both personal and professional documents were collected. Data was presented in the form of biographical essays that highlight teachers' backgrounds, experiences, perspectives and practices of teaching evolution. Of special interest was how they describe pressure over teaching evolution during a decade of standards and No Child Left Behind high-stakes testing mandates. Five common themes emerged. Standards have increased the overall amount of evolution that is taught. High-stakes testing has decreased the depth at which evolution is taught. Teacher belief systems strongly influence how evolution is taught. Fear of creationist challenges effect evolution teaching strategies. And lastly, concern over the potential effects of teaching evolution on student worldviews was mixed. Three categories of teacher concern over the potential impact of evolution on student worldviews were identified: Concerned, Strategist, and Carefree. In the final analysis teacher beliefs and attitudes still appeared to he the most important factor influencing how evolution is taught.

  14. A Dynamic and Heuristic Phase Balancing Method for LV Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Taghipour Boroujeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the single-phase loads and their stochastic behavior, the current in the distribution feeders is not balanced. In addition, the single-phase loads are located in different positions along the LV feeders. So the amount of the unbalanced load and its location affect the feeder losses. An unbalanced load causes the feeder losses and the voltage drop. Because of time-varying behavior of the single-phase loads, phase balancing is a dynamic and combinatorial problem. In this research, a heuristic and dynamic solution for the phase balancing of the LV feeders is proposed. In this method, it is supposed that the loads’ tie could be connected to all phases through a three-phase switch. The aim of the proposed method is to make the feeder conditions as balanced as possible. The amount and the location of single-phase loads are considered in the proposed phase balancing method. Since the proposed method needs no communication interface or no remote controller, it is inexpensive, simple, practical, and robust. Applying this method provides a distributed and dynamic phase balancing control. In addition, the feasibility of reducing the used switches is investigated. The ability of the proposed method in the phase balancing of the LV feeders is approved by carrying out some simulations.

  15. Heuristic model of education and a prototype of a system for remote siren activation in emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Josif Bereš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A heuristic models of methodical innovation with special emphasis on training of team members to work in emergency situations, where each team member must be aware of the importance of their work, must know and apply a methodology for finding the best solutions and feel satisfaction with the results as an individual and as a part of that team, are proposed in this paper. Heuristic approach to the problems of teaching in emergency situations should allow team members to come up with the creative process of acquiring knowledge, to learn to think and develop skills for education. It is, therefore, such an approach that is not based on passive observation of phenomena and impersonation performed by a teacher, but establishes an active relationship to phenomena of thought and introduces the team members in their own research of the heuristic concept problems with the range of solutions - in this case, " Digital Communications - a program of operational functions of mobile phones ", the function of emergency situations, the example of a prototype system for automatic activation of the alert - sirens.

  16. Augmented neural networks and problem structure-based heuristics for the bin-packing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Nihat; Agarwal, Anurag

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we report on a research project where we applied augmented-neural-networks (AugNNs) approach for solving the classical bin-packing problem (BPP). AugNN is a metaheuristic that combines a priority rule heuristic with the iterative search approach of neural networks to generate good solutions fast. This is the first time this approach has been applied to the BPP. We also propose a decomposition approach for solving harder BPP, in which subproblems are solved using a combination of AugNN approach and heuristics that exploit the problem structure. We discuss the characteristics of problems on which such problem structure-based heuristics could be applied. We empirically show the effectiveness of the AugNN and the decomposition approach on many benchmark problems in the literature. For the 1210 benchmark problems tested, 917 problems were solved to optimality and the average gap between the obtained solution and the upper bound for all the problems was reduced to under 0.66% and computation time averaged below 33 s per problem. We also discuss the computational complexity of our approach.

  17. Internal Medicine residents use heuristics to estimate disease probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Sen Han; Ravani, Pietro; Schaefer, Jeffrey; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Training in Bayesian reasoning may have limited impact on accuracy of probability estimates. In this study, our goal was to explore whether residents previously exposed to Bayesian reasoning use heuristics rather than Bayesian reasoning to estimate disease probabilities. We predicted that if residents use heuristics then post-test probability estimates would be increased by non-discriminating clinical features or a high anchor for a target condition. We randomized 55 Internal Medicine residents to different versions of four clinical vignettes and asked them to estimate probabilities of target conditions. We manipulated the clinical data for each vignette to be consistent with either 1) using a representative heuristic, by adding non-discriminating prototypical clinical features of the target condition, or 2) using anchoring with adjustment heuristic, by providing a high or low anchor for the target condition. When presented with additional non-discriminating data the odds of diagnosing the target condition were increased (odds ratio (OR) 2.83, 95% confidence interval [1.30, 6.15], p = 0.009). Similarly, the odds of diagnosing the target condition were increased when a high anchor preceded the vignette (OR 2.04, [1.09, 3.81], p = 0.025). Our findings suggest that despite previous exposure to the use of Bayesian reasoning, residents use heuristics, such as the representative heuristic and anchoring with adjustment, to estimate probabilities. Potential reasons for attribute substitution include the relative cognitive ease of heuristics vs. Bayesian reasoning or perhaps residents in their clinical practice use gist traces rather than precise probability estimates when diagnosing.

  18. 7 CFR 1221.113 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.113 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Board shall prepare...

  19. The Design of Application-Specific Heuristics for the Usability Evaluation of the Digital Doorway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmi Adebesin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Doorway (DD is a joint initiative between the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST and the Meraka Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR. The DD is a non-standard computer system deployed amongst underprivileged communities in South Africa with the objective to promote computer literacy. Since its inception, there has been no usability or accessibility evaluation of the software installed on the DD, mainly due to lack of usability engineering or interaction design expertise within the development team. The goal of the research presented in this paper was to design a solution to this problem by developing a suitable instrument that could guide DD application developers in the design and development of more usable DD software and interfaces. Design research was used as a research methodology. We first investigated the applicability of the standard usability and accessibility evaluation methods for evaluating the software installed on the DD. During the first cycle of design research, we established that a heuristic-like evaluation method would be an appropriate method for evaluating the usability and direct accessibility support provided by the DD. During a second cycle of design research, embedded in the first, we also developed a set of multi-category heuristics as the ‘instrument’ that could guide the developers during design of applications as well as in the first-level (formative evaluation thereof. To verify the heuristics, we conducted a usability evaluation of the DD and triangulated the results with a direct field observation at a natural environment of DD use, together with user-administered questionnaires.

  20. SIMPLE HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC VM REALLOCATION IN IAAS CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Balashov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of cloud technologies and its high prevalence in both commercial and academic areas have stimulated active research in the domain of optimal cloud resource management. One of the most active research directions is dynamic virtual machine (VM placement optimization in clouds build on Infrastructure-as-a-Service model. This kind of research may pursue different goals with energy-aware optimization being the most common goal as it aims at a urgent problem of green cloud computing - reducing energy consumption by data centers. In this paper we present a new heuristic algorithm of dynamic reallocation of VMs based on an approach presented in one of our previous works. In the algorithm we apply a 2-rank strategy to classify VMs and servers corresponding to the highly and lowly active VMs and solve four tasks: VM classification, host classification, forming a VM migration map and VMs migration. Dividing all of the VMs and servers into two classes we attempt to implement the possibility of risk reduction in case of hardware overloads under overcommitment conditions and to reduce the influence of the occurring overloads on the performance of the cloud VMs. Presented algorithm was developed based on the workload profile of the JINR cloud (a scientific private cloud with the goal of maximizing its usage, but it can also be applied in both public and private commercial clouds to organize the simultaneous use of different SLA and QoS levels in the same cloud environment by giving each VM rank its own level of overcommitment.

  1. 78 FR 56869 - Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement... of Energy (DOE) has completed the Supplement Analysis (SA) of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Accomplishing Expanded Civilian Nuclear Energy Research and Development and Isotope Production...

  2. Heuristic resources of the ‘classics’: Perspectives of sociological enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoyskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodological question traditional for the humanities and social sciences (and, above all, sociology, namely, the question about their world view status, functions and aims. According to the author, ‘sociological enlightenment’ provides a chance to justify the purport of scientific research on the theory and history of sociology (research that is culturally significant beyond the narrow professional frames of sociology. The most important component of this ‘enlightenment’ is the demonstration of ‘heuristic resources’ of classical and modern theoretical sociology as a means of scientific explanation and conceptualization of social problems at a level comprehensible to non-academic audiences.

  3. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  4. The heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning: extension and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2006-06-01

    An extensively revised heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning is presented incorporating three principles of hypothetical thinking. The theory assumes that reasoning and judgment are facilitated by the formation of epistemic mental models that are generated one at a time (singularity principle) by preconscious heuristic processes that contextualize problems in such a way as to maximize relevance to current goals (relevance principle). Analytic processes evaluate these models but tend to accept them unless there is good reason to reject them (satisficing principle). At a minimum, analytic processing of models is required so as to generate inferences or judgments relevant to the task instructions, but more active intervention may result in modification or replacement of default models generated by the heuristic system. Evidence for this theory is provided by a review of a wide range of literature on thinking and reasoning.

  5. Heuristics for Hierarchical Partitioning with Application to Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Michael Oliver; Alur, Rajeev

    2001-01-01

    Given a collection of connected components, it is often desired to cluster together parts of strong correspondence, yielding a hierarchical structure. We address the automation of this process and apply heuristics to battle the combinatorial and computational complexity. We define a cost function...... that captures the quality of a structure relative to the connections and favors shallow structures with a low degree of branching. Finding a structure with minimal cost is NP-complete. We present a greedy polynomial-time algorithm that approximates good solutions incrementally by local evaluation of a heuristic...... function. We argue for a heuristic function based on four criteria: the number of enclosed connections, the number of components, the number of touched connections and the depth of the structure. We report on an application in the context of formal verification, where our algorithm serves as a preprocessor...

  6. Generalized perturbation theory (GPT) methods. A heuristic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1987-01-01

    Wigner first proposed a perturbation theory as early as 1945 to study fundamental quantities such as the reactivity worths of different materials. The first formulation, CPT, for conventional perturbation theory is based on universal quantum mechanics concepts. Since that early conception, significant contributions have been made to CPT, in particular, Soodak, who rendered a heuristic interpretation of the adjoint function, (referred to as the GPT method for generalized perturbation theory). The author illustrates the GPT methodology in a variety of linear and nonlinear domains encountered in nuclear reactor analysis. The author begins with the familiar linear neutron field and then generalizes the methodology to other linear and nonlinear fields, using heuristic arguments. The author believes that the inherent simplicity and elegance of the heuristic derivation, although intended here for reactor physics problems might be usefully adopted in collateral fields and includes such examples

  7. A greedy double swap heuristic for nurse scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Choy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges of nurse scheduling problem (NSP is the number of constraints placed on preparing the timetable, both from the regulatory requirements as well as the patients’ demand for the appropriate nursing care specialists. In addition, the preferences of the nursing staffs related to their work schedules add another dimension of complexity. Most solutions proposed for solving nurse scheduling involve the use of mathematical programming and generally considers only the hard constraints. However, the psychological needs of the nurses are ignored and this resulted in subsequent interventions by the nursing staffs to remedy any deficiency and often results in last minute changes to the schedule. In this paper, we present a staff preference optimization framework solved with a greedy double swap heuristic. The heuristic yields good performance in speed at solving the problem. The heuristic is simple and we will demonstrate its performance by implementing it on open source spreadsheet software.

  8. A Comparison of Genetic Programming Variants for Hyper-Heuristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Modern society is faced with ever more complex problems, many of which can be formulated as generate-and-test optimization problems. General-purpose optimization algorithms are not well suited for real-world scenarios where many instances of the same problem class need to be repeatedly and efficiently solved, such as routing vehicles over highways with constantly changing traffic flows, because they are not targeted to a particular scenario. Hyper-heuristics automate the design of algorithms to create a custom algorithm for a particular scenario. Hyper-heuristics typically employ Genetic Programming (GP) and this project has investigated the relationship between the choice of GP and performance in Hyper-heuristics. Results are presented demonstrating the existence of problems for which there is a statistically significant performance differential between the use of different types of GP.

  9. Derivation of some formulae in combinatrics by heuristic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    Heuristic methods are more effective for students inlearning permutations and combinations in mathematics than passive learning such as rote memorization of formulae. Two examples, n! and 2n - 1Cn, of finding new combinatorial formulae are discussed from a pedagogical standpoint. First, the factorial of n can be expressed as ∑n - 1k = 0k . k!, which can be found by a heuristic method. This expression is comparable to representations of powers of r using geometrical series. Second, the number of possible combinations with repetition of n drawings from n elements is denoted 2n - 1Cn, which can be calculated from ∑n - 1k = 0nCk + 1n - 1Ck. The relation ∑n - 1k = 0nCk + 1n - 1Ck = 2n - 1Cn can be found by a heuristic method through a corresponding problem on mapping.

  10. Heuristic versus statistical physics approach to optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrzejek, C.; Cieplinski, L.

    1995-01-01

    Optimization is a crucial ingredient of many calculation schemes in science and engineering. In this paper we assess several classes of methods: heuristic algorithms, methods directly relying on statistical physics such as the mean-field method and simulated annealing; and Hopfield-type neural networks and genetic algorithms partly related to statistical physics. We perform the analysis for three types of problems: (1) the Travelling Salesman Problem, (2) vector quantization, and (3) traffic control problem in multistage interconnection network. In general, heuristic algorithms perform better (except for genetic algorithms) and much faster but have to be specific for every problem. The key to improving the performance could be to include heuristic features into general purpose statistical physics methods. (author)

  11. Inhibitory mechanism of the matching heuristic in syllogistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ping Ping; Moreno Ríos, Sergio; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio; Bajo Molina, María Teresa

    2014-11-01

    A number of heuristic-based hypotheses have been proposed to explain how people solve syllogisms with automatic processes. In particular, the matching heuristic employs the congruency of the quantifiers in a syllogism—by matching the quantifier of the conclusion with those of the two premises. When the heuristic leads to an invalid conclusion, successful solving of these conflict problems requires the inhibition of automatic heuristic processing. Accordingly, if the automatic processing were based on processing the set of quantifiers, no semantic contents would be inhibited. The mental model theory, however, suggests that people reason using mental models, which always involves semantic processing. Therefore, whatever inhibition occurs in the processing implies the inhibition of the semantic contents. We manipulated the validity of the syllogism and the congruency of the quantifier of its conclusion with those of the two premises according to the matching heuristic. A subsequent lexical decision task (LDT) with related words in the conclusion was used to test any inhibition of the semantic contents after each syllogistic evaluation trial. In the LDT, the facilitation effect of semantic priming diminished after correctly solved conflict syllogisms (match-invalid or mismatch-valid), but was intact after no-conflict syllogisms. The results suggest the involvement of an inhibitory mechanism of semantic contents in syllogistic reasoning when there is a conflict between the output of the syntactic heuristic and actual validity. Our results do not support a uniquely syntactic process of syllogistic reasoning but fit with the predictions based on mental model theory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Statements of work handbook. [technical writing for NASA programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for preparing statements of work (SOW) to assure a consistent approach throughout NASA. Statements of work for study and preliminary definition contracts, for definition and development of major systems, for support services, and for small research and development contracts are discussed.

  13. Sustainability Insights from the Mission Statements of Leading Brazilian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Rafael Mattos; Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro da Silva, Gustavo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mission statements from 30 leading Brazilian universities, evaluating the statements based on a sustainable model that involves an environmental management system, public participation and social responsibility, and sustainable education and research. Design/methodology/approach: Content…

  14. 76 FR 54767 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8998-8] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly Receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/22/2011 Through... the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Project, To Address New Geologic Information...

  15. 76 FR 24021 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8996-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental. Impact Statements Filed 04/18/2011 Through..., Draft Supplement, NNSA, NM, Nuclear Facility of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement...

  16. THE STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS USING FINANCIAL STATEMENT EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Fletcher; Thomas Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the more difficult topics in teaching MBA level financial management, the statement of cash flows. By employing financial statement equations in preparing the statement of cash flows, students: (1) are employing tools that they are more familiar and comfortable with which mitigates their anxiety and enhances their understanding, (2) are better able to understand the logic of the statement of cash flows and the relationships that exist between it and the income stat...

  17. Nuclear safety policy statement in korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Kim, H.J.; Choi, K.S.; Choi, Y.S.; Park, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Wide varieties of programs to enhance nuclear safety have been established and implemented by the Korean government in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement announced in September 1994. The policy statement was intended to set the long-term policy goals for maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It has been recognized as very effective in developing safety culture in nuclear-related organizations and also enhancing nuclear safety in Korea. However, ageing of operating nuclear power plants and increasing of new nuclear facilities have demanded a new comprehensive national safety policy to cover the coming decade, taking the implementation results of the policy statement of 1994 and the changing environment of nuclear industries into consideration. Therefore, the results of safety policy implementation have been reviewed and, considering changing environment and future prospects, a new nuclear safety policy statement as a highest level national policy has been developed. The implementation results of 11 regulatory policy directions such as the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment, introduction of Periodic Safety Review, strengthening of safety research, introduction of Risk Based Regulation stipulated in the safety policy statement of 1994 were reviewed and measures taken after various symposia on nuclear safety held in Nuclear Safety Days since 1995 were evaluated. The changing international and domestic environment of nuclear industry were analysed and future prospects were explored. Based on the analysis and review results, a draft of new nuclear safety policy statement was developed. The draft was finalized after the review of many prominent experts in Korea. Considering changing environment and future prospects, new policy statement that will show government's persistent will for nuclear safety has been

  18. Reasoning by analogy as an aid to heuristic theorem proving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    When heuristic problem-solving programs are faced with large data bases that contain numbers of facts far in excess of those needed to solve any particular problem, their performance rapidly deteriorates. In this paper, the correspondence between a new unsolved problem and a previously solved analogous problem is computed and invoked to tailor large data bases to manageable sizes. This paper outlines the design of an algorithm for generating and exploiting analogies between theorems posed to a resolution-logic system. These algorithms are believed to be the first computationally feasible development of reasoning by analogy to be applied to heuristic theorem proving.

  19. Petri nets SM-cover-based on heuristic coloring algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Jacek; Doligalski, Michał

    2015-09-01

    In the paper, coloring heuristic algorithm of interpreted Petri nets is presented. Coloring is used to determine the State Machines (SM) subnets. The present algorithm reduces the Petri net in order to reduce the computational complexity and finds one of its possible State Machines cover. The proposed algorithm uses elements of interpretation of Petri nets. The obtained result may not be the best, but it is sufficient for use in rapid prototyping of logic controllers. Found SM-cover will be also used in the development of algorithms for decomposition, and modular synthesis and implementation of parallel logic controllers. Correctness developed heuristic algorithm was verified using Gentzen formal reasoning system.

  20. Using heuristics to solve the dedicated aircraft recovery problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Larsen, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    schedules through a series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article describes an effective method to solve DARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of good quality in less than 10 seconds when...... applied to real flight schedules with disruptions from British Airways. The heuristic is able to consider delays, cancellations and reassignments simultaneously and balance the trade-off between these options. It is also demonstrated that different strategies can be applied to prioritize these options...

  1. Hyper-heuristic applied to nuclear reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, R P; Platt, G M

    2013-01-01

    The design of nuclear reactors gives rises to a series of optimization problems because of the need for high efficiency, availability and maintenance of security levels. Gradient-based techniques and linear programming have been applied, as well as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. The nonlinearity, multimodality and lack of knowledge about the problem domain makes de choice of suitable meta-heuristic models particularly challenging. In this work we solve the optimization problem of a nuclear reactor core design through the application of an optimal sequence of meta-heuritics created automatically. This combinatorial optimization model is known as hyper-heuristic.

  2. Heuristic methods for shared backup path protection planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    schemes are employed. In contrast to manual intervention, automatic protection schemes such as Shared Backup Path Protection (SBPP) can recover from failure quickly and efficiently. SBPP is a simple but efficient protection scheme that can be implemented in backbone networks with technology available...... present heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5% was achieved for more than half of the benchmark instances (and a gap of less...

  3. Heuristic methods for single link shared backup path protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    schemes are employed. In contrast to manual intervention, automatic protection schemes such as shared backup path protection (SBPP) can recover from failure quickly and efficiently. SBPP is a simple but efficient protection scheme that can be implemented in backbone networks with technology available...... heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5 % was achieved for 5 of 7 benchmark instances (and a gap of less than 11 % for the remaining...

  4. Job shop scheduling with makespan objective: A heuristic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Job shop has been considered as one of the most challenging scheduling problems and there are literally tremendous efforts on reducing the complexity of solution procedure for solving job shop problem. This paper presents a heuristic method to minimize makespan for different jobs in a job shop scheduling. The proposed model is based on a constructive procedure to obtain good quality schedules, very quickly. The performance of the proposed model of this paper is examined on standard benchmarks from the literature in order to evaluate its performance. Computational results show that, despite its simplicity, the proposed heuristic is computationally efficient and practical approach for the problem.

  5. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap.

  6. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  8. Be Vigilant on Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, DeBow

    2002-01-01

    Highlights areas on university's financial statements that warrant careful review by trustees and suggests ways they can check to see whether an institution's financial statements are clear and valid indicators of its financial status. (EV)

  9. Corporate Information Management Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the OASD(C31) methods for preparing FY 1996 CIM, general purpose financial statements will result in auditable and complete general purpose financial statements...

  10. Heuristic approach to Satellite Range Scheduling with Bounds using Lagrangian Relaxation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Arguello, Bryan; Nozick, Linda Karen; Xu, Ningxiong [Cornell

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on scheduling antennas to track satellites using a heuristic method. In order to validate the performance of the heuristic, bounds are developed using Lagrangian relaxation. The performance of the algorithm is established using several illustrative problems.

  11. Understanding financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, D P

    2001-01-01

    In his premier column for The Physician Executive, David Tarantino takes a look at those critical "financials" that can make or break a business. If you're considering a career move, you need to know the financial condition of future employers. Learn how to read the statements and glean valuable information from the numbers.

  12. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  13. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  14. Statement on Plagiarism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Statement on Plagiarism. S Mahadevan N Mukunda. Editorial Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 403-404. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/05/0403-0404. Author Affiliations.

  15. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  16. Consolidated financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.

  17. Comparative study of heuristics algorithms in solving flexible job shop scheduling problem with condition based maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Zheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper focuses on a classic optimization problem in operations research, the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP, to discuss the method to deal with uncertainty in a manufacturing system.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, condition based maintenance (CBM, a kind of preventive maintenance, is suggested to reduce unavailability of machines. Different to the simultaneous scheduling algorithm (SSA used in the previous article (Neale & Cameron,1979, an inserting algorithm (IA is applied, in which firstly a pre-schedule is obtained through heuristic algorithm and then maintenance tasks are inserted into the pre-schedule scheme.Findings: It is encouraging that a new better solution for an instance in benchmark of FJSP is obtained in this research. Moreover, factually SSA used in literature for solving normal FJSPPM (FJSP with PM is not suitable for the dynamic FJSPPM. Through application in the benchmark of normal FJSPPM, it is found that although IA obtains inferior results compared to SSA used in literature, it performs much better in executing speed.Originality/value: Different to traditional scheduling of FJSP, uncertainty of machines is taken into account, which increases the complexity of the problem. An inserting algorithm (IA is proposed to solve the dynamic scheduling problem. It is stated that the quality of the final result depends much on the quality of the pre-schedule obtained during the procedure of solving a normal FJSP. In order to find the best solution of FJSP, a comparative study of three heuristics is carried out, the integrated GA, ACO and ABC. In the comparative study, we find that GA performs best in the three heuristic algorithms. Meanwhile, a new better solution for an instance in benchmark of FJSP is obtained in this research.

  18. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...

  19. An efficient heuristic versus a robust hybrid meta-heuristic for general framework of serial-parallel redundancy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Soltani, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to solve a general framework of serial-parallel redundancy problem where the reliability of the system is maximized subject to some general linear constraints. The complexity of the redundancy problem is generally considered to be NP-Hard and the optimal solution is not normally available. Therefore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a hybrid genetic algorithm is also implemented whose parameters are calibrated via Taguchi's robust design method. Then, various test problems are solved and the computational results indicate that the proposed heuristic approach could provide us some promising reliabilities, which are fairly close to optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

  20. December 2012 Connecticut School Shooting Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Violence, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In response to the killing of 20 children and 6 adults at Sandy Hook Elementary School on December 17, 2012, this position statement argues that research supports a thoughtful approach to safer schools, guided by four key elements--balance, communication, connectedness, and support--along with strengthened attention to mental health needs in the…

  1. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  2. Fundamentals of Financial Statements Audit

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion as to whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards or another identified financial reporting fr...

  3. An analysis of generalised heuristics for vehicle routing and personnel rostering problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Misir; Pieter Smet; Greet Vanden Berghe

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of heuristics while solving problems with routing and rostering characteristics. The target problems include scheduling and routing home care, security and maintenance personnel. In analysing the behaviour of the heuristics and determining the requirements for solving the aforementioned problems, the winning hyper-heuristic from the first International Cross-domain Heuristic Search Challenge (CHeSC 2011) is employed. The completely new applicatio...

  4. Predicting Financial Statements Corporate Fraud: Beneish M-score Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hariri, Hariri; Pradana, Ayub Wijayati Sapta; Widjajanti, Sri Luki

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to detect fraudulent financial statements the financial statements of XYZ, PT in the period 2010-2013. This research is a qualitative descriptive research. Data collection techniques used are observation and documentation. Data analysis techniques used are data reduction, data presentation and conclusion with Beniesh M-Score Model. The results showed that the financial statements in the period 2010-2013 as a whole that Beniesh M-Score XYZ, PT reached -3.94 in 2010, 0.70 in ...

  5. Developing and Validating Personas in e-Commerce: A Heuristic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Volker; Williams, Bryn

    A multi-method persona development process in a large e-commerce business is described. Personas are fictional representations of customers that describe typical user attributes to facilitate a user-centered approach in interaction design. In the current project persona attributes were derived from various data sources, such as stakeholder interviews, user tests and interviews, data mining, customer surveys, and ethnographic (direct observation, diary studies) research. The heuristic approach of using these data sources conjointly allowed for an early validation of relevant persona dimensions.

  6. Analytic and heuristic processes in the detection and resolution of conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Mário Augusto Boto; Mata, André; Donkin, Christopher; Sherman, Steven J.; Ihmels, Max

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with the ratio-bias task found larger response latencies for conflict trials where the heuristic- and analytic-based responses are assumed to be in opposition (e.g., choosing between 1/10 and 9/100 ratios of success) when compared to no-conflict trials where both processes converge on the same response (e.g., choosing between 1/10 and 11/100). This pattern is consistent with parallel dualprocess models, which assume that there is effective, rather tha...

  7. Studying the social construction of cancer-related fatigue experience: the heuristic value of Ethnoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Barello, Serena; Olson, Karin; Bosio, Claudio A

    2011-03-01

    Patients' lived experience of illness and health is receiving increased attention in the medical field. Understanding patients' perspective and experiences is an undoubted asset for efficient health interventions and improved clinical concordance. Patients' experiences of care and cure, however, are influenced by the cultural setting in which these experiences take place. This implies that health interventions should be "ecological" and attuned to the specific sociocultural context of the patients. Our research group is conducting a cross-cultural qualitative study aimed ad exploring how fatigue (a symptom very common in cancer) is perceived and manifested by patients in different countries (Canada, Thailand, England and Italy). In order to achieve this, the study was design according to the method of Ethnoscience, that appeared to us the best suited to explore the meanings that patients attribute to their state and the linguistic patterns they use to describe it. In this paper we will describe in details the process of Ethnoscience and will discuss the heuristic value of this research approach. Ethnoscience was an effective research strategy for exploring how beliefs and values shape symptoms and the behavioural manifestations of cancer related fatigue. This paper discusses the heuristic value of Ethnoscience and its applicability to the study of health relate topics, particularly those where issues of social construction are important. Ethnoscience is a promising and innovative research approach, able to cast light on the way people experience and make sense of their illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the California Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project and its associated Marine Mammal Research Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    acoustic study off Pt. Barrow, Alaska (SC/40/ PS4 ). Reports of the International Whaling Commission. 39:297-303. Clark, C.W., W.T. Ellison and K...California ATOC MMRP Research Protocol C-57 C-3 RESEARCH PROTOCOL INTRODUCTION The marine mammal research program (MMRP) described here is motivated by

  9. Heuristically improved Bayesian segmentation of brain MR images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heuristically improved Bayesian segmentation of brain MR images. ... or even the most prevalent task in medical image processing is image segmentation. Among them, brain MR images suffer ... show that our algorithm performs well in comparison with the one implemented in SPM. It can be concluded that incorporating ...

  10. A genetic algorithm selection perturbative hyper-heuristic for solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1: A summary of the characteristics of the artificial school timetabling problems. ..... One of the disadvantages of hyper-heuristics is the higher runtimes as a result .... 455–464 in AI 2002: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Springer Berlin ...

  11. Glottochronology as a heuristic for genealogical language relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichmann, S.; Holman, E.W.; Müller, A.; Velupillai, V.; List, J.-M.; Belyaev, O.; Urban, M.; Bakker, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies a computerized method related to that of glottochronology and addresses the question whether such a method is useful as a heuristic for identifying deep genealogical relations among languages. We first measure lexical similarities for pairs of language families that are normally

  12. A lifelong learning hyper-heuristic method for bin packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kevin; Hart, Emma; Paechter, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel hyper-heuristic system that continuously learns over time to solve a combinatorial optimisation problem. The system continuously generates new heuristics and samples problems from its environment; and representative problems and heuristics are incorporated into a self-sustaining network of interacting entities inspired by methods in artificial immune systems. The network is plastic in both its structure and content, leading to the following properties: it exploits existing knowledge captured in the network to rapidly produce solutions; it can adapt to new problems with widely differing characteristics; and it is capable of generalising over the problem space. The system is tested on a large corpus of 3,968 new instances of 1D bin-packing problems as well as on 1,370 existing problems from the literature; it shows excellent performance in terms of the quality of solutions obtained across the datasets and in adapting to dynamically changing sets of problem instances compared to previous approaches. As the network self-adapts to sustain a minimal repertoire of both problems and heuristics that form a representative map of the problem space, the system is further shown to be computationally efficient and therefore scalable.

  13. Development of Heuristic Bias Detection in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neys, Wim; Feremans, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Although human reasoning is often biased by intuitive heuristics, recent studies have shown that adults and adolescents detect the biased nature of their judgments. The present study focused on the development of this critical bias sensitivity by examining the detection skills of young children in elementary school. Third and 6th graders were…

  14. Emotions and Heuristics: The State of Perplexity in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés M.

    2017-01-01

    Using data provided by an empirical exploratory study with mathematics undergraduates, this paper discusses some key variables in the interaction between affective and cognitive dimensions in the perplexity state in problem solving. These variables are as follows: heuristics, mathematical processes, appraisal processes [pleasantness, attentional…

  15. Heuristic Evaluation on Mobile Interfaces: A New Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez Gómez, Rosa; Cascado Caballero, Daniel; Sevillano, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution and adoption of mobile devices raise new usability challenges, given their limitations (in screen size, battery life, etc.) as well as the specific requirements of this new interaction. Traditional evaluation techniques need to be adapted in order for these requirements to be met. Heuristic evaluation (HE), an Inspection Method based on evaluation conducted by experts over a real system or prototype, is based on checklists which are desktop-centred and do not adequately detect mobile-specific usability issues. In this paper, we propose a compilation of heuristic evaluation checklists taken from the existing bibliography but readapted to new mobile interfaces. Selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist. The result is a comprehensive checklist which is experimentally evaluated as a design tool. This experimental evaluation involved two software engineers without any specific knowledge about usability, a group of ten users who compared the usability of a first prototype designed without our heuristics, and a second one after applying the proposed checklist. The results of this experiment show the usefulness of the proposed checklist for avoiding usability gaps even with nontrained developers. PMID:25295300

  16. Evaluating Heuristics for Planning Effective and Efficient Inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Forrest J.; Seaman, Carolyn B.; Diep, Madeline M.; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Regardie, Myrna

    2010-01-01

    A significant body of knowledge concerning software inspection practice indicates that the value of inspections varies widely both within and across organizations. Inspection effectiveness and efficiency can be measured in numerous ways, and may be affected by a variety of factors such as Inspection planning, the type of software, the developing organization, and many others. In the early 1990's, NASA formulated heuristics for inspection planning based on best practices and early NASA inspection data. Over the intervening years, the body of data from NASA inspections has grown. This paper describes a multi-faceted exploratory analysis performed on this · data to elicit lessons learned in general about conducting inspections and to recommend improvements to the existing heuristics. The contributions of our results include support for modifying some of the original inspection heuristics (e.g. Increasing the recommended page rate), evidence that Inspection planners must choose between efficiency and effectiveness, as a good tradeoff between them may not exist, and Identification of small subsets of inspections for which new inspection heuristics are needed. Most Importantly, this work illustrates the value of collecting rich data on software Inspections, and using it to gain insight into, and Improve, inspection practice.

  17. Heuristic Reasoning in Chemistry: Making Decisions about Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Lakeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of students' reasoning strategies is of central importance in the development of instructional strategies that foster meaningful learning. In particular, the identification of shortcut reasoning procedures (heuristics) used by students to reduce cognitive load can help us devise strategies to facilitate the development of more…

  18. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  19. Cultural heuristics in risk assessment of HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.; Hutter, I.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviour change models in HIV prevention tend to consider that risky sexual behaviours reflect risk assessments and that by changing risk assessments behaviour can be changed. Risk assessment is however culturally constructed. Individuals use heuristics or bounded cognitive devices derived from

  20. Applied Decision Making With Fast-and-Frugal Heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafenbrädl, S.; Waeger, D.; Marewski, J.N.; Gigerenzer, G.

    In applied settings, such as aviation, medicine, and finance, individuals make decisions under various degrees of uncertainty, that is, when not all risks are known or can be calculated. In such situations, decisions can be made using fast-and-frugal heuristics. These are simple strategies that

  1. Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Drift analysis is one of the state-of-the-art techniques for the runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics (RSHs) such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), simulated annealing etc. The vast majority of existing drift theorems yield bounds on the expected value of the hitting time for a target...

  2. Heuristics and NCLB Standardized Tests: A Convenient Lie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires public schools in the United States to test students in grades 3-8. The author argues that this mandate has been supported by the public, in part, because of the "availability heuristic," a phenomenon which occurs when people assess the probability of an event by the ease with which instances…

  3. Sensitivity analysis of a greedy heuristic for knapsack problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D; Chakravarti, N; Sierksma, G

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out parametric analysis as well as a tolerance limit based sensitivity analysis of a greedy heuristic for two knapsack problems-the 0-1 knapsack problem and the subset sum problem. We carry out the parametric analysis based on all problem parameters. In the tolerance limit

  4. Heuristic Evaluation on Mobile Interfaces: A New Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Yáñez Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution and adoption of mobile devices raise new usability challenges, given their limitations (in screen size, battery life, etc. as well as the specific requirements of this new interaction. Traditional evaluation techniques need to be adapted in order for these requirements to be met. Heuristic evaluation (HE, an Inspection Method based on evaluation conducted by experts over a real system or prototype, is based on checklists which are desktop-centred and do not adequately detect mobile-specific usability issues. In this paper, we propose a compilation of heuristic evaluation checklists taken from the existing bibliography but readapted to new mobile interfaces. Selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist. The result is a comprehensive checklist which is experimentally evaluated as a design tool. This experimental evaluation involved two software engineers without any specific knowledge about usability, a group of ten users who compared the usability of a first prototype designed without our heuristics, and a second one after applying the proposed checklist. The results of this experiment show the usefulness of the proposed checklist for avoiding usability gaps even with nontrained developers.

  5. A rescheduling heuristic for the single machine total tardiness problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a rescheduling heuristic for scheduling N jobs on a .... the schedules which start both jobs i and j after time T, there is an optimal ..... [14] Picard J & Queyranne M, 1978, The time-dependent traveling salesman problem.

  6. Heuristics guide cooperative behaviors in public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Chen, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In public goods game (PGG), player's cooperative behavior is not pure economical rationality, but social preference and prosocial intuition play extremely important roles as well. Social preference and prosocial intuition can be guided by heuristics from one's neighbors in daily life. To better investigate the impacts of heuristics on the evolution of cooperation, four types of agents are introduced into our spatial PGG. Through numerical simulations, results show that the larger percentages of cooperators with independent thought, the easier emergence and maintenance of collective cooperative behaviors. Additionally, we find that differentia heuristic capability has great effect on the equilibrium of PGG. Cooperation can be obviously promoted, when heuristic capability of cooperators with independent thought is stronger than that of defectors with independent thought. Finally, we observe that cooperators with independent thought and defectors with independent thought are favorable for the formation of some high quality clusters, which can resist the invasion between each other. Our work may help us understand more clearly the mechanism of cooperation in real world.

  7. Insights in cognitive patterns : Essays on heuristics and identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, Marloes

    2016-01-01

    People are inclined to find patterns in everything they sense, even if there is no pattern to discover. Humans use action-oriented mental patterns as rules of thumb, so called heuristics, in speedy decision-making. At the same time, we see this desire for pattern finding in social orderliness, in

  8. Divergence of Scientific Heuristic Method and Direct Algebraic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucag, Lina S.

    2016-01-01

    This is an experimental study, made used of the non-randomized experimental and control groups, pretest-posttest designs. The experimental and control groups were two separate intact classes in Algebra. For a period of twelve sessions, the experimental group was subjected to the scientific heuristic method, but the control group instead was given…

  9. Prototypes Are Key Heuristic Information in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjing; Dietrich, Arne; Liu, Peiduo; Ming, Dan; Jin, Yule; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from a range of fields indicates that inventions are often inspired by drawing a parallel to solutions found in nature. However, the cognitive mechanism of this process is not well understood. The cognitive mechanism of heuristic prototype in scientific innovation was tested with 3 experiments. First, 84 historical accounts of important…

  10. Making Predictions about Chemical Reactivity: Assumptions and Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyer, Jenine; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Diverse implicit cognitive elements seem to support but also constrain reasoning in different domains. Many of these cognitive constraints can be thought of as either implicit assumptions about the nature of things or reasoning heuristics for decision-making. In this study we applied this framework to investigate college students' understanding of…

  11. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  12. Heuristic burst detection method using flow and pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Roer, Van de M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  13. How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Michael J; Bode, Nikolai W F; Köster, Gerta

    2016-08-01

    The movement of pedestrian crowds is a paradigmatic example of collective motion. The precise nature of individual-level behaviours underlying crowd movements has been subject to a lively debate. Here, we propose that pedestrians follow simple heuristics rooted in cognitive psychology, such as 'stop if another step would lead to a collision' or 'follow the person in front'. In other words, our paradigm explicitly models individual-level behaviour as a series of discrete decisions. We show that our cognitive heuristics produce realistic emergent crowd phenomena, such as lane formation and queuing behaviour. Based on our results, we suggest that pedestrians follow different cognitive heuristics that are selected depending on the context. This differs from the widely used approach of capturing changes in behaviour via model parameters and leads to testable hypotheses on changes in crowd behaviour for different motivation levels. For example, we expect that rushed individuals more often evade to the side and thus display distinct emergent queue formations in front of a bottleneck. Our heuristics can be ranked according to the cognitive effort that is required to follow them. Therefore, our model establishes a direct link between behavioural responses and cognitive effort and thus facilitates a novel perspective on collective behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. The afforestation problem: a heuristic method based on simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the afforestation problem, that is the location and design of new forest compartments to be planted in a given area. This optimization problem is solved by a two-step heuristic method based on simulated annealing. Tests and experiences with this method are also presented....

  15. Heuristics for minimizing the maximum within-clusters distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Fioruci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The clustering problem consists in finding patterns in a data set in order to divide it into clusters with high within-cluster similarity. This paper presents the study of a problem, here called MMD problem, which aims at finding a clustering with a predefined number of clusters that minimizes the largest within-cluster distance (diameter among all clusters. There are two main objectives in this paper: to propose heuristics for the MMD and to evaluate the suitability of the best proposed heuristic results according to the real classification of some data sets. Regarding the first objective, the results obtained in the experiments indicate a good performance of the best proposed heuristic that outperformed the Complete Linkage algorithm (the most used method from the literature for this problem. Nevertheless, regarding the suitability of the results according to the real classification of the data sets, the proposed heuristic achieved better quality results than C-Means algorithm, but worse than Complete Linkage.

  16. Heuristic Methods of Integer Programming and Its Applications in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Crnjac Milić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of the results related to integer programming is described in the introductory part of this paper. Furthermore, there is a list of literature related to this field. The main part of the paper analyses the Heuristic method which yields a very fast result without the use of significant mathematical tools.

  17. A Heuristic Process for GUI Widget Matching Across Application Versions

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Arthur-Jozsef

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an automated heuristic process able to achieve high accuracy when matching graphical user interface widgets across multiple versions of a target application. The proposed implementation is flexible as it allows full customization of the process and easy integration with existing tools for long term graphical user interface test case maintenance, software visualization and analysis.

  18. Automated Detection of Heuristics and Biases among Pathologists in a Computer-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Reitmeyer, Kayse; Tseytlin, Eugene; Castine, Melissa; Jukic, Drazen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to develop an automated, computer-based method to detect heuristics and biases as pathologists examine virtual slide cases, (2) to measure the frequency and distribution of heuristics and errors across three levels of training, and (3) to examine relationships of heuristics to biases, and biases to…

  19. Investigating the Impacts of Design Heuristics on Idea Initiation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Julia; Daly, Shanna R.; Yilmaz, Seda; Seifert, Colleen M.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of engineering students' use of Design Heuristics as part of a team project in an undergraduate engineering design course. Design Heuristics are an empirically derived set of cognitive "rules of thumb" for use in concept generation. We investigated heuristic use in the initial concept generation phase,…

  20. Fast or Frugal, but Not Both: Decision Heuristics under Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian; Love, Bradley C.

    2018-01-01

    Heuristics are simple, yet effective, strategies that people use to make decisions. Because heuristics do not require all available information, they are thought to be easy to implement and to not tax limited cognitive resources, which has led heuristics to be characterized as fast-and-frugal. We question this monolithic conception of heuristics…

  1. Local search heuristics for the probabilistic dial-a-ride problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Haugland, Dag

    2011-01-01

    evaluation procedure in a pure local search heuristic and in a tabu search heuristic. The quality of the solutions obtained by the two heuristics have been compared experimentally. Computational results confirm that our neighborhood evaluation technique is much faster than the straightforward one...

  2. A local search heuristic for the Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , a local search heuristic for solving the problem is proposed. The heuristic is an iterative shortest path procedure on a reduced graph combined with a local search procedure to modify certain path flows and prioritize the different commodities. The heuristic is tested on benchmark instances from...

  3. On the complexity of decision trees, the quasi-optimizer, and the power of heuristic rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findler, N.V.; Leeuwen, J. van

    The power of certain heuristic rules is indicated by the relative reduction in the complexity of computations carried out, due to the use of the heuristics. A concept of complexity is needed to evaluate the performance of programs as they operate with a varying set of heuristic rules in use. We

  4. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    SKB has submitted RDandD Programme 2004 to SKI for review in accordance with the Act (1984:3) on Nuclear Activities. Based on SKI's review and the review statements received, SKI considers that: - SKB, and thereby the reactor owners, have fulfilled their obligations in accordance with paragraph 12 of the Act (1984:3) on Nuclear Activities, - Disposal in accordance with the KBS-3 concept seems to still be the most suitable way of disposing of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power programme. SKI would like to draw the Government's attention to the following evaluations and comments: - The question of who is responsible after the closure of a repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be clarified. - SKB's plan of action is incomplete and its structure needs to be improved. The revised plan of action needs a more detailed account of the content of the basis for decision-making that SKB intends to present on different decision-making occasions. - As soon as possible, SKB should develop design premises for the canister and verify these premises in the next safety assessment which is planned for 2006. A clear and logical link between the detailed design premises for the canister and the requirements on long-term safety of the repository is still lacking. - SKB should specify the limits for different parameters that are of importance for the canister function. The account must be based on an identification of defects that can occur and their consequences for canister integrity and repository function. - SKB should clarify how the work on KBS-3H (horizontal deposition of the canisters) is to be developed. An estimate of how much time and resources will be required is needed in order to prepare a body of material corresponding to that for KBS-3V (vertical deposition which is, so far, the most studied concept). - SKB should continue to participate in and contribute to the development of methodology for safeguards in connection with the disposal process. The area

  5. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    SKB has submitted RDandD Programme 2004 to SKI for review in accordance with the Act (1984:3) on Nuclear Activities. Based on SKI's review and the review statements received, SKI considers that: - SKB, and thereby the reactor owners, have fulfilled their obligations in accordance with paragraph 12 of the Act (1984:3) on Nuclear Activities, - Disposal in accordance with the KBS-3 concept seems to still be the most suitable way of disposing of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power programme. SKI would like to draw the Government's attention to the following evaluations and comments: - The question of who is responsible after the closure of a repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be clarified. - SKB's plan of action is incomplete and its structure needs to be improved. The revised plan of action needs a more detailed account of the content of the basis for decision-making that SKB intends to present on different decision-making occasions. - As soon as possible, SKB should develop design premises for the canister and verify these premises in the next safety assessment which is planned for 2006. A clear and logical link between the detailed design premises for the canister and the requirements on long-term safety of the repository is still lacking. - SKB should specify the limits for different parameters that are of importance for the canister function. The account must be based on an identification of defects that can occur and their consequences for canister integrity and repository function. - SKB should clarify how the work on KBS-3H (horizontal deposition of the canisters) is to be developed. An estimate of how much time and resources will be required is needed in order to prepare a body of material corresponding to that for KBS-3V (vertical deposition which is, so far, the most studied concept). - SKB should continue to participate in and contribute to the development of methodology for safeguards in connection with the disposal process. The area

  6. After the Liverpool Care Pathway—development of heuristics to guide end of life care for people with dementia: protocol of the ALCP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N; Manthorpe, J; Sampson, E L; Iliffe, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction End of life care guidance for people with dementia is lacking and this has been made more problematic in England with the removal of one of the main end of life care guidelines which offered some structure, the Liverpool Care Pathway. This guidance gap may be eased with the development of heuristics (rules of thumb) which offer a fast and frugal form of decision-making. Objective To develop a toolkit of heuristics (rules of thumb) for practitioners to use when caring for people with dementia at the end of life. Method and analysis A mixed-method study using a co-design approach to develop heuristics in three phases. In phase 1, we will conduct at least six focus groups with family carers, health and social care practitioners from both hospital and community care services, using the ‘think-aloud’ method to understand decision-making processes and to develop a set of heuristics. The focus group topic guide will be developed from the findings of a previous study of 46 interviews of family carers about quality end-of-life care for people with dementia and a review of the literature. A multidisciplinary development team of health and social care practitioners will synthesise the findings from the focus groups to devise and refine a toolkit of heuristics. Phase 2 will test the use of heuristics in practice in five sites: one general practice, one community nursing team, one hospital ward and two palliative care teams working in the community. Phase 3 will evaluate and further refine the toolkit of heuristics through group interviews, online questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethical approval from a local NHS research ethics committee (Rec ref: 15/LO/0156). The findings of this study will be presented in peer-reviewed publications and national and international conferences. PMID:26338688

  7. After the Liverpool Care Pathway--development of heuristics to guide end of life care for people with dementia: protocol of the ALCP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N; Manthorpe, J; Sampson, E L; Iliffe, S

    2015-09-02

    End of life care guidance for people with dementia is lacking and this has been made more problematic in England with the removal of one of the main end of life care guidelines which offered some structure, the Liverpool Care Pathway. This guidance gap may be eased with the development of heuristics (rules of thumb) which offer a fast and frugal form of decision-making. To develop a toolkit of heuristics (rules of thumb) for practitioners to use when caring for people with dementia at the end of life. A mixed-method study using a co-design approach to develop heuristics in three phases. In phase 1, we will conduct at least six focus groups with family carers, health and social care practitioners from both hospital and community care services, using the 'think-aloud' method to understand decision-making processes and to develop a set of heuristics. The focus group topic guide will be developed from the findings of a previous study of 46 interviews of family carers about quality end-of-life care for people with dementia and a review of the literature. A multidisciplinary development team of health and social care practitioners will synthesise the findings from the focus groups to devise and refine a toolkit of heuristics. Phase 2 will test the use of heuristics in practice in five sites: one general practice, one community nursing team, one hospital ward and two palliative care teams working in the community. Phase 3 will evaluate and further refine the toolkit of heuristics through group interviews, online questionnaires and semistructured interviews. This study has received ethical approval from a local NHS research ethics committee (Rec ref: 15/LO/0156). The findings of this study will be presented in peer-reviewed publications and national and international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  9. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  10. Heuristics to Evaluate Interactive Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Kamran; Salim, Siti Salwah; Asemi, Adeleh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adapted and expanded a set of guidelines, also known as heuristics, to evaluate the usability of software to now be appropriate for software aimed at children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We started from the heuristics developed by Nielsen in 1990 and developed a modified set of 15 heuristics. The first 5 heuristics of this set are the same as those of the original Nielsen set, the next 5 heuristics are improved versions of Nielsen's, whereas the last 5 heuristics are new. We present two evaluation studies of our new heuristics. In the first, two groups compared Nielsen's set with the modified set of heuristics, with each group evaluating two interactive systems. The Nielsen's heuristics were assigned to the control group while the experimental group was given the modified set of heuristics, and a statistical analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the modified set, the contribution of 5 new heuristics and the impact of 5 improved heuristics. The results show that the modified set is significantly more effective than the original, and we found a significant difference between the five improved heuristics and their corresponding heuristics in the original set. The five new heuristics are effective in problem identification using the modified set. The second study was conducted using a system which was developed to ascertain if the modified set was effective at identifying usability problems that could be fixed before the release of software. The post-study analysis revealed that the majority of the usability problems identified by the experts were fixed in the updated version of the system.

  11. Heuristics to Evaluate Interactive Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Khowaja

    Full Text Available In this paper, we adapted and expanded a set of guidelines, also known as heuristics, to evaluate the usability of software to now be appropriate for software aimed at children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. We started from the heuristics developed by Nielsen in 1990 and developed a modified set of 15 heuristics. The first 5 heuristics of this set are the same as those of the original Nielsen set, the next 5 heuristics are improved versions of Nielsen's, whereas the last 5 heuristics are new. We present two evaluation studies of our new heuristics. In the first, two groups compared Nielsen's set with the modified set of heuristics, with each group evaluating two interactive systems. The Nielsen's heuristics were assigned to the control group while the experimental group was given the modified set of heuristics, and a statistical analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the modified set, the contribution of 5 new heuristics and the impact of 5 improved heuristics. The results show that the modified set is significantly more effective than the original, and we found a significant difference between the five improved heuristics and their corresponding heuristics in the original set. The five new heuristics are effective in problem identification using the modified set. The second study was conducted using a system which was developed to ascertain if the modified set was effective at identifying usability problems that could be fixed before the release of software. The post-study analysis revealed that the majority of the usability problems identified by the experts were fixed in the updated version of the system.

  12. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  13. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  14. Answer first: Applying the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to examine student intuitive thinking in the context of physics

    OpenAIRE

    Mila Kryjevskaia; MacKenzie R. Stetzer; Nathaniel Grosz

    2014-01-01

    We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics s...

  15. Should We Stop Developing Heuristics and Only Rely on Mixed Integer Programming Solvers in Automated Test Assembly? A Rejoinder to van der Linden and Li (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hua

    2017-05-01

    This rejoinder responds to the commentary by van der Linden and Li entiled "Comment on Three-Element Item Selection Procedures for Multiple Forms Assembly: An Item Matching Approach" on the article "Three-Element Item Selection Procedures for Multiple Forms Assembly: An Item Matching Approach" by Chen. Van der Linden and Li made a strong statement calling for the cessation of test assembly heuristics development, and instead encouraged embracing mixed integer programming (MIP). This article points out the nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-hard nature of MIP problems and how solutions found using heuristics could be useful in an MIP context. Although van der Linden and Li provided several practical examples of test assembly supporting their view, the examples ignore the cases in which a slight change of constraints or item pool data might mean it would not be possible to obtain solutions as quickly as before. The article illustrates the use of heuristic solutions to improve both the performance of MIP solvers and the quality of solutions. Additional responses to the commentary by van der Linden and Li are included.

  16. Selection and reliability of financial ratios in an attempt to analyse financial statements. An empirical research of the listed companies at Greek stock exchange in Construction Sector. Dimitrios Tsiolis MA Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiolis, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Financial ratio analysis is a widely known financial statements analysis tool and is used to evaluate companies` financial position. Careful selection process in collaboration with other financial statement analysis techniques as well as taking into consideration the financial ratio analysis problems can lead the companies' analysts to a clear determination of their company's financial position.

  17. Heuristic Evaluation of Ehealth Interventions: Establishing Standards That Relate to the Therapeutic Process Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Muench, Fred

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers' perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products' suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product's ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention's compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs.

  18. The influence of family history on cognitive heuristics, risk perceptions, and prostate cancer screening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Michelle E; Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2013-11-01

    To examine how family history of prostate cancer, risk perceptions, and heuristic decision strategies influence prostate cancer screening behavior. Men with a first-degree family history of prostate cancer (FDRs; n = 207) and men without a family history (PM; n = 239) completed a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) examining prostate cancer risk perceptions, PSA testing behaviors, perceptions of similarity to the typical man who gets prostate cancer (representativeness heuristic), and availability of information about prostate cancer (availability heuristic). A path model explored family history as influencing the availability of information about prostate cancer (number of acquaintances with prostate cancer and number of recent discussions about prostate cancer) to mediate judgments of risk and to predict PSA testing behaviors and family history as a moderator of the relationship between representativeness (perceived similarity) and risk perceptions. FDRs reported greater risk perceptions and a greater number of PSA tests than did PM. Risk perceptions predicted increased PSA testing only in path models and was significant only for PM in multi-Group SEM analyses. Family history moderated the relationship between similarity perceptions and risk perceptions such that the relationship between these variables was significant only for FDRs. Recent discussions about prostate cancer mediated the relationships between family history and risk perceptions, and the number of acquaintances men knew with prostate cancer mediated the relationship between family history and PSA testing behavior. Family history interacts with the individuals' broader social environment to influence risk perceptions and screening behavior. Research into how risk perceptions develop and what primes behavior change is crucial to underpin psychological or public health intervention that seeks to influence health decision making.

  19. Pain as a fact and heuristic: how pain neuroimaging illuminates moral dimensions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, Amanda C

    2012-05-01

    In legal domains ranging from tort to torture, pain and its degree do important definitional work by delimiting boundaries of lawfulness and of entitlements. Yet, for all the work done by pain as a term in legal texts and practice, it has a confounding lack of external verifiability. Now, neuroimaging is rendering pain and myriad other subjective states at least partly ascertainable. This emerging ability to ascertain and quantify subjective states is prompting a "hedonic" or a "subjectivist" turn in legal scholarship, which has sparked a vigorous debate as to whether the quantification of subjective states might affect legal theory and practice. Subjectivists contend that much values-talk in law has been a necessary but poor substitute for quantitative determinations of subjective states--determinations that will be possible in the law's "experiential future." This Article argues the converse: that pain discourse in law frequently is a heuristic for values. Drawing on interviews and laboratory visits with neuroimaging researchers, this Article shows current and in-principle limitations of pain quantification through neuroimaging. It then presents case studies on torture-murder, torture, the death penalty, and abortion to show the largely heuristic role of pain discourse in law. Introducing the theory of "embodied morality," the Article describes how moral conceptions of rights and duties are informed by human physicality and constrained by the limits of empathic identification. Pain neuroimaging helps reveal this dual factual and heuristic nature of pain in the law, and thus itself points to the translational work required for neuroimaging to influence, much less transform, legal practice and doctrine.

  20. A perturbative clustering hyper-heuristic framework for the Danish railway system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Burke, Edmund K.

    , we propose a perturbative clustering hyper-heuristic framework. The framework improves an initial solution by reassigning outliers (those tasks that are far away) to a better cluster choice at each iteration while taking balanced crews workloads into account. The framework introduces five lowlevel...... heuristics and employs an adaptive choice function as a robust learning mechanism. The results of adaptive clustering hyper-heuristic are compared with two exact and heuristic assignment algorithms from the literature and with the random hyper-heuristic framework on 12 datasets. In comparison with the exact...... formulation, the proposed framework could obtain promising results and solved the data instances up to 5000 number of tasks. In comparison with heuristic assignment and the random hyper-heuristic, the framework yielded approximately 11%, 27% and 10%,13% mprovement on total distance and the maximum distance...