WorldWideScience

Sample records for research specifically related

  1. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  2. Model specification in oral health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieffer, J.M.; Verrips, E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze conventional wisdom regarding the construction and analysis of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires and to outline statistical complications. Most methods used for developing and analyzing questionnaires, such as factor analysis and

  3. Model specification in oral health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Jacobien M; Verrips, Erik; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze conventional wisdom regarding the construction and analysis of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires and to outline statistical complications. Most methods used for developing and analyzing questionnaires, such as factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, presume psychological constructs to be latent, inferring a reflective measurement model with the underlying assumption of local independence. Local independence implies that the latent variable explains why the variables observed are related. Many OHRQoL questionnaires are analyzed as if they were based on a reflective measurement model; local independence is thus assumed. This assumption requires these questionnaires to consist solely of items that reflect, instead of determine, OHRQoL. The tenability of this assumption is the main topic of the present study. It is argued that OHRQoL questionnaires are a mix of both a formative measurement model and a reflective measurement model, thus violating the assumption of local independence. The implications are discussed.

  4. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  6. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  7. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  8. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  9. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  10. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  11. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1987-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the nuclear related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1987 and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  12. Research as relational agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    the agency of iPads implemented in Danish schools challenged the implementation of a research based auxiliary artefact, the TECS-model, meant to help teachers managing teaching with iPads in Danish schools. Researchers had to develop a special sensitivity to the cultural force of all of these artefacts......Studying the impact of educational technologies ‘in the wild’ put new demands on researchers than when researchers are conducting experiments in a laboratory. When researchers work within institutional boundaries they cannot take for granted that all members engaged in institutional work share...... the same conception of material artefacts, which are non-human in the sense that they are not just material but agentic and persuasive like humans. Local conceptualisations of artefacts must be explored as the researchers develop relational agency with the different local people involved. New educational...

  13. The need for a holistic approach in mangrove-related fisheries research: a specific review of the German and Brazilian research project MADAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Paul, U; Schneider, H

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the bilateral German-Brazilian mangrove development and management (MADAM) programme (mangrove dynamics and management) was to generate the scientific basis to enable the sustainable stewardship of the resources of the Caeté mangrove estuary in north-east Brazil in the sense of integrated coastal (zone) management. Main emphasis was given to fishes and crabs captured by artisanal fishermen. This paper describes the project strategy as developed and modified in the context of research results obtained over a period of 10 years. It is argued that a continuous discussion process is essential to assess the validity of the strategies formulated at the beginning of a medium-term project, particularly if the project is of an interdisciplinary nature. To achieve this, it was necessary to acquire in-depth knowledge of natural processes as well as of the relevant institutional, cultural, economic, social and political dynamics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Research on minimum sound specifications for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report documents research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to identify ways : to develop sound specifications for electric and hybrid vehicles. The research was conducted to support activities : related to the implem...

  15. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded

  16. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  17. Development of technical specifications for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This standard identifies and establishes the content of technical specifications for research reactors. Areas addressed are: definitions, safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features and administrative controls. Sufficient detail is incorporated so that applicable specifications can be derived or extracted

  18. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.

  19. Relational Research and Organisation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Lone Hersted

    , analyzing organizational dialoguing, and polyphonic future-forming ways of writing up research.  Relational Research and Organisation Studies does not only present and discuss guidelines for practice at a onto-epistemological level but also presents and discusses concrete cases of research projects building...... on relational constructionist ideas. Furthermore, excerpts of data are presented and analyzed in order to explain the co-constructed processes of the inquiries more in detail. Relational Research and Organisation Studies invites the reader into the process of planning and carrying out relational constructionist......This volume lays out a variety of ways of engaging in research projects focused on exploring the everyday relational practices of organizing and leading is presented. The main focus is through elaborate examples from the author’s own research to further the understanding of how it is possible...

  20. Researcher/Researched: Relations of Vulnerability/Relations of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2011-01-01

    Turning to reflexive journals and fieldnotes, the author reconsiders Foucault's "relations of power" through her experiences with five research participants, who are professors of education. The paper explores: (1) the translation of Foucault for an analysis of power; (2) the dynamics of researching up and analyzing from below; and (3) the…

  1. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific apple replant disorder (SARD). II. The first five years at Wageningen research plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the

  2. Doing relational research through roleplaying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    2018-01-01

    and leaders working in an institution. It is carried out and described from within the movement, often referred to as the dialogical turn (Flecha et al. 2003) or the relational turn (Donati 2011). The practice is rooted in a constructionist stance and inspired by action research and arts-based research. I...

  3. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  4. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  5. Review panel comments on geomedia specific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This includes remarks made by three panel members concerning geomedia-specific repository relevant research. The scientific work in the materials area has progressed significantly. Investigators are showing a better understanding of the importance of groundwater compositions. Significant attention is being paid to the importance of colloids and complexing agents. Good planning seems to be in evidence in the Nevada program. Much cooperation and planning in the materials program is needed. Requirements concerning the performance of waste management systems were included. Other topics discussed at the symposium were interactive testing of waste forms, canister materials, and repository rock. Characterization of the chemical and physical environment in the near-field was considered by several speakers. These papers and discussions were part of the Seventh International Symposium on the Scientific Ban's for Nuclear Waste Management

  6. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  7. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  8. Reasoning About Higher-Order Relational Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Yuting; Chaudhuri , Kaustuv; Gacek , Andrew; Nadathur , Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The logic of hereditary Harrop formulas (HH) has proven useful for specifying a wide range of formal systems. This logic includes a form of hypothetical judgment that leads to dynamically changing sets of assumptions and that is key to encoding side conditions and contexts that occur frequently in structural operational semantics (SOS) style presentations. Specifications are often useful in reasoning about the systems they describe. The Abella theorem prover supports s...

  9. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  10. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  11. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  12. Ethnographic research in immigrant-specific drug abuse recovery houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anna; Lee, Juliet P; García, Victor; Recarte, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Access to study populations is a major concern for drug use and treatment researchers. Spaces related to drug use and treatment have varying levels of researcher accessibility based on several issues, including legality, public versus private settings, and insider/outsider status. Ethnographic research methods are indispensable for gaining and maintaining access to hidden or "hard-to-reach" populations. Here, we discuss our long-term ethnographic research on drug abuse recovery houses created by and for Latino migrants and immigrants in Northern California. We take our field work experiences as a case study to examine the problem of researcher access and how ethnographic strategies can be successfully applied to address it, focusing especially on issues of entrée, building rapport, and navigating field-specific challenges related to legality, public/private settings, and insider/outsider status. We conclude that continued funding support for ethnography is essential for promoting health disparities research focused on diverse populations in recovery from substance use disorders.

  13. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  14. ASPECTS REGARDING NEUROMARKETING SPECIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must posses. Some informations are hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer. Neuromarketing helps us find what is inside of the black box without troubling the consumer with questions that he doesn’t want to answer or that he can’t answer. Today because of an extensive research in mapping cortical and subcortical activity in association with behaviors and thoughts, the confidence in neurological data is growing. Thanks to discoveries in perceptual sciences we can identify the parts of the brain that are responsible for the phenomena that we experience daily. For all those interested in information obtained through neuromarketing techniques it becomes evident that there are corresponding neural substrates of consumer decision making process and these substrates can be observed, measured, and possibly manipulated. The following paper reveals some important aspects of the use of neuromarketing in studying consumer behavior by presenting the concepts, methods and techniques used under this sophisticated name, the limitations and advantages of using neuromarketing techniques and the importance of this type of information in decision making process at a company level.

  15. On the use of specific signal types in hearing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kurtz, T.; Parlitz, U.; Kaatze, U.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution, we review a number of specific signal types that have been introduced in auditory research in the past 20 years. Through the introduction of digital computers into experimental and theoretical hearing research, the freedom to construct and use specific acoustic stimuli in

  16. Density and Specific Gravity Metrics in Biomass Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal C. Wiemann; G. Bruce Williamson

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 publication of Measuring Wood Specific Gravity… Correctly in the American Journal of Botany, readers contacted us to inquire about application of wood density and specific gravity to biomass research. Here we recommend methods for sample collection, volume measurement, and determination of wood density and specific gravity for...

  17. Relating Performative and Ostensive Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    . Findings – The paper illustrates how the process is a balancing act. On the one hand, it requires performative researchers to relate more closely to aspects decisive for ostensive researchers; yet, on the other, they need to preserve the distinctiveness of the performative approach. Originality....../value – This paper exemplifies these issues with reference to management accounting research and contributes by clarifying the methodological implications of moving performative research closer to ostensive research....

  18. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  19. Kernel-Based Learning for Domain-Specific Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Roberto; Giannone, Cristina; Del Vescovo, Chiara; Moschitti, Alessandro; Naggar, Paolo

    In a specific process of business intelligence, i.e. investigation on organized crime, empirical language processing technologies can play a crucial role. The analysis of transcriptions on investigative activities, such as police interrogatories, for the recognition and storage of complex relations among people and locations is a very difficult and time consuming task, ultimately based on pools of experts. We discuss here an inductive relation extraction platform that opens the way to much cheaper and consistent workflows. The presented empirical investigation shows that accurate results, comparable to the expert teams, can be achieved, and parametrization allows to fine tune the system behavior for fitting domain-specific requirements.

  20. General problems specific to hot nuclear materials research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.

    1996-01-01

    During the sixties, governments have installed hot nuclear materials research facilities to characterize highly radioactive materials, to describe their in-pile behaviour, to develop and test new reactor core components, and to provide the industry with radioisotopes. Since then, the attitude towards the nuclear option has drastically changed and resources have become very tight. Within the changed political environment, the national research centres have defined new objectives. Given budgetary constraints, nuclear facilities have to co-operate internationally and to look for third party research assignments. The paper discusses the problems and needs within experimental nuclear research facilities as well as industrial requirements. Special emphasis is on cultural topics (definition of the scope of nuclear research facilities, the search for competitive advantages, and operational requirements), social aspects (overageing of personnel, recruitment, and training of new staff), safety related administrative and technical issues, and research needs for expertise and state of the art analytical infrastructure

  1. Research in adaptive management: working relations and the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda C. Graham; Linda E. Kruger

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes how a small group of Forest Service scientists participating in efforts to implement adaptive management approach working relations, and how they understand and apply the research process. Nine scientists completed a questionnaire to assess their preferred mode of thinking (the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument), engaged in a facilitated...

  2. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace.

  3. The research on business rules classification and specification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrušaitis, Egidijus

    2005-01-01

    The work is based on the research of business rules classification and specification methods. The basics of business rules approach are discussed. The most common business rules classification and modeling methods are analyzed. Business rules modeling techniques and tools for supporting them in the information systems are presented. Basing on the analysis results business rules classification method is proposed. Templates for every business rule type are presented. Business rules structuring ...

  4. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...

  5. Ordinal Position Research Related to Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1974-01-01

    Birth order studies directly related to vocational interest were reviewed to discern support for certain theoretical susumptions: firstborns are more directing, controlling, and organizing than later borns and later borns are more sociable, empathic, and sympathetic than firstborns. The research was inconsistent, contradictory, and speculative.…

  6. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, Jiri; Hombourger, Boris; Fiorina, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  7. Bubbler condenser related research work. Present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    Intensive discussions within the OECD Support Group on 'VVER-440 Bubbler Condenser Containment Research Work' between 1991 and 1994 demonstrated the need for supplementary research work to achieve an adequate level of basic knowledge. In 1994, the European Commission (EC) asked for a specific 'VVER-440/213 Bubble Condenser Qualification Feasibility Study', which was finished early in 1996, confirming the need for additional research in this field. The Feasibility study formed the basis for the Bubble Condenser Experimental Qualification Project (BCEQ) with two separate experimental activities to be executed within the frame of the PHARE/TACIS 2.13/95 project of the European Commission. A first activity served to study the thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the associated structure dynamic interactions. This part of the project was performed at EREC, in Elektrogorsk, Russia. The design of the test facility was based on the prototypical bubbler condenser configuration for the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant. A second activity addressed the structural integrity of certain components of the bubbler condenser steel structures under DBA-typical conditions. This part of the project was performed at VUEZ, in Levice, Slovak Republic. The design of the components of this facility was based on the structural properties of the Dukovany and/or Bohunice nuclear power plants. A third component of the BCEQ project was specified later asking for analytical studies, which should be supported by a number of small-scale separate effects tests to be performed at SVUSS, in Bechovice, Czech Republic. The main experimental and analytical results of the BCEQ test campaigns have been presented and discussed within the frame of the 4. meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee to the BCEQ (Bubble Condenser Experimental Qualification) Project in Brussels in December 1999 and on occasion of the 11. OECD Support Group Meeting in Berlin in April 2000. The discussions had evidenced several

  8. Gender relations and applied research on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-12-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life.

  9. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L.; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Hallett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of

  10. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pirio Richardson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including

  11. Power Relations: Their Embodiment in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this column is to consider the notion of power in research. To that end, the idea of power is considered from the perspective of philosophy and then linked to a nursing concept analysis that compares the differences between power over and power to. Then, the nature of power relations is compared and contrasted between quantitative and qualitative methodologies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Analysis and specification tools in relation to the APSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Ada and the Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) specifically address the phases of the system/software life cycle which follow after the user's problem was translated into system and software development specifications. The waterfall model of the life cycle identifies the analysis and requirements definition phases as preceeding program design and coding. Since Ada is a programming language and the APSE is a programming support environment, they are primarily targeted to support program (code) development, tecting, and maintenance. The use of Ada based or Ada related specification languages (SLs) and program design languages (PDLs) can extend the use of Ada back into the software design phases of the life cycle. Recall that the standardization of the APSE as a programming support environment is only now happening after many years of evolutionary experience with diverse sets of programming support tools. Restricting consideration to one, or even a few chosen specification and design tools, could be a real mistake for an organization or a major project such as the Space Station, which will need to deal with an increasingly complex level of system problems. To require that everything be Ada-like, be implemented in Ada, run directly under the APSE, and fit into a rigid waterfall model of the life cycle would turn a promising support environment into a straight jacket for progress.

  13. Ageing Management for Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    good practice. This Safety Guide is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors. It may be used by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. While the intention is not to recommend ways in which to make the operation of a research reactor more effective or more efficient, the recommendations provided in this Safety Guide on managing ageing of SSCs to ensure safety will undoubtedly contribute to the enhancement of their long term reliability and availability. SCOPE. This Safety Guide covers all aspects relating to the establishment, implementation and continuous improvement of an ageing management programme. It not only focuses on managing the physical ageing of SSCs important to safety but also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence (non-physical ageing)

  14. Ageing Management for Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    good practice. This Safety Guide is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors. It may be used by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. While the intention is not to recommend ways in which to make the operation of a research reactor more effective or more efficient, the recommendations provided in this Safety Guide on managing ageing of SSCs to ensure safety will undoubtedly contribute to the enhancement of their long term reliability and availability. SCOPE. This Safety Guide covers all aspects relating to the establishment, implementation and continuous improvement of an ageing management programme. It not only focuses on managing the physical ageing of SSCs important to safety but also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence (non-physical ageing)

  15. Analysing relations between specific and total liking scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menichelli, Elena; Kraggerud, Hilde; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a new statistical approach for the study of consumer liking. Total liking data are extended by incorporating liking for specific sensory properties. The approach combines different analyses for the purpose of investigating the most important aspects...... of liking and indicating which products are similarly or differently perceived by which consumers. A method based on the differences between total liking and the specific liking variables is proposed for studying both relative differences among products and individual consumer differences. Segmentation...... is also tested out in order to distinguish consumers with the strongest differences in their liking values. The approach is illustrated by a case study, based on cheese data. In the consumer test consumers were asked to evaluate their total liking, the liking for texture and the liking for odour/taste. (C...

  16. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds. Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts. The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning. A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation.

  17. Research on Relative Age in Hungarian Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Nikoletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400. The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

  18. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers

    OpenAIRE

    van Schaaijk, A.; Boschman, J. S.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Method Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance worker...

  19. Domain-Specific Creativity in Relation to the Level of Empathy and Systemizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Daniel; Plháková, Alena; Záškodná, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore self-reported domain-specific creativity in relation to the level of empathy, systemizing, and the Big Five personality dimensions. The research sample consisted of 1112 college students to whom the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS), the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ), Baron-Cohen's empathy and…

  20. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-12-31

    Cooperative Agreements, DE-FC26-08NT43293, DOE-WRI Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources began in June 2009. The goal of the Program was to develop, commercialize, and deploy technologies of value to the nation’s fossil and renewable energy industries. To ensure relevancy and early commercialization, the involvement of an industrial partner was encouraged. In that regard, the Program stipulated that a minimum of 20% cost share be achieved in a fiscal year. This allowed WRI to carry a diverse portfolio of technologies and projects at various development technology readiness levels. Depending upon the maturity of the research concept and technology, cost share for a given task ranged from none to as high as 67% (two-thirds). Over the course of the Program, a total of twenty six tasks were proposed for DOE approval. Over the period of performance of the Cooperative agreement, WRI has put in place projects utilizing a total of $7,089,581 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors have committed $7,398,476 in private funds to produce a program valued at $14,488,057. Tables 1 and 2 presented at the end of this section is a compilation of the funding for all the tasks conducted under the program. The goal of the Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources was to through collaborative research with the industry, develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: • Increase the production of United States energy resources – coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; • Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; • Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and • Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Success of the Program can be measured by

  1. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of

  2. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prostate carcinoma (PC) - an organ-related specific pathological neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massmann, J.; Funk, A.; Altwein, J.; Praetorius, M.

    2003-01-01

    The organ- and tumour-related specific characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PC) are presented in an overview under various aspects. It is the key for understanding pathological changes, including PC, to consider the subdivision of the prostate into anatomically and functionally distinguishable zones, especially the transitional zone (TZ) and the peripheral zone (PZ). The pseudoneoplastic hyperplasia of the TZ, combined with inflammatory consequences and age-related changes, forms a differential diagnostic challenge to both clinico-radiological diagnosis and macroscopic and microscopic examination. High-degree prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN III) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) are presented as precursor lesions of PC with varying significance and assessment. Moreover, there are discussed the following characteristic features of PC: localisation types, focality, volume, progression, double-graduation according to Gleason, tumour stage, and prognosis. The most important prognosis factors of PC (category I) include the categories of the TNM system, such as stage, surgical marginal situation, degree and also the preoperative PSA level as a (poor) substitute for the tumour volume. Potential prognosis parameters (category II) show the tumour volume and the DNS ploidy, while there continues to exist a large number of non-established parameters (category III). The prognostic validity of the pathological examinations depends, on the one hand, on the tissue extent (needle biopsy, transurethral resection (TURP), so-called simple prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy (RPE)) and the prostate zones covered. On the other hand, the prognostic certainty also depends on the tumour-adequate macroscopic and microscopic assessment of an RPE that can only be a partial or complete handling in transversal large-area sections. (orig.) [de

  4. Inferring general relations between network characteristics from specific network ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Pernice, Volker; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Different network models have been suggested for the topology underlying complex interactions in natural systems. These models are aimed at replicating specific statistical features encountered in real-world networks. However, it is rarely considered to which degree the results obtained for one particular network class can be extrapolated to real-world networks. We address this issue by comparing different classical and more recently developed network models with respect to their ability to generate networks with large structural variability. In particular, we consider the statistical constraints which the respective construction scheme imposes on the generated networks. After having identified the most variable networks, we address the issue of which constraints are common to all network classes and are thus suitable candidates for being generic statistical laws of complex networks. In fact, we find that generic, not model-related dependencies between different network characteristics do exist. This makes it possible to infer global features from local ones using regression models trained on networks with high generalization power. Our results confirm and extend previous findings regarding the synchronization properties of neural networks. Our method seems especially relevant for large networks, which are difficult to map completely, like the neural networks in the brain. The structure of such large networks cannot be fully sampled with the present technology. Our approach provides a method to estimate global properties of under-sampled networks in good approximation. Finally, we demonstrate on three different data sets (C. elegans neuronal network, R. prowazekii metabolic network, and a network of synonyms extracted from Roget's Thesaurus) that real-world networks have statistical relations compatible with those obtained using regression models.

  5. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  6. Synapse-specific astrocyte gating of amygdala-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Mario; Jamison, Stephanie; Robin, Laurie M; Zhao, Zhe; Martin, Eduardo D; Aguilar, Juan; Benneyworth, Michael A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Araque, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    The amygdala plays key roles in fear and anxiety. Studies of the amygdala have largely focused on neuronal function and connectivity. Astrocytes functionally interact with neurons, but their role in the amygdala remains largely unknown. We show that astrocytes in the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM) determine the synaptic and behavioral outputs of amygdala circuits. To investigate the role of astrocytes in amygdala-related behavior and identify the underlying synaptic mechanisms, we used exogenous or endogenous signaling to selectively activate CeM astrocytes. Astrocytes depressed excitatory synapses from basolateral amygdala via A 1 adenosine receptor activation and enhanced inhibitory synapses from the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala via A 2A receptor activation. Furthermore, astrocytic activation decreased the firing rate of CeM neurons and reduced fear expression in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Therefore, we conclude that astrocyte activity determines fear responses by selectively regulating specific synapses, which indicates that animal behavior results from the coordinated activity of neurons and astrocytes.

  7. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  8. Neuropsychological functioning related to specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, C; Dhondt, K; Roels, S P; Raes, A; Groen, L-A; Hoebeke, P; Walle, J Vande

    2015-08-01

    There is a high comorbidity demonstrated in the literature between nocturnal enuresis and several neuropsychological dysfunctions, with special emphasis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the majority of the psychological studies did not include full non-invasive screening and failed to differentiate between monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and non-MNE patients. The present study primarily aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal enuresis and (neuro)psychological functioning in a selective homogeneous patient group, namely: children with MNE and associated nocturnal polyuria (NP). Secondly, the study investigated the association between specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (maximum voided volume, number of wet nights and number of nights with NP) and ADHD-inattentive symptoms, executive functioning and quality of life. The psychological measurements were multi-informant (parents, children and teachers) and multi-method (questionnaires, clinical interviews and neuropsychological testing). Thirty children aged 6-16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were included. Of them, 80% had at least one psychological, motor or neurological difficulty. The comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, especially the predominantly inattentive presentation, was most common. According to the teachers, a low maximum voided volume (corrected for age) was associated with more attention problems, and a high number of nights with NP was associated with more behaviour-regulation problems. No significant correlations were found between specific characteristics of enuresis and quality of life. Details are demonstrated in Table. The children were recruited from a tertiary referral centre, which resulted in selection bias. Moreover, NP was defined as a urine output exceeding 100% of the expected bladder capacity for age (EBC), and not according to the expert-opinion-based International Children's Continence Society norm of 130% of EBC. The definition

  9. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  10. NASA Fixed Wing Project Propulsion Research and Technology Development Activities to Reduce Thrust Specific Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; DelRasario, Ruben; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the propulsion research and technology portfolio of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Fixed Wing Project. The research is aimed at significantly reducing the thrust specific fuel/energy consumption of notional advanced fixed wing aircraft (by 60 % relative to a baseline Boeing 737-800 aircraft with CFM56-7B engines) in the 2030-2035 time frame. The research investments described herein are aimed at improving propulsive efficiency through higher bypass ratio fans, improving thermal efficiency through compact high overall pressure ratio gas generators, and exploring the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion propulsion and hybrid gas-electric propulsion concepts.

  11. Specific schedule conditions for the formation of personnel of A or B category working in nuclear facilities. Option research center

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This document describes the specific dispositions relative to the Research Center, for the formation to the conventional and radiation risks prevention of personnel of A or B category working in nuclear facilities. The application domain, the applicable documents, the liability, the specificity of the Research Center and of the retraining, the Passerelle formation, are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Technical specifications are presented concerning safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  13. Research into specific risk assessment in project financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bestvina Bukvić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of investment justification in terms of risk enables the decision maker (investor to select, among available alternatives, the one with the most favourable correlation between the expected profit and assumed risk. At the micro level, the uncertainty of business success is extremely high in production activities, which is an additional incentive for taking a comprehensive approach to the issue of investment decision-making and the development of risk assessment techniques applicable in this particular segment of industry. Given the complexity of the manufacturing process, the length of the production cycle, market conditions, and entity-specific risks (which are difficult to measure, projects in manufacturing industry require a detailed and comprehensive assessment of specific risk factors and their cost-effectiveness. Ne - vertheless, since specific risks can be diversified, investment proposal assessments in practice usually do not cover their quantification and analysis. However, the majority of business entities do not have enough active projects in various industries to be able to fully diversify their business and thus minimize the level of specific risks. The impact of specific factors becomes one of the most important elements for business success. This paper analyses how far risk assessment methods regarding specific risks are used in practice. Furthermore, it analyses the significance of specific risks for total investment risk. This study gives new insi - ghts into the significance of specific risks to the overall investment assessment and the need for permanent development of traditionally used investment assessment models.

  14. A Practical School Public Relations Research Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in communication technology have created many new tools for school communicators--as well as increasing complexities for their programs. As a result, solid school communication research programs offering practical research insights for planning, tracking, and assessing school communication efforts are more important than ever. Still, many…

  15. Extracting meronomy relations from domain-specific, textual corporate databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittoo, R.A.; Bouma, G.; Maruster, L.; Wortmann, J.C.; Hopfe, C.J.; Rezgui, Y.; Métais, E.; Preece, A.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    Various techniques for learning meronymy relationships from open-domain corpora exist. However, extracting meronymy relationships from domain-specific, textual corporate databases has been overlooked, despite numerous application opportunities particularly in domains like product development and/or

  16. Safety of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements for all main areas of safety for research reactors, with particular emphasis on requirements for design and operation. It explains the safety objectives and concepts that form the basis for safety and safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of new research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives and concepts, and they are to be applied to the extent practicable for existing research reactors. The safety requirements established in this publication for the management of safety and regulatory supervision apply to site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation (including utilization and modification), and planning for decommissioning of research reactors (including critical assemblies and subcritical assemblies). The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies and other organizations with responsibilities in these areas and in safety analysis, verification and review, and the provision of technical support.

  17. Core OCD Symptoms: Exploration of Specificity and Relations with Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasik, Sara M.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains. This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity – suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms – whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. Across analyses, our results indicated that Checking is a particularly strong, specific marker of OCD diagnosis, whereas the specificity of Cleaning and Hoarding to OCD was less strong. Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of assessing OCD symptom dimensions separately and implications for classification. PMID:23026094

  18. Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

  19. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  20. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  1. Public relations metrics: research and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, B.; Tkalac Verčič, A.; Verčič, D.

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the increasing need in academia and the public relations profession, this volume presents the current state of knowledge in public relations measurement and evaluation. The book brings together ideas and methods that can be used throughout the world, and scholars and practitioners from

  2. Relating SLA Research to Language Teaching Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian J. Cook

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses applications of Second Language Acquisition (SLA research to the preparation of language coursebooks. The author suggests a number of ways in which SLA research findings can help improve coursebooks and thereby enhance the learning of large numbers of students. Research leads us to consider learners as genuine speakers of the L2, as bilinguals who still have an L1 present in their minds and who do not all go about learning the L2 in the same way. Few coursebooks take into account these and other findings of SLA research, for example: that the acquisition of basic syntax precedes the acquisition of inflectional morphology, that most of the syntax to be learned is really part of the lexicon, or that vocabulary needs to be encountered in a structural and semantic context in order to be effectively acquired. Coursebook authors also need to bear in mind that pronunciation is necessary not only for communication but also for the actual learning of L2 forms, and that some aspects of the L2 writing system need to be explicitly taught. The author provides two sample lessons to illustrate how these research findings might be applied to the writing of a coursebook.

  3. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Information is presented concerning the Oak Ridge Research Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of effluents

  4. Local sleep spindle modulations in relation to specific memory cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.; Hofman, W.F.; de Boer, M.; Talamini, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep spindles have been connected to memory processes in various ways. In addition, spindles appear to be modulated at the local cortical network level. We investigated whether cueing specific memories during sleep leads to localized spindle modulations in humans. During learning of word-location

  5. Game-specific characteristics of sport-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    Concussions are common incidences in sports. However, game-specific characteristics such as tactics, field positions, etc. might positively/negatively contribute to the occurrence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in various sports such as soccer, volleyball, handball, or basketball. Thus, the intention of this study was to analyze game-specific characteristics of concussive incidents in active players from the perspective of different sportive disciplines. Four sport-specific questionnaires for soccer, handball, volleyball and basketball were established using an online survey tool. A total of 3001 participants completed the questionnaires. 18% of the participants answered that they had experienced a concussion which significantly differed depending on the sport practiced (χ2(3)=56.868, Pconcussions on the amateur level, volleyball players experienced most on the professional level and basketball players during leisure play (χ2(9)=112.667, Pconcussions by a collision with another player, volleyball players instead experienced most concussions by hits from the ball (χ2(6)=211.260, Pconcussive incidences (χ2(7)=19.638, Pconcussions (χ2(6)=13.617, Pconcussions are sport-specific and particularly concern amateurs. This indicates that most concussions in ball games appear in situations, where medical care units are not necessarily present. Preventive measures should therefore especially address amateurs in ball sports.

  6. Research in use – cultures of relating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Stige, Brynjulf; Skrudland, Hilde

    time be part of the interdisciplinary clinical culture found in institutions with a main focus on a certain client group. Here the music therapy clinicians can be the golden link between the research culture and the local clinical culture. At the same time, music therapy clinicians are not (usually...... documentation Locally based projects involving clinical music therapists as well as researchers are an effective way of spreading the use of and knowledge about music therapy, and can also be a basis for later data collection on a greater scale. Starting from web-based examples, this round table will present...

  7. Radiation research and related topics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.

    1974-01-01

    The polymerization and degradation reactions has been studied by the research group of Kyoto University. Different kinds of polymerization-reactions are performed at low temperature. Low temperature has induced the possibility for avoiding of side reactions and the easiness for changing reacttion phase, from gas to solid through liquid. (M.S.)

  8. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  9. What specifications for a centre or network of excellence in clinical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Vincent; Lang, Marie; Thoby, Frédérique

    2016-02-01

    The Giens 2015 Workshop Round Table entitled "What specifications for a centre or network of excellence in clinical research?" took a viewpoint distinct from earlier work and studies on changes in clinical research activities in France. The purpose of the present work was to identify, starting from concrete examples, the main strengths and advantages of clinical research activity in France related, in part, to the background environment and also to the specific characteristics of the investigation centres considered to be among the most high-performance units in activity. The criteria retained were grouped into a set of specifications that could be used to establish a "label of excellence" upon which the different teams and clinical research centres could model themselves. It was thus considered that belonging to a centre or structured network with at least a national configuration, when this is possible for the medial topic in question, constitutes a real advantage. Four benchmarks were identified: the scientific and clinical expertise of the head investigator, as well as the qualification and operational capacity of the centre's team; definition and measurement of performance using clearly displayed indicators and evaluation procedures; the quality of the overall trial "process" and of each of its component steps; communication, because know-how and promotion go hand in hand, with the main objective of informing the professional and general public about the value of the research centre meeting the above-mentioned criteria, about its networks of competencies, and more generally, about the important assets of the background of clinical research in France. This sector of research is funded by the public authorities via calls for public grants, financial aids for structures supporting clinical research in the University Hospital Centres and other healthcare institutions allowing for a professionalization of the research occupations, and the national public health

  10. On the role of research data centres in the management of publication-related research data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vlaeminck

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the findings of an analysis of scientific infrastructure service providers (mainly from Germany but also from other European countries. These service providers are evaluated with regard to their potential services for the management of publication-related research data in the field of social sciences, especially economics. For this purpose we conducted both desk research and an online survey of 46 research data centres (RDCs, library networks and public archives; almost 48% responded to our survey. We find that almost three-quarters of all respondents generally store externally generated research data – which also applies to publication-related data. Almost 75% of all respondents also store and host the code of computation or the syntax of statistical analyses. If self-compiled software components are used to generate research outputs, only 40% of all respondents accept these software components for storing and hosting. Eight out of ten institutions also take specific action to ensure long-term data preservation. With regard to the documentation of stored and hosted research data, almost 70% of respondents claim to use the metadata schema of the Data Documentation Initiative (DDI; Dublin Core is used by 30 percent (multiple answers were permitted. Almost two-thirds also use persistent identifiers to facilitate citation of these datasets. Three in four also support researchers in creating metadata for their data. Application programming interfaces (APIs for uploading or searching datasets currently are not yet implemented by any of the respondents. Least common is the use of semantic technologies like RDF.Concluding, the paper discusses the outcome of our survey in relation to Research Data Centres (RDCs and the roles and responsibilities of publication-related data archives for journals in the fields of social sciences.

  11. Specific features of occupational medicine in nuclear research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.M.; Quesne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to prevent the exposure of personnel to ionising radiation were taken as soon as the first nuclear laboratories were set up. This branch of occupational preventive medicine has since kept pace with advances in research and in the industrial applications of nuclear energy. (authors)

  12. The Effect of Relation-Specific Investments in the Supply Chain Triad on Innovation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gelei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a comprehensive survey, this paper analyzes the effect of committed and heavy supply chain relationships characterized by high levels of relation-specific investments in innovation performance in Hungary, an emerging economy in Central and Eastern Europe. For this research, we carry out a two-step analysis. First, we investigate the effect of Relation Specific Investments (RSI on four different innovation-related performance dimensions of a focal firm. In contrast to previous research, we did not limit our analysis to the dyadic relationship level, but rather, we analyzed the triadic supply chain relationships. Uniquely, this paper conceptualizes and measures innovation performance in a complex way, both product and process, but also analyzes incremental and radical innovations. As a second step, the effect of internationalization on the focal firm is tested. Triad level RSI has a positive effect on all innovation related performance dimensions. A test of the moderation effect produced mixed results, indicating the need to treat innovation in a complex, sophisticated way in future research.

  13. Survey Research as a Public Relations Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Harry W.

    1977-01-01

    Offers information concerning a study conducted among the general public and discusses essential parts of the more comprehensive type of corporate image or corporate reputation. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  14. Pinch Related Research At Institute For Plasma Research, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, Anurag

    2006-01-01

    Several pinch related experiment, their drivers and related diagnostics are being developed in our laboratory. The first set of experiments is to investigate various aspects of magnetized target fusion (MTF/MAGO). To drive the liner, in Z or theta pinch configuration, a 1.2 MJ, 3.6 MA capacitor bank is developed. For liner diagnostics flash radiography, VISAR and pyrometery are being developed. To produce magnetized (target) plasma a 120 kJ, 3 MA and several other banks are developed. Hot magnetized Plasma will be diagnosed by optical schlieren, interferometery and X-Ray spectrometry. A terra-watt system consisting of a Marx bank and water line delivering 800 kA at 1.6 MV will be commissioned, soon. The device will be used to study different pinch (wire array) configurations for production of electro-magnetic radiations. Smaller pulsed power systems, consisting of 1MV/500 kV Marx bank/tesla transformer and than water or solid state (cables) pulse forming network (coax) are also being developed for capillary discharge and other experiments. Two plasma foci experiments are also being conducted. The effort is produce a repetitively operating compact plasma focus

  15. Banking Relations, Competition and Research Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gehrig

    2000-01-01

    When banks incur sunk costs to provide ex-ante information about customers, exclusive banking relations will occur under intense price competition when monitoring costs are low. When monitoring costs are sufficiently high, only non-monitored finance will be provided, typically, by multiple lenders. While multiple lending generally is (second-best) efficient when it emerges, relationship lending typically is not. In our framework, the informational rents in relationships of a single financier ...

  16. NRL/NAVSEA Research and Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    sulfate and filtered, and characterized by GPC (gel permeation chromatography) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). A 500 mL three-neck flask...removed by vacuum distillation. The product (SoyAA-1) was characterized by GPC, HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), gas chromatography (GC...of the neat polymer. Recently, we reported significant reduction in the nanoscale relative surface friction of POSS/ polypropylene and POSS/nylon6

  17. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ is a severe complication that has recently emerged in patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates for malignant diseases. This complication usually presents after a minor local trauma during a dental treatment. Several etiopathogenic mechanisms of this pathological condition have been proposed, but no model can explain all morphological changes observed at the macroscopic and microscopic level. BRONJ is likely to be related to direct toxicity in the bone and soft tissue cells, due to nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. This review elucidates the clinical indications and mechanism of action of bisphosphonates, reports some clinical diagnostic criteria for BRONJ, describe the histopathological criteria for BRONJ diagnosis, the potential triggering pathways and the available treatment strategies.

  18. Research in the United States relative to geochemistry and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.

  19. Leakages and pressure relation: an experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in water systems are presently a frequent and increasing event that involves cost increase and poor service, not compliant to quality standards and modern management criteria. The most recent data available in Italy, resumed into the report issued by Control Committee for Water Resources Use (CONVIRI, shows leakages with an average value of 37%. It is therefore important, for maintenance perspective, to investigate occurrence and evolution of water leaks and the analytical link between leaks Qp and network pressure P, for a reliable calibration of water networks quali-quantitative simulation models. The present work reports the first results of an experimental campaign started at Laboratory of Hydraulics of Department of Hydraulics, Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering of University of Naples Federico II in order to analyze the features of Qp(P relation, which are compared with other results issued in literature.

  20. THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMOTIONAL JOURNALISM – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRINA ANIŞOARA TRIFAN (LICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose statement – This paper’s purpose is to contribute to the development of a specific know-how through the establishment of a theoretical framework of reference. This can facilitate the research steps which follow the identification; analysis; and interpretation of a new marketing instrument – promotional journalism. The objectives, of this study, relate not only to the establishment of theoretical but, also, to the practical characteristics, of promotional journalism. These are based on a comparative analysis with other related concepts and, also, on a qualitative analysis of the contents of the specific materials. Design – The research problem imposes a methodological interdisciplinary approach; this enables the identification; systematization; analysis; and theoretical interpretation of the fundamental concepts, theories and ideas, from the specialized literature, to be orientated towards studies and articles from separate fields. From the perspective of the research objectives and this interdisciplinary study of specilized literature, there was added a qualitative analysis of the content of the materials specific to promotional journalism found between 2002 and 2006, in the fashion magazine, Elle Romania. Overview - The specialized literature presented key-concepts; different terminologies; and meanings apparently for the same studied “reality“. This made the achievement of the process of conceptual delimitations even more difficult to the extent that promotional journalism was situated at the intersection of various sciences and the acknowledgment, of its related terms, were either similar or stated vaguely. Originality – This paper’s originality stems from the interdisciplinary perspective to the approach to the problematical aspect and the analysis and interpretitive complexity of the research results. These might prove useful both to the accomplishment of the studies in the field and for the practitioners and

  1. Particularities of the elderly in relation to onco specific treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terradas, M.; Santini, A.; Mara, C.

    2004-01-01

    The aging population leads to an increase in the proportion of elderly with different oncological diseases. However, the group of the elderly is often poorly represented in the studies which derive many therapeutic recommendations, which worries many specialists and patients usually over 70 years are not included in the clinicians essays which has hampered on decision based on clinical evidence.The elderly patient has a number of features in the structure, organization and function of their body that should always be considered by the oncologist; within them are: psychological changes, the social and family environment, drug addicts due to interactions poly pharmacy often linked to increased co morbid conditions, existing conditions systems related to metabolism and excretion of drugs: liver and kidney. On the other hand, most frequently metabolic disorders affects negatively to the tolerance of treatments. It is also important to evaluate the nutritional status of the patient because are often altered by different causes in elderly patients. In the elderly with cancer task decisions should take into account the hope life and the overall effect of the disease and its treatment on quality of life of patients in relation to the coexistence of other chronic diseases. Therefore, elderly patients with geriatric cancer assessment is useful to help diagnose various diseases of the elderly that can interfere with treatment cancer. In addition, to improve the overall knowledge of the patient, we can try to improve present problems in mental, emotional sphere and the social support network, to improve tolerance to treatment and therefore the quality of life, a concept difficult to define as it varies between individuals and over time and depends on various factors both cultural, religious and personal experiences. In conclusion, in elderly patients with tumor pathology must make an assessment in depth of their overall situation prior to disease and make treatment decisions

  2. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE SPECIFIC MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED AT GENERAL MOTOR'S EUROPE ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Liliana Adela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. In fact, industrial segmentation can assist companies in several areas like: analysis of the market, selection of key markets and management and marketing. In this study I tried to make a better understanding of the total marketplace, including how and why customers buy and to develop strategies, plans and programs to profitability meet the needs of different market segments and to give the company a distinct competitive advantage. The Marketing Plan is based on an Information System which can be interpretaded in two different ways. In this case its singular form focusing on both formal and informal information system is appropriate. The investigation explains the environment of the European Business Team . The techniques used were: system maps, observations, interviews, questionnaires and company documents. The initial stage of exploring the situation starts usually with a dialog between the potential client - in this particular case the European Business Team – and the analyst. The vague impression is then given that not everything is running as it should be by the client. This was, however, not completely true in my case, as I had to go looking for problems. Preliminary investigations into product communication did show a feeling of unease between the departments. Having expressed the current situation of the European Business Team , I then chose three areas to study further. I had to

  4. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  5. Turbulent times : Consequences for crisis management and related future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, I.; Vos, Marita F.; Vos, Marita

    In this chapter, we will address the idea that organisational resilience calls for management across organisational and discipline borders. We will also discuss the need for related applied research and technological development. Finally, we will look into future research design.

  6. Working memory and language: skill-specific or domain-general relations to mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Ganley, Colleen M

    2014-06-01

    Children's early mathematics skills develop in a cumulative fashion; foundational skills form a basis for the acquisition of later skills. However, non-mathematical factors such as working memory and language skills have also been linked to mathematical development at a broad level. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted to evaluate the specific relations of these two non-mathematical factors to individual aspects of early mathematics. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine whether working memory and language were related to only individual aspects of early mathematics or related to many components of early mathematics skills. A total of 199 4- to 6-year-old preschool and kindergarten children were assessed on a battery of early mathematics tasks as well as measures of working memory and language. Results indicated that working memory has a specific relation to only a few-but critically important-early mathematics skills and language has a broad relation to nearly all early mathematics skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related

  8. Ethical issues in trauma-related research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elana; Risch, Elizabeth; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2006-09-01

    ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING ABOUT TRAUMA-RELATED STUDIES requires a flexible approach that counters assumptions and biases about victims, assures a favorable ethical cost-benefit ratio, and promotes advancement of knowledge that can benefit survivors of traumatic stress. This paper reviews several ethical issues in the field of traumatic stress: benefit and risks in trauma-related research, whether trauma-related research poses unique risks and if so what those might be, informed consent and mandatory reporting, and supervision of trauma-related research. For each topic, we review potential ethical issues, summarize the research conducted thus far to inform ethical practice, and recommend future practice, research questions and policies to advance the field so that research on trauma can continue to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders in the research enterprise.

  9. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.

  10. Research in the Management of Learning, Change and Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis note sketches opportunities for interdisciplinary research in management, and the distinctive contribution that might be made from a European perspective. It highlights a few major domains of research, conceptual issues, disciplines, and specific opportunities and needs in Europe.

  11. Managing Power Relations in Doctoral Education through Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing mainly on the power theory of Foucault, this paper examines the power relations existing in research supervision. It explores the importance of mentoring as a key to managing such power relations. Mentoring is an empowering process of nurturing students with sufficient tools for research. The conditions for ...

  12. Stressor specificity of central neuroendocrine responses: implications for stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacák, K; Palkovits, M

    2001-08-01

    Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not constitute stress, only the shared nonspecific component. In this review we focus mainly on the similarities and differences between the neuroendocrine responses (especially the sympathoadrenal and the sympathoneuronal systems and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis) among various stressors and a strategy for testing Selye's doctrine of nonspecificity. In our experiments, we used five different stressors: immobilization, hemorrhage, cold exposure, pain, or hypoglycemia. With the exception of immobilization stress, these stressors also differed in their intensities. Our results showed marked heterogeneity of neuroendocrine responses to various stressors and that each stressor has a neurochemical "signature." By examining changes of Fos immunoreactivity in various brain regions upon exposure to different stressors, we also attempted to map central stressor-specific neuroendocrine pathways. We believe the existence of stressor-specific pathways and circuits is a clear step forward in the study of the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders and their proper treatment. Finally, we define stress as a state of threatened homeostasis (physical or perceived treat to homeostasis). During stress, an adaptive compensatory specific response of the organism is activated to sustain homeostasis. The adaptive response reflects the activation of specific central circuits and is genetically and constitutionally programmed and constantly modulated by environmental factors.

  13. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  14. Relative Expression Levels Rather Than Specific Activity Plays the Major Role in Determining In Vivo AKT Isoform Substrate Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The AKT protooncogene mediates many cellular processes involved in normal development and disease states such as cancer. The three structurally similar isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 exhibit both functional redundancy and isoform-specific functions; however the basis for their differential signalling remains unclear. Here we show that in vitro, purified AKT3 is ∼47-fold more active than AKT1 at phosphorylating peptide and protein substrates. Despite these marked variations in specific activity between the individual isoforms, a comprehensive analysis of phosphorylation of validated AKT substrates indicated only subtle differences in signalling via individual isoforms in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesise, at least in this model system, that relative tissue/cellular abundance, rather than specific activity, plays the dominant role in determining AKT substrate specificity in situ.

  15. A review of present research, research needs, and research capabilities related to the uranium mining and milling industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report surveys the views of those associated with uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan on the research needs of the industry. Research resources, both human and material, available in the province are outlined. The author makes recommendations that would lead to a viable uranium research program. Appendices list information on current uranium-related research in Saskatchewan and available research resources

  16. Feedstock specific environmental risk levels related to biomass extraction for energy from boreal and temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamers, Patrick; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Junginger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Past research on identifying potentially negative impacts of forest management activities has primarily focused on traditional forest operations. The increased use of forest biomass for energy in recent years, spurred predominantly by policy incentives for the reduction of fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, and by efforts from the forestry sector to diversify products and increase value from the forests, has again brought much attention to this issue. The implications of such practices continue to be controversially debated; predominantly the adverse impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity, and the climate change mitigation potential of forest bioenergy. Current decision making processes require comprehensive, differentiated assessments of the known and unknown factors and risk levels of potentially adverse environmental effects. This paper provides such an analysis and differentiates between the feedstock of harvesting residues, roundwood, and salvage wood. It concludes that the risks related to biomass for energy outtake are feedstock specific and vary in terms of scientific certainty. Short-term soil productivity risks are higher for residue removal. There is however little field evidence of negative long-term impacts of biomass removal on productivity in the scale predicted by modeling. Risks regarding an alteration of biodiversity are relatively equally distributed across the feedstocks. The risk of limited or absent short-term carbon benefits is highest for roundwood, but negligible for residues and salvage wood. Salvage operation impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity are a key knowledge gap. Future research should also focus on deriving regionally specific, quantitative thresholds for sustainable biomass removal. -- Highlights: ► Synthesis of the scientific uncertainties regarding biomass for energy outtake. ► With specific focus on soil productivity, biodiversity, and carbon balance. ► Balanced determination of the risk levels

  17. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  18. Priorities in public relations research: An international Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A Delphi study on the priorities for public relations research, conducted in 2007 amongst\\ud academics, practitioners and senior executives of professional and industry bodies in five\\ud continents, has ranked the ten most important topics for research and proposed the associated\\ud research questions. This is the first completed Delphi study into public relations research since\\ud Synnott and McKie (1997) which was itself a development of earlier studies of this type by\\ud McElreath (1980, 1...

  19. Biometric Research in Perception and Neurology Related to the Study of Visual Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Contemporary research findings in the fields of perceptual psychology and neurology of the human brain that are directly related to the study of visual communication are reviewed and briefly discussed in this paper. Specifically, the paper identifies those major research findings in visual perception that are relevant to the study of visual…

  20. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaaijk, A; Boschman, J S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance workers (236 drivers and 270 paramedics) were used. The tests for specific job requirements were divided into six categories. Work ability was appraised as overall, physical and mental/emotional. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to model the associations. Outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' (R 2  = 0.09), 'job-specific physical abilities' (R 2  = 0.10) and 'emotional peak load' (R 2  = 0.07) significantly explained appraised overall, physical and mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability together explained 48.3% of the variance of overall work ability. The explained variance by physical and mental/emotional work ability was almost 4% higher in drivers than in paramedics. Overall work ability was significantly explained by outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' and 'emotional peak load.' Physical work ability was significantly explained by 'job-specific physical abilities' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes, while 'emotional peak load' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes significantly explained mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability explains the same proportion of variance in overall work ability.

  1. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  2. Pathological motivations for exercise and eating disorder specific health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Hausenblas, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen; Mitchell, James

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations among pathological motivations for exercise with eating disorder (ED) specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Survey data assessing ED severity (i.e., Eating Disorder Diagnostic Survey), ED specific HRQOL (i.e., Eating Disorders Quality of Life Instrument), and pathological motivations for exercise (i.e., Exercise Dependence Scale) were collected from female students (N = 387) at seven universities throughout the United States. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among exercise dependence, ED-specific HRQOL and ED severity, and the interaction of exercise dependence and ED severity on HRQOL scores. The overall model examining the impact of ED severity and exercise dependence (independent variables) on HRQOL (dependent variable) was significant and explained 16.1% of the variance in HRQOL scores. Additionally, the main effects for ED severity and exercise dependence and the interaction among ED severity and exercise dependence were significant, suggesting that the combined effects of ED severity and exercise dependence significantly impacts HRQOL. Our results suggest that pathological motivations for exercise may exacerbate ED's detrimental impact on HRQOL. Our results offer one possible insight into why exercise may be associated with deleterious effects on ED HRQOL. Future research is needed to elucidate the relationship among psychological aspects of exercise, ED, and HRQOL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Relativity of commercial specification of Menthae Herba based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Zhao, Ming; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen; Peng, Hua-sheng; Han Bang-xing; Zhang, Wei-wan-qi; Gu, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the differences of 35 Menthae Herba samples collected on the market and at producing areas, the contents of six total terpenoids, the essential oil and chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed, which provided evidences for drawing up the commodity specifications and grading criteria of Menthae Herba. GC-MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of 35 different samples. The chromatographic fingerprints obtained by using GC were then evaluated by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The relativity between the content of six terpenoids and the essential oil were studied. In this study, the chemical profiles of 35 samples from different producing areas had significant disparity. All samples collected in the report could be categorized into four chemical types, L-menthol, pulegone, carvone and L-menthone, but the chemical profiles had no relationship with the areas. The chromatographic fingerprints of the samples from different types were dissimilar, while the different producing areas were difficult to be separated. It was indicated that the content of volatile oil was positively correlated with the content of L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids. The content of the essential oil, L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids of Menthae Herba were considered as one of the commercial specifications and grading criteria. These results in the research could be helpful to draw up the commercial specification and grading criteria of Menthae Herba from a view of chemical information.

  4. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

    2014-02-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  5. All projects related to | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building momentum in West Africa ... the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) concluded with a wide ... Beyond Access: promoting gender transformative finance for Zambian ...

  6. Associations of parity-related reproductive histories with ER± and HER2± receptor-specific breast cancer aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ± expression. Methods: We linked a cancer registry covering nearly 95% of the primary breast cancer diagnoses in Denmark with a research parity database to assess associations for parity, number of live births and age at first live birth (AFLB) with receptor-specific risk. Relative risks (RRs) for associations...

  7. Assessment of relative POHC destruction at EPA's incineration research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, G.J.; Lee, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    As part of their permitting process, hazardous waste incinerators must undergo demonstration tests, or trial burns, during which their ability to meet EPA performance standards is evaluated. Among the performance standards is a minimum destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) in the incinerator waste feed. In accordance with the regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), selection POHCs for incinerator trial burns is to be based on the degree of difficulty of incineration of the organic constituents in the waste and on their concentration or mass in the waste feed. In order to predict the relative difficulty of incineration specific compounds, several incinerability ranking approaches have been proposed, including a system based on POHC heats of combustion and a system based on thermal stability under pyrolytic condition. The latter ranking system was developed by the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) under contract to the US EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The system is supported largely by non-flame, laboratory-scale data and is based on kinetic calculations indicating that contributor to emissions of undestroyed organic compounds. The subject tests were conducted to develop data on POHC behavior in a larger-scale, conventional incineration environment. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Research on Race and Ethnic Relations among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, William; Shammas, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted in the past two decades on race and ethnic relations among community college students. The atheoretical underpinnings of this research have led to vague and conflicting findings regarding such concepts as campus climate, discrimination, and the benefits of campus diversity. This article briefly reviews…

  9. RELATION BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH FOOTBALL PLAYERS FROM 14 TO 16 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Football is one of the most famous games that man has invented. It is a complex of collective organization and individual ingenuity. No doubt, top results in sport require a serious base of scientific researches and skills. Certainly, modern top results that have been achieved can be analyzed scientifically. It is exactly the scientific approach that is to establish the characteristics of basic importance to provide success in football. It is in favor of top football game to regularly conduct researches, which, as elements of special interest, would cover the basic motoric and specific motoric abilities with football players.The subject of the research is the motoric and specific motoric abilities with young football players aged from 14 to 16. The goal of the research is to establish how the explosive power influences the dribbling skills. The sample of respondents in the research consists of 39 school children at the age of 14 to 16, who play at FC ”Gjilani” and have attended the club for at least two years. They underwent three tests for assessing the explosive power: 1. Standing long jump; 2. 20-meter running and 3. Sargent test. Along with it, two tests for assessing the specific motorics: 1. Dribbling 20 metres with start from the place and 2. Dribbling 20 metres - fly start. The data obtained from the applied five tests is worked out with basic statistic parameters. The relation between motoric and specific motoric abilities is determined through linear regressive analyzes in manifest space. The results suggest that there is a positive and significant relation between the applied motoric and specific motoric abilities. This confirms the close relation between the explosive power and specific motorics of football players expressed through dribbling. Similar results are obtained in the researches of the following authors: Christou et all., 2006, Kraemer et al., 1998, and Young et al., 2001.

  10. Research progress on related genes for primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailijiang·Aierken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma(POAGis the main cause of blindness with visual field damage and optic nerve degeneration. In recent years, a lot of researches have been done, showing that genetic factors and gene mutation play an important role in POAG. There are more than 20 related POAG genes. Now we will review the related genes of POAG, especially the well known causative genes of MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, and CAV1/CAV2, in terms of their locations, structures, research progress, et al, and provide a reference for genetic research in primary open-angle glaucoma.

  11. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  12. Ethical Challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...

  13. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  14. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic mo...

  15. Psychopathic predators? Getting specific about the relation between psychopathy and violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jacqueline P.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Barchard, Kimberly; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) is often used to assess risk of violence, perhaps based on the assumption that it captures emotionally detached individuals who are driven to prey upon others. This study is designed to assess the relation between (a) core interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy and impulsive antisociality on the one hand, and (b) the risk of future violence, and patterns of motivation for past violence, on the other. Method A research team reliably assessed a sample of 158 male offenders for psychopathy, using both the interview-based PCL-R and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI: Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Then, a second, independent research team assessed offenders' lifetime patterns of violence and its motivation. After these baseline assessments, offenders were followed in prison and/or the community for up to one year to assess their involvement in three different forms of violence. Baseline and follow-up assessments included both interviews and reviews of official records. Results First, the PPI manifested incremental validity in predicting future violence over the PCL-R (but not vice versa) – and most of its predictive power derived solely from impulsive antisociality. Second, impulsive antisociality – not interpersonal and affective traits specific to psychopathy – were uniquely associated with instrumental lifetime patterns of past violence. The latter psychopathic traits are narrowly associated with deficits in motivation for violence (e.g., lack of fear; lack of provocation). Conclusion These findings and their consistency with some past research advise against broad generalizations about the relation between psychopathy and violence. PMID:23316742

  16. Small-worldness characteristics and its gender relation in specific hemispheric networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, F; Vecchio, F; Bramanti, P; Rossini, P M

    2015-12-03

    Aim of this study was to verify whether the topological organization of human brain functional networks is different for males and females in resting state EEGs. Undirected and weighted brain networks were computed by eLORETA lagged linear connectivity in 130 subjects (59 males and 71 females) within each hemisphere and in four resting state networks (Attentional Network (AN), Frontal Network (FN), Sensorimotor Network (SN), Default Mode Network (DMN)). We found that small-world (SW) architecture in the left hemisphere Frontal network presented differences in both delta and alpha band, in particular lower values in delta and higher in alpha 2 in males respect to females while in the right hemisphere differences were found in lower values of SW in males respect to females in gamma Attentional, delta Sensorimotor and delta and gamma DMNs. Gender small-worldness differences in some of resting state networks indicated that there are specific brain differences in the EEG rhythms when the brain is in the resting-state condition. These specific regions could be considered related to the functions of behavior and cognition and should be taken into account both for research on healthy and brain diseased subjects. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Researchers and Institutions in the Periphery: Challenges in Measuring Research Capacity for Geographically Specific Programs in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkers, J.

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. research funding system supports two geographically targeted government programs designed to enhance the research capacity of less competitive states in seeking federal research funds. Program eligibility is based on a relatively narrow measures of overall jurisdiction research funding track record. Yet, in order to adequately measure and address improved capacity development in these areas, a more nuanced understanding of the research capacity in these settings is needed. While the metric of prior research funding metric may be useful in assigning jurisdictions program eligibility, they do not account for variations within or across these areas, nor for factors that may function differently in lower capacity regions. This paper addresses the particular institutional and social/human capital aspects of measuring and identifying research capacity in these regions. Institutional data are used to categorize institutions within and across eligible jurisdictions. Survey data are used to address capacity issues and factors relevant to capacity development at the researcher level. (Author)

  18. Graduation Prospects of College Students with Specific Learning Disorder and Students with Mental Health Related Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…

  19. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a certain trait, the following specific procedures in evaluation of the trait are necessary: the estimation of a popping volume and flake quality in popping maize; the determination of sugars and harvest maturity in sweet maize; the determination of oil in selected samples of high-oil maize types, and so forth. Breeding programmes for speciality maize, except high-amylose maize, have been implemented at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Belgrade, for the last 45 years. A great number of high-yielding sweet maize hybrids, popping maize, high-oil and high-lysine, flint and white-seeded maize hybrids were developed during this 45-year period. Auspicious selection and breeding for these traits is facilitated by the abundant genetic variability and technical and technological possibilities necessary for successful selection.

  20. Mapping the author gender-distribution of disease-specific medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.P.; Schneider, J.W.; Nielsen, M.W.

    2016-07-01

    This short paper responds to a recent call for attention to the “diversity challenge” in biomedical research, specifically with regard to gender diversity. The lack of diversity can be limiting for the progression of knowledge production, a viewpoint shared by both the European Commission, the League of European Research Universities and the National Institute of Health. (Author)

  1. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  2. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  3. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2013-08-13

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.

  4. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  5. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  6. Ethics in researching teacher professionalism as relational competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume

    ’s academic achievements, among other (OECD, 2004). This poses ethical questions about researching what ‘good teacher professionalism’ is, since focusing on personal rather than academical or professional skills means shift in focus from subjects, knowledge, pedagogy, motivation and ideologies, which has been......Research findings suggest that teachers’ relational competencies are critical for pupils’ academical engagement and progression, welfare, social behavior and participation in the school’s processes, among other (Nielsen, 2015). Relational competence can be defined as having an eye for children...... thus possibly develop academically and become persons in various ways) according to which teacher, whom s/he is relating with (Nielsen, 2015). Yet findings suggest that there is a link between a teacher’s psychological and social skills, that is, aspects related to the person, and school children...

  7. RELATION BETWEEN LATENT SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND SITUATION MOTOR SKILLS WITH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AGED FROM 16 TO 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The game of volleyball with its dynamic character is present in the world of the sport with permanent development and growing popularity and fans. Volleyball is part of a pollystructural complex sports activities. It is performed on a ground of a relatively small size (18 x 9 meters and is a kind of game that requires of players a high level of advanced motoric abilities (speed, strength, endurance, a fast rate of visual reaction, explosivity, as well as specific motoric skills (precision etc.. Scientific conclusion as well as the growing number of conducted researches in the very game, have a real contribution to its modern development and level of popularity. Situation-motoric skills make a significant dimension in the structure of volleyball game. The subject of the research is specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills of 52 volleyball players aged from 16 to 17. The basic goal of the research is to establish the effect of specific-motoric abilities on situation-motoric skills of volleyball players in latent space. In order to assess the specific-motoric abilities 9 tests are used, and to assess the situation-motoric skills 3 precision tests are used. The results obtained from the 12 applied tests are worked out through the basic statistic parameters. Through component factor analysis 3 latent specific-motoric dimensions are isolated as well as one situation-motoric dimension. By regressive analysis there is established a low but statistically significant relation between the criterion and predictor latent dimensions. That confirms the dependence and relation between the specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills. Researches in the fi eld of similar questions have been conducted by the following authors: Jurko et al., 2013 and Nešić, et al., 2011.

  8. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  9. Broadening Research on Communication and School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective communication and public relations are recognized as core competencies for school administration as evidenced by national standards guiding preparation and licensing in most states. Even so, surprisingly little research has been conducted by doctoral students and professors on these two subjects. This article presents a case for…

  10. Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; van Ruler, B.; Sriramesh, K.

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a major contribution to the trans-national debate on public relations research and communication management. It presents dominant concepts and findings from the scientific community in Germany in English language. At the same time, the compilation contains a selection of the most

  11. Sports-related research trends at South African universities | Burnett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper forms part of a more comprehensive national study and addresses the current tends of sports-related research in the different fields of scientific inquiry. Qualitative methods that entailed 20 interviews with representatives from relevant sports entities and 19 focus group sessions in which 73 people participated ...

  12. Video Games Related to Young Adults: Mapping Research Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the typological-research domain of the extant literature on video games related to college-age samples (18-29 years-of-age). A content analysis of 264 articles, from PsycINFO for these identifiers, was performed. Findings showed that negative or pathological aspects of video gaming, i.e., violence potential,…

  13. Pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Skyba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the mechanisms of vegetative regulation in children and adolescents of different somatotypes has a prognostic value in regard to the character of adaptive reactions of the organism, as it facilitates the identification of the risk factors of pathological processes and states of vegetative systems, which may cause chronic illness in adulthood. The author defines the pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status. Cardiointervalography and anthropometric, mathematical and statistical methods of research were used. Based on the results of cardiointervalography, the structure of initial vegetative tonus was established, which was characterized by prevalence of eutonia (38.4 ± 4.9%. The specific weight with background eutonia of adolescent boys and girls tended to be higher among the representatives of the thoracic and muscular somatotypes, compared to adolescents of the alimentive and osseous somatotypes (Р < 0.001–0.05. The established specifics indicate that thoracic and muscular somatotypes ensure optimal adaptation of organisms to the environment. Sympathicotonia was measured among the majority of boys of extreme constitutional variants (alimentive and osseous somatotypes (36.3% and 30.0% respectively, which demonstrates the activation of adaptive mechanisms in the abovementioned category of examined adolescents, while among girls this phenomenon was evident among the representatives of the osseous and thoracic somatotypes (38.5% and 30.8% respectively. We found that the majority of examined adolescents (53.4% had a normal vegetative reactivity. Gender differences in the structure of vegetative reactivity of adolescents could well be explained by the higher number of girls of asympaticotonic type (19.2% compared to boys (7.3%, Р < 0.05. Furthermore, we found that hypersympathicotonic and asympathicotonic types of vegetative reactivity were characteristic of

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC PRECISENESS OF FOOTBALLERS AGED 10-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the research on the sample of 256 footballers aged 10-12 and the battery including 20 tests for evaluation of the basic motor abilities and the battery of 24 tests for evaluation of specifi c preciseness, and as per canonic-correlation analysis, a general conclusion can be reached that the boys were rather different in their basic motor abilities. The differences were especially high in explosive strength, coordination, aerobic endurance and balance. One could also conclude that the sample treated in this manner (10-12 years of age is very heterogeneous with respect to basic motor abilities. The subjects showed the highest homogeneity in the tests of specifi c preciseness. They also achieved particularly good results in the tests of vertical target hitting by leg and head. Considering the relations of the basic motor abilities and specifi c preciseness, it was concluded that the structure-based basic motor-canonic factor might be interpreted as FACTOR OF SPEED ENDURANCE AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH, whereas structurebased canonic factor of specifi c preciseness might be interpreted as the FACTOR OF SPECIFIC PRECISENESS OF VERTICAL TARGET HITTING BY LEG AND HEAD. The structure of the relations of the fi rst pair of canonic factors indicates that footballers with lower speed endurance and lower explosive strength achieved poorer results in the tests of specifi c preciseness of vertical target hitting by leg and head, and vice versa. Structure of the relations of the second canonic factor indicates quite clearly that the footballers with lower repetitive strength achieved lower results in the tests of specifi c preciseness of horizontal and vertical target by leg and head in a newly created situation. Here of course, the opposite was true, i.e. footballers with higher repetitive strength were better in these tests too.

  15. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  16. Gender in Research on Language. Researching Gender-Related Patterns in Classroom Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Examines gender-related patterns of behavior in the second-language classroom and argues that these patterns dovetail with all the other dynamics of language behavior. The article concludes that drawing on the theoretical foundations of frames theory will ensure that research into gender-related patterns of classroom discourse will reflect the…

  17. Funding source and research report quality in nutrition practice-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Esther F; Parrott, J Scott; Cummins, Deborah S; Splett, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The source of funding is one of many possible causes of bias in scientific research. One method of detecting potential for bias is to evaluate the quality of research reports. Research exploring the relationship between funding source and nutrition-related research report quality is limited and in other disciplines the findings are mixed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether types of funding sources of nutrition research are associated with differences in research report quality. A retrospective study of research reporting quality, research design and funding source was conducted on 2539 peer reviewed research articles from the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library® database. Quality rating frequency distributions indicate 43.3% of research reports were rated as positive, 50.1% neutral, and 6.6% as negative. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that while both funding source and type of research design are significant predictors of quality ratings (χ2 = 118.99, p≤0.001), the model's usefulness in predicting overall research report quality is little better than chance. Compared to research reports with government funding, those not acknowledging any funding sources, followed by studies with University/hospital funding were more likely to receive neutral vs positive quality ratings, OR = 1.85, P funding were more likely to receive negative quality ratings (OR = 4.97, Pfunded research reports were no more likely to receive a neutral or negative quality rating than those funded by government sources. Research report quality cannot be accurately predicted from the funding source after controlling for research design. Continued vigilance to evaluate the quality of all research regardless of the funding source and to further understand other factors that affect quality ratings are warranted.

  18. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  19. Research of psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators

  20. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  1. The Evolution of Scientific Trajectories in Rice: Mapping the Relation between Research and Societal Priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarli, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    How do specific technologies emerge? How is the scientific research related to technologies prioritised, in governments, firms, universities, and other actors involved in research? Related to these questions is the question of how we investigate trajectories of science and technologies, and how to model their relation. In this paper we aim to answer the initial question for a case study, rice, proposing to use new data, methods, and indicators. We discuss a number of insights on the evolution of the research trajectory on rice since the 1980’s, worldwide and for a number of countries which dominate the world rankings in rice production and/or in rice publications. Using a number of socio-economic indicators at the country level, we relate priorities on the research side (publication topics) and on the societal side finding limited relations between supply and demand of research. In the paper we also discuss the combination of scientometric and socio-economic indicators, suggesting that they may be useful for future research on the relation between societal needs and research priorities. (Author)

  2. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  3. Standardization of specifications and inspection procedures for LEU plate-type research reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    With the transition to high density uranium LEU fuel, fabrication costs of research reactor fuel elements have a tendency to increase because of two reasons. First, the amount of the powder of the uranium compound required increases by more than a factor of five. Second, fabrication requirements are in many cases nearer the fabrication limits. Therefore, it is important that measures be undertaken to eliminate or reduce unnecessary requirements in the specification or inspection procedures of research reactor fuel elements utilizing LEU. An additional stimulus for standardizing specifications and inspection procedures at this time is provided by the fact that most LEU conversions will occur within a short time span, and that nearly all of them will require preparation of new specifications and inspection procedures. In this sense, the LEU conversions offer an opportunity for improving the rationality and efficiency of the fuel fabrication and inspection processes. This report focuses on the standardization of specifications and inspection processes of high uranium density LEU fuels for research reactors. However, in many cases the results can also be extended directly to other research reactor fuels. 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  5. Relation Analysis of Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in University Research Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyder Paez-Logreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management.

  6. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  8. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Vandercammen

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72 and an experience sampling study (N = 34. Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2, calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1 on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. South African exporter performance: new research into firm-specific and market characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher May

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The export marketing performance of any firm is influenced by a multitude of different factors. Given the multi-faceted nature of the export market, this research study investigated specific factors such as how firm-specific characteristics, product characteristics, market characteristics and export marketing strategies impact on the export marketing performance of South African manufacturing firms. Some of the findings of this research study indicated that firm size, investment commitment and careful planning, as firm-specific characteristics, had a significant influence on export marketing performance. The relationship between export experience and export marketing performance was insignificant. The degree of pricing adaptation and product adaptation had a significant effect on export marketing performance, while this was not the case with respect to the degree of promotion adaptation and distributor support.

  10. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.

  11. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Specificity of Health-Related Autobiographical Memories in Patients With Somatic Symptom Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentynowicz, Marta; Raes, Filip; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) have persistent distressing somatic symptoms that are associated with excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is related to a range of emotional disorders and is considered a vulnerability factor for an unfavorable course of pathology. The present study investigated whether the specificity of health-related autobiographical memories is reduced in patients with SSD with medically unexplained dyspnea complaints, compared with healthy controls. Female patients with SSD (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 24) completed a health-related Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Ruminative Response Scale, and rumination scales concerning bodily reactions. Depressive symptoms and rumination were assessed because both variables previously showed associations with rAMS. Patients with SSD recalled fewer specific (F(1,52) = 13.63, p = .001) and more categoric (F(1,52) = 7.62, p = .008) autobiographical memories to health-related cue words than healthy controls. Patients also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and rumination (all t > 3.00, p < .01). Importantly, the differences in memory specificity were independent of depressive symptoms and trait rumination. The present study extends findings on rAMS to a previously unstudied sample of patients with SSD. Importantly, the presence of rAMS could not be explained by increased levels of depressive symptoms and rumination. We submit that rAMS in this group reflects how health-related episodes and associated symptoms are encoded in memory.

  13. An Improved Algorithm for Generating Database Transactions from Relational Algebra Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Dougherty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alloy is a lightweight modeling formalism based on relational algebra. In prior work with Fisler, Giannakopoulos, Krishnamurthi, and Yoo, we have presented a tool, Alchemy, that compiles Alloy specifications into implementations that execute against persistent databases. The foundation of Alchemy is an algorithm for rewriting relational algebra formulas into code for database transactions. In this paper we report on recent progress in improving the robustness and efficiency of this transformation.

  14. The political economy of urban homicide: assessing the relative impact of gender inequality on sex-specific victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWees, Mari A; Parker, Karen F

    2003-02-01

    This research examines the ways in which the changing political economy of urban areas has contributed differently to the homicide victimization rates of females and males across US cities. Recent research, while relatively limited, has presented disparate results regarding the effect of gender inequality on urban sex-specific victimization. Our work further explores this relationship by taking into account relative gender disparities in income, education, labor market opportunities, and politics in an examination of sex-specific homicide victimization in 1990. Key to this current investigation is the evaluation of feminist and lifestyle arguments that suggest that structural gender inequality has a unique effect on female victimization. Overall, our findings reveal gender inequality to be a significant predictor of both male and female urban homicide. While these findings suggest mixed support for theoretical arguments regarding gender inequality, further analyses reveal significant differences in specific types of gender inequality on victimization patterns across genders. These additional results highlight the need for greater attention toward both methodological and theoretical issues when examining the interconnections between gender, political economy, and violence in research.

  15. Concept of uncertainty in relation to the foresight research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magruk Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is one of the most important features of many areas of social and economic life, especially in the forward-looking context. On the one hand, the degree of uncertainty is associated with the objective essence of randomness of the phenomenon, and on the other, with the subjective perspective of a man. Future-oriented perception of human activities is laden with an incomplete specificity of the analysed phenomena, their volatility, and lack of continuity. A man is unable to determine, with complete certainty, the further course of these phenomena. According to the author of this article, in order to significantly reduce the uncertainty while making strategic decisions in a complex environment, we should focus our actions on the future through systemic research of foresight. This article attempts to answer the following research questions: 1 What is the relationship between foresight studies in the system perspective to studies of the uncertainty? 2 What classes of foresight methods enable the research of uncertainty in the process of system inquiry of the future? This study conducted deductive reasoning based on the results of the analysis methods and criticism of literature.

  16. Funding source and research report quality in nutrition practice-related research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther F Myers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The source of funding is one of many possible causes of bias in scientific research. One method of detecting potential for bias is to evaluate the quality of research reports. Research exploring the relationship between funding source and nutrition-related research report quality is limited and in other disciplines the findings are mixed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether types of funding sources of nutrition research are associated with differences in research report quality. DESIGN: A retrospective study of research reporting quality, research design and funding source was conducted on 2539 peer reviewed research articles from the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library® database. RESULTS: Quality rating frequency distributions indicate 43.3% of research reports were rated as positive, 50.1% neutral, and 6.6% as negative. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that while both funding source and type of research design are significant predictors of quality ratings (χ2 = 118.99, p≤0.001, the model's usefulness in predicting overall research report quality is little better than chance. Compared to research reports with government funding, those not acknowledging any funding sources, followed by studies with University/hospital funding were more likely to receive neutral vs positive quality ratings, OR = 1.85, P <0.001 and OR = 1.54, P<0.001, respectively and those that did not report funding were more likely to receive negative quality ratings (OR = 4.97, P<0.001. After controlling for research design, industry funded research reports were no more likely to receive a neutral or negative quality rating than those funded by government sources. CONCLUSION: Research report quality cannot be accurately predicted from the funding source after controlling for research design. Continued vigilance to evaluate the quality of all research regardless of the funding source

  17. Work-related risk factors for specific shoulder disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Foresti, Chiara; Daams, Joost G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review and metaanalysis is to examine which work-related risk factors are associated with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders. We searched the electronic databases of Medline and Embase for articles published between 2009 and 24 March 2016 and included the

  18. Relational and item-specific influences on generate-recognize processes in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Melissa J; McDaniel, Mark A; Strosser, Garrett L; Ramirez, Juan M; Castleberry, Erica H; Arnett, Kristen H

    2014-02-01

    The generate-recognize model and the relational-item-specific distinction are two approaches to explaining recall. In this study, we consider the two approaches in concert. Following Jacoby and Hollingshead (Journal of Memory and Language 29:433-454, 1990), we implemented a production task and a recognition task following production (1) to evaluate whether generation and recognition components were evident in cued recall and (2) to gauge the effects of relational and item-specific processing on these components. An encoding task designed to augment item-specific processing (anagram-transposition) produced a benefit on the recognition component (Experiments 1-3) but no significant benefit on the generation component (Experiments 1-3), in the context of a significant benefit to cued recall. By contrast, an encoding task designed to augment relational processing (category-sorting) did produce a benefit on the generation component (Experiment 3). These results converge on the idea that in recall, item-specific processing impacts a recognition component, whereas relational processing impacts a generation component.

  19. Estimates of the relative specific yield of aquifers from geo-electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses a method of estimating aquifer specific yield based on surface resistivity sounding measurements supplemented with data on water conductivity. The practical aim of the method is to suggest a parallel low cost method of estimating aquifer properties. The starting point is the Archie's law, which relates ...

  20. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  1. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  2. Research-related intercultural higher education in satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Heck, B.; Krueger, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    In order to improve the education of young researchers (master degree, PhD, PostDocs) a cooperation between the Department of Geomatics (DGEOM), Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK), University Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany) was established which now exists since more than five years. The joint venture is actually called "PROBRAL: Precise positioning and height determination by means of GPS: Modeling of errors and transformation into physical heights" and focuses on research and education within the field of satellite geodesy. PROBRAL is funded by the Brazilian academic exchange service CAPES and the German academic exchange service DAAD. The geodetic aim of the research project is to validate and improve the quality of 3d positions derived from observations related to satellite navigation systems like GPS. In order to fulfill this ambitious goal sustainably, research has to be carried out in close cooperation. At the same time, e.g. to guarantee continuous success, a coordinated education has to be ensured. Besides technical education aspects key competences (e.g. language, capacity for teamwork, project management skills) are trained. Within the presentation the lessons which were learned from this project are discussed in detail.

  3. [Resources of Lycium species and related research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ying

    2008-09-01

    Solanaceae Lycium speices are deciduous shrubs. In ancient Chinese medicine works, Lycium plants are described to work well in nourshing liver and kidney, enhancing eyesight, enriching blood, invigorating sex, reducing rheumatism and so on. More of their functions such as immunity improvement, anti-oxydation, anti-aging, anti-cancer, growth stumulation, hemopoiesis enhancing, incretion regulating, blood sugar reducing, bearing improvement and many other new functions are conformed in modern clinic researches. Lycium is also widely used in brewing, beverage and many other products. The world Lycium-related researches are mostly on Lycium species genesis and evolution, sexual evolution, active ingredient separation and pharmacological effects. The future research direction is indicated in this article, molecular evolution and systematics rather than traditional taxonomy will do better in explanation of present global distribution of Lycium species; comparative genomics research on Lycium will be a whole new way to deep gene resources exploration; relationship of genetic diversity and active ingredient variation on L. barbarum and L. chinense will lay theory basis for new germplasm development, breeding, cultivation and production regionalization.

  4. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies. PMID:26344114

  5. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Sevdalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV think tank explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  6. Safety-related LWR research. Annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The main topics in this annual report 1989 are phenomena of heavy fuel damage and single aspects of a core meltdown accident. The examined single aspects refer to aerosol behavior and filter engineering and to methods for assessment and minimization of the radiological consequences of reactor accidents. Different contributions to selected, safety-related problems of an advanced pressurized-water reactor complete the topic spectrum. The annual report 1989 describes the progress of the research work wich was carried out in the area of safety research by institutes and departments of the KfK, and on behalf of the KfK by external institutions. The individual contributions represent the status of work at the end of the year under review, 1989. (orig./HP) [de

  7. The Research Potential of Educational Theory: On the Specific Characteristics of the Issues of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I present the argument that educational theory has specific character, which distinguishes it from most scientific disciplines. It requires the application of not only strictly scientific methods, which essentially consist of descriptions and explanations, but also normative ones, which indicate how it is related to philosophy and…

  8. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Schult

    Full Text Available What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch" by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2. An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2. Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  9. Research status of conbercept treating age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis one of the major reasons of blindness among the elderly in the developed countries. As AMD patients are increasing year by year, AMD has become one of the important topics of ophthalmic research to prevent blindness. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood, but many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFplays an important role in the pathogenesis. With the development and application of anti-VEGF drugs, there are a variety of drugs applied to the disease. This article introduces conbercept for the treatment of AMD.

  10. XMRV Discovery and Prostate Cancer-Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was first reported in 2006 in a study of human prostate cancer patients with genetic variants of the antiviral enzyme, RNase L. Subsequent investigations in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa have either observed or failed to detect XMRV in patients (prostate cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome-myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS-ME, and immunosuppressed with respiratory tract infections or normal, healthy, control individuals. The principal confounding factors are the near ubiquitous presence of mouse-derived reagents, antibodies and cells, and often XMRV itself, in laboratories. XMRV infects and replicates well in many human cell lines, but especially in certain prostate cancer cell lines. XMRV also traffics to prostate in a nonhuman primate model of infection. Here, we will review the discovery of XMRV and then focus on prostate cancer-related research involving this intriguing virus.

  11. Mixed Methods Research Prevalence Studies: Field-Specific Studies on the State of the Art of Mixed Methods Research

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Azorín, José F.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) has always welcomed two main kinds of manuscripts: original empirical articles and methodological/theoretical articles (Creswell & Tashakkori, 2007; Fetters & Freshwater, 2015a; Mertens, 2011). Both types of articles must clearly state methodological aims, review mixed methods literature relative to the methodological aim, and advance the field of mixed methods—empirical articles must address integration (Fetters & Freshwater, 2015b). In this edito...

  12. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project VII. Systems analysis specification of computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, I.B.; Kaul, M.K.; Post, R.I.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Vinson, T.J.

    1979-02-01

    An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants

  13. Identification of High Confidence Nuclear Forensics Signatures. Results of a Coordinated Research Project and Related Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    The results of a Coordinated Research Project and related research on the identification of high confidence nuclear forensic isotopic, chemical and physical data characteristics, or signatures, provides information on signatures that can help identify the origin and history of nuclear and other radioactive material encountered out of regulatory control. This research report compiles findings from investigations of materials obtained from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle to include radioactive sources. The report further provides recent results used to identify, analyse in the laboratory, predict and interpret these signatures relative to the requirements of a nuclear forensics examination. The report describes some of the controls on the incorporation and persistence of these signatures in these materials as well as their potential use in a national system of identification to include a national nuclear forensics library.

  14. Stroke and myocardial infarction: a comparative systematic evaluation of gender-specific analysis, funding and authorship patterns in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Wiedmann, Silke; Endres, Matthias; Nolte, Christian H; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Heuschmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Major gender differences exist in cardiovascular diseases and lead to different outcomes in women and men. However, attention and incorporation of sex-/gender-specific research might vary among disciplines. We therefore conducted a systematic review comparing publication characteristics and trends between stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) with respect to sex- and gender-related aspects. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed to identify gender-/sex-related articles published for stroke and MI between 1977 and 2008. A specifically designed text mining program was used, and all literature was rated by two independent investigators. Publications were classified according to type of research performed, publication year, funding, geographical location, and gender of first and last authors. 962 articles were retrieved and limited to 405 (42%) gender-relevant publications; 131 on stroke and 274 on MI. Type of performed research differed, especially in disease management, which received little attention (17%) in stroke, while representing the major focus in MI (40%). In both areas, clinical presentation received little attention (3 and 5%). Although publications progressively increased in both fields, an 8- to 10-year time gap emerged for stroke compared to MI. Last authors in both areas were predominantly men, but female last authorship is increasing more significantly over time in the field of stroke. Research on sex and gender differences in MI and stroke is largely underfunded, particularly by the EU. The data demonstrate how sex-/gender-specific research differs between specialties, most likely due to the diverse interest, funding opportunities and authorship distributions identified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Secondary immunization generates clonally related antigen-specific plasma cells and memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Daniela; Giesecke, Claudia; Mei, Henrik E; Reiter, Karin; Daridon, Capucine; Lipsky, Peter E; Dörner, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Rechallenge with T cell-dependent Ags induces memory B cells to re-enter germinal centers (GCs) and undergo further expansion and differentiation into plasma cells (PCs) and secondary memory B cells. It is currently not known whether the expanded population of memory B cells and PCs generated in secondary GCs are clonally related, nor has the extent of proliferation and somatic hypermutation of their precursors been delineated. In this study, after secondary tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization, TT-specific PCs increased 17- to 80-fold on days 6-7, whereas TT-specific memory B cells peaked (delayed) on day 14 with a 2- to 22-fold increase. Molecular analyses of V(H)DJ(H) rearrangements of individual cells revealed no major differences of gene usage and CDR3 length between TT-specific PCs and memory B cells, and both contained extensive evidence of somatic hypermutation with a pattern consistent with GC reactions. This analysis identified clonally related TT-specific memory B cells and PCs. Within clusters of clonally related cells, sequences shared a number of mutations but also could contain additional base pair changes. The data indicate that although following secondary immunization PCs can derive from memory B cells without further somatic hypermutation, in some circumstances, likely within GC reactions, asymmetric mutation can occur. These results suggest that after the fate decision to differentiate into secondary memory B cells or PCs, some committed precursors continue to proliferate and mutate their V(H) genes.

  16. Specificity in the licensing process of reduced enrichment in the Bulgarian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, Marietta; Gorinov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The presented paper considers some specific questions of the licensing process regarding the reconstruction of the Bulgarian IRT-2000 research reactor, which includes conversion to the low enriched fuel. This specificity has risen as a result of two facts. The design of the reactor reconstruction was made on the basis of the existing fresh 36% highly enriched fuel. But after finishing of the design process, this fresh highly enriched fuel was shipped back to Russia in the framework of the RERTR program. These facts have involved some changes in both - in the licensing and the design processes. Re-analysis of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations is required to be made on the base of the technical specifications of the new LEU fuel. To facilitate the licensing process the NRA has adopted regulatory acceptance criteria for approval of the reactor core design with LEU fuel. (author)

  17. Proceedings of first SWCR-KURRI academic seminar on research reactors and related research topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro; Cong, Zhebao

    1986-01-01

    These are the proceedings of an academic seminar on research reactors and related research topics held at the Southwest Centre for Reactor Engineering Research and Design in Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China in September 24-26 in 1985. Included are the chairmen's addresses and 10 papers presented at the seminar in English. The titles of these papers are: (1) Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, (2) General Review of Thorium Research in Japanese Universities, (3) Comprehensive Utilization and Economic Analysis of the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor, (4) Present States of Applied Health Physics in Japan, (5) Neutron Radiography with Kyoto University Reactor, (6) Topics of Experimental Works with Kyoto University Reactor, (7) Integral Check of Nuclear Data for Reactor Structural Materials, (8) The Reactor Core, Physical Experiments and the Operation Safety Regulation of the Zero Energy Thermal Reactor for PWR Nuclear Power Plant, (9) HFETR Core Physical Parameters at Power, (10) Physical Consideration for Loads of Operated Ten Cycles in HFETR. (author)

  18. Introducing Astronomy Related Research into Non-Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas

    The concern over the insufficient number of students choosing to enter the science and engineering fields has been discussed and documented for years. While historically addressed at the national level, many states are now recognizing that the lack of a highly-skilled technical workforce within their states' borders has a significant effect on their economic health. Astronomy, as a science field, is no exception. Articles appear periodically in the most popular astronomy magazines asking the question, "Where are the young astronomers?" Astronomy courses at the community college level are normally restricted to introductory astronomy I and II level classes that introduce the student to the basics of the night sky and astronomy. The vast majority of these courses is geared toward the non-science major and is considered by many students to be easy and watered down courses in comparison to typical physics and related science courses. A majority of students who enroll in these classes are not considering majors in science or astronomy since they believe that science is "boring and won't produce any type of career for them." Is there any way to attract students? This paper discusses an approach being undertaken at the Estrella Mountain Community College to introduce students in selected mathematics courses to aspects of astronomy related research to demonstrate that science is anything but boring. Basic statistical techniques and understanding of geometry are applied to a large virgin data set containing the magnitudes and phase characteristics of sets of variable stars. The students' work consisted of developing and presenting a project that explored analyzing selected aspects of the variable star data set. The description of the data set, the approach the students took for research projects, and results from a survey conducted at semester's end to determine if student's interest and appreciation of astronomy was affected are presented. Using the data set provided, the

  19. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  20. [Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Franka; Pahlke, Stephanie; Diesing, Alice; Marin, Nina; Klasen, Fionna; Pawils, Silke; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2018-03-01

    Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders. Scientific knowledge and practical experiences regarding CPTSD, DESNOS and DTD in children and adolescents up to 18 years were examined by 1) a Systematic Review of 1,070 publications identified by database research and additional search strategies, and 2) a nationwide online survey of 374 psychotherapists and psychiatrists for children and adolescents in Germany. Of 13 included empirical studies (8 CPTSD or DESNOS, 5 DTD), 9 were conducted in the USA, 4 based on file coding and 3 on secondary data analysis and only 7 reported diagnosis rates (range: 0-78 %). Of the interviewed therapists, 100 % considered the CPTSD as being met with at least one patient with interpersonal traumata up to 18 years of age in 2014 and 99 % gave this estimate for the DTD. Two thirds of therapists rated the diagnostic option CPTSD and DTD as "very often" or "often" helpful for their therapeutic work with children and adolescents. While empirical data available is to be considered insufficient and characterized by methodological limitations, the relevance of complex trauma-related disorders is perceived as high by practitioners.

  1. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  2. First steps into language? Examining the specific longitudinal relations between walking, exploration and linguistic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2 exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3 no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial

  3. Potential human factors research relating to modern technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.; Fink, R.; Hanes, L.; Williges, R.; Williges, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses proposed human factors research to address advanced human-machine interface technology in nuclear power plants. It relates to a current EPRI project to identify a prioritized list of specific research issues that could be assessed to improve control room and other user interface areas. The project seeks to bridge the gap between the functional requirements of advanced design initiatives and the human factors research needed to support them. It seeks to identify potential benefits to be expected, as well as potential problems that might be introduced by advanced technology. It provides an organized approach to identifying human factors research needs, information already available, and measures of performance and effectiveness that might be used to assess the value of potential improvements. Those parts of the proposed plan that are subsequently approved by EPRI management and by the utility advisory committee will provide a basis for recommending research priorities

  4. Meeting Expanding Needs to Collect Food Intake Specificity: The Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHeel, Nancy; Pettit, Janet; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Food and nutrient databases are populated with data obtained from a variety of sources including USDA Reference Tables, scientific journals, food manufacturers and foreign food tables. The food and nutrient database maintained by the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) at the University of Minnesota is continually updated with current nutrient data and continues to be expanded with additional nutrient fields to meet diverse research endeavors. Data are strictly evaluated for reliability and relevance before incorporation into the database; however, the values are obtained from various sources and food samples rather than from direct chemical analysis of specific foods. Precise nutrient values for specific foods are essential to the nutrition program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Specific foods to be included in the menus of astronauts are chemically analyzed at the Johnson Space Center for selected nutrients. A request from NASA for a method to enter the chemically analyzed nutrient values for these space flight food items into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software resulted in modification of the database and interview system for use by NASA, with further modification to extend the method for related uses by more typical research studies.

  5. The expression and evolution of virulence in multiple infections: the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Frida; Routtu, Jarkko

    2013-05-03

    Multiple infections of the same host by different strains of the same microparasite species are believed to play a crucial role during the evolution of parasite virulence. We investigated the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose in determining the competitive outcome of multiple infections in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. We found that infections by P. ramosa clones (single genotype) were less virulent and produced more spores than infections by P. ramosa isolates (possibly containing multiple genotypes). We also found that two similarly virulent isolates of P. ramosa differed considerably in their within-host competitiveness and their effects on host offspring production when faced with coinfecting P. ramosa isolates and clones. Although the relative virulence of a P. ramosa isolate/clone appears to be a good indicator of its competitiveness during multiple infections, the relative dose may alter the competitive outcome. Moreover, spore counts on day 20 post-infection indicate that the competitive outcome is largely decided early in the parasite's growth phase, possibly mediated by direct interference or apparent competition. Our results emphasize the importance of epidemiology as well as of various parasite traits in determining the outcome of within-host competition. Incorporating realistic epidemiological and ecological conditions when testing theoretical models of multiple infections, as well as using a wider range of host and parasite genotypes, will enable us to better understand the course of virulence evolution.

  6. Domain-specific physical activity and health-related quality of life in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Zeljko; Rakovac, Marija; Titze, Sylvia; Jurakić, Danijel; Oja, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Information on the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population and specific groups is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PA in work, transport, domestic and leisure-time domains and HRQoL among university students. PA and HRQoL were assessed in a random stratified sample of 1750 university students using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form and 12-item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlations, adjusted for age, community size, personal monthly budget, body mass index, smoking habits and alcohol intake ranged from -0.11 to 0.18 in female students and -0.29 to 0.19 in male students. Leisure-time, domestic, transport-related PA and total PA were positively related to HRQoL. Inverse correlations with HRQoL were only found for work-related PA in male students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only leisure-time PA was related to the Physical Summary Component score (β = 0.08 for females and β = 0.10 for males, P leisure-time, transport and domestic PA with HRQoL can potentially be used to support evidence-based promotion of PA in a university setting, and as a hypothesis for future longitudinal studies on such potential causal relationships.

  7. HIV-related stigma and psychological distress: the harmful effects of specific stigma manifestations in various social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Bos, Arjan E R; Hoogendijk, Robert; Muris, Peter; Schaalma, Herman P

    2009-11-13

    Recent research has shown that experiences of stigmatization have an adverse impact on the psychological well being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Most studies investigating this relationship employ an aggregate measure of stigma. Although this approach provides useful information about the psychological implications of HIV-related stigma in general, it neglects to acknowledge the possibility that some manifestations in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 667 PLWHA in the Netherlands. We examined participants' experiences of 11 manifestations of HIV-related stigma in six social settings. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine which setting-specific manifestations best predict psychological distress after controlling for marital status, education and health status. Three manifestations in family settings, namely receiving advice to conceal one's status, being avoided and being treated with exaggerated kindness, and one manifestation in healthcare settings, namely awkward social interaction, best predicted psychological distress in PLWHA. Manifestations of HIV-related stigma vary according to setting. Certain manifestations in specific social settings impact the psychological well being of PLWHA more than others. In this study, certain experiences of stigmatization with PLWHA's families and in healthcare settings were more strongly related to psychological distress than experiences occurring in other social settings. These findings suggest that stigma reduction interventions focusing on these influential settings may benefit the psychological well being of PLWHA.

  8. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  9. Pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status

    OpenAIRE

    O. Skyba

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the mechanisms of vegetative regulation in children and adolescents of different somatotypes has a prognostic value in regard to the character of adaptive reactions of the organism, as it facilitates the identification of the risk factors of pathological processes and states of vegetative systems, which may cause chronic illness in adulthood. The author defines the pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status....

  10. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a...

  11. Specific requirements of GS-R3 related to process implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, N.

    2009-01-01

    The PowerPoint presentation gives: an overview of IAEA management system requirements or topics; - the requirements specific to processes and process implementation; - the key practical challenge of using the process approach specified in IAEA SG GS-G3.1 and GS-G3.5. The following items are thoroughly discussed: - Requirements related to specific process implementation and developing processes; - Process management; Generic management; - System processes: - Control of documents; Control of products; Control of records; - Purchasing; - Communication; - Managing organizational change; - Other requirements concerning the process management system; - General management system; - Grading; - Documentation; - Fulfilling the requirements of interested parties; - Management responsibility; - Planning responsibility and authority for the management system monitoring and measurement; - Independent assessment; - Management system review; - Non-conformances, corrective and preventive actions; - Improvement key practical challenge of using the process approach specified in IAEA SG GS-G3.1 and GS-G3.5; - Key challenge: - Process common to all stages; - Phases of process development proposed by IAEA. The following conclusions complete the presentation: GS-R-3 sets basic requirements for process-based integrated management system; - Some key generic processes required, no specific process model favoured namely, no reference to management, core and support processes; - Up to organization to determine appropriate process model; - Easily applicable to a wide range of facilities and activities, including those of a regulatory body; - Specific requirements are found in specific Safety Guide. (author)

  12. Status of research reactor utilization and other related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    The report covers two parts; the first is on the progress of the cooperative projects planned for 2002 under the FNCA and the other part on the activities related to the PRR1, Philippine Research Reactor. In the 2001 Workshop at Beijing, the Country agreed to participate in the three areas for collaboration. A brief reports on these three projects are included. The Country representatives during this 2002 Workshop will do a more detailed presentation on Radioisotope Production (TcG) and Neutron Activation Analysis projects. The second part of this report deals with the issues/concerns impeding the rehabilitation of PRR1. In January 2002, the Institute created the PRR1 Strategic Plan Committee to look deeply into these issues and concerns. The results of the Committee's work are discussed. (author)

  13. The use of instruments for gravity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, J. J. W.

    The first experiments using machines and instruments to manipulate gravity and thus learn about the impact of gravity onto living systems were performed by T A Knight in 1806 exactly 2 centuries ago What have we learned from these experiments and in particular what have we leaned about the use of instruments to reveal the impact of gravity and rotation onto plants and other living systems In this overview paper I will introduce the use of various instruments for gravity related research From water wheel to Random Positioning Machine RPM from clinostat to Free Fall Machine FFM and Rotating Wall Vessel RWV the usefulness and working principles of these microgravity simulators will be discussed We will discuss the question whether the RPM is a useful microgravity simulator and how to interpret experimental results This work is supported by NWO-ALW-SRON grant MG-057

  14. Moving the hands and feet specifically impairs working memory for arm- and leg-related action words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebani, Zubaida; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Language and action systems of the human brain are functionally interwoven. Speaking about actions and understanding action-related speech sparks the motor system of the human brain and, conversely, motor system activation has an influence on the comprehension of action words and sentences. Although previous research has shown that motor systems become active when we understand language, a major question still remains whether these motor system activations are necessary for processing action words. We here report that rhythmic movements of either the hands or the feet lead to a differential impairment of working memory for concordant arm- and leg-related action words, with hand/arm movements predominantly impairing working memory for words used to speak about arm actions and foot/leg movements primarily impairing leg-related word memory. The resulting cross-over double dissociation demonstrates that body part specific and meaning-related processing resources in specific cortical motor systems are shared between overt movements and working memory for action-related words, thus documenting a genuine motor locus of semantic meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Srl.

  15. Immigration, employment relations, and health: Developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benavides, Fernando G

    2010-04-01

    International migration has emerged as a global issue that has transformed the lives of hundreds of millions of persons. Migrant workers contribute to the economic growth of high-income countries often serving as the labour force performing dangerous, dirty and degrading work that nationals are reluctant to perform. Critical examination of the scientific and "grey" literatures on immigration, employment relations and health. Both lay and scientific literatures indicate that public health researchers should be concerned about the health consequences of migration processes. Migrant workers are more represented in dangerous industries and in hazardous jobs, occupations and tasks. They are often hired as labourers in precarious jobs with poverty wages and experience more serious abuse and exploitation at the workplace. Also, analyses document migrant workers' problems of social exclusion, lack of health and safety training, fear of reprisals for demanding better working conditions, linguistic and cultural barriers that minimize the effectiveness of training, incomplete OHS surveillance of foreign workers and difficulty accessing care and compensation when injured. Therefore migrant status can be an important source of occupational health inequalities. Available evidence shows that the employment conditions and associated work organization of most migrant workers are dangerous to their health. The overall impact of immigration on population health, however, still is poorly understood and many mechanisms, pathways and overall health impact are poorly documented. Current limitations highlight the need to engage in explicit analytical, intervention and policy research. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Galaxy spin as a formation probe: the stellar-to-halo specific angular momentum relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.

    2018-03-01

    We derive the stellar-to-halo specific angular momentum relation (SHSAMR) of galaxies at z = 0 by combining (i) the standard Λcold dark matter tidal torque theory, (ii) the observed relation between stellar mass and specific angular momentum (the Fall relation), and (iii) various determinations of the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR). We find that the ratio fj = j*/jh of the specific angular momentum of stars to that of the dark matter (i) varies with mass as a double power law, (ii) always has a peak in the mass range explored and iii) is three to five times larger for spirals than for ellipticals. The results have some dependence on the adopted SHMR and we provide fitting formulae in each case. For any choice of the SHMR, the peak of fj occurs at the same mass where the stellar-to-halo mass ratio f* = M*/Mh has a maximum. This is mostly driven by the straightness and tightness of the Fall relation, which requires fj and f* to be correlated with each other roughly as f_j∝ f_\\ast ^{2/3}, as expected if the outer and more angular momentum rich parts of a halo failed to accrete on to the central galaxy and form stars (biased collapse). We also confirm that the difference in the angular momentum of spirals and ellipticals at a given mass is too large to be ascribed only to different spins of the parent dark-matter haloes (spin bias).

  17. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2018-01-01

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  18. Research supporting potential modification of the NASA specification for dry heat microbial reduction of spacecraft hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, James A.; Beaudet, Robert; Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary method currently used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts to comply with planetary protection re-quirements. However, manufacturing processes often involve heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. At present, the specifica-tion in NASA document NPR8020.12, describing the process lethality on B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) bacterial spores, does not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit for processing outside a narrow temperature, time and humidity window. Our results from a comprehensive multi-year laboratory research effort have generated en-hanced data sets on four aspects of the current specification: time and temperature effects in combination, the effect that humidity has on spore lethality, and the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance (so called "hardies"). This paper describes potential modifications to the specification, based on the data set gener-ated in the referenced studies. The proposed modifications are intended to broaden the scope of the current specification while still maintaining confidence in a conservative interpretation of the lethality of the DHMR process on microorganisms.

  19. Comments on future tasks for Romanian research related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, I.

    2000-01-01

    Four main research areas are identified: - nuclear safety, - waste management, - fuel cycles and - plant life management. A significant number of tasks are related to each of these areas. Unfortunately, the cost of the needed research is much too high for the current electricity planning of Romania. Up to now, the international co-operation in CANDU field was not very efficient. Canada, India, Korea and Argentina have distinct intentions related to the use of nuclear power potential. Romania is the only European country interested to investigate CANDU reactor problems. Consequently, the author believes that the future Romanian nuclear power research effort must be clearly divided in two main classes: a. CR = 'Concentrated Research' on specific subjects, aimed to a better understanding, and to a complete solving of the associated problems, when possible, and b. CAR = 'Covering Areas Research' to maintain and update the know-how needed in the nuclear power activities. A given research subject may successively pass from one class to another, if needed; however, for a given period of one-to-five years, the class must be stated for each project, from the beginning. No research effort must be planned in the first class, CR, if the needed resources (human, technical and financial) are not ensured. Usually, the power plant leaders and the Institute researchers wish to dedicate their efforts to investigation of the 'hot problems'. Apparently, they are always right. In fact, the allocation of human and financial resources must be based on a very careful evaluation of the 'conditions required for success'. Otherwise, instead of the needed solution, the research will probably offer' a significant number of original methods, successfully applied', 'a more detailed knowledge of phenomena', 'several patents', a few papers 'published or accepted for publication in world over recognized scientific journals' etc. Although valuable, such results are not accepted instead of the needed

  20. Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is a revision of Safety Series No. 35-G2 on safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors. It provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for the categorization, safety assessment and approval of research reactor experiments and modification projects. Specific safety considerations in different phases of utilization and modification projects are covered, including the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases. Guidance is also provided on the operational safety of experiments, including in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices. Examples of the application of the safety categorization process for experiments and modification projects and of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment are also provided. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system for the utilization and modification of a research reactor; 3. Categorization, safety assessment and approval of an experiment or modification; 4. Safety considerations for the design of an experiment or modification; 5. Pre-implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 6. Implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 7. Post-implementation phase of a utilization or modification project; 8. Operational safety of experiments at a research reactor; 9. Safety considerations in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices; 10. Safety aspects of out-of-reactor-core installations; Annex I: Example of a checklist for the categorization of an experiment or modification at a research reactor; Annex II: Example of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment at a research reactor; Annex III: Examples of reasons for a modification at a research reactor.

  1. Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This Safety Guide is a revision of Safety Series No. 35-G2 on safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors. It provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for the categorization, safety assessment and approval of research reactor experiments and modification projects. Specific safety considerations in different phases of utilization and modification projects are covered, including the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases. Guidance is also provided on the operational safety of experiments, including in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices. Examples of the application of the safety categorization process for experiments and modification projects and of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment are also provided. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system for the utilization and modification of a research reactor; 3. Categorization, safety assessment and approval of an experiment or modification; 4. Safety considerations for the design of an experiment or modification; 5. Pre-implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 6. Implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 7. Post-implementation phase of a utilization or modification project; 8. Operational safety of experiments at a research reactor; 9. Safety considerations in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices; 10. Safety aspects of out-of-reactor-core installations; Annex I: Example of a checklist for the categorization of an experiment or modification at a research reactor; Annex II: Example of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment at a research reactor; Annex III: Examples of reasons for a modification at a research reactor.

  2. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  3. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  4. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases.

  5. MMCTP: a radiotherapy research environment for Monte Carlo and patient-specific treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, A; DeBlois, F; Stroian, G; Al-Yahya, K; Heath, E; Seuntjens, J

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective and retrospective treatment planning studies. We designed the software package 'McGill Monte Carlo treatment planning' (MMCTP) for the research development of MC and patient-specific treatment planning. The MMCTP design consists of a graphical user interface (GUI), which runs on a simple workstation connected through standard secure-shell protocol to a cluster for lengthy MC calculations. Treatment planning information (e.g., images, structures, beam geometry properties and dose distributions) is converted into a convenient MMCTP local file storage format designated, the McGill RT format. MMCTP features include (a) DICOM R T, RTOG and CADPlan CART format imports; (b) 2D and 3D visualization views for images, structure contours, and dose distributions; (c) contouring tools; (d) DVH analysis, and dose matrix comparison tools; (e) external beam editing; (f) MC transport calculation from beam source to patient geometry for photon and electron beams. The MC input files, which are prepared from the beam geometry properties and patient information (e.g., images and structure contours), are uploaded and run on a cluster using shell commands controlled from the MMCTP GUI. The visualization, dose matrix operation and DVH tools offer extensive options for plan analysis and comparison between MC plans and plans imported from commercial treatment planning systems. The MMCTP GUI provides a flexible research platform for the development of patient-specific MC treatment planning for photon and electron external beam radiation therapy. The impact of this tool lies in the fact that it allows for systematic, platform

  6. [Research on prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-hai; Lin, Wen-sen; Li, Shu-yan; Zhao, Shao-cheng; Wang, Li; Yang, Zhong-gang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Zhen-fu; Yu, Jin-zhen

    2011-03-01

    To obtain the prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis (AR) and other allergic diseases in rural area in China through epidemiological investigation with large sample and multi-faceted survey data. Face to face survey was conducted in different regions (rural areas of Cangzhou, Hebei, coastal fishing village of Bohai Bay, area of Wuling Mountain, Chengde, urban areas of Tianjin) from April 2007 to May 2009. In the same time, serum specific IgE (sIgE) was detected in the digits of every 0, 1or 5 in them. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Five thousand and ten cases were investigated. There were 823 cases with the symptoms or signs of AR (16.4%). Four hundred and two cases were found to have positive serum sIgE antibody in 1576 detected cases (25.5%). One hundred and fourty-six cases with nasal allergic symptoms or signs were diagnosed as AR. The incidence of AR was 9.3% (146/1576). The occurrence of allergic symptoms or signs had a significant statistical difference with factors such as age, occupation, atopic constitution (χ(2) value were 7.96, 9.73, 16.53, 8.95 respectively, all P cat epithelium in rural areas and dust mites in city. The incidence of AR is higher whether in urban or rural areas, it should be taken seriously as the impact on human health. The occurrence is closely related to physical characteristics and environmental factors.

  7. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  8. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  9. Burnout in Relation to Specific Contributing Factors and Health Outcomes among Nurses: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Peltzer, Karl; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Nurses have been found to experience higher levels of stress-related burnout compared to other health care professionals. Despite studies showing that both job satisfaction and burnout are effects of exposure to stressful working environments, leading to poor health among nurses, little is known about the causal nature and direction of these relationships. The aim of this systematic review is to identify published research that has formally investigated relationships between these variables. Six databases (including CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and PsyINFO) were searched for combinations of keywords, a manual search was conducted and an independent reviewer was asked to cross validate all the electronically identified articles. Of the eighty five articles that were identified from these databases, twenty one articles were excluded based on exclusion criteria; hence, a total of seventy articles were included in the study sample. The majority of identified studies exploring two and three way relationships (n = 63) were conducted in developed countries. Existing research includes predominantly cross-sectional studies (n = 68) with only a few longitudinal studies (n = 2); hence, the evidence base for causality is still very limited. Despite minimal availability of research concerning the small number of studies to investigate the relationships between work-related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and the general health of nurses, this review has identified some contradictory evidence for the role of job satisfaction. This emphasizes the need for further research towards understanding causality. PMID:23727902

  10. A Development of Technical Specification of a Research Reactor with Plate Fuels Cooled by Upward Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sujin; Kim, Jeongeun; Kim, Hyeonil

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the TS(Technical Specifications) are definitions, safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls. TS for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been developed since many years until now. On the other hands, there are no applicable modernized references of TS for research reactors with many differences from NPPs in purpose and characteristics. Fuel temperature and Departure from Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) are being used as references from the thermal-hydraulic analysis point of view for determining whether the design of research reactors satisfies acceptance criteria for the nuclear safety or not. Especially for research reactors using plate-type fuels, fuel temperature and critical heat flux, however, are very difficult to measure during the reactor operation. This paper described the outline of main contents of a TS for open-pool research reactor with plate-type fuels using core cooling through passive systems, where acceptance criteria for nuclear safety such as CHF and fuel temperature cannot be directly measured, different from circumstances in NPPs. Thus, three independent variables instead of non-measurable acceptance criteria: fuel temperature and CHF are considered as safety limits, i.e., power, flow, and flow temperature

  11. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2017-06-01

    Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] 2 ) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak [Formula: see text] 2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 that best reflect youth aerobic fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological age, biological maturation, and sex during step changes in exercise intensity are not confidently documented. Understanding the trainability of the parameters of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics is primarily based on a few comparative studies of athletes and nonathletes. The underlying mechanisms of changes due to training require further exploration. The aims of the present article are therefore to provide a brief overview of aerobic fitness during growth and maturation, increase awareness of current controversies in its assessment and interpretation, identify gaps in knowledge, raise 10 relevant research questions, and indicate potential areas for future research.

  12. Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houran, J; Williams, C

    1998-12-01

    We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations.

  13. Adaptive memory: the survival scenario enhances item-specific processing relative to a moving scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Griffith, Samantha E; Burns, Amy D

    2013-01-01

    Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) found that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under numerous other deep processing conditions. They suggested that our memory systems might have evolved to confer an advantage for survival-relevant information. Burns, Burns, and Hwang (2011) suggested a two-process explanation of the proximate mechanisms responsible for the survival advantage. Whereas most control tasks encourage only one type of processing, the survival task encourages both item-specific and relational processing. They found that when control tasks encouraged both types of processing, the survival processing advantage was eliminated. However, none of their control conditions included non-survival scenarios (e.g., moving, vacation, etc.), so it is not clear how this two-process explanation would explain the survival advantage when scenarios are used as control conditions. The present experiments replicated the finding that the survival scenario improves recall relative to a moving scenario in both a between-lists and within-list design and also provided evidence that this difference was accompanied by an item-specific processing difference, not a difference in relational processing. The implications of these results for several existing accounts of the survival processing effect are discussed.

  14. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  15. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  16. Specificity of the Relationships Between Dysphoria and Related Constructs in an Outpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Hannan, Anthony; Milicevic, Denise; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Dale, Erin

    2015-12-01

    Dysphoria has recently been conceptualized as a complex emotional state that consists of discontent and/or unhappiness and a predominantly externalizing mode of coping with these feelings. The Nepean Dysphoria Scale (NDS) was developed on the basis of this model of dysphoria and used in this clinical study to ascertain the specificity of the relationships between dysphoria and relevant domains of psychopathology. Ninety-six outpatients completed the NDS, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90R) and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales, 21-item version (DASS-21). The scores on the NDS subscales (Discontent, Surrender, Irritability and Interpersonal Resentment) and total NDS scores correlated significantly with scores on the DASS-21 scales and relevant SCL-90R subscales. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated the following: DASS-21 Depression and Stress each had unique relationships with NDS Discontent and Surrender; DASS-21 Anxiety had a unique relationship with NDS Discontent; SCL-90R Hostility and Paranoid Ideation and DASS-21 Stress each had unique relationships with NDS Irritability; and SCL-90R Paranoid Ideation and DASS-21 Stress, Depression and Anxiety each had unique relationships with NDS Interpersonal Resentment. These findings support the notion that dysphoria is a complex emotional state, with both non-specific and specific relationships with irritability, tension, depression, paranoid tendencies, anxiety, hostility and interpersonal sensitivity. Conceptual rigor when referring to dysphoria should be promoted in both clinical practice and further research.

  17. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, Karin; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Stoecklein, Veit; Rozen, Eric; Blyth, Brian; Huang, Jason H; Dayawansa, Samantha; Kanz, Karl; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC) is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury. To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion. Longitudinal cohort study. From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels. Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester) underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich) sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002). Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively). A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC. Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  18. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  19. Determination of the Relative Positions of Three Planes: Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Ada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore how a more effective lesson plan and teaching environment can be achieved so as to improve elementary mathematics teacher candidates’ achievement in analytical examination of planes in space. In order to improve achievement in expressing the relative positions of three planes not only algebraically but also visually the study used an action research approach as planned by the researchers. In Implementation 1, the teacher candidates were given the equations of three planes and they were asked to determine the relative positions of the planes so that their prior knowledge could be identified. In this stage, the candidate teachers tried to determine the relative positions of the planes in one direction by examining the plane equations in pairs. In Implementation 2, the candidate teachers were asked to find the solution set of the linear equation system consisting of three equations with three unknowns and to come up with geometric interpretation of this solution. In this stage, some of the candidate teachers were able to solve the equation, but they couldn’t interpret it geometrically. In Implementation 3, Maple, a computer algebra system, was used so that the candidate teachers could visualize and observe the relative positions of the three planes by using the plane equations. In this stage, the candidate teachers associated the set of solutions of the plane equations with the three-dimensional images obtained with Maple. The results of the implementation showed that the proposed plan improved the mathematics teacher candidates’ visualization of the relative positions of the three planes.Keywords: planes in space, analytic geometry, Maple, action researchÜç Düzlemin Birbirine Göre Konumunun Belirlenmesi: Eylem AraştırmasıÖzBu çalışmanın amacı, ilköğretim Matematik öğretmen adaylarının uzayda düzlemlerin analitik incelenmesi konusundaki başarısını arttırmak için daha etkili

  20. Improving Public Relations Web Sites through Usability Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Argues that usability research has particular relevance for enhancing the effectiveness of websites. Examines the nature and value of usability research, and the elements of an effective website based on usability principles. (SR)

  1. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery treatments and specific targeting therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration.

  2. Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths without Shigella spp.–specific Interventions, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Pradip; Faruque, A.S.G.; Naheed, Aliya

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, a review of the literature for 1966–1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in Asia. Our recent review of the literature for 1990–2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in Asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. This estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than fewer cases. Shigella spp.–related deaths decreased substantially during a period without Shigella spp.–specific interventions. We speculate that nonspecific interventions, e.g., measles vaccination, vitamin A supplementation, and improved nutrition, may have led to the reduced number of shigellosis-related deaths. PMID:21029529

  3. Decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without Shigella spp.-specific interventions, Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Pradip; Faruque, A S G; Naheed, Aliya; Sack, David A

    2010-11-01

    In 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in Asia. Our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in Asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. This estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than fewer cases. Shigella spp.-related deaths decreased substantially during a period without Shigella spp.-specific interventions. We speculate that nonspecific interventions, e.g., measles vaccination, vitamin A supplementation, and improved nutrition, may have led to the reduced number of shigellosis-related deaths.

  4. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Study on Related Courses to Help Undergraduate Students Write Research Reports: a Curriculum Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Winarti, Eny

    2014-01-01

    From the experience of joining the boards in the students’ research report defence, teaching education research methodology, and classroom action research, the researcher indicated that students had challenges related with the logic of research methods and academic research writing.  These findings encouraged the researcher to study the courses that have potential in helping students writing their research reports.  To study the courses, the researcher analysed related documents, such as ...

  6. The Specificity of Autobiographical Memories in Early Adolescence: The Role of Mother-Child Communication and Attachment-Related Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Dujardin, Adinda; Raes, Filip; Braet, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although autobiographical memory specificity is an important developmental feature fostering adaptation throughout life, little is known about factors related to interindividual differences in autobiographical memory specificity. The current study investigated associations with early adolescents' communication with mother about their experiences…

  7. Future Directions in Research on Mathematics-Related Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics education research has placed great emphasis on teacher identity, examining both pre- and in-service teachers, and within these cohorts, specialised mathematics teachers and non-specialists such as elementary teachers. Extensive research has already been done; hence, this paper discusses possible future directions for research on…

  8. Supervising Research in Maori Cultural Contexts: A Decolonizing, Relational Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Ted; Woller, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We have collaborated for 25 years as indigenous Maori and non-Maori researchers undertaking research with Maori families, their schools and communities. We have endeavored to meet our responsibilities to the Maori people (indigenous inhabitants of New Zealand) and communities with whom we have researched, as well as meet the requirements and…

  9. Assessing responsiveness of generic and specific health related quality of life measures in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jeffrey A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness, or sensitivity to clinical change, is an important consideration in selection of a health-related quality of life (HRQL measure for trials or clinical applications. Many approaches can be used to assess responsiveness, which may affect the interpretation of study results. We compared the relative responsiveness of generic and heart failure specific HRQL instruments, as measured both by common psychometric indices and by external clinical criteria. Methods We analyzed data collected at baseline and 6-weeks in 298 subjects with heart failure on the following HRQL measures: EQ-5D (US, UK, and VAS Scoring, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ (Clinical and Overall Summary Score, and RAND12 (Physical and Mental Component Summaries. Three external indicators of clinical change were used to classify subjects as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged: 6-minute walk test, New York Heart Association (NYHA class, and physician global rating of change. Four responsiveness statistics (T-test, effect size, Guyatt's responsiveness statistic, and standardized response mean were used to evaluate the responsiveness of the select measures. The median rank of each HRQL measure across responsiveness indices and clinical criteria was then determined. Results Average age of subjects was 60 years, 75 percent were male, and had moderate to severe heart failure symptoms. Overall, the KCCQ Summary Scores had the highest relative ranking, irrespective of the responsiveness index or external criterion used. Importantly, we observed that the relative ranking of responsiveness of the generic measures (i.e. EQ-5D, RAND12 was influenced by both the responsive indices and external criterion used. Conclusion The disease specific KCCQ was the most responsive HRQL measure assessing change over a 6-week period, although generic measures provide information for which the KCCQ is not suitable. The responsiveness of generic HRQL measures may

  10. Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.

  11. RELATIONS BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC BASKETBALL SKILLS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milenković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of  ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.

  12. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  13. Age-related functional changes in domain-specific medial temporal lobe pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berron, David; Neumann, Katja; Maass, Anne; Schütze, Hartmut; Fliessbach, Klaus; Kiven, Verena; Jessen, Frank; Sauvage, Magdalena; Kumaran, Dharshan; Düzel, Emrah

    2018-05-01

    There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially. To address this possibility, we developed a paradigm that allows the investigation of object memory and scene memory in a mnemonic discrimination task. A group of young (n = 43) and healthy older subjects (n = 44) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings during this novel task, while they were asked to discriminate exact repetitions of object and scene stimuli from novel stimuli that were similar but modified versions of the original stimuli ("lures"). We used structural magnetic resonance images to manually segment anatomical components of the MTL including alErC and pmErC and used these segmented regions to analyze domain specificity of functional activity. Across the entire sample, object processing was associated with activation of the perirhinal cortex (PrC) and alErC, whereas for scene processing, activation was more predominant in the parahippocampal cortex and pmErC. Functional activity related to mnemonic discrimination of object and scene lures from exact repetitions was found to overlap between processing pathways and suggests that while the PrC-alErC pathway was more involved in object discrimination, both pathways were involved in the discrimination of similar scenes. Older adults were behaviorally less accurate than young adults in discriminating similar lures from exact repetitions, but this

  14. General and Specific Genetic Polymorphism of Cytokines-Related Gene in AITD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD shows the highest incidence among organ-specific autoimmune diseases and is the most common thyroid disease in humans, including Graves’ disease (GD and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT. The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is affected by increased autoantibody levels, susceptibility gene polymorphisms, environmental factors, and psychological factors, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. Various cytokines and related genes encoding them play important roles in the development and progression of AITD. CD152, an expression product of the CTLA-4 gene, downregulates T cell activation. The A/A genotype polymorphism in the CT60 locus may reduce the production of thyroid autoantibodies. The C1858T polymorphism of the PTNP22 gene reduces the expression of its encoded LYP, which increases the risk of GD and HT. GD is an organ-specific autoimmune disease involving increased secretion of thyroid hormone, whereas HT may be associated with the destruction of thyroid gland tissue and hypothyroidism. These two diseases exhibit similar pathogenesis but opposite trends in the clinical manifestations. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of these cytokines and related genes in AITD, as well as the association of polymorphisms with susceptibility to GD and HT, and attempt to describe their differences in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations.

  15. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test

  16. Prostate specific antigen bounce is related to overall survival in prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnen, Karel A; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Battermann, Jan J; van Roermund, Joep G H; Frank, Steven J; van Vulpen, Marco

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounce and disease outcome after prostate brachytherapy. We analyzed 975 patients treated with (125)I implantation monotherapy between 1992 and 2006. All patients had tumor Stage ≤ 2c, Gleason score ≤ 7 prostate cancer, a minimum follow-up of 2 years with at least four PSA measurements, and no biochemical failure in the first 2 years. Median follow-up was 6 years. Bounce was defined as a PSA elevation of +0.2 ng/mL with subsequent decrease to previous nadir. We used the Phoenix +2 ng/mL definition for biochemical failure. Additional endpoints were disease-specific and overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Bounce occurred in 32% of patients, with a median time to bounce of 1.6 years. More than 90% of bounces took place in the first 3 years after treatment and had disappeared within 2 years of onset. Ten-year freedom from biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates were, respectively, 90%, 99%, and 88% for the bounce group and 70%, 93%, and 82% for the no-bounce group. Only 1 patient (0.3%) died of prostate cancer in the bounce group, compared with 40 patients (6.1%) in the no-bounce group. Adjusted for confounding, a 70% biochemical failure risk reduction was observed for patients experiencing a bounce (hazard ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.48). A PSA bounce after prostate brachytherapy is strongly related to better outcome in terms of biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala specifically eliminates palatability-related information in cortical sensory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Caitlin E; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn A; Reid, Emily E; Katz, Donald B; Moran, Anan

    2012-07-18

    Evidence indirectly implicates the amygdala as the primary processor of emotional information used by cortex to drive appropriate behavioral responses to stimuli. Taste provides an ideal system with which to test this hypothesis directly, as neurons in both basolateral amygdala (BLA) and gustatory cortex (GC)-anatomically interconnected nodes of the gustatory system-code the emotional valence of taste stimuli (i.e., palatability), in firing rate responses that progress similarly through "epochs." The fact that palatability-related firing appears one epoch earlier in BLA than GC is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that such information may propagate from the former to the latter. Here, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, assaying taste responses in small GC single-neuron ensembles before, during, and after temporarily inactivating BLA in awake rats. BLA inactivation (BLAx) changed responses in 98% of taste-responsive GC neurons, altering the entirety of every taste response in many neurons. Most changes involved reductions in firing rate, but regardless of the direction of change, the effect of BLAx was epoch-specific: while firing rates were changed, the taste specificity of responses remained stable; information about taste palatability, however, which normally resides in the "Late" epoch, was reduced in magnitude across the entire GC sample and outright eliminated in most neurons. Only in the specific minority of neurons for which BLAx enhanced responses did palatability specificity survive undiminished. Our data therefore provide direct evidence that BLA is a necessary component of GC gustatory processing, and that cortical palatability processing in particular is, in part, a function of BLA activity.

  18. Sensory modality specificity of neural activity related to memory in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J R; Maunsell, J H

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that when monkeys perform a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task, some neurons in inferotemporal visual cortex are activated selectively during the delay period when the animal must remember particular visual stimuli. This selective delay activity may be involved in short-term memory. It does not depend on visual stimulation: both auditory and tactile stimuli can trigger selective delay activity in inferotemporal cortex when animals expect to respond to visual stimuli in a DMS task. We have examined the overall modality specificity of delay period activity using a variety of auditory/visual cross-modal and unimodal DMS tasks. The cross-modal DMS tasks involved making specific long-term memory associations between visual and auditory stimuli, whereas the unimodal DMS tasks were standard identity matching tasks. Delay activity existed in auditory/visual cross-modal DMS tasks whether the animal anticipated responding to visual or auditory stimuli. No evidence of selective delay period activation was seen in a purely auditory DMS task. Delay-selective cells were relatively common in one animal where they constituted up to 53% neurons tested with a given task. This was only the case for up to 9% of cells in a second animal. In the first animal, a specific long-term memory representation for learned cross-modal associations was observed in delay activity, indicating that this type of representation need not be purely visual. Furthermore, in this same animal, delay activity in one cross-modal task, an auditory-to-visual task, predicted correct and incorrect responses. These results suggest that neurons in inferotemporal cortex contribute to abstract memory representations that can be activated by input from other sensory modalities, but these representations are specific to visual behaviors.

  19. Vision-related research priorities and how to finance them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of organizations have employed a consultative process with the vision community to engage relevant parties in identifying needs and opportunities for vision research. The National Eye Institute in the US and the European Commission are currently undergoing consultation to develop priorities for vision research. Once these priorities have been established, the challenge will be to identify the resources to advance these research agendas. Success rates for Federal funding for research have decreased recently in the USA, UK, and Australia. Researchers should consider various potential funding sources for their research. The universal consideration for funding is that the reason for funding should align with the mission of the funding organization. In addition to Federal research organizations that fund investigator-initiated research, other potential funding sources include nongovernmental organizations, for-profit companies, individual philanthropy, and service organizations. In addition to aligning with organizational funding priorities, researchers need to consider turn-around time and total funds available including whether an organization will cover institutional indirect costs. Websites are useful tools to find information about organizations that fund research, including grant deadlines. Collaboration is encouraged.

  20. Vision-related research priorities and how to finance them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    A number of organizations have employed a consultative process with the vision community to engage relevant parties in identifying needs and opportunities for vision research. The National Eye Institute in the US and the European Commission are currently undergoing consultation to develop priorities for vision research. Once these priorities have been established, the challenge will be to identify the resources to advance these research agendas. Success rates for Federal funding for research have decreased recently in the USA, UK, and Australia. Researchers should consider various potential funding sources for their research. The universal consideration for funding is that the reason for funding should align with the mission of the funding organization. In addition to Federal research organizations that fund investigator-initiated research, other potential funding sources include nongovernmental organizations, for-profit companies, individual philanthropy, and service organizations. In addition to aligning with organizational funding priorities, researchers need to consider turn-around time and total funds available including whether an organization will cover institutional indirect costs. Websites are useful tools to find information about organizations that fund research, including grant deadlines. Collaboration is encouraged.

  1. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looij-Jansen Petra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors and the personal and environmental determinants of these behaviors is fundamental to inform prevention interventions. In the Netherlands and in other countries systematic research into environmental determinants of energy balance related behaviors in younger adolescents is largely lacking. This protocol paper describes the design, the components and the methods of the ENDORSE study (Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn, that aims to identify important individual and environmental determinants of behaviors related to overweight and obesity and the interactions between these determinants among adolescents. Methods The ENDORSE study is a longitudinal study with a two-year follow-up of a cohort of adolescents aged 12–15 years. Data will be collected at baseline (2005/2006 and at two years follow-up (2007/2008. Outcome measures are body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and soft drink, snack and breakfast consumption. The ENDORSE study consists of two phases, first employing qualitative research methods to inform the development of a theoretical framework to examine important energy balance related behaviors and their determinants, and to inform questionnaire development. Subsequently, the hypothetical relationships between behavioral determinants, energy balance related behaviors and BMI will be tested in a quantitative study combining school-based surveys and measurements of anthropometrical characteristics at baseline and two-year follow-up. Discussion The ENDORSE project is a comprehensive longitudinal study that enables investigation of specific environmental and individual determinants of

  2. C-Tactile Mediated Erotic Touch Perception Relates to Sexual Desire and Performance in a Gender-Specific Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Johanna; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Ritschel, Gerhard; Olausson, Håkan; Weidner, Kerstin; Croy, Ilona

    2017-05-01

    Unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors-the so-called C-tactile (CT) afferents-play a crucial role in the perception and conduction of caressing and pleasant touch sensations and significantly contribute to the concept of erotic touch perception. To investigate the relations between sexual desire and sexual performance and the perception of touch mediated by CT afferents. Seventy healthy participants (28 men, 42 women; mean age ± SD = 24.84 ± 4.08 years, range = 18-36 years) underwent standardized and highly controlled stroking stimulation that varied in the amount of CT fiber stimulation by changing stroking velocity (CT optimal = 1, 3 and 10 cm/s; CT suboptimal = 0.1, 0.3, and 30 cm/s). Participants rated the perceived pleasantness, eroticism, and intensity of the applied tactile stimulation on a visual analog scale, completed the Sexual Desire Inventory, and answered questions about sexual performance. Ratings of perceived eroticism of touch were related to self-report levels of sexual desire and sexual performance. Pleasantness and eroticism ratings showed similar dependence on stroking velocity that aligned with the activity of CT afferents. Erotic touch perception was related to sexual desire and sexual performance in a gender-specific way. In women, differences in eroticism ratings between CT optimal and suboptimal velocities correlated positively with desire for sexual interaction. In contrast, in men, this difference correlated to a decreased frequency and longer duration of partnered sexual activities. The present results lay the foundation for future research assessing these relations in patients with specific impairments of sexual functioning (eg, hypoactive sexual desire disorder). The strength of the study is the combination of standardized neurophysiologic methods and behavioral data. A clear limitation of the study design is the exclusion of exact data on the female menstrual cycle and the recruitment of an inhomogeneous sample

  3. Specific count model for investing the related factors of cost of GERD and functional dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Alireza; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Safaee, Azadeh; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study is to analyze the cost of GERD and functional dyspepsia for investing its related factors. Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease GERD and dyspepsia are the most common symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders. Recent studies showed high prevalence and variety of clinical presentation of these two symptoms imposed enormous economic burden to the society. Cost data that related to economics burden have specific characteristics. So this kind of data needs to specific models. Poisson regression (PR) and negative binomial regression (NB) are the models that were used for analyzing cost data in this paper. Patients and methods This study designed as a cross-sectional household survey from May 2006 to December 2007 on a random sample of individual in the Tehran province, Iran to find the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders and its related factors. The Cost in each item was counted. PR and NB were carried out to the data respectively. Likelihood ratio test was performed for comparison between models. Also Log likelihood, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to compare performance of the models. Results According to Likelihood ratio test and all three criterions that we used to compare performance of the models, NB was the best model for analyzing this cost data. Sex, age and insurance statues were being significant. Conclusion PR and NB models were carried out for this data and according the results improved fit of the NB model over PR, it clearly indicates that over-dispersion is involved due to unobserved heterogeneity and/or clustering. NB model in cost data more appropriate fit than PR. PMID:24834282

  4. Safety-related LWR research. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1994-06-01

    The reactor safety R and D work of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) has been part of the Nuclear Safety Research Project (PSF) since 1990. The present annual report 1993 summarizes the results on LWR safety. The research tasks are coordinated in agreement with internal and external working groups. The contributions to this report correspond to the status at the end of 1993. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Research requirements related to radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Hill, M.D.; Wilkins, B.; Cooper, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    A set of papers identifying perceived national research requirements to 1989 had been prepared by various organisations for the Radioactivity, Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee. The Committee had also received a set of papers describing the research to be carried out or commissioned by Government Departments, advisory bodies and the nuclear industry in 1987-9. The purpose of the present report in the general area of radioactivity in the environment is to consider those papers and identify any gaps or overlaps in the national research effort to 1989. Five gaps are identified and their significance is commented upon. (author)

  6. Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data | Transportation Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Photo of reporters test driving Toyota prototype electric and fuel cell vehicles. Consumer for the development and implementation of these technologies. NREL collects, analyzes, and reports on

  7. [Prostate specific antigen and NF-kB in prostatic disease: relation with malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, J R; Vera, R; Rodríguez de Bethencourt, F; Bouraoui, Y; Rodríguez, G; Prieto, A; de la Peña, J; Paniagua, R; Royuela, M

    2011-01-01

    NF-kB (p50/p65) is a transcription factor involved in TNF-α-induced cell death resistance by promoting several antiapoptotic genes. We intend to relate the expression of NF-kB (p50 and p65) with serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), both in normal males and in those with pathologic conditions of the prostate. this study was carried out in 5 normal, 24 benign prostatic hyperplastic (BPH) and 19 patients with prostate cancer (PC). Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed on tissue and serum PSA was assayed by PSA DPC Immulite assays (Diagnostics Products Corporation, Los Angeles, CA). in controls, p65 NF-kB was not found and p50 was scantly detected in 60% normal samples in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Both p50 and p65 were expressed in 62.5% of the samples with BPH and in 63.2% of those with PC. Both increased its frequency of expression with higher PSA serum levels. Activation of NF-kB revealed by its nuclear translocation in prostate cancer could be related to cancer progression and elevated seric PSA levels. A better understanding of the biologic mechanism by which circulating PSA levels increase and its relation with NF-kB expression is needed. Possibly, NF-kB blockage could be used as a therapeutic target to counteract proliferation in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2010 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin. In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health.

  9. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient

  10. Evaluating the federal role in financing health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, A M; Romer, P M

    1996-11-12

    This paper considers the appropriate role for government in the support of scientific and technological progress in health care; the information the federal government needs to make well-informed decisions about its role; and the ways that federal policy toward research and development should respond to scientific advances, technology trends, and changes in the political and social environment. The principal justification for government support of research rests upon economic characteristics that lead private markets to provide inappropriate levels of research support or to supply inappropriate quantities of the products that result from research. The federal government has two basic tools for dealing with these problems: direct subsidies for research and strengthened property rights that can increase the revenues that companies receive for the products that result from research. In the coming years, the delivery system for health care will continue to undergo dramatic changes, new research opportunities will emerge at a rapid pace, and the pressure to limit discretionary federal spending will intensify. These forces make it increasingly important to improve the measurement of the costs and benefits of research and to recognize the tradeoffs among alternative policies for promoting innovation in health care.

  11. Graduate Student Needs in Relation to Library Research Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shawna; Jacobs, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, graduate study includes a research component, requiring library skills to locate relevant literature. Upon matriculation into graduate programs, many students are underprepared in library research skills, making library instruction a priority for the success of graduate students. This qualitative study, utilizing emergent design,…

  12. The Future Relations Between Research and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Thorsten

    1997-01-01

    Explores factors affecting the relationship between research and higher education, particularly in the rapidly changing European context where the rise in mass education and institutional differentiation has created a crisis for the traditional university. Argues that these changes will lead to a fundamental restructuring of research and its…

  13. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  14. Research related to roads in USDA experimental forests [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz

    2014-01-01

    Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...

  15. Current clinical research of immunoglobulin G4-related orbital disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related disease(IgG4-related diseasehas received lots of attention in medical community as a recently recognized fibro-inflammatory condition. It is characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and concentration of elevated serum IgG4. IgG4-related disease shows organ enlargement or nodular/hyperplastic lesions in various organs including the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract and orbit, which is called IgG4-related orbital disease. The diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease and IgG4-related orbital disease has recently been established, which is based on clinical, imaging and histopathologic features of the orbital lesions. Besides, attention should be drawn to the differentiation from other diseases. The treatment is empirical including corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, radiotherapy, and rituximab. This article reviews clinical progression of IgG4-related orbital disease.

  16. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  17. Using the INEL site-specific plan as a community relations tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Michael; Macdonald, Don; Couch, Brad; Reuel Smith, M.

    1992-01-01

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) activities have affected, or have the potential to affect the environment. For this reason) the issues surrounding INEL activities are of interest to a broad range of people. The preparation of the INEL Site-Specific Plan (SSP) reflects the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Field Office's (DOE-ID'S) initiative for open and clear communications with the public. The INEL SSP describes for the public DOE-ID'S plan to clean up inactive facilities and locations that were contaminated due to past waste management practices. It also discusses waste management strategies for avoiding future contamination by active operations. The SSP is an over-arching document and supplies 'the big picture' of environmental restoration and waste management activities to the public, including budget information and long-range plans. DOE-ID has been using the INEL Site-Specific Plan and its associated public comment period as a primary tool for public involvement and as way to get meaningful citizen input into DOE-ID planning. Public involvement in the INBL Site-Specific Plan has four main objectives: To inform public officials, Indian Tribes, interest groups, businesses, and individuals about current plans for environmental restoration and waste management activities at INEL; To ensure that public concerns and interests relating to environmental restoration and waste management are reflected in the SSP and DOE-ID planning; To provide flexibility so modifications can be made to DOE-ID plans and the SSP in response to changing concerns within the community, and; To ensure that DOE-ID and INEL contractors are given feedback regarding public interest in, and concerns about, the DOE-ID'S plans. To carry out these objectives, DOE-ID has implemented an aggressive public outreach effort that provides multiple opportunities for public participation in cleanup and waste management decisions. (author)

  18. Health-related quality of life of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Bhosrekar, Kirankumar; Kulkarni, Madhuri; Thakker, Arpita

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD) using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. We detected clinically significant deficits (effect size > or = -0.5) in 9 out of 12 domains: limitations in family activities, emotional impact on parents, social limitations as a result of emotional-behavioral problems, time impact on parents, general behavior, physical functioning, social limitations as a result of physical health, general health perceptions and mental health; and in both summary scores (psychosocial > physical). Multivariate analysis revealed having > or = 1 non-academic problem(s) (p or =1 non-academic problem(s) (p = 0.006) or first-born status (p = 0.035) predicted a poor physical summary score. HRQL is significantly compromised in children having newly diagnosed SpLD.

  19. [Speech-related tremor of lips: a focal task-specific tremor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shuhei; Takagi, Rieko; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2002-04-01

    We report a 66-year-old Japanese woman in whom tremor of lips appeared during speech. Her past and family histories were unremarkable. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the lip tremor. Results of laboratory findings were all within normal levels. Her MRI and EEG were normal. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 4-5 Hz appeared in the orbicularis oris muscle only during voluntary speaking. The tremor was not observed under conditions of a purposeless phonation or a vocalization of a simple word, suggesting that the tremor was not a vocal tremor but a task-specific tremor related to speaking. Administration of a beta-blocker and consumption of small amount of alcohol could effectively improve the tremor, possibly suggesting that this type of tremor might be a clinical variant of essential tremor.

  20. HAIM OMLET: An Expert System For Research In Orthomodular Lattices And Related Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, D. D.; Rodriguez, R. V.; Anger, F. D.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes research towards the construction of an expert system combining the brute force power of algorithmic computation and the inductive reasoning power of a rule-based inference engine in the mathematical area of discrete structures. Little research has been conducted on extending existing expert systems' technology to computationally complex areas. This research addresses the extension of expert systems into areas such as these, where the process of inference by itself will not produce the proper results. Additionally, the research will demonstrate the benefits of combining inference engines and mathematical algorithms to attack computationally complex problems. The specific aim is to produce an expert system which embodies expert level knowledge of orthomodular lattices, graphs, structure spaces, boolean algebras, incidence relations, and projective configurations. The resulting system, implemented on a micro-computer, will provide researchers a powerful and accessible tool for exploring these discrete structures. The system's "shell" will provide a structure for developing other expert systems with similar capabilities in such related areas as coding theory, categories, monoids, automata theory, and non-standard logics.

  1. Current state of research base improvement relating to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    'Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation (NDF)' is responsible for the strategic planning and research and development planning for the important issues such as fuel debris removal and waste management, and for support for the progress management of important issues. The research and development are conducted by 'International Research Institute for Decommissioning (IRID)' and 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).' In the medium- and long-term roadmap, it is described that 'as for the facilities JAEA is improving, application to the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is the first choice, but depending on necessity, the linkage with Fukushima Innovation Coast plan is put into consideration.' In consideration of other backgrounds and with a focus on the contribution to regional industry creation, the research centers that can play the following functions are being developed. (1) Performance of bridging function as a 'place' to promote mutually beneficial university-industry collaborative creation, while sharing a wide variety of users and goals, (2) bridge between basic infrastructure research and social implementation as the demonstration test base, (3) bridge between the research and development of Japan and foreign countries using the world network of the research base, and (4) intensive promotion of demonstration experiments that are difficult for private agencies, and the formulation of robot testing standards. (A.O.)

  2. Social Relations of Fieldwork: Giving Back in a Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The project of this special issue emerged from the guest editors' experiences as field researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. During this time both researchers faced the difficult question of "giving back" to the communities in which, and with whom, they worked—communities that were often far less privileged than the researchers were in terms of wealth, mobility, education, and access to health care. Returning from their field sites, both researchers felt a combination of guilt and frustration that they had not done enough or had not done things right. Thus emerged the idea of bringing together a group of researchers, from a range of disciplines, to discuss the topic of giving back in field research. This editorial describes the idea and process that led to the present collection of articles. The guest editors situate the project in the literature on feminist studies and briefly summarize each of the four thematic sections in this special issue. They conclude by emphasizing that their collection is not a guide to giving back. Rather than lay out hard and fast rules about what, how much, and to whom field researchers should give, their collection offers a series of examples and considerations for giving back in fieldwork.

  3. Overview on seagrasses and related research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajun; Fan, Hangqing; Cui, Xiaojian; Pan, Lianghao; Li, Sen; Song, Xiukai

    2010-03-01

    Seagrass research in China is still in its infancy. Even though there has been progress recently, there is still a great deal of research needed to gain a better understanding of seagrass. In this article we review and discuss the advances in seagrass research in China from two aspects: (1) seagrass species and their distribution; (2) seagrass research in China, including studies on their taxonomy, ecology, photosynthesis, applications in aquaculture, salt-tolerance mechanisms and other research topics. A total of 18 seagrass species belonging to 8 genera are distributed in nine provinces and regions in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), as well as the Xisha and Nansha Archipelagos. They can be divided into two groups: a North China Group and a South China Group. Based on the seagrass distribution, the Chinese mainland coast can be divided into three sections: North China Seagrass Coast, Middle China Seagrass Coast, and South China Seagrass Coast. Ecological studies include research on seagrass communities, nutrient cycling in seagrass ecosystems, genetic diversity, pollution ecology and research in the key regions of Shandong, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan. Seagrass species and their locations, community structure, ecological evaluation, epiphytes, ecological functions and threats in the key regions are also summarized. Other studies have focused on remote sensing of seagrass, threatened seagrass species of China, and pollen morphology of Halophila ovalis.

  4. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Dai, Hongzheng; Chen, Sidi; Zhang, Luoying; Long, Manyuan

    2011-04-26

    Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  5. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta. Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  6. Specific neural basis of Chinese idioms processing: an event-related functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqi; Zhang Yanzhen; Xiao Zhuangwei; Zhang Xuexin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To address the neural basis of Chinese idioms processing with different kinds of stimuli using an event-related fMRI design. Methods: Sixteen native Chinese speakers were asked to perform a semantic decision task during fMRI scanning. Three kinds of stimuli were used: Real idioms (Real-idiom condition); Literally plausible phrases (Pseudo-idiom condition, the last character of a real idiom was replaced by a character with similar meaning); Literally implausible strings (Non-idiom condition, the last character of a real idiom was replaced by a character with unrelated meaning). Reaction time and correct rate were recorded at the same time. Results: The error rate was 2.6%, 5.2% and 0.9% (F=3.51, P 0.05) for real idioms, pseudo-idioms and wrong idioms, respectively. Similar neural network was activated in all of the three conditions. However, the right hippocampus was only activated in the real idiom condition, and significant activations were found in anterior portion of left inferior frontal gyms (BA47) in real-and pseudo-idiom conditions, but not in non-idiom condition. Conclusion: The right hippocampus plays a specific role in the particular wording of the Chinese idioms. And the left anterior inferior frontal gyms (BA47) may be engaged in the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. The results support the notion that there were specific neural bases for Chinese idioms processing. (authors)

  7. Cannabis-related hippocampal volumetric abnormalities specific to subregions in dependent users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chye, Yann; Suo, Chao; Yücel, Murat; den Ouden, Lauren; Solowij, Nadia; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. The right CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes were also negatively associated with lifetime cannabis use in CB-dep users. Our results suggest a regionally and dependence-specific influence of cannabis use on the hippocampus. Hippocampal alteration in cannabis users was specific to the CA and DG regions and confined to dependent users.

  8. Specific interaction with cardiolipin triggers functional activation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsasne Bustillo-Zabalbeitia

    Full Text Available Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1, a large GTPase of the dynamin superfamily, is required for mitochondrial fission in healthy and apoptotic cells. Drp1 activation is a complex process that involves translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM and assembly into rings/spirals at the MOM, leading to membrane constriction/division. Similar to dynamins, Drp1 contains GTPase (G, bundle signaling element (BSE and stalk domains. However, instead of the lipid-interacting Pleckstrin Homology (PH domain present in the dynamins, Drp1 contains the so-called B insert or variable domain that has been suggested to play an important role in Drp1 regulation. Different proteins have been implicated in Drp1 recruitment to the MOM, although how MOM-localized Drp1 acquires its fully functional status remains poorly understood. We found that Drp1 can interact with pure lipid bilayers enriched in the mitochondrion-specific phospholipid cardiolipin (CL. Building on our previous study, we now explore the specificity and functional consequences of this interaction. We show that a four lysine module located within the B insert of Drp1 interacts preferentially with CL over other anionic lipids. This interaction dramatically enhances Drp1 oligomerization and assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. Our results add significantly to a growing body of evidence indicating that CL is an important regulator of many essential mitochondrial functions.

  9. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity relates to weak resistance to proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS), experiencing intrusive memories, and rumination appear to be risk factors for depression and depressive relapse. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a weak resistance to proactive interference (PI) might underlie this trio of cognitive risk factors. Resistance to PI refers to being able to ignore cognitive distracters that were previously relevant but became irrelevant for current task goals. Students (N = 65) and depressed patients (N = 37) completed tasks measuring resistance to PI and AMS, and completed questionnaires on intrusive memories and rumination. In both samples, weaker resistance to PI was associated with rAMS. There was no evidence for a relationship between resistance to PI and intrusive memories or rumination. As we did not assess other measures of executive functioning, we cannot conclude whether the observed relationship between rumination and PI is due to unique qualities of PI. Difficulties to deliberately recall specific, rather than general or categoric autobiographical memories appear to be related to more general problems with the inhibition of interference of mental distracters. The results are in line with the executive control account of rAMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-Related Decline of Wrist Position Sense and its Relationship to Specific Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van de Winckel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of limb and body positions is known as proprioception. Sensory feedback, especially from proprioceptive receptors, is essential for motor control. Aging is associated with a decline in position sense at proximal joints, but there is inconclusive evidence of distal joints being equally affected by aging. In addition, there is initial evidence that physical activity attenuates age-related decline in proprioception. Our objectives were, first, to establish wrist proprioceptive acuity in a large group of seniors and compare their perception to young adults, and second, to determine if specific types of training or regular physical activity are associated with preserved wrist proprioception. We recruited community-dwelling seniors (n = 107, mean age, 70 ± 5 years, range, 65–84 years without cognitive decline (Mini Mental State Examination-brief version ≥13/16 and young adult students (n = 51, mean age, 20 ± 1 years, range, 19–26 years. Participants performed contralateral and ipsilateral wrist position sense matching tasks with a bimanual wrist manipulandum to a 15° flexion reference position. Systematic error or proprioceptive bias was computed as the mean difference between matched and reference position. The respective standard deviation over five trials constituted a measure of random error or proprioceptive precision. Current levels of physical activity and previous sport, musical, or dance training were obtained through a questionnaire. We employed longitudinal mixed effects linear models to calculate the effects of trial number, sex, type of matching task and age on wrist proprioceptive bias and precision. The main results were that relative proprioceptive bias was greater in older when compared to young adults (mean difference: 36% ipsilateral, 88% contralateral, p < 0.01. Proprioceptive precision for contralateral but not for ipsilateral matching was smaller in older than in young adults (mean difference: 38

  11. Research of coincidence method for calculation model of the specific detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangchun, Hu; Suping, Liu; Jian, Gong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    The physical size of specific detector is known normally, but production business is classified for some sizes that is concerned with the property of detector, such as the well diameter, well depth of detector and dead region. The surface source of even distribution and the sampling method of source particle isotropy sport have been established with the method of Monte Carlo, and gamma ray respond spectral with the {sup 152}Eu surface source been calculated. The experiment have been performed under the same conditions. Calculation and experiment results are compared with relative efficiency coincidence method and spectral similar degree coincidence method. According to comparison as a result, detector model is revised repeatedly to determine the calculation model of detector and to calculate efficiency of detector and spectra. (authors)

  12. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in specific diseases: implications for pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, M H

    2000-05-01

    Pharmacists should be aware of gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in six diseases: asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, and epilepsy. In general, women report symptoms of physical illness at higher rates, visit physicians more frequently, and make greater use of other health care services than men. Whereas reasons for these gender differences are not fully clear, a combination of biologic, physiologic, social, behavioral, psychologic, and cultural factors most likely contributes. A significant percentage of women with asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, or epilepsy experience worsening of their disease premenstrually. The mechanism is unknown, but is speculated to be multifactorial because of many endogenous and exogenous modulators and mediators of each disease. As part of general therapy for cycle-related exacerbations of any one of these disorders, patients should be encouraged to use a menstrual calendar to track signs and symptoms for two to three cycles; if cyclic trends are identified, the women should anticipate exacerbations and avoid triggering factors. Cyclic modulation with pharmacotherapy may be attempted. If unsuccessful, a trial of medical ovulation suppression with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog may be warranted. If that is successful, continuous therapy with a GnRH analog and steroid add-back therapy or less expensive alternatives may be effective. If pharmacotherapy is impractical, hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy with estrogen replacement therapy is a last resort. Gender differences and menstrual cycle-related changes are important areas for clinical and mechanistic research.

  14. Research on the crisis of public relation in library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shanyong

    2010-01-01

    In modem society, a variety of organizations including libraries will inevitably encounter all kinds of crises. Organizations can pull through and create good impression if they deal with correctly the crisis of public relation. The article defines the crisis, the crisis of public relation, and analyzes the characteristics and types of the crises in library. Finally the article emphasizes the contents and six strategies of the crisis of public relation in library. (authors)

  15. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    and prediction of the remaining life. However, the parameters, which are involved in the evaluation process, are random variable. Therefore, a considerable research effort has been directed at the development of probability-based methodology. The research projects considered in the paper include the development...... of reliability models for analysis of bridges subjected to corrosion and fatigue, and reliability-based optimization of maintenance strategies for bridges....

  16. Marketing Research of Construction Sites based on ABC-XYZ Analysis and Relational Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konikov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC-XYZ analysis is well known in marketing. It allows identifying sites that yield maximum profits when sold, sites that enjoy stable demand, or sites have both qualities specified above. However, the methods are quite abstract and are not designed to study specific factors that impact the results of ABC-XYZ analysis. Meanwhile, for some applications, particularly for marketing research of construction sites, it is critical not only to identify high-profit and stable sites but also to find out what combination of technical parameters, factors related to their location, transport accessibility, etc. are typical of them. This work suggests an approach to address the issue.

  17. The relation between societal factors and different forms of prejudice: A cross-national approach on target-specific and generalized prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ON THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SPECIFIC AND NONSPECIFIC APPROACHES TO ORAL MICROBIAL ADHESION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; COWAN, MM; VANDERMEI, HC

    In this paper, it is suggested that specificity and non-specificity in (oral) microbial adhesion are different expressions for the same phenomena. It is argued that the same basic, physicochemical forces are responsible for so-called 'non-specific' and 'specific' binding and that from a

  19. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  20. Recombinational DSBs-intersected genes converge on specific disease- and adaptability-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Yanming; Wang, Baijing; Gao, Feng

    2018-05-03

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model species powerful for studying the recombination of eukaryotes. Although many recombination studies have been performed for this species by experimental methods, the population genomic study based on bioinformatics analyses is urgently needed to greatly increase the range and accuracy of recombination detection. Here, we carry out the population genomic analysis of recombination in S. cerevisiae to reveal the potential rules between recombination and evolution in eukaryotes. By population genomic analysis, we discover significantly more and longer recombination events in clinical strains, which indicates that adverse environmental conditions create an obviously wider range of genetic combination in response to the selective pressure. Based on the analysis of recombinational DSBs-intersected genes (RDIGs), we find that RDIGs significantly converge on specific disease- and adaptability-related pathways, indicating that recombination plays a biologically key role in the repair of DSBs related to diseases and environmental adaptability, especially the human neurological disorders (NDs). By evolutionary analysis of RDIGs, we find that the RDIGs highly prevailing in populations of yeast tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, indicating the accurate repair of DSBs in these RDIGs is critical to ensure the eukaryotic survival or fitness. fgao@tju.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Towards a Postmodern Research Agenda For Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, Derina R.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the possibility of postmodernism as an alternative theoretical approach to public relations. Examines modernist public relations as a hegemonic practice that interpolates practitioners into the system to legitimize the perspectives and actions of corporate managers as objective knowledge. Concludes with suggestions for a postmodern…

  2. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  3. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Åsa; Sartor, Hanna; Borgquist, Signe; Zackrisson, Sophia; Manjer, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with symptomatic cancers but breast density could

  5. Relational Accountability in Indigenizing Visual Research for Participatory Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that an indigenous approach to communication research allows us to re-think academic approaches of engaging in and evaluating participatory communication research. It takes as its case study the Komuniti Tok Piksa project undertaken in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The project explores ways in which visual methods when paired with a community action approach embedded within an indigenous framework can be used to facilitate social change through meaningful participation. It involves communities to narrate their experiences in regard to HIV and AIDS and assists them in designing and recording their own messages. Local researchers are trained in using visual tools to facilitate this engagement with the communities.

  6. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H C; Sohns, H W; Dinneen, G U [Laramie Petroleum Research Center, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  7. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, H.C.; Sohns, H.W.; Dinneen, G.U.

    1970-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  8. Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging.

  9. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are negatively regulated by a plant-specific calcium sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholc, Maria; Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Goch, Grażyna; Anielska-Mazur, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Krzywińska, Ewa; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2011-02-04

    SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s) are plant-specific enzymes involved in environmental stress signaling and abscisic acid-regulated plant development. Here, we report that SnRK2s interact with and are regulated by a plant-specific calcium-binding protein. We screened a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Matchmaker cDNA library for proteins interacting with Nicotiana tabacum osmotic stress-activated protein kinase (NtOSAK), a member of the SnRK2 family. A putative EF-hand calcium-binding protein was identified as a molecular partner of NtOSAK. To determine whether the identified protein interacts only with NtOSAK or with other SnRK2s as well, we studied the interaction of an Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of the calcium-binding protein with selected Arabidopsis SnRK2s using a two-hybrid system. All kinases studied interacted with the protein. The interactions were confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, indicating that the binding occurs in planta, exclusively in the cytoplasm. Calcium binding properties of the protein were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy using Tb(3+) as a spectroscopic probe. The calcium binding constant, determined by the protein fluorescence titration, was 2.5 ± 0.9 × 10(5) M(-1). The CD spectrum indicated that the secondary structure of the protein changes significantly in the presence of calcium, suggesting its possible function as a calcium sensor in plant cells. In vitro studies revealed that the activity of SnRK2 kinases analyzed is inhibited in a calcium-dependent manner by the identified calcium sensor, which we named SCS (SnRK2-interacting calcium sensor). Our results suggest that SCS is involved in response to abscisic acid during seed germination most probably by negative regulation of SnRK2s activity.

  10. Electro-acupuncture at different acupoints modulating the relative specific brain functional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yin; Liu, Hesheng; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Kehua; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Objective: The specific brain effects of acupoint are important scientific concern in acupuncture. However, previous acupuncture fMRI studies focused on acupoints in muscle layer on the limb. Therefore, researches on acupoints within connective tissue at trunk are warranted. Material and Methods: Brain effects of acupuncture on abdomen at acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were tested using fMRI on 21 healthy volunteers. The data acquisition was performed at resting state, during needle retention, electroacupuncture (EA) and post-EA resting state. Needling sensations were rated after every electroacupuncture (EA) procedure. The needling sensations and the brain functional activity and connectivity were compared between CV4 and CV12 using SPSS, SPM2 and the local and remote connectivity maps. Results and conclusion: EA at CV4 and CV12 induced apparent deactivation effects in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network. The default mode of the brain was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The functional brain network was significantly changed post EA. However, the minor differences existed between these two acupoints. The results demonstrated similarity between functional brain network mode of acupuncture modulation and functional circuits of emotional and cognitive regulation. Acupuncture may produce analgesia, anti-anxiety and anti-depression via the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN).

  11. Publish or perish: how are research and reputation related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linton, Jonathan; Linton, Jonathan D.; Tierney, Robert; Tierney, Robert; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A study of twenty-seven fields in 350 highly ranked universities examines the relationship between reputation and rank. We find that many metrics associated with research prowess significantly correlate to university reputation. However, the next logical step– looking at the relationship that links

  12. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.

  13. Review of Related Research Literature on Educational Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, G. Llewellyn

    Although a large number of studies on supervision have been redundant, some important empirical knowledge has been gained from research in this area. Gwaltney, Andburg, Blumberg, Weber and Amidon, and Marquit have studied the differing perceptions of supervisory behavior by teachers, supervisors, and administrators. Gross and Herriot and later…

  14. Index of Oral Histories Relating to Naval Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Navy research and development that are available in major U. S. repositories. In a sense, it is a companion to the broader U. S. Naval History Sources...Director, his work with the FAA, and his hobbies, including old cars and a penchant for Shakespeare . Repositories: NWC, DTNSRDC, NHC Individuals

  15. Novel, Highly Specific N-Demethylases Enable Bacteria To Live on Caffeine and Related Purine Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ryan M.; Louie, Tai Man; Yu, Chi-Li; Gakhar, Lokesh; Louie, Kailin C.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis for the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is unknown. Pseudomonas putida CBB5, which grows on several purine alkaloids, metabolizes caffeine and related methylxanthines via sequential N-demethylation to xanthine. Metabolism of caffeine by CBB5 was previously attributed to one broad-specificity methylxanthine N-demethylase composed of two subunits, NdmA and NdmB. Here, we report that NdmA and NdmB are actually two independent Rieske nonheme iron monooxygenases with N1- and N3-specific N-demethylation activity, respectively. Activity for both enzymes is dependent on electron transfer from NADH via a redox-center-dense Rieske reductase, NdmD. NdmD itself is a novel protein with one Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, one plant-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and one flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per enzyme. All ndm genes are located in a 13.2-kb genomic DNA fragment which also contained a formaldehyde dehydrogenase. ndmA, ndmB, and ndmD were cloned as His6 fusion genes, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified using a Ni-NTA column. NdmA-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N1-demethylation of caffeine, theophylline, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine to theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and xanthine, respectively. NdmB-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N3-demethylation of theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline to 7-methylxanthine, xanthine, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine, respectively. One formaldehyde was produced from each methyl group removed. Activity of an N7-specific N-demethylase, NdmC, has been confirmed biochemically. This is the first report of bacterial N-demethylase genes that enable bacteria to live on caffeine. These genes represent a new class of Rieske oxygenases and have the potential to produce biofuels, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals from coffee and tea waste. PMID:22328667

  16. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  17. An Examination of the Relationship between Consequence-Specific Normative Belief Patterns and Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavy, Racheal; Cleveland, Michael J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Scaglione, Nichole M.; Sell, Nichole M.; Turrisi, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has previously identified a high-risk subgroup of college students who experience high levels of multiple and repeated alcohol-related consequences (MRC group). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between consequence-specific normative influences and experiencing multiple and repeated drinking-related consequences using a person-centered approach. Normative subgroups were identified using latent profile analysis (LPA), which were then used to predict MRC group status at 6-month follow-up. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=2024) at a large northeastern university completed online surveys during the fall and spring semesters of their freshman year. Retention was high with 92% of invited participants completing T2, of which the MRC group accounted for 27%. Results Three student profiles were identified from LPA on T1 data: Non Permissive Parents (77%), Positive Peer and Parent Norms (20%), and Permissive Parents (3%). Logistic regression revealed that both the Positive Peer and Parent Norms and Permissive Parents profiles had significantly higher odds of MRC group membership at follow-up (1.81 and 2.78 times greater, respectively). Conclusions The results suggest value in prevention efforts that include normative beliefs about alcohol-related consequences. Further, parental norms in particular have the potential to enhance interventions, especially through direct communication of disapproval for experiencing consequences. PMID:27805274

  18. Are the most dedicated nurses more vulnerable to job insecurity? Age-specific analyses on family-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Mervi; Mauno, Saija; Cheng, Ting

    2014-11-01

    To examine the moderating roles of job dedication and age in the job insecurity-family-related well-being relationship. As job insecurity is a rather permanent stressor among nurses nowadays, more research is needed on the buffering factors alleviating its negative effects on well-being. A total of 1719 Finnish nurses representing numerous health care organisations participated in this cross-sectional study. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the associations. Nurses' younger age and low job dedication operated as protective factors against the negative effect of high job insecurity on parental satisfaction. The effect of job dedication on family-related well-being was also age-specific: high job dedication protected younger nurses from the negative effect of job insecurity on work-family conflict and parental stress, whereas among older nurses those who reported low job dedication showed better well-being in the presence of high job insecurity. The most job-dedicated nurses were more vulnerable to job insecurity in relation to parental satisfaction. In addition, high job dedication combined with high age implied more work-family conflict and parental stress in the presence of high job insecurity. Managers should seek to boost younger nurses' job dedication and to prevent older nurses' over-commitment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmenta, Health, and Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    should begin right away. Also needed in the near term are evaluations of nanomaterials with respect to solubility in lipids and aqueous environments, in...size, shape, charge, surface area, and solubility . The skin projects evaluate skin penetration and biological response to nanoparticles that enter the...society/EHSprojects.html#B5-32 B5-33 Sepulveda Research Corporation Curcumin and Curcumin Derivatives for Alzheimer’s 1U01AG028583-01 A portion of

  20. Motion Simulation Research Related Short Term Training Attachment to TARDEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    had to ensure that they could show the value of this advanced technology to its clients, rather than the clients perceiving it as an experimental...Surroundings Image Generation Controller Software SCRAM Net Comms to Sim Terra Vista Detailed terrain modelling VR Forces Simulation Scenario...Kelvin Oie, who is the neuroscience manager. The overlap between the respective organisations’ research goals was realised and benefits of

  1. Dynamics of brain responses to phobic-related stimulation in specific phobia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Mataix-Cols, David; Trasovares, Maria Victoria; López-Solà, Marina; Ortriz, Hector; Pujol, Jesus; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies have investigated to what extent different subtypes of specific phobia share the same underlying functional neuroanatomy. This study aims to investigate the potential differences in the anatomy and dynamics of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses associated with spider and blood-injection-injury phobias. We used an event-related paradigm in 14 untreated spider phobics, 15 untreated blood-injection-injury phobics and 17 controls. Phobic images successfully induced distress only in phobic participants. Both phobic groups showed a similar pattern of heart rate increase following the presentation of phobic stimuli, this being different from controls. The presentation of phobic images induced activity within the same brain network in all participants, although the intensity of brain responses was significantly higher in phobics. Only blood-injection-injury phobics showed greater activity in the ventral prefrontal cortex compared with controls. This phobia group also presented a lower activity peak in the left amygdala compared with spider phobics. Importantly, looking at the dynamics of BOLD responses, both phobia groups showed a quicker time-to-peak in the right amygdala than controls, but only spider phobics also differed from controls in this parameter within the left amygdala. Considering these and previous findings, both phobia subtypes show very similar responses regarding their immediate reaction to phobia-related images, but critical differences in their sustained responses to these stimuli. These results highlight the importance of considering complex mental processes potentially associated with coping and emotion regulation processes, rather than exclusively focusing on primary neural responses to threat, when investigating fear and phobias. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Survey of HTR related research at IRI, Delft, Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.; Van Dam, H. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute IRI, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Tuerkcan, E. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    High temperature helium-cooled reactors have a large potential for inherent safety. Therefore, several projects on HTR research are being carried out or were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. As part of a larger research programme measurements of core reactivity, reactivity worth of safety rods and of small samples being oscillated in the reactor core were carried out at the PROTEUS facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen, Switzerland. Together with other partners in the Netherlands a small inherently safe co-generation plant with a pebble-bed HTR core was designed and analysed. It was verified that such a reactor can operate continuously for 10 years by adding continuously fuel pebbles until the maximum available core height is reached. As a new, innovative, inherently safe reactor type the design of a fluidized-bed reactor with coated fuel particles on a helium gas stream is discussed and results are shown for the analysis of inherent criticality safety under varying coolant flow rates. IRI is also taking part in the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, which involves participation in the start-up experiments of the Japanese HTTR and carrying out calculations for the core physics benchmark test. 11 refs.

  3. Licensing decisions and safety research related to LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise, R.P.; Speis, T.P.; Kelber, C.N.; Curtis, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    The licensing approach which ensures adequate protection of the public health and safety against serious accidents is described. This paper describes the role of core melt and core disruptive accidents in the design, safety research, and licensing processes, using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) as a focal point. Major design attention is placed on the prevention of these accidents so that the probability of core melt accidents is reduced to a sufficiently low level that they are not treated as design basis accidents. Additional requirements are placed upon the design to further reduce residual risk. This licensing process is supported by a confirmatory research program designed to provide an independent basis for licensing judgements. It has as a goal the resolution of generic safety issues prior to the establishment of a commercial LMFBR industry. The program includes accident analysis, experiments in materials interactions, aerosol transport and system integrity and planning for new safety test facilities. The problems are approached in a multi-disciplinary functional manner that identifies key safety issues and centralizes efforts to resolve them. The near term objectives of the program support the licensing of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) and the proposed Prototype Large Breeder Reactor (PLBR). The long term objectives of the program support the licensing of commercial LMFBRs during the late 1980's and beyond. This safety research is designed to provide an independent basis for the licensing judgements which must be made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  4. Summary outline of ERDA geosciences and geoscience-related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research (DBER) supports long-range, basic geosciences research in those areas of the life sciences which are relevant to current or planned ERDA programs. A central objective of the DBER geosciences program is to understand the mechanisms by which radionuclides and non-nuclear pollutants move through and interact with ecological systems including the air, land, inland waters, and oceans. Principal areas of interest include, in the field of atmospheric sciences: studies of the troposphere, particle formation, particulate matter, behavior of aerosols and gases, atmospheric transport and diffusion of fossil fuel pollutants, radionuclides, radionuclide global distribution patterns, nuclear emergency response systems, precipitation scavenging and dry deposition, regional relationships between pollutant sources and ambient atmospheric concentrations; and oceanographic studies of radioactivity that may be directly added to the environment from waste disposal activities and reactor operations or indirectly from nuclear explosions and transportation, the source term characterization, transport, fate, and effects of these pollutants in the marine environment; and studies of thermal effects on biological systems, mixing and circulation of water, distribution of radionuclides in ocean waters and sediments, and geochronology.A summary outline of the research programs is presented

  5. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L; Alpi, Kristine M; De Groote, Sandra L; Babin, Ted D

    2016-04-01

    The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity.

  6. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  7. Assessment of shear stress related parameters in the carotid bifurcation using mouse-specific FSI simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, David; Trachet, Bram; Debusschere, Nic; Iannaccone, Francesco; Swillens, Abigail; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Segers, Patrick

    2016-07-26

    The ApoE(-)(/)(-) mouse is a common small animal model to study atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the large and medium sized arteries such as the carotid artery. It is generally accepted that the wall shear stress, induced by the blood flow, plays a key role in the onset of this disease. Wall shear stress, however, is difficult to derive from direct in vivo measurements, particularly in mice. In this study, we integrated in vivo imaging (micro-Computed Tomography-µCT and ultrasound) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling for the mouse-specific assessment of carotid hemodynamics and wall shear stress. Results were provided for 8 carotid bifurcations of 4 ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice. We demonstrated that accounting for the carotid elasticity leads to more realistic flow waveforms over the complete domain of the model due to volume buffering capacity in systole. The 8 simulated cases showed fairly consistent spatial distribution maps of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and relative residence time (RRT). Zones with reduced TAWSS and elevated RRT, potential indicators of atherosclerosis-prone regions, were located mainly at the outer sinus of the external carotid artery. In contrast to human carotid hemodynamics, no flow recirculation could be observed in the carotid bifurcation region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research goals for folate and related B vitamin in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finglas, P.M.; Meer, K. de; Molloy, A.; Verhoef, P.; Pietrzik, K.; Powers, H.J.; Straeten, D. van der; Jägerstad, M.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Vliet, T. van; Havenaar, R.; Buttriss, J.; Wright, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past decade, the understanding of folate bioavailability, metabolism and related health issues has increased, but several problems remain, including the difficulty of delivering the available knowledge to the populations at risk. Owing to the low compliance of taking folic acid supplements,

  9. Mental condition and specificity of mental disorders in a group of workers from southern Poland: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide empirical evidence regarding types and increasing prevalence of mental disorders affecting Polish working population in the years 2014-2016. The research questions concerned the specific characteristics of the types of mental disorders and their prevalence as well as the differences between males and females. Types of mental disorders were investigated using a clinical method, a structured interview, as well as medical record data gathered in the years 2014-2016 in one mental health treatment center. The study was conducted in the population of 1578 working individuals aged 18-64 years old, in various forms of employment, including flexible employment (self-employment, task assignment agreement) and contract employment. The research population consisted of 998 females and 580 males, aged 18-64 years old. The study aimed at investigating types and the prevalence rate of mental disorders developed in the examined working Poles, also with reference to the sex of the study participants as well as the age at which they started seeking treatment. The prevailing disorders include neurotic disorders; diagnosed according to the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) classification as a range of anxiety disorders, mixed anxiety-depressive disorders, stress-related and somatoform disorders; as well as personality disorders. The prevalence rate of the aforementioned disorders was found to be higher among working females than in the group of working males. The overall study conclusions based on the research data analysis point to the fact that the prevalence rate of various types of mental disorders displayed by the examined working males and females increased significantly in the years 2014-2016. Med Pr 2018;69(1):13-28. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. How the marketing research affects the improvement in the dental doctor-patient relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Iuliana GEANGU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The relation between provider and customer in the services area, mainly medical, represents a fundamental desideratum. This type of relation derives from a two-way involvement of both parts at the entire marketing mix level. The base of new marketing strategies that imply effective relation models can only be built by setting out an ample time related investigation process of the mechanisms pertaining to the customer’s perception of the quality and the coordinates of the relationship with the provider. The article aims to investigate the mechanism leading to customer retention in the case of dental offices, both from the perspective of customers and providers. The authors conducted an in-depth interview-type qualitative research, which identified and pointed out the extent to which the marketing activity, as seen from the perspective of specific principles and scientific methodology, is implemented in the dental offices in Bucharest. The research was also focused on the perception of specialists, dental office/clinics managers or owners regarding the concept of customer retention, elements which could lead to keeping customers, and the image of the ideal office from the perspective of services adjusted to consumers.

  11. NEA Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegger, B.; Templeton, W.L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium-level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site-specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area (NEA 1983).It includes data in bathymetry, isopycnal topography, local and larger scale currents, sediment distribution and sedimentary processes, hydrochemistry, deep ocean biology and results of radiochemical analyses of sea water, sediments and biological materials. The modelling work is also well advanced allowing comparison of results obtained from different codes. After integration of the models, sensitivity analyses will provide indications for future research needs

  12. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); M.A. Joore (Manuela); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); Lesman-Leegte, I. (Ivonne); M.J. Postma (Maarten); P. Vemer (Pepijn); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses;

  13. Research Costs Investigated : A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    BACKGROUND: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2)

  14. Chernobyl related research and radiological protection activities in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B; Cunningham, J D [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a programme of monitoring and research was initiated in the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to address questions concerning the immediate and longer term impact of the fallout. Prior to the Chernobyl accident the scientific literature contained limited information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and their entry into food-chains. In response to this lack of information the monitoring programme assessed the contamination status following the accident, while the research programme was aimed at gaining a fuller understanding of the processes of radionuclide transfer. Investigations were undertaken into the pathways through which Chernobyl radionuclides may be transferred to man i.e. via agricultural crops, meat and milk production. The results showed that the behaviour of the fallout radionuclides is complex and highly variable, being influenced by weather, topography, season, crop type, land management etc. The research continues today and its aim is to identify pathways of radiation dose transfer to man and to determine strategies for minimising risk and cost to man and the environment. Examination of the factors which control radionuclide behaviour has revealed practical strategies for dealing with contaminated lands and foods. A significant factor controlling the behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems is the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. These physico-chemical characteristics have proved to be useful parameters which can be manipulated to reduce the transfer of radionuclides in agricultural systems. In semi-natural ecosystems (peatlands and commercial forests) the controls on the behaviour of radionuclides are generally more complicated and intervention is more difficult. These ecosystems present a challenge in terms of the identification of possible practical rehabilitation measures. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  16. Nuclear Security Management for Research Reactors and Related Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This publication provides a single source guidance to assist those responsible for the implementation of nuclear security measures at research reactors and associated facilities in developing and maintaining an effective and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of nuclear security on the site. It is based on national experience and practices as well as on publications in the field of nuclear management and security. The scope includes security operations, security processes, and security forces and their relationship with the State’s nuclear security regime. The guidance is provided for consideration by States, competent authorities and operators

  17. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  18. Validation of the PedsQL Epilepsy Module: A pediatric epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Junger, Katherine F; Mara, Constance A; Kellermann, Tanja; Barrett, Lauren; Wagner, Janelle; Mucci, Grace A; Bailey, Laurie; Almane, Dace; Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Urso, Lauryn; Hater, Brooke; Hustzi, Heather; Smith, Gigi; Herrmann, Bruce; Perry, M Scott; Zupanc, Mary; Varni, James W

    2017-11-01

    To validate a brief and reliable epilepsy-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in children with various seizure types, treatments, and demographic characteristics. This national validation study was conducted across five epilepsy centers in the United States. Youth 5-18 years and caregivers of youth 2-18 years diagnosed with epilepsy completed the PedsQL Epilepsy Module and additional questionnaires to establish reliability and validity of the epilepsy-specific HRQOL instrument. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas), test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Questionnaires were analyzed from 430 children with epilepsy (M age = 9.9 years; range 2-18 years; 46% female; 62% white: non-Hispanic; 76% monotherapy, 54% active seizures) and their caregivers. The final PedsQL Epilepsy Module is a 29-item measure with five subscales (i.e., Impact, Cognitive, Sleep, Executive Functioning, and Mood/Behavior) with parallel child and caregiver reports. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.70-0.94. Construct validity and convergence was demonstrated in several ways, including strong relationships with seizure outcomes, antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects, and well-established measures of executive, cognitive, and emotional/behavioral functioning. The PedsQL Epilepsy Module is a reliable measure of HRQOL with strong evidence of its validity across the epilepsy spectrum in both clinical and research settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Current review of the SarQoL®: a health-related quality of life questionnaire specific to sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Geerinck, Anton; Locquet, Médéa; Bruyère, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia, defined by a progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and muscle function, is associated with many harmful clinical consequences. Several studies have reported the impact of sarcopenia on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using generic quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. The results of these observational studies are quite heterogenous. Indeed, generic tools may not be able to detect subtle effects of sarcopenia on QoL. Recently, a sarcopenia-specific HRQoL questionnaire was developed and validated in a population of sarcopenic subjects to more accurately assess the impact of sarcopenia on QoL. Areas covered: The purpose of this review is to present evidence regarding the impact of sarcopenia on QoL and to introduce a new specific HRQoL questionnaire, the SarQoL®. Expert commentary: The self-administered SarQoL®, initially developed in French, comprises 55 items translated into 22 questions. The questionnaire has been shown to be understandable, valid, consistent, and reliable and can therefore be recommended for clinical and research purposes. The questionnaire is now available in 11 different languages with another 20 translations in progress. The instrument's sensitivity to change still needs to be assessed in future longitudinal studies.

  20. Research gaps in neonatal HIV-related care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ann Davies

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African prevention of mother to child transmission programme has made excellentprogress in reducing vertical HIV transmission, and paediatric antiretroviral therapyprogrammes have demonstrated good outcomes with increasing treatment initiation inyounger children and infants. However, both in South Africa and across sub-Saharan African,lack of boosted peri-partum prophylaxis for high-risk vertical transmission, loss to followup,and failure to initiate HIV-infected infants on antiretroviral therapy (ART before diseaseprogression are key remaining gaps in neonatal HIV-related care. In this issue of the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, experts provide valuable recommendations for addressingthese gaps. The present article highlights a number of areas where evidence is lacking toinform guidelines and programme development for optimal neonatal HIV-related care.

  1. A REVIEW ON NARCISSISM AND RESEARCHES RELATED NARCISSISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Karaaziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this era that we live in there are such personality structures that we call ‘narcissism’ which is based on the Greek Mythology as the person who sees there is own reflection on the water and from this reflection he falls in love, in other words falls in love with oneself and throughout his life strives to find this love that can never reached. Narcissism is sepearted into two as being normal and pathological. The biggest help in understanding narcissism comes from the psychoanalytical theroies of objcet consistency and theory of self but the importance and severity of the disorder was stated in the DSM-III (Ozan ve ark., 1980. There are many research taken place on Narcissism and many measurements enabled in this research. There are dynamically orientated with projective tests and descriptive orientated objective tests among these studies. This article’s aim is to discuss Narcissism’s development process from the first time when it was found until today with interesting findings.

  2. Related activities on management of ageing of Dalat Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Pham Van [Reactor Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a pool type research reactor which was reconstructed in 1982 from the previous 250 kW TRIGA-MARK II reactor. The reactor core, the control and instrumentation system, the primary and secondary cooling systems as well as other associated systems were newly designed and installed. The renovated reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983 and attained its nominal power of 500 kW in February 1984. Since then DNRR has been operated safely. Retained structures of the former reactor such as the reactor aluminum tank, the graphite reflector, the thermal column, the horizontal beam tubes and the radiation concrete shielding are 35 years old. During the recent years, in-service inspection has been carried out, the reactor control and instrumentation system were renovated due to ageing and obsolescence of its components, reactor general inspection and refurbishment were performed. Efforts are being made to cope with ageing of old reactor components to maintain safe operation of the DNRR. (author)

  3. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  4. [Significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies in HCV-related chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2005-12-01

    The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.

  5. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  6. Summary outline of DOE geoscience and geoscience - related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) supports long-range, basic research in those areas of the geosciences which are relevant to the nation's energy needs. The objective of the Geoscience program is to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of geological, geophysical and geochemical structures and processes in the solid earth and in solar-terrestrial relationships. This understanding is to assure an effective knowledge base for energy resource recognition, evaluation and utilization in an environmentally acceptable manner. The work is carried out primarily in DOE laboratories and in universities, although some is conducted by other federal agencies and by the National Academy of Sciences. Principal areas of interest include: Geology, Geophysics, and Earth Dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy Resource Recognition, Evaluation and Utilization; Hydrologic and Marine Sciences; and Solar-Terrestrial/Atmospheric Interactions

  7. Research and development related to the services engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper it is clarified what is understood by the expression R and D, Research and Development in the Servicie Engineering's which support the nuclear power plants exploitation, being more appropriated to talk about Innovation and Technological Development. In this paper it is analysed the need to have an innovation as per the marketing needs and to have a technological development to maintain an independence to let us to keep and increase the company's activity. It is described how the Services Engineering's with technological development turn to equipment suppliers which can be supplied to the nuclear sector as well as to other industrial sectors. Finally, it is described the innovation and technological development evolution, the technological polities objectives and the action lines of Tecnatom, S. A. as a Services Engineering's. (Author)

  8. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  9. Strategic Directions in Heliophysics Research Related to Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Heliophysics Division of NASA published its triennial roadmap entitled "Heliophysics; the solar and space physics of a new era." In this document contains a science priority that is recommended that will serve as input into the recently initiated NRC Heliophysics Decadal Survey. The 2009 roadmap includes several science targets recommendations that are directly related to weakly ionized plasmas, including on entitled "Ion-Neutral Coupling in the Atmosphere." This talk will be a brief overview of the roadmap with particular focus on the science targets relevant to weakly ionized plasmas.

  10. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lessick, MA, MLS, AHIP, FMLA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods: An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized openended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results: Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions: Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity.

  11. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Thanseem, Ismail; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Miyachi, Taishi; Yamada, Satoru; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC

  12. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ayyappan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG, motor cortex (MC and thalamus (THL from autism patients (n=8 and controls (n=10 were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2, neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27 showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066 and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990 showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The

  13. The comprehension of Italian relative clauses in poor readers and in children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Arosio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.

  14. STRUCTURAL AND CONTENT-RELATED SPECIFICITY OF PROGRAMME LITERARY CRITICISM TEXTS IN THE JOURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilnikova Olga Gennadyevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article specifies the notions of the structural, content-related, figurative, and functional characteristics of the texts which are traditionally referred to the group of informational genres of journalism. This lets us update the system of factors that influence the formation of the texts' genre specificity in the mass media. The analysis of programme literary criticism speeches published in the journals of N.M. Karamzin – Moskovsky Zhurnal, Vestnik Evropy – shows that not only rational and logical structures accomplish the constructive function in the text-formation mechanisms of such publications. The use of imaginative resources of journalistic and artistic discourses plays an important role in the implementation of the author's intentions. The supplementation of programme texts with the components non-typical of informational genres (lyrical and biographical fragments, expressive lexis, artistic and journalistic forms of the author's subjectivity expression is conditioned by organic interaction of several pragmatic goals in the texts, such as: informational, author's individual (Karamzin as a personality, and author's professional (Karamzin as an editor, writer, literary critic. These peculiarities together with a subtext contribute to the formation of new features of programme publications, which are not common for informational genres such as aesthetic function and multi-discursivity, reflected in semantic, expressive and vocabulary redundance. They also expand the range of possible effects on audience – cognitive, emotive, behavioral and communicative. As a result, a unique informational text of a programme type is formed. Therefore, a strict differentiation of genre forms of journal texts is only possible when taking into consideration all the possible text goals, as well as its role in the organization of common-journal discourse and publication policy.

  15. Specific Components of Pediatricians' Medication-Related Care Predict Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua M

    2017-06-01

    The development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care quality measurements is a prerequisite to improving the quality of community-based pediatric care of children with ADHD. Unfortunately, the evidence base for existing ADHD care quality metrics is poor. The objective of this study was to identify which components of ADHD care best predict patient outcomes. Parents of 372 medication-naïve children in grades 1 to 5 presenting to their community-based pediatrician (N = 195) for an ADHD-related concern and who were subsequently prescribed ADHD medication were identified. Parents completed the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale (VAPRS) at the time ADHD was raised as a concern and then approximately 12 months after starting ADHD medication. Each patient's chart was reviewed to measure 12 different components of ADHD care. Across all children, the mean decrease in VAPRS total symptom score during the first year of treatment was 11.6 (standard deviation 10.1). Of the 12 components of ADHD care, shorter times to first contact and more teacher ratings collected in the first year of treatment significantly predicted greater decreases in patient total symptom scores. Notably, it was timeliness of contacts, defined as office visits, phone calls, or email communication, that predicted more ADHD symptom decreases. Office visits alone, in terms of number or timeliness, did not predict patient outcomes. The magnitude of ADHD symptom decrease that can be achieved with the use of ADHD medications was associated with specific components of ADHD care. Future development and modifications of ADHD quality care metrics should include these ADHD care components. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  17. The Gap between Professional and Research Agenda: A Content Analysis of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Glen M.; And Others

    A content analysis compared the professional and research agendas of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review" for the years 1975-81. A sample of 121 articles from the former and 111 articles from the latter were analyzed, and the content of each was assigned to one of 10 categories related to the context,…

  18. Preference-based disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for glaucoma: a mixed methods study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, Sergei; Podbielski, Dominik W; Jack, Susan M; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Mitchell, Levine A H; Baltaziak, Monika; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A primary objective of healthcare services is to improve patients' health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Glaucoma, which affects a substantial proportion of the world population, has a significant detrimental impact on HRQoL. Although there are a number of glaucoma-specific questionnaires to measure HRQoL, none is preference-based which prevent them from being used in health economic evaluation. The proposed study is aimed to develop a preference-based instrument that is capable of capturing important effects specific to glaucoma and treatments on HRQoL and is scored based on the patients' preferences. Methods A sequential, exploratory mixed methods design will be used to guide the development and evaluation of the HRQoL instrument. The study consists of several stages to be implemented sequentially: item identification, item selection, validation and valuation. The instrument items will be identified and selected through a literature review and the conduct of a qualitative study. Validation will be conducted to establish psychometric properties of the instrument followed by a valuation exercise to derive utility scores for the health states described. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Trillium Health Partners Research Ethics Board (ID number 753). All personal information will be de-identified with the identification code kept in a secured location including the rest of the study data. Only qualified and study-related personnel will be allowed to access the data. The results of the study will be distributed widely through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and internal meetings. PMID:28186941

  19. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  20. Russia-specific relative risks and their effects on the estimated alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-05-10

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for the burden of disease globally. This burden is estimated using Relative Risk (RR) functions for alcohol from meta-analyses that use data from all countries; however, for Russia and surrounding countries, country-specific risk data may need to be used. The objective of this paper is to compare the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using Russia-specific alcohol RRs with the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using alcohol RRs from meta-analyses. Data for 2012 on drinking indicators were calculated based on the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Data for 2012 on mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived with Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost by cause were obtained by country from the World Health Organization. Alcohol Population-Attributable Fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on a risk modelling methodology from Russia. These PAFs were compared to PAFs calculated using methods applied for all other countries. The 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs) for the alcohol PAFs were calculated using a Monte Carlo-like method. Using Russia-specific alcohol RR functions, in Russia in 2012 alcohol caused an estimated 231,900 deaths (95% UI: 185,600 to 278,200) (70,800 deaths among women and 161,100 deaths among men) and 13,295,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 11,242,000 to 15,348,000) (3,670,000 DALYs lost among women and 9,625,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age. This compares to an estimated 165,600 deaths (95% UI: 97,200 to 228,100) (29,700 deaths among women and 135,900 deaths among men) and 10,623,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 7,265,000 to 13,754,000) (1,783,000 DALYs lost among women and 8,840,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age caused by alcohol when non-Russia-specific alcohol RRs were used. Results indicate that if the Russia-specific RRs are used when estimating the health burden attributable to alcohol consumption in

  1. Some comments on mapping from disease-specific to generic health-related quality-of-life scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari

    2013-01-01

    An article by Lu et al. in this issue of Value in Health addresses the mapping of treatment or group differences in disease-specific measures (DSMs) of health-related quality of life onto differences in generic health-related quality-of-life scores, with special emphasis on how the mapping is affected by the reliability of the DSM. In the proposed mapping, a factor analytic model defines a conversion factor between the scores as the ratio of factor loadings. Hence, the mapping applies to convert true underlying scales and has desirable properties facilitating the alignment of instruments and understanding their relationship in a coherent manner. It is important to note, however, that when DSM means or differences in mean DSMs are estimated, their mapping is still of a measurement error-prone predictor, and the correct conversion coefficient is the true mapping multiplied by the reliability of the DSM in the relevant sample. In addition, the proposed strategy for estimating the factor analytic mapping in practice requires assumptions that may not hold. We discuss these assumptions and how they may be the reason we obtain disparate estimates of the mapping factor in an application of the proposed methods to groups of patients. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Main safety issues related to IPSN severe accident research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeComte, C.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed at IPSN concerning accident studies on nuclear installations is focused on the characterization of accidental sequences with three major aims: prevention, mitigation, and organization of counter-measures. As criteria to optimize all efforts made to improve nuclear safety, the radioactive dispersal in the environment must be quantified as function of internal and external radioactive products transfers. During the short-term phase of the accident, potential radioactive releases can be evaluated by the realistic code system ESCADRE. This system is validated by numerous analytical studies related to containment and fission product behavior. It will be further qualified by the results of the global experiments performed in the PHEBUS FP facility at IPSN

  3. Cancer-related aspects of regeneration research: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.J.; Mason, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Tissue regeneration is simply the replacement of lost cells of a tissue by those remaining. Epimorphic regeneration involves dedifferentiation of many tissues and their organization into a blastema which eventually differentiates into the missing part, usually an appendage. A detailed comparison of the cell membrane changes occurring in epimorphic regeneration, tissue regeneration and cancer can contribute to greater understanding of the differences between normal and tumor cells. Further, there is evidence that epimorphic regeneration fields may in some instances suppress tumor induction and control existing tumors. This influence may be mediated by bioelectric fields, which are ubiquitous in nature and appear to control many cellular events. Disruption of these bioelectric fields suppresses epimorphic regeneration and may lead to cancer in mammals, while applied electric fields alter regenerative events and cause tumor regression. Studies on x-radioinduced regeneration suppression in relation to mutagenesis are also reviewed

  4. On the Methodology of Research of Sunni-Shiite Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Chikrizova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain. In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.

  5. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  6. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  7. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Velde, J. L.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires. Generic

  8. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Velde, J. L.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific

  9. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  10. Social Science Research Related to Wildfire Management: An Overview of Recent Findings and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2012-01-01

    As with other aspects of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific understanding has advanced and the broader context surrounding management decisions has changed. Prior to 2000 the primary focus of most fire research was on the physical and ecological aspects of fire; social science research was limited to...

  11. Research on neutron radiography in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and activities related to it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    The research on neutron radiography in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University was begun in 1974 using the E-2 experimental hole which was designed for neutron irradiation. It was reconstructed for the excellent performance as neutron radiography facility by fixing aluminum plugs, a collimator and so on. The research activities thereafter are briefly described. In 1989, the cold neutron facility was installed in the graphite thermal neutron facility, and the experiment on cold neutron radiography became feasible. The reactor in Kyoto University is of the thermal output of 5 MW, and is put to the joint utilization by universities and research institutes in whole Japan. The experimental items carried out so far are enumerated. At present, the main subjects of research are the development of the standard for establishing image evaluation method, the analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow, the construction of the data base for the literatures and images of neutron radiography, the application of cold neutron radiography, the development of the imaging method using fast neutrons and so on. The thermal neutron radiography and the cold neutron radiography facilities of Kyoto University research reactor are described. The research and activities at Kyoto University research reactor and the investigation of problems are reported. (K.I.) 56 refs

  12. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined.

  13. Unhealthy weight control behaviors mediate the association between weight status and weight-specific health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking youth who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M

    2017-03-01

    Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.

  14. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553

  15. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G; Hayes, Tavis P; Brehaut, Jamie C; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.

  16. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Nicholls

    Full Text Available To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review.We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction.Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review.Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.

  17. Self-perceived health-related quality of life of Indian children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific learning disability (SpLD often remains undetected, resulting in the afflicted child experiencing chronic poor school performance. Aims: To measure and analyze the self-perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL of children with newly-diagnosed SpLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From February to December 2008, 150 children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled and their HRQoL documented using the DISABKIDS chronic generic module self-report version instrument. Statistical Analysis: Multiple regression analysis was carried out for determining the ′independent′ impact that each of the clinical and socio-demographic variables had on a poor facet score outcome and on a poor total score outcome. Results: Clinically significant deficits were detected in all 6 facets, namely: ′large deficits (effect size ≥−0.8′ in "social exclusion", "emotion", "limitation", "treatment", and "independence"; and ′medium deficit (effect size −0.5 to <−0.8′ in "social inclusion"; and ′large deficit′ in "total score". Multivariate analysis revealed that: (i not belonging to the upper socio-economic strata of society was an independent predictor of a poor "independence" facet outcome (P=0.010, OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.37; (ii not having experienced class detainment was an independent predictor of a poor "emotion" facet outcome (P=0.008, OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34 to 6.85; (iii first-born status was an independent predictor of a poor "limitation" facet outcome (P=0.022, OR=2.60, 95% CI: 1.15 to 5.90; and (iv female gender was an independent predictor of a poor "social exclusion" facet outcome (P=0.024, OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.85 and a poor "overall health" outcome (P=0.025, OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.87. Conclusions: Children with newly-diagnosed SpLD perceive their psychosocial, physical, and overall HRQoL to be significantly compromised.

  18. Structural specificity of chloroquine-hematin binding related to inhibition of hematin polymerization and parasite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippagunta, S R; Dorn, A; Matile, H; Bhattacharjee, A K; Karle, J M; Ellis, W Y; Ridley, R G; Vennerstrom, J L

    1999-11-04

    Considerable data now support the hypothesis that chloroquine (CQ)-hematin binding in the parasite food vacuole leads to inhibition of hematin polymerization and parasite death by hematin poisoning. To better understand the structural specificity of CQ-hematin binding, 13 CQ analogues were chosen and their hematin binding affinity, inhibition of hematin polymerization, and inhibition of parasite growth were measured. As determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), the stoichiometry data and exothermic binding enthalpies indicated that, like CQ, these analogues bind to two or more hematin mu-oxo dimers in a cofacial pi-pi sandwich-type complex. Association constants (K(a)'s) ranged from 0.46 to 2.9 x 10(5) M(-1) compared to 4.0 x 10(5) M(-1) for CQ. Remarkably, we were not able to measure any significant interaction between hematin mu-oxo dimer and 11, the 6-chloro analogue of CQ. This result indicates that the 7-chloro substituent in CQ is a critical structural determinant in its binding affinity to hematin mu-oxo dimer. Molecular modeling experiments reinforce the view that the enthalpically favorable pi-pi interaction observed in the CQ-hematin mu-oxo dimer complex derives from a favorable alignment of the out-of-plane pi-electron density in CQ and hematin mu-oxo dimer at the points of intermolecular contact. For 4-aminoquinolines related to CQ, our data suggest that electron-withdrawing functional groups at the 7-position of the quinoline ring are required for activity against both hematin polymerization and parasite growth and that chlorine substitution at position 7 is optimal. Our results also confirm that the CQ diaminoalkyl side chain, especially the aliphatic tertiary nitrogen atom, is an important structural determinant in CQ drug resistance. For CQ analogues 1-13, the lack of correlation between K(a) and hematin polymerization IC(50) values suggests that other properties of the CQ-hematin mu-oxo dimer complex, rather than its association

  19. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Stropnik, B.; Svetina, M.

    2000-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  20. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The increased male prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be mirrored by the early emergence of sex differences in ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning. The female protective effect hypothesis posits that ASD recurrence and symptoms will be higher among relatives of female probands. This study examined sex differences and sex of proband differences in ASD outcome and in the development of ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning among the high-risk younger siblings of ASD probands and low-risk children. Prior to 18 months of age, 1824 infants (1241 high-risk siblings, 583 low-risk) from 15 sites were recruited. Hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) analyses of younger sibling and proband sex differences in ASD recurrence among high-risk siblings were followed by HGLM analyses of sex differences and group differences (high-risk ASD, high-risk non-ASD, and low-risk) on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) subscales (Expressive and Receptive Language, Fine Motor, and Visual Reception) at 18, 24, and 36 months and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores (social affect (SA) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB)) at 24 and 36 months. Of 1241 high-risk siblings, 252 had ASD outcomes. Male recurrence was 26.7 % and female recurrence 10.3 %, with a 3.18 odds ratio. The HR-ASD group had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB and SA scores than the HR non-ASD group, which had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB scores than the LR group. Regardless of group, males obtained lower MSEL subscale scores, and higher ADOS RRB scores, than females. There were, however, no significant interactions between sex and group on either the MSEL or ADOS. Proband sex did not affect ASD outcome, MSEL subscale, or ADOS domain scores. A 3.2:1 male:female odds ratio emerged among a large sample of prospectively followed high-risk siblings. Sex differences in cognitive performance and repetitive behaviors were apparent not only in

  1. Reducing Losses from Wind-Related Natural Perils: Research at the IBHS Research Center

    OpenAIRE

    Standohar-Alfano, Christine D.; Estes, Heather; Johnston, Tim; Morrison, Murray J.; Brown-Giammanco, Tanya M.

    2017-01-01

    The capabilities of the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) Research Center full-scale test chamber are described in detail. This research facility allows complete full-scale structures to be tested. Testing at full-scale allows vulnerabilities of structures to be evaluated with fewer assumptions than was previously possible. Testing buildings under realistic elevated wind speeds has the potential to isolate important factors that influence the performance of components, pot...

  2. Allele-Specific Alternative mRNA processing (ASARP) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A software pipeline for prediction of allele-specific alternative RNA processing events using single RNA-seq data. The current version focuses on prediction of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation modulated by genetic variants.

  3. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  4. The Relative Importance of Specific Self-Efficacy Sources in Pretraining Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howardson, Garett N.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy. Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"…

  5. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. European methodology of analysis vertical restraints under rule of reason in context of cooperative relation specific investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamirova Maria, Е.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of underinvestment in specific assets is a key issue in new institutional economics, especially in case of cooperative relation specific investments. It can be solved due to vertical restraints, as an alternative way of vertical integration to transfer control to partner, who makes relation specific investments. The type of relationspecific investments called «cooperative» investments (or cross investments was nearly absent in economic analysis up to the very end of the twentieth century despite of the fact that such investments are widespread. It led to the absence of analysis relation specific investments in official regulation documents. At the same time, different types of relation specific investments can be characterized by different degree of riskiness and need special regulations of vertical agreements. In the paper author makes an attempt to analyze the European methodology of assessment vertical restraints under rule of reason focusing on the type of relation specific investments. It makes possible to improve analysis of vertical restraint in Russian antitrust.

  7. Specifics of Cyberbullying of Teachers in Czech Schools--A National Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Kamil; Szotkowski, René

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of the national research of cyberbullying of Czech teachers, which was realized in year 2016 in the entire Czech Republic. The research focused on the prevalence of cyberbullying of teachers, the impact of cyberbullying on teachers, strategies of coping with cyberbullying and methods of solving the incidents. The…

  8. Nutrition and age-related macular degeneration: research evidence in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard

    2014-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in developed countries. In the absence of effective treatments to slow AMD progression, it is predicted that the prevalence of AMD will double over the next 20 years. One area of significant interest is the potential role that nutrition may play in preventing and/or delaying the progression of AMD. Specifically, is there any benefit in oral antioxidant and/or mineral supplementation? This review critically evaluates the currently available evidence relating to nutrition and AMD, with particular reference to the key findings of two large National Eye Institute-sponsored clinical studies, namely, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and AREDS2. Topical controversies relating to nutrition and AMD are considered and analyzed in the context of the published literature to guide practitioners through assessing the merit, or otherwise, of common claims. This article provides a foundation for clinicians to provide informed advice to AMD patients based on available research evidence.

  9. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-01-01

    of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy...

  10. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  11. Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

    1984-01-01

    The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

  12. Safety-related parameters for the MAPLE research reactor and a comparison with the IAEA generic 10-MW research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, P.A.; Lee, A.G.; Smith, H.J.; Ellis, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    A summary is presented of some of the principle safety-related physics parameters for the MAPLE Research Reactor, and a comparison with the IAEA Generic 10-MW Reactor is given. This provides a means to assess the operating conditions and fuelling requirements for safe operation of the MAPLE Research Reactor under accepted standards

  13. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew J.

    2016-07-08

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  14. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew J.; Rachmawati, Rita; Xun, Liping; Michell, Craig; Bourne, David G; Apprill, Amy; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  15. Is Public Relations Research Providing the Unified Body of Knowledge Necessary for Professional Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, James L.; Steele, Michael E.

    To investigate whether researchers are developing empirically-based public relations research efforts, and whether such efforts could be considered useful to public relations practitioners, a study conducted a content analysis of all articles published in "Public Relations Review" from 1977 through 1987. Articles (196 were coded in all)…

  16. The importance of experienced relevance and consequences related to research participation in migration and integration research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Ditlevsen, Kia

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, research within the area of health sciences has always suffered from a failure to include certain population groups in quantitative as well as qualitative research. Such population groups include migrant and ethnic minority groups. This bias in inclusion of different population...... segments has consequences for the representativity and possibility of generalizing study results and consequently may result in policies being designed to meet the needs of only the most resourceful segments of society. The lack of insight in to the experiences, attitudes of practices of certain population...... groups hence also represents a democratic problem in terms of ensuring the socially inclusive character of policies. This paper seeks to discuss how to better engage migrant populations and 'gatekeepers' around them in research. The paper takes its point of departure in three recent projects which have...

  17. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Nasser, Hayedeh

    2014-01-01

    Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988) cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  18. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Dehnad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988 cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  19. The Risk of Specific Congenital Anomalies in Relation to Newer Antiepileptic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More information is needed about possible associations between the newer anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in the first trimester of pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies of the fetus. OBJECTIVES: We performed a literature review to find signals for potential associations between newer...... studies with pregnancies exposed to newer AEDs and detailed information on congenital anomalies. The congenital anomalies in the studies were classified according to the congenital anomaly subgroups of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). We compared the prevalence of specific...... and were not supported by other studies. No signals were found for the other newer AEDs, or the information was too limited to provide such a signal. CONCLUSION: In terms of associations between monotherapy with a newer AED in the first trimester of pregnancy and a specific congenital anomaly, the signals...

  20. Antibodies to dopamine: radioimmunological study of specificity in relation to immunocytochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffard, M.; Kah, O.; Onteniente, B.; Seguela, P.; Le Moal, M.; Delaage, M.

    1984-06-01

    Two classes of anti-3,4- dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) antibodies were raised in rabbits using dopamine conjugated to albumin either via formaldehyde or via glutaraldehyde. Each was usable for immunohistochemical detection of dopamine neurons provided that the tissue was fixed by the homologous cross-linking agent. However, anti-dopamine-glutaraldehyde antibodies turned out to be of more general use because of the better fixative properties of glutaraldehyde which fixed dopamine in rat and in teleost, whereas formaldehyde only worked in lower vertebrates (such as goldfish) and not in rat brain. The specificity of anti-dopamine-glutaraldehyde antibodies was firmly established by competition experiments in equilibrium dialysis, using an immunoreactive tritiated derivative synthesized by coupling dopamine to N-alpha-acetyl-L-lysine N-methylamide via glutaraldehyde. Specificity studies in vitro and immunohistological results demonstrating the specific staining of dopaminergic neurons were found to correlate well.

  1. Electrochemical Label-Free Aptasensor for Specific Analysis of Dopamine in Serum in the Presence of Structurally Related Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2016-04-05

    Cellular and brain metabolism of dopamine can be correlated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, and as such, in vivo analysis of dopamine in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters (NT) represents a holy grail of neuroscience. Interference from those NTs generally does not allow selective electroanalysis of dopamine, which redox transformation overlaps with those of other catecholamines. In our previous work, we reported an electrochemical RNA-aptamer-based biosensor for specific analysis of dopamine (Analytical Chemistry, 2013; Vol. 85, p 121). However, the overall design of the biosensor restricted its stability and impeded its operation in serum. Here, we show that specific biorecognition and electroanalysis of dopamine in serum can be performed by the RNA aptamer tethered to cysteamine-modified gold electrodes via the alkanethiol linker. The stabilized dopamine aptasensor allowed continuous 20 h amperometric analysis of dopamine in 10% serum within the physiologically important 0.1-1 μM range and in the presence of catechol and such dopamine precursors and metabolites as norepinephrine and l-DOPA. In a flow-injection mode, the aptasensor response to dopamine was ∼1 s, the sensitivity of analysis, optimized by adjusting the aptamer surface coverage, was 67 ± 1 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and the dopamine LOD was 62 nM. The proposed design of the aptasensor, exploiting both the aptamer alkanethiol tethering to the electrode and screening of the catecholamine-aptamer electrostatic interactions, allows direct monitoring of dopamine levels in biological fluids in the presence of competitive NT and thus may be further applicable in biomedical research.

  2. Support of Activities of the NAS in Relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douple, Evan B.

    2006-01-01

    The National Academies (NA) provides support for the activities related to the long-term follow up of the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki being conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) laboratories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The NA serves as scientific and administrative liaison between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and RERF, and performs tasks in the areas of scientific oversight, information/public interface, fiscal oversight, and personnel management. The project includes recruitment and support of approximately 10 NA employees who work at RERF in Japan. Specific activities are performed consistent with the cooperative agreement's Statement of Work between DOE and NA and consistent with an Annual Work Plan developed by DOE and NA

  3. What role do study and research activities play in the relation between research and education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Britta Eyrich

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study organising the teaching of exponential functions in an attempt to re-establish a connection be- tween research and education (or school mathematics) based on the anthropological theory of the didactics (ATD). The teaching aims at students developing new knowledge like...

  4. Relative specificities of water and ammonia losses from backbone fragments in collision-activated dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    isotope of the water loss and the monoisotope of the ammonia loss to be distinguished. Contrary to a popular belief, water losses from y' ions are not specific enough to rely upon for detecting the presence of amino acids with oxygen in the side chains. At the same time, ammonia loss from b ions...

  5. Screening for HIV-related PTSD: Sensitivity and specificity of the 17 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the 17-item Post traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), a self-report instrument, in the detection of HIVrelated PTSD. An adapted version of the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) served as the gold standard. Method: 85 HIV-positive ...

  6. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity relates to weak resistance to proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip

    Background and objectives: Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS), experiencing intrusive memories, and rumination appear to be risk factors for depression and depressive relapse. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a weak resistance to proactive interference (PI)

  7. Preschoolers' Autobiographical Memory Specificity Relates to Their Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G.; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K.

    2018-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) has robust associations with psychopathology. As such, understanding the development of AMS (or its inverse, overgeneral autobiographical memory) and how it may be unique from other aspects of memory performance is important. In particular, it is unclear whether child AMS is distinct from…

  8. Domain-Specific Self-Concept in Relation to Traditional and Cyber Peer Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Shanee; Werch, Brittany L.; Wiens, Brenda A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who aggress against others have been described both as having overall low self-concept and as having high, inflated self-concept. The conceptualization of self-concept as domain specific provides an alternate means to resolving this controversy. In this study, 223 middle school students completed self-report measures assessing…

  9. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.; Pomroy, C.; Brown, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author)

  10. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duport, P; Pomroy, C [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, D [Saskatchewan Human Resources, Labour and Employment, Regina (Canada)

    1990-12-31

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author).

  11. Improved technical specifications and related improvements to safety in commercial Nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.; Demitrack, T.; Schiele, R.; Jones, J.C. [EXCEL Services Corporation, 11921 Rockville Pike, Suite 100, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. e-mail: donaldh@excelservices.com

    2004-07-01

    Many of the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (US) have been converting a portion of the plant operating license known as the Technical Specifications (TS) in accordance with a document published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The TS prescribe commercial nuclear power plant operating requirements. There are several types of nuclear power plants in the US, based on the technology of different vendors, and there is an NRC document that supports each of the five different vendor designs. The NRC documents are known as the Improved Standard Technical Specifications (ISTS) and are contained in a separate document (NUREG series) for each one of the designs. EXCEL Services Corporation (hereinafter EXCEL) has played a major role in the development of the ISTS and in the development, licensing, and implementation of the plant specific Improved Technical Specifications (ITS) (which is based on the ISTS) for the commercial nuclear power plants in the US that have elected to make this conversion. There are currently 103 operating commercial nuclear power plants in the US and 68 of them have successfully completed the conversion to the ITS and are now operating in accordance with their plant specific ITS. The ISTS is focused mainly on safety by ensuring the commercial nuclear reactors can safely shut down and mitigate the consequences of any postulated transient and accident. It accomplishes this function by including requirements directly associated with safety in a document structured systematically and taking into account some key human factors and technical initiatives. This paper discusses the ISTS including its format, content, and detail, the history of the ISTS, the ITS development, licensing, and implementation process, the safety improvements resulting from a plant conversion to ITS, and the importance of the ITS Project to the industry. (Author)

  12. Improved technical specifications and related improvements to safety in commercial Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.R.; Demitrack, T.; Schiele, R.; Jones, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (US) have been converting a portion of the plant operating license known as the Technical Specifications (TS) in accordance with a document published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The TS prescribe commercial nuclear power plant operating requirements. There are several types of nuclear power plants in the US, based on the technology of different vendors, and there is an NRC document that supports each of the five different vendor designs. The NRC documents are known as the Improved Standard Technical Specifications (ISTS) and are contained in a separate document (NUREG series) for each one of the designs. EXCEL Services Corporation (hereinafter EXCEL) has played a major role in the development of the ISTS and in the development, licensing, and implementation of the plant specific Improved Technical Specifications (ITS) (which is based on the ISTS) for the commercial nuclear power plants in the US that have elected to make this conversion. There are currently 103 operating commercial nuclear power plants in the US and 68 of them have successfully completed the conversion to the ITS and are now operating in accordance with their plant specific ITS. The ISTS is focused mainly on safety by ensuring the commercial nuclear reactors can safely shut down and mitigate the consequences of any postulated transient and accident. It accomplishes this function by including requirements directly associated with safety in a document structured systematically and taking into account some key human factors and technical initiatives. This paper discusses the ISTS including its format, content, and detail, the history of the ISTS, the ITS development, licensing, and implementation process, the safety improvements resulting from a plant conversion to ITS, and the importance of the ITS Project to the industry. (Author)

  13. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; Van Den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; Van Es, Johan H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  14. Energy Democracies and Publics in the Making: A Relational Agenda for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Chilvers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream approaches to energy democracy and public engagement with energy transitions tend to adopt specific, pre-given meanings of both “democracy” and “publics.” Different approaches impose prescriptive assumptions about the model of participation, the identity of public participants, and what it means to participate well. The rigidity of many existing approaches to energy participation is increasingly being challenged by the ever-multiplying diversity of ways in which citizens participate in energy systems, as consumers in energy markets, protesters against new infrastructures and technologies, as initiators of community energy projects, and as subjects of behavior change interventions, amongst others. This paper is concerned with growing areas of scholarship which seek to understand and explore these emerging energy publics and forms of energy democracy from a relational perspective. Such work, grounded in constructivist and relational ontologies, views forms of participatory democracy and publics as being co-produced, constructed, and emergent through the performance of collective practices. It pays closer attention to power relations, politics, materiality, exclusions, and effects in both understanding and intervening in the making of energy democracy. This in turn shifts the focus from studying discrete unitary forms of “energy democracy” to one of understanding interrelations between multiple diverse energy democracies in wider systems. In this paper, we chart these developments and explore the significant challenges and potential contributions of relational approaches to furthering the theories, methods, and practices of energy democracy and energy public engagement. The paper draws on an expert workshop, and an accompanying review, which brought together leading proponents of contending relational approaches to energy participation in direct conversation for the first time. We use this as a basis to explore tensions

  15. A "Research" into International Student-Related Research: (Re)visualising Our Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Tight ("High Educ Res Dev" 23(4):395-411, 2004; "High Educ Res Dev" 31(5):723-740, 2012; "High Educ Res Dev" 32(1):136-151, 2013)'s journal analysis and review framework to review a sample of 497 journal articles on researches concerning international students over the past 30 years. It was found…

  16. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global trends in research related to social media in psychology: mapping and bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2018-01-01

    Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication

  18. The 19th Annual Congress of European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA 2017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kviatek, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) is an independent organization that aims at stimulating and promoting innovative knowledge and practices of strategic communication, organizational communication and Public Relations across Europe. Founded in 1959 and

  19. Student nurse perceptions of risk in relation to international placements: a phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra A

    2012-11-01

    International nursing electives have been identified as a positive learning experience for students. However, whilst there are risks associated with international student placements in general, there is a scarcity of research specifically relating to student nurse's experiences of risk. This study aimed to investigate UK undergraduate student nurse experiences of risk during an international placement. A phenomenological methodology was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with student nurses who had recently returned from an international clinical placement abroad. Ten, second year student nurses, studying on a pre-registration diploma/BSc (Hons) Nursing Studies/Registered Nurse programme from one UK University participated in the study. Findings from the study highlighted that students felt that three types of risk existed; physical risk, clinical-professional risk and socio-cultural risk. Perceptions of risk were influenced by sociological theory relating to the concept of 'the other' and students attempted to reduce risk by employing strategies to reduce 'Otherness'. They also applied psychological theory relating to heuristics such as 'safety in numbers.' It also emerged from the study that exposure to perceived risk enhanced learning as students reported that it encouraged personal and professional development in particular and so assisted students in their move toward self-actualisation. It is suggested, and intended, that findings from this study can be applied to the preparation of students to further enhance their safety and learning experience during international placements abroad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Kelfkens, G.; Schipper, M.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS) and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on

  1. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  2. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which proc...

  3. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  4. The quest for performance-related specifications for hydraulic cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the problems associated with quality assurance for hydraulic cement concrete and the difficulties of relating the results of quality control and acceptance testing to the performance of the concrete facility. The importance...

  5. ISA-TAB-Nano: A Specification for Sharing Nanomaterial Research Data in Spreadsheet-based Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background and motivation The high-throughput genomics communities have been successfully using standardized spreadsheet-based formats to capture and share data within labs and among public repositories. The nanomedicine community has yet to adopt similar standards to share the diverse and multi-dimensional types of data (including metadata) pertaining to the description and characterization of nanomaterials. Owing to the lack of standardization in representing and sharing nanomaterial data, most of the data currently shared via publications and data resources are incomplete, poorly-integrated, and not suitable for meaningful interpretation and re-use of the data. Specifically, in its current state, data cannot be effectively utilized for the development of predictive models that will inform the rational design of nanomaterials. Results We have developed a specification called ISA-TAB-Nano, which comprises four spreadsheet-based file formats for representing and integrating various types of nanomaterial data. Three file formats (Investigation, Study, and Assay files) have been adapted from the established ISA-TAB specification; while the Material file format was developed de novo to more readily describe the complexity of nanomaterials and associated small molecules. In this paper, we have discussed the main features of each file format and how to use them for sharing nanomaterial descriptions and assay metadata. Conclusion The ISA-TAB-Nano file formats provide a general and flexible framework to record and integrate nanomaterial descriptions, assay data (metadata and endpoint measurements) and protocol information. Like ISA-TAB, ISA-TAB-Nano supports the use of ontology terms to promote standardized descriptions and to facilitate search and integration of the data. The ISA-TAB-Nano specification has been submitted as an ASTM work item to obtain community feedback and to provide a nanotechnology data-sharing standard for public development and adoption. PMID

  6. Use of ‘eradication’ in HIV cure-related research: a public health debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dubé, Karine; Luter, Stuart; Lesnar, Breanne; Newton, Luke; Galea, Jerome; Brown, Brandon; Gianella, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Background The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication ...

  7. Use of ‘eradication’ in HIV cure-related research: a public health debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dubé, Karine; Luter, Stuart; Lesnar, Breanne; Newton, Luke; Galea, Jerome; Brown, Brandon; Gianella, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Background: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication...

  8. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  9. Product-related research: how research can contribute to successful life-cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner, Peter; Ziegelbauer, Karl

    2008-05-01

    Declining productivity with decreasing new molecular entity output combined with increased R&D spending is one of the key challenges for the entire pharmaceutical industry. In order to offset decreasing new molecular entity output, life-cycle management activities for established drugs become more and more important to maintain or even expand clinical indication and market opportunities. Life-cycle management covers a whole range of activities from strategic pricing to a next generation product launch. In this communication, we review how research organizations can contribute to successful life-cycle management strategies using phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors as an example.

  10. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  11. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of disease-related genes based on weighted tissue-specific networks by using DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Predicting disease-related genes is one of the most important tasks in bioinformatics and systems biology. With the advances in high-throughput techniques, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which make it possible to identify disease-related genes at the network level. However, network-based identification of disease-related genes is still a challenge as the considerable false-positives are still existed in the current available protein interaction networks (PIN). Considering the fact that the majority of genetic disorders tend to manifest only in a single or a few tissues, we constructed tissue-specific networks (TSN) by integrating PIN and tissue-specific data. We further weighed the constructed tissue-specific network (WTSN) by using DNA methylation as it plays an irreplaceable role in the development of complex diseases. A PageRank-based method was developed to identify disease-related genes from the constructed networks. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we constructed PIN, weighted PIN (WPIN), TSN, WTSN for colon cancer and leukemia, respectively. The experimental results on colon cancer and leukemia show that the combination of tissue-specific data and DNA methylation can help to identify disease-related genes more accurately. Moreover, the PageRank-based method was effective to predict disease-related genes on the case studies of colon cancer and leukemia. Tissue-specific data and DNA methylation are two important factors to the study of human diseases. The same method implemented on the WTSN can achieve better results compared to those being implemented on original PIN, WPIN, or TSN. The PageRank-based method outperforms degree centrality-based method for identifying disease-related genes from WTSN.

  13. Smoking-related general and cause-specific mortality in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõks, Gea; Fischer, Krista; Kõks, Sulev

    2017-07-19

    Tobacco smoking is known to be the single largest cause of premature death worldwide. The aim of present study was to analyse the effect of smoking on general and cause-specific mortality in the Estonian population. The data from 51,756 adults in the Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu was used. Information on dates and causes of death was retrieved from the National Causes of Death Registry. Smoking status, general survival, general mortality and cause-specific mortality were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards models. The study found that smoking reduces median survival in men by 11.4 years and in women by 5.8 years. Tobacco smoking produces a very specific pattern in the cause of deaths, significantly increasing the risks for different cancers and cardiovascular diseases as causes of death for men and women. This study also identified that external causes, such as alcohol intoxication and intentional self-harm, are more prevalent causes of death among smokers than non-smokers. Additionally, smoking cessation was found to reverse the increased risks for premature mortality. Tobacco smoking remains the major cause for losses of life inducing cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the common diseases, external causes also reduce substantially the years of life. External causes of death indicate that smoking has a long-term influence on the behaviour of smokers, provoking self-destructive behaviour. Our study supports the idea, that tobacco smoking generates complex harm to our health increasing mortality from both somatic and mental disorders.

  14. Substantiation of the TVR-M reactor parameter selection and specific features of the research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Kiselev, G.V.; Shvedov, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    Comparative analysis of characteristics of the T-VR-M(ITEP, USSR), GRHF(France) and PIK(LNPI USSR) high-flux heavy water cooled and moderated research reactors is given. The TVR-M reactor design concepts are mainly based on a 35-year experience in operating of the first Soviet heavy water research TVR reactor. As a result of the reactor reconstruction its thermal power will increase up to 25 MW neutron flux in experimental channels will increase 10 fold and reach 5.6x10 14 neutron/cm 2 xc. The TVR-M reactor has the quality value the ratio of maximum thermal neutron flux value the reflector to reactor power in practically the same as for the GRHF reactor (2.24x10 13 (neutron/cm 2 xc)/MW) which allows one to place it among the best research reactors in the world. Maximum fuel burnup of the order of 50% and minimum fuel loading are forseen for the TVR-M reactor which provides for operation cost minimum as compared to the GRHF and PIK reactors. The TVR-M reactor practically does not yield to the PIK and GRMF reactors in experimental channel quantity and exceeds the in the number of vertical channels. The TVR-M reactor experimental capabilities allow one to reduce measuring time and provide for conducting the experiments at a qualitatively new level. At the same time capabilities of radioactive nuclide production in qualitative and quantitative senses are increased

  15. Explaining the Relation between Religiousness and Reduced Suicidal Behavior: Social Support Rather than Specific Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Alee; Fiske, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Religiousness has been associated with decreased risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well characterized. The present study examined the roles of religious beliefs and social support in that relation. A survey measuring religiousness, social support, suicidal…

  16. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  17. The specific relation of visual attention span with reading and spelling in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boer, Madelon; Van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Visual attention span, the number of orthographic units that can be processed at a glance, has been shown to predict reading performance in orthographically opaque languages (i.e., French and English), independent from phonological awareness. Whether this relation is also found in Dutch, a more

  18. Psychopathic Predators? Getting Specific about the Relation between Psychopathy and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jacqueline P.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Barchard, Kimberly; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) is often used to assess risk of violence, perhaps based on the assumption that it captures emotionally detached individuals who are driven to prey upon others. This study is designed to assess the relation between (a) core interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy and…

  19. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... adjust the Remote Areas Fund usage allowance requirement to reflect consumer behavior, and if so, how... files, audio format), send an email to [email protected] or call the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau... issues relating to the implementation of the Remote Areas Fund as a portable consumer subsidy program, as...

  20. Work-related fatigue: the specific case of highly educated women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Hooftman, W.E.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Boelens, L.R.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to establish the prevalence of high work-related fatigue (need for recovery, NFR) among employees and to explain group differences categorized by gender, age, and education. The study particularly aims to clarify prevalence and explanatory factors in highly educated women.

  1. Cognitions in children with OCD. A pilot study for age specific relations with severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, L. M.; de Haan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive theory, postulates that dysfunctional cognitions play a maintaining or even aetiological role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study it was hypothesised that if distorted cognitions play a central role in OCD, there should be a relation between cognitive measures and the

  2. The relation between smoking-specific parenting and smoking trajectories of adolescents: How are changes in parenting related to changes in smoking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we tested to what extent smoking-specific parenting and changes in parenting are related to adolescents' smoking trajectories. Data were used from a four-wave prospective study including 428 adolescents (aged M = 15.2; SD = 0.60). Latent Class Growth Analyses were conducted to

  3. Treatment-related differences in health related quality of life and disease specific symptoms among colon cancer survivors : Results from the population-based PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, S.; Vissers, P.A.J.; Maas, H.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; van Erning, F.N.; Mols, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare health related quality of life (HRQoL) and disease-specific symptoms between colon cancer patients treated with surgery only (SU) and surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy (SU + adjCT). Results were stratified for those aged <70 and ⩾70 years. HRQoL of

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  5. BRISK--research-oriented storage kit for biology-related data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alan; Tripp, Ben; Daley, Denise

    2011-09-01

    In genetic science, large-scale international research collaborations represent a growing trend. These collaborations have demanding and challenging database, storage, retrieval and communication needs. These studies typically involve demographic and clinical data, in addition to the results from numerous genomic studies (omics studies) such as gene expression, eQTL, genome-wide association and methylation studies, which present numerous challenges, thus the need for data integration platforms that can handle these complex data structures. Inefficient methods of data transfer and access control still plague research collaboration. As science becomes more and more collaborative in nature, the need for a system that adequately manages data sharing becomes paramount. Biology-Related Information Storage Kit (BRISK) is a package of several web-based data management tools that provide a cohesive data integration and management platform. It was specifically designed to provide the architecture necessary to promote collaboration and expedite data sharing between scientists. The software, documentation, Java source code and demo are available at http://genapha.icapture.ubc.ca/brisk/index.jsp. BRISK was developed in Java, and tested on an Apache Tomcat 6 server with a MySQL database. denise.daley@hli.ubc.ca.

  6. Challenges and future direction of molecular research in air pollution-related lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahadin, Maizatul Syafinaz; Ab Mutalib, Nurul Syakima; Latif, Mohd Talib; Greene, Catherine M; Hassan, Tidi

    2018-04-01

    Hazardous air pollutants or chemical release into the environment by a variety of natural and/or anthropogenic activities may give adverse effects to human health. Air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), heavy metals and particulate matter (PM) affect number of different human organs, especially the respiratory system. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reported that ambient air pollution is a cause of lung cancer. Recently, the agency has classified outdoor air pollution as well as PM air pollution as Group 1 carcinogens. In addition, several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between air pollutants to lung cancer risks and mortality. However, there are only a few studies examining the molecular effects of air pollution exposure specifically in lung cancer due to multiple challenges to mimic air pollution exposure in basic experimentation. Another major issue is the lack of adequate adjustments for exposure misclassification as air pollution may differ temporo-spatially and socioeconomically. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current molecular understanding of air pollution-related lung cancer and potential future direction in this challenging yet important research field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological effects research related to oil spills and oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurand, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) was created specifically to provide an improved response option for large marine oil spills in U.S. waters. As part of that capability, MSRC is committed to an extensive research and development program designed to improve the state-of-the-art for oil spill response. Within the mission, the goals of the Environmental Health Program are to ensure that ecological and human health effects of both oil and oil cleanup counter measures are well understood and that this information is made widely available for appropriate consideration in planning and implementing oil spill response efforts. This an applied program, and is intended to directly support the MSRC response mission. It does not include studies directly related to damage assessment, which is outside of the mission of MSRC. This paper focuses on the issues MSRC sees as critical in the area of ecological effects research, and addresses four topics: Why do we need to do more? What is it we hope to accomplish? What needs to be done? What is being planned or implemented?

  8. Depression among unaccompanied minor refugees: the relative contribution of general and acculturation-specific daily hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Serap; Friborg, Oddgeir; Idsøe, Thormod; Sirin, Selcuk; Oppedal, Brit

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to provide an empirical conceptualization of daily hassles among unaccompanied refugees, and whether they might affect mental health of young refugees after resettlement. First, we examined the underlying structure of daily hassles conceptualized as measuring general and acculturation-specific hassles. Second, we examined whether these two distinct categories of daily hassles significantly contribute to depression above and beyond the impact of premigration trauma. The study was based on self-report questionnaire data collected from 895 unaccompanied refugees who had been granted residence in Norway. Using structural equation modeling, the results confirmed the grouping of hassles in two general categories, which explained 43% of the variance in depression. The findings underscore the importance of current life conditions for unaccompanied refugees' mental health.

  9. Supervisors' approaches to supervision and how these relate to conceptions of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    how supervision is different or similar to research. Møller Madsen and Winsløw (2009) have investigated researchers' understanding of relations between research and teaching in two disciplines: Mathematics and Physical Geography using Chevallard's anthropological theory of didactics (Chevallard 2006...... are short of empirical studies that can shed light on the relations between supervisors' conceptions of research and their approaches to supervision. This work which lies in the research-teaching nexus arena of doctoral supervision has the potential to provide new insights into supervision by identifying...

  10. Identification of female-specific QTLs affecting an emotionality-related behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Moisan, M P; Chaouloff, F; Mormède, C; Mormède, P

    1999-09-01

    The influence of genetic factors on psychological traits and disorders has been repeatedly demonstrated; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying such an influence remain largely unknown. Anxiety-related disorders constitute the most common class of mental disorder in humans, with women being diagnosed far more frequently than men. A better understanding of the genetic and gender-related mechanisms mediating anxiety traits should enable the development of more rational methods for preventing and treating anxiety disorders. In this study we have aimed to identify, for the first time, quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing anxiety/emotionality-related traits in rats. To this end, two strains-Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)-that differ for several behavioral measures of anxiety/emotionality were intercrossed. A QTL analysis of the F2 population revealed suggestive loci for various traits, including behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and blood pressure. In addition, one major QTL explaining 50.4% of the total variance (LOD = 7.22) was identified on chromosome 4 for the locomotion in the central and aversive area of the open field. Two other relevant QTLs have been recently mapped near this chromosomic region in the rat, which also harbors Tac1r, the gene encoding for the substance P receptor. Our major QTL affected females but not males and its effect depended on the type of cross (LEW or SHR grandmothers). The present results reveal a complex genetic basis underlying emotional behaviors and they confirm the existence of interactions between genetic factors and sex for this kind of trait. Further investigation of the loci identified herein may give clues to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety-related ones.

  11. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  12. Work-related fatigue: the specific case of highly educated women in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonk, Petra; Hooftman, Wendela E.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.; Boelens, Louise R. M.; Koppes, Lando L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to establish the prevalence of high work-related fatigue (need for recovery, NFR) among employees and to explain group differences categorized by gender, age, and education. The study particularly aims to clarify prevalence and explanatory factors in highly educated women. Methods In 2005 and 2006, large representative samples of 80,000 Dutch employees (net response rate 33.0%; N?=?47,263) received the Netherlands working conditions survey questionnaire. First, we calc...

  13. Species-specific accumulation of dioxin related compounds in cetaceans collected from Japanese coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime Univ. (Japan); Amano, M. [Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Iwate (Japan); Yamada, T. [National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are extremely hazardous and persistent chemicals identified as contaminants in chlorophenols, herbicides, fly ash and other incineration products. Dioxin-like PCBs including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs are referred to as dioxin related compounds and are evaluated on par with PCDD/Fs in environmental risks since they have a high toxicity, similar to that of PCDD/Fs. These congeners have a range of physicochemical characteristics, which profoundly affect their persistence, environmental distribution, and bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Fish-eating wildlife such as marine mammals are particularly vulnerable to such contamination given their long lives, high trophic level, relative inability to metabolize many persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the biomagnification of these contaminants in aquatic food chains. However, most studies dealing with PCDDs and PCDFs in marine mammals have been carried out on pinnipeds, and data on PCDD/Fs levels in cetaceans are scarce. The present study is aimed at understanding the recent pattern of contamination by dioxin related compounds including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in three cetacean species collected from Japanese coastal waters during 1998-2001, and also to discuss the factors determining the accumulation.

  14. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

  15. Perspectives on Sharing Models and Related Resources in Computational Biomechanics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Hunter, Peter J; Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Loew, Leslie M; Middleton, John; Jacobs, Christopher R; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Löhner, Rainlad; Wei, Guowei; Winkelstein, Beth A; Barocas, Victor H; Guilak, Farshid; Ku, Joy P; Hicks, Jennifer L; Delp, Scott L; Sacks, Michael; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Ateshian, Gerard A; Maas, Steve A; McCulloch, Andrew D; Peng, Grace C Y

    2018-02-01

    The role of computational modeling for biomechanics research and related clinical care will be increasingly prominent. The biomechanics community has been developing computational models routinely for exploration of the mechanics and mechanobiology of diverse biological structures. As a result, a large array of models, data, and discipline-specific simulation software has emerged to support endeavors in computational biomechanics. Sharing computational models and related data and simulation software has first become a utilitarian interest, and now, it is a necessity. Exchange of models, in support of knowledge exchange provided by scholarly publishing, has important implications. Specifically, model sharing can facilitate assessment of reproducibility in computational biomechanics and can provide an opportunity for repurposing and reuse, and a venue for medical training. The community's desire to investigate biological and biomechanical phenomena crossing multiple systems, scales, and physical domains, also motivates sharing of modeling resources as blending of models developed by domain experts will be a required step for comprehensive simulation studies as well as the enhancement of their rigor and reproducibility. The goal of this paper is to understand current perspectives in the biomechanics community for the sharing of computational models and related resources. Opinions on opportunities, challenges, and pathways to model sharing, particularly as part of the scholarly publishing workflow, were sought. A group of journal editors and a handful of investigators active in computational biomechanics were approached to collect short opinion pieces as a part of a larger effort of the IEEE EMBS Computational Biology and the Physiome Technical Committee to address model reproducibility through publications. A synthesis of these opinion pieces indicates that the community recognizes the necessity and usefulness of model sharing. There is a strong will to facilitate

  16. Basic researches on thermo-hydraulic non-equilibrium phenomena related to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira; Kataoka, Isao; Aritomi, Masanori.

    1989-01-01

    A review was made of recent developments of fundamental researches on thermo-hydraulic non-equilibrium phenomena related to light water reactor safety, in relation to problems to be solved for the improvement of safety analysis codes. As for the problems related to flow con ditions, fundamental researches on basic conservation equations and constitutive equations for transient two-phase flow were reviewed. Regarding to the problems related to thermal non-equilibrium phenomena, fundamental researches on film boiling in pool and forced convection, transient boiling heat transfer and flow behavior caused by pressure transients were reviewed. (author)

  17. Towards Python-based Domain-specific Languages for Self-reconfigurable Modular Robotics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Mikael; Johan Christensen, David; Brandt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of operating system and high-level languages in the development of software and domain-specific languages (DSLs) for self-reconfigurable robotics. We review some of the current trends in self-reconfigurable robotics and describe the development of a software system...... for ATRON II which utilizes Linux and Python to significantly improve software abstraction and portability while providing some basic features which could prove useful when using Python, either stand-alone or via a DSL, on a self-reconfigurable robot system. These features include transparent socket...... communication, module identification, easy software transfer and reliable module-to-module communication. The end result is a software platform for modular robots that where appropriate builds on existing work in operating systems, virtual machines, middleware and high-level languages....

  18. Age-Related Gene Expression in the Frontal Cortex Suggests Synaptic Function Changes in Specific Inhibitory Neuron Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide expression profiling of the human brain has revealed genes that are differentially expressed across the lifespan. Characterizing these genes adds to our understanding of both normal functions and pathological conditions. Additionally, the specific cell-types that contribute to the motor, sensory and cognitive declines during aging are unclear. Here we test if age-related genes show higher expression in specific neural cell types. Our study leverages data from two sources of murine single-cell expression data and two sources of age-associations from large gene expression studies of postmortem human brain. We used nonparametric gene set analysis to test for age-related enrichment of genes associated with specific cell-types; we also restricted our analyses to specific gene ontology groups. Our analyses focused on a primary pair of single-cell expression data from the mouse visual cortex and age-related human post-mortem gene expression information from the orbitofrontal cortex. Additional pairings that used data from the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, somatosensory cortex and blood were used to validate and test specificity of our findings. We found robust age-related up-regulation of genes that are highly expressed in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, while genes highly expressed in layer 2/3 glutamatergic neurons were down-regulated across age. Genes not specific to any neural cell type were also down-regulated, possibly due to the bulk tissue source of the age-related genes. A gene ontology-driven dissection of the cell-type enriched genes highlighted the strong down-regulation of genes involved in synaptic transmission and cell-cell signaling in the Somatostatin (Sst neuron subtype that expresses the cyclin dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6 and in the vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip neuron subtype expressing myosin binding protein C, slow type (Mybpc1. These findings provide new insights into cell specific susceptibility to normal aging

  19. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. CDDUX: A disease-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire for children with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Roesja K.; Winkler, Lex M. F.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Mearin, M. Luisa; Koopman, Hendrik M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The development of a disease-specific, health-related, quality-of-life questionnaire for children ages 8 to 18 with celiac disease (CD), together with a parent-as-proxy version. Materials and Methods: We used a focus-group method (bottom-up approach) to investigate the impact of CD on

  1. Relations between Young Students' Strategic Behaviours, Domain-Specific Self-Concept, and Performance in a Problem-Solving Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…

  2. Do User (Browse and Click) Sessions Relate to Their Questions in a Domain-specific Collection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhauer, Jeremy; Delcambre, Lois M.L.; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    relate to the question that they are answering. The contribution of this paper is the evalua-tion of the suitability of common machine learning metrics (measuring the dis-tance between two sessions) to distinguish sessions of users searching for the answer to same or different questions. We found...... that sessions for people an-swering the same question are significantly different that those answering dif-ferent questions, but results are dependent on the distance metric used. We ex-plain why some distance metrics performed better than others....

  3. Local retinal sensitivity in relation to specific retinopathy lesions in diabetic macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Wael; Hasler, Pascal; Sander, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and recently diagnosed untreated DMO. Investigations included microperimetry, fluorescein angiography, colour fundus photography, and OCT. All measures and gradings were made for each of the nine fields of an early treatment diabetic retinopathy study macula template......Purpose: To study microperimetric macular sensitivity in diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in relation to lesion characteristics obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), colour fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography (FA). Methods: The study comprised 20 eyes in 15 patients...... in foveal petaloid (r = -0.50, p = 0.02) and extrafoveal honeycomb patterns (r = -0.8, p detectable effect of focal noncystoid oedema...

  4. Cause, care, cure: research priorities for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; Hillier, Loretta M; Cook, Sheila; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2011-12-01

    Part of Ontario's strategy on Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) was to develop research priorities and recommend strategies for building research capacity. The process to achieve these objectives included an environmental scan, key informant interviews, surveys, and a consensus workshop; this process involved over 100 researchers, clinicians, persons with early dementia, and family caregivers. This article describes the process undertaken, key issues identified, and recommendations for research priorities and for building research capacity; and provides a strategic direction for dementia research in Ontario that is relevant for other jurisdictions. ADRD research in all aspects is required to advance knowledge of ADRD cause, care, and cure; gaps currently exist in understanding effective approaches to care and knowledge transfer. Capacity for high-calibre research hinges on maintaining attractive career paths for researchers, solid infrastructures, and strong partnerships. For research to inform policy and practice, better mechanisms are needed for knowledge exchange.

  5. Continuous High Frequency Activity: A peculiar SEEG pattern related to specific brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Federico; Zelmann, Rina; Mari, Francesco; Gotman, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective While visually marking the high frequency oscillations in the stereo-EEG of epileptic patients, we observed a continuous/semicontinuous activity in the ripple band (80–250 Hz), which we defined continuous High Frequency Activity (HFA). We aim to analyze in all brain regions the occurrence and significance of this particular pattern. Methods Twenty patients implanted in mesial temporal and neocortical areas were studied. One minute of slow-wave sleep was reviewed. The background was classified as continuous/semicontinuous, irregular, or sporadic based on the duration of the fast oscillations. Each channel was classified as inside/outside the seizure onset zone (SOZ) or a lesion. Results The continuous/semicontinuous HFA occurred in 54 of the 790 channels analyzed, with a clearly higher prevalence in hippocampus and occipital lobe. No correlation was found with the SOZ or lesions. In the occipital lobe the continuous/semicontinuous HFA was present independently of whether eyes were open or closed. Conclusions We describe what appears to be a new physiological High Frequency Activity, independent of epileptogenicity, present almost exclusively in the hippocampus and occipital cortex but independent of the alpha rhythm. Significance The continuous HFA may be an intrinsic characteristic of specific brain regions, reflecting a particular type of physiological neuronal activity. PMID:23768436

  6. Measuring the relative extent of pulmonary infiltrates by hierarchical classification of patient-specific image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevas, S.; Iakovidis, D. K.

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are common radiological findings indicating the filling of airspaces with fluid, inflammatory exudates, or cells. They are most common in cases of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, atelectasis, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, whereas their extent is usually correlated with the extent or the severity of the underlying disease. In this paper we propose a novel pattern recognition framework for the measurement of the extent of pulmonary infiltrates in routine chest radiographs. The proposed framework follows a hierarchical approach to the assessment of image content. It includes the following: (a) sampling of the lung fields; (b) extraction of patient-specific grey-level histogram signatures from each sample; (c) classification of the extracted signatures into classes representing normal lung parenchyma and pulmonary infiltrates; (d) the samples for which the probability of belonging to one of the two classes does not reach an acceptable level are rejected and classified according to their textural content; (e) merging of the classification results of the two classification stages. The proposed framework has been evaluated on real radiographic images with pulmonary infiltrates caused by bacterial infections. The results show that accurate measurements of the infiltration areas can be obtained with respect to each lung field area. The average measurement error rate on the considered dataset reached 9.7% ± 1.0%.

  7. Triprotic site-specific acid-base equilibria and related properties of fluoroquinolone antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Aura; Tóth, Gergő; Szőcs, Levente; Kökösi, József; Kraszni, Márta; Gyéresi, Árpád; Noszál, Béla

    2012-07-01

    The complete macro- and microequilibrium analyses of six fluoroquinolone drugs - ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin - are presented. Previous controversial literature data are straightened up, the protonation centers are unambiguously identified, and the protonation macro- and microconstant values are reported. The macroconstants were determined by (1)H NMR-pH titrations while the microconstants were determined by a multi-modal spectroscopic-deductive methodology, in which methyl ester derivatives were synthesized and their NMR-pH titration data contributed to the evaluation of all the microconstants. The full (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments, NMR-pH profiles, macro- and microprotonation schemes and species-specific diagrams are included. Our studies show that the fluoroquinolones have three protonation centers: the carboxylate group, the N-1' and N-4' piperazine nitrogens and concentration of the uncharged microspecies is way below the values published earlier. The results could be well interpreted in terms of structural properties. The protonation macro- and microconstant values allow the pre-planned method development in techniques such as capillary zone electrophoresis and also, the interpretation of fluoroquinolone mechanism of biological action, including the pharmacokinetic properties, and antibacterial activities that are all heavily influenced by the states of protonation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlates of hepatitis B virus health-related behaviors of Korean Americans: a situation-specific nursing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Yang, Jin Hyang; Hann, Hie-Won

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the evolution of a situation-specific theory developed to enhance understanding of health-related behaviors of Korean Americans (KAs) who have or are at risk for a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The situation-specific theory evolved from an integration of the Network Episode Model, studies of health-related behaviors of people with HBV infection, and our studies of and practice experiences with Asian American individuals with HBV infection. The major concepts of the theory are sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, illness experience, and health-related behaviors. The major propositions of the theory are that sociocultural context, social network, and individual-level factors influence the illness experience, and that sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and the illness experience influence health-related behaviors of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection. This situation-specific theory represents a translation of abstract concepts into clinical reality. The theory is an explanation of correlates of health-related HBV behaviors of KAs. The next step is to develop and test the effectiveness of a nursing intervention designed to promote behaviors that will enhance the health of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection, and that takes into account sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and illness experience. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Etiology of Organ-Specific Autoimmunity: Basic Research and Clinical Implications in IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S Eisenbarth

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity develops in the setting of genetic susceptibility and can be monogenic (eg, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I with Addison’s disease, mucocutaneous candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, which is autosomal recessive with the causative gene on the tip of chromosome 21 or polygenic (usually with important alleles within the major histocompatibility complex [eg, type I diabetes]. In addition to genetic susceptibility, many autoimmune disorders can be classified into etiological categories (oncogenic, drug-induced, diet-induced, infectious or idiopathic. For most autoimmune disorders there are multiple target autoantigens and, for type I diabetes, a combinatorial approach (eg, expression of at least two autoantibodies of insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and/or ICA512/IA-2 is the best predictor of diabetes risk. Finally, antigen-specific therapies hold promise for the prevention and therapy of autoimmunity, eg, parenteral or oral therapy with insulin delays or prevents type I diabetes in animal models, and a small pilot trial of parenteral insulin in humans suggests that such therapy may similarly prevent diabetes in humans.

  10. HTTR hydrogen production system. Structure and main specifications of mock-up test facility (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Michio; Aita, Hideki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takada, Shoji; Inaba, Yoshitomo

    2007-03-01

    The mock-up test facility was fabricated to investigate performance of the steam generator for mitigation of the temperature fluctuation of helium gas and transient behavior of the hydrogen production system for HTTR and to obtain experimental data for verification of a dynamic analysis code. The test facility has an approximate hydrogen production capacity of 120Nm 3 /h and the steam reforming process of methane; CH 4 +H 2 O=3H 2 +CO, was used for hydrogen production of the test facility. An electric heater was used as a heat source instead of the reactor in order to heat helium gas up to 880degC (4MPa) at the chemical reactor inlet which is the same temperature as the HTTR hydrogen production system. Fabrication of the test facility was completed in February in 2002, and seven cycle operations were carried out from March in 2002 to December in 2004. This report describes the structure and main specifications of the test facility. (author)

  11. Study on Related Courses to Help Undergraduate Students Write Research Reports: A Curriculum Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Winarti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of joining the boards in the students’ research report defence, teaching education research methodology, and classroom action research, the researcher indicated that students had challenges related with the logic of research methods and academic research writing.  These findings encouraged the researcher to study the courses that have potential in helping students writing their research reports.  To study the courses, the researcher analysed related documents, such as syllabi and lesson plans.  The researcher also interviewed teachers and students to clarify the relevance of the syllabi and the classroom learning.  The results of the study indicated that logic, academic writing, statistics, research methodology, and classroom action research had the potential of helping the students write their research report.  The researcher also indicated that the content of the courses should have been more helpful.  The fact, however, was that the students still had challenges understanding the materials after taking the courses.  Further study about this fact is then recommended.

  12. Dynamics of growth/mature-related substances in vegetables using specific triple labeled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Yoichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    To progress physiological studies of vegetables, development of biosynthetic method for production of triple labeled compounds was attempted in this study and such method for vegetables using specifically labeled sugars was examined. As a sugar compound, 6-C 14 -glucose (14-CG) and 1-H 3 -glucose (3-HG) were given to culture medium for cells derived from tomato embryonic axis and the changes of these compounds were monitored. Tomato embryonic cells were harvested 20 and 44 hours after the addition of 14-CG or 3-CG into the culture medium the cells. The cells were homogenized and the supernatant after centrifugation was applied onto HPLC. Radio analyzer revealed major two peaks in the chromatography of the sugar fraction from the cells after 20 hours from the addition of 14-CG. One was the peak of glucose, itself and the other was estimated to be that of fructose based on the retention time. Whereas in the elution pattern of the sugar fraction after 44 hours from the addition, a peak of sucrose was found along with the peak of glucose. These results indicate that C 14 in 14-CG but not H 3 in 3-HG was transferred into fructose after the metabolism in tomato. Moreover, in both elution patterns, there was a peak positioned at the same retention time, indicating that the compound in this peak was produced from either of 14-CG or 3-HG. Therefore, it is thought that H 3 and C 14 double-labeled compound could be produced from the cell culture added with both labeled compounds; 14-CG and 3-HG. (M.N.)

  13. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. © 2016 UICC.

  14. Fibrosis-Related Biomarkers and Risk of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Isha; Glazer, Nicole L.; Barasch, Eddy; Biggs, Mary L.; Djoussé, Luc; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Gottdiener, John S.; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Rimm, Eric B.; Siscovick, David S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Zieman, Susan J.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis has been implicated in diverse diseases of the liver, kidney, lungs, and heart, but its importance as a risk factor for mortality remains unconfirmed. We determined the prospective associations of 2 complementary biomarkers of fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), with total and cause-specific mortality risks among community-living older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study (1996–2010). We measured circulating TGF-β and PIIINP levels in plasma samples collected in 1996 and ascertained the number of deaths through 2010. Both TGF-β and PIIINP were associated with elevated risks of total and pulmonary mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical risk factors. For total mortality, the hazard ratios per doubling of TGF-β and PIIINP were 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.17; P = 0.02) and 1.14 (CI: 1.03, 1.27; P = 0.01), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for pulmonary mortality were 1.27 (CI: 1.01, 1.60; P = 0.04) for TGF-β and 1.52 (CI: 1.11, 2.10; P = 0.01) for PIIINP. Associations of TGF-β and PIIINP with total and pulmonary mortality were strongest among individuals with higher C-reactive protein concentrations (P for interaction < 0.05). Our findings provide some of the first large-scale prospective evidence that circulating biomarkers of fibrosis measured late in life are associated with death. PMID:24771724

  15. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  16. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... and scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  17. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  18. Public relations activities of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center - a national research center contributes to opinion forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerting, K.

    1988-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, the Public Relations Department directly reports to the Chief Executive Officer. The head of the Public Relation Department acts as spokesman of the center in the public, which requires him to be fully informed of the work of all units and of the policy goals of the executive board. The key tools used by the Public Relations Department are KfK-Hausmitteilungen, accident information, the scientific journal KfK-Nachrichten, press releases, exhibitions, fairs, guided tours, and nuclear energy information staff. (DG)

  19. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  20. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed

  1. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  2. Tackling the Reproducibility Problem in Systems Research with Declarative Experiment Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Ivo [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Maltzahn, Carlos [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lofstead, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Validating experimental results in the field of computer systems is a challenging task, mainly due to the many changes in software and hardware that computational environments go through. Determining if an experiment is reproducible entails two separate tasks: re-executing the experiment and validating the results. Existing reproducibility efforts have focused on the former, envisioning techniques and infrastructures that make it easier to re-execute an experiment. In this work we focus on the latter by analyzing the validation workflow that an experiment re-executioner goes through. We notice that validating results is done on the basis of experiment design and high-level goals, rather than exact quantitative metrics. Based on this insight, we introduce a declarative format for specifying the high-level components of an experiment as well as describing generic, testable conditions that serve as the basis for validation. We present a use case in the area of storage systems to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. We also discuss limitations and potential benefits of using this approach in other areas of experimental systems research.

  3. Work-related fatigue: the specific case of highly educated women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Hooftman, Wendela E; van Veldhoven, Marc J P M; Boelens, Louise R M; Koppes, Lando L J

    2010-03-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of high work-related fatigue (need for recovery, NFR) among employees and to explain group differences categorized by gender, age, and education. The study particularly aims to clarify prevalence and explanatory factors in highly educated women. In 2005 and 2006, large representative samples of 80,000 Dutch employees (net response rate 33.0%; N = 47,263) received the Netherlands working conditions survey questionnaire. First, we calculated the prevalence of high NFR for men and women with different age and education levels. The average prevalence of high NFR was 28.8% and was highest among highly educated women (35.2%) in particular those aged 50-64 years (40.3%). Second, logistic regression analyses were used to compare subgroups' NFR in relation to situational factors, working conditions, and health. Three comparisons were made: (1) highly educated women versus men; (2) highly educated versus lower educated women and; (3) older highly educated versus younger highly educated women. The situational, working conditions and health factors in our model did not explain the gender differences among highly educated employees (OR = 1.37; CI = 1.3-1.5, adjusted for all factors OR = 1.32; CI = 1.2-1.5). Despite that lower autonomy and workplace violence explained highly educated women's NFR, working fewer hours counterbalanced this. Time pressure in work largely explained the differences in NFR among women at different education levels (crude OR 1.44; CI = 1.4-1.5, adjusted OR 1.14; CI = 1.0-1.3). In the age comparison, lower health ratings, more adverse working conditions, and working as a teacher explained older highly educated women's high prevalence of high NFR (crude OR 1.32; CI = 1.2-1.5, adjusted OR 0.94; CI = 0.8-1.2). NFR has high prevalence in highly educated women (35.2%) in particular those aged 50-64 years (40.3%). Our model did not explain gender differences in NFR, because working fewer hours counterbalanced the

  4. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: Insights from a public dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelson Julia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. Methods We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Results Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Conclusion Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record

  5. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: insights from a public dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Donald J; Swinton, Marilyn; Schwartz, Lisa; Abelson, Julia; Charles, Cathy; Northrup, David; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana

    2008-11-19

    The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record for purposes other than clinical care. This could be done, for

  6. Phthalate Exposure and Health-Related Outcomes in Specific Types of Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kolena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30 the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, monobutyl phthalate (MnBP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC (r = 0.431; p = 0.018 and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI (r = 0.439; p = 0.015. The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors.

  7. "Lacking warmth": Alexithymia trait is related to warm-specific thermal somatosensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait involving deficits in emotional processing. The personality construct has been extensively validated, but the underlying neural and physiological systems remain controversial. One theory suggests that low-level somatosensory mechanisms act as somatic markers of emotion, underpinning cognitive and affective impairments in alexithymia. In two separate samples (total N=100), we used an established Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) battery to probe multiple neurophysiological submodalities of somatosensation, and investigated their associations with the widely-used Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Experiment one found reduced sensitivity to warmth in people with higher alexithymia scores, compared to individuals with lower scores, without deficits in other somatosensory submodalities. Experiment two replicated this result in a new group of participants using a full-sample correlation between threshold for warm detection and TAS-20 scores. We discuss the relations between low-level thermoceptive function and cognitive processing of emotion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.J.; Davenport, E.J.; Smith, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K OC ]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios

  9. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, M.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mick.whelan@unilever.com; Davenport, E.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Smith, B.G. [Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Team, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K {sub OC}]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios.

  10. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  11. Algorithmic analysis of relational learning processes in instructional technology: Some implications for basic, translational, and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J; Kledaras, Joanne B; Gerard, Christophe J; Wilde, Lorin; Smelson, David

    2018-07-01

    A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  13. No specific role for the manual motor system in processing the meanings of words related to the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha ePostle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored whether semantic and motor systems are functionally interwoven via the use of a dual-task paradigm. According to embodied language accounts that propose an automatic and necessary involvement of the motor system in conceptual processing, concurrent processing of hand-related information should interfere more with hand movements than processing of unrelated body-part (i.e., foot, mouth information. Across three experiments, 100 right-handed participants performed left- or right-hand tapping movements while repeatedly reading action words related to different body-parts, or different body-part names, in both aloud and silent conditions. Concurrent reading of single words related to specific body-parts, or the same words embedded in sentences differing in syntactic and phonological complexity (to manipulate context-relevant processing, and reading while viewing videos of the actions and body-parts described by the target words (to elicit visuomotor associations all interfered with right-hand but not left-hand tapping rate. However, this motor interference was not affected differentially by hand-related stimuli. Thus, the results provide no support for proposals that body-part specific resources in cortical motor systems are shared between overt manual movements and meaning-related processing of words related to the hand.

  14. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  15. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-01-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  16. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  17. Outcome of limbic encephalitis with VGKC-complex antibodies: relation to antigenic specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malter, M P; Frisch, C; Schoene-Bake, J C; Helmstaedter, C; Wandinger, K P; Stoecker, W; Urbach, H; Surges, R; Elger, C E; Vincent, A V; Bien, C G

    2014-09-01

    In limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies (Abs) to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC), the Abs are mainly directed to the VGKC-complex proteins, leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) or contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2) or neither. Here, we relate the outcomes of VGKC-LE patients to the presence of Abs to LGI1, CASPR-2 or neither antigen (LGI1/CASPR-2-Ab(-)). Clinical, neuropsychology and MRI data were obtained from patient records for all LE patients from the Bonn Epilepsy Centre positive for VGKC-Abs by radioimmunoprecipitation assay between 2002 and 2011. Eighteen VGKC-LE patients were identified: nine patients (50 %) had LGI1-Abs, three (16 %) had CASPR-2-Abs; and six (33 %) were negative for both LGI1- and CASPR-2-Abs. At first assessment, the groups did not differ clinically or radiologically, but faciobrachial dystonic seizures were only observed in two LGI1-Ab(+) patients. All patients received monthly intravenous methylprednisolone (MP) pulses. At the most recent follow up (median 26 months), thirteen (72 %) were seizure-free, and seizure-freedom rates did not differ between the Ab groups. Hippocampal atrophy had developed in 7/9 LGI1-Ab(+) patients, but in none of the CASPR-2-Ab(+) or LGI/CASPR-2-Ab(-) patients (p = 0.003). While all subgroups improved, memory scores only normalized in six patients (33 %) and LGI1-Ab(+) patients were left with significantly poorer memory than the other two subgroups. Most VGKC-LE patients become seizure-free with pulsed monthly MP, but memory outcome is less favourable. Hippocampal atrophy and poor memory recovery is common in patients with LGI1-Abs and suggests permanent functional damage. More intense immunotherapies could improve outcomes in LGI1-Ab(+)-LE.

  18. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  19. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  20. Description of research interests and current work related to automating software design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1992-01-01

    Enclosed is a list of selected and recent publications. Most of these publications concern applied research in the areas of software engineering and human-computer interaction. It is felt that domain-specific knowledge plays a major role in software development. Additionally, it is believed that improvements in the general software development process (e.g., object-oriented approaches) will have to be combined with the use of large domain-specific knowledge bases.