WorldWideScience

Sample records for research specifically focuses

  1. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  2. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  4. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  5. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  6. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  7. The use of focused ethnography in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Edward Venzon; Higginbottom, Gina

    2013-03-01

    To provide an overview of the relevance and strengths of focused ethnography in nursing research. The paper provides descriptions of focused ethnography and discusses using exemplars to show how focused ethnographies can enhance and understand nursing practice. Orthodox ethnographic approaches may not always be suitable or desirable for research in diverse nursing contexts. Focused ethnography has emerged as a promising method for applying ethnography to a distinct issue or shared experience in cultures or sub-cultures and in specific settings, rather than throughout entire communities. Unfortunately, there is limited guidance on using focused ethnography, particularly as applied to nursing research. Research studies performed by nurses using focused ethnography are summarised to show how they fulfilled three main purposes of the genre in nursing research. Additional citations are provided to help demonstrate the versatility of focused ethnography in exploring distinct problems in a specific context in different populations and groups of people. The unique role that nurses play in health care, coupled with their skills in enquiry, can contribute to the further development of the discipline. Focused ethnography offers an opportunity to gain a better understanding and appreciation of nursing as a profession, and the role it plays in society. Focused ethnography has emerged as a relevant research methodology that can be used by nurse researchers to understand specific societal issues that affect different facets of nursing practice. As nurse researchers endeavour to understand experiences in light of their health and life situations, focused ethnography enables them to understand the interrelationship between people and their environments in the society in which they live.

  8. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  9. Focus on uranium research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoute, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two periods stand out in the history of mining exploration for uranium in Senegal: • 1957 - 1965 in the context of a general inventory of the uranium potential of Africa, which is also the time that the large deposits of Niger and Gabon were discovered; • 1973 to the present, is characterized by surveys more focused on specific topics such as Birrimian Superior Precambrian Sedimentary, Secondary and Tertiary Phosphates. The collapse of uranium price that began since 1980 calls into question the validity of these surveys on areas away from the coast that lack infrastructure and forces the elimination of targets where there is little hope of finding high enough concentrations of uranium for possible mining.

  10. Auditing as Institutional Research: A Qualitative Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Internal institutional auditing can improve effectiveness and efficiency and protect an institution's assets. Many of the concepts and techniques used to analyze higher education institutions are qualitative in nature and suited to institutional research, including fiscal, operational, data-processing, investigative, management consulting,…

  11. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  12. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects

  13. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section 312.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency...

  14. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 7, Issue D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is…

  15. Focus Group in Community Mental Health Research: Need for Adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina

    2018-04-27

    The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .

  16. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  17. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  18. Collective regulatory focus predicts specific aspects of team innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, E.F.

    Much innovative work in organizations takes place in teams. Because organizational demands are complex and resources are limited, teams need to regulate their collective efforts to perform optimally. Based on previous research and a stage-based approach to innovation, it was hypothesized that

  19. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  20. Research and Its Relationship to Nurse Education: Focus and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examination of two British mental health journals and a government document on the future of nursing found a lack of focus on clinical research and little reference to the role of research and development in practice. The increasing importance of evidence-based practice demands a strategy for developing nurses' capacity to understand, undertake,…

  1. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded

  2. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters-altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic) fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry) and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed.

  3. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  4. Development of technical specifications for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This standard identifies and establishes the content of technical specifications for research reactors. Areas addressed are: definitions, safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features and administrative controls. Sufficient detail is incorporated so that applicable specifications can be derived or extracted

  5. Clinical Perspective Qualitative adolescent health researchfocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, ...

  6. Focusing Information Systems Post-Graduate Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Ridley

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mechanisms that assist Information Systems post-graduate research students to focus their projects. An evaluation is presented of the experiences of Information Systems research students in focussing their research projects based on a survey conducted of students who participated in two of the first three Information Systems doctoral consortia to be held in Australia. The survey sought to determine whether a doctoral consortium or 'systematic expert review' is the most valuable mechanism for focussing a research proposal. Systematic expert review was considered by the students to be more effective than the doctoral consortium process for the purpose of focussing their research project proposals.

  7. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  8. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  9. ["Gender-specific needs of nursing home residents" : Focus on personal hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, J; Dummert, S

    2016-12-01

    Residential nursing homes are specialized in dealing with people in need of care and are required to respect their dignity and right to self-determination. This includes the respectful handling of gender-specific needs and wishes of residents. Personal hygiene is one important area to which this applies. This study was carried out to investigate residents' gender-specific perception of life and care in nursing homes. This article focuses on unspecific and gender-specific needs in the area of personal hygiene, seeking to identify where changes are needed. Structured interviews were conducted in four nursing homes with a total of ten male and ten female residents without cognitive impairments. Content analysis and description of findings proceeded in two stages: interviewees' experiences of everyday life and care were first reconstructed before gender-specific aspects were analyzed. Both universal and gender-specific needs were identified in the area of personal hygiene. The gender-unspecific wish for respect for dignity and privacy was in some cases neglected. A need for meaningful communication and respectful relationships was also gender-unspecific. Gender-specific wishes related in particular to the gender of persons assisting with or conducting personal hygiene measures. In addition to improved perception and consideration of gender-specific needs, it is also necessary to adapt nursing in residential institutions more closely to the individual needs of residents. Further research is needed in relation to the perspectives of nursing staff and the development of participatory methods for involving residents in shaping everyday life in residential institutions.

  10. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  11. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Revisiting the use of focus group in social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Freidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services.  The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.

  13. Improving listening comprehension skills relying on metacognitive strategies - focus on vocabulary and specific l2 instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerotijević-Tišma Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at investigating the application of an instructional method specifically focused on the expansion of metacognitive awareness and its effect on Serbian EFL students’ listening comprehension. The current study is a follow-up research of a similar study by Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010. However, we sought to expand the previous research by investigating the relationship between the students’ current level of L2 (target language vocabulary and listening test scores. Our study likewise differed in the sample of participants, the target language, teaching and testing material used, and the duration of the very experiment. To answer the proposed research questions we conducted an experiment with 57 Serbian secondary school EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners divided into experimental (n=27 and control group (n=30. The results of the pre- and post-tests of the two groups showed the beneficial effects of developing metacognitive strategies and the strong positive correlation between the level of vocabulary and listening comprehension. The paper underlines important pedagogical implications especially regarding the enhancement of metacognitive awareness and vocabulary proficiency of students in order to improve performance on listening comprehension tasks.

  14. LIS Practitioner-focused Research Trends Toward Open Access Journals, Academic-focused Research Toward Traditional Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2018-03-01

    with academic-student collaborations (21.5%, practitioner librarian collaborations (15.5%, and librarian-academic collaborations (13.2%. Conclusion – LIS practitioner-focused research tends to appear more often in open access journals, while academic-focused researcher tends to appear more often in non-OA journals. These trends also appear in research collaborations, with co-authored works involving librarians appearing more often in OA journals, and collaborations that include academics more likely to appear in non-OA journals.

  15. Review panel comments on geomedia specific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This includes remarks made by three panel members concerning geomedia-specific repository relevant research. The scientific work in the materials area has progressed significantly. Investigators are showing a better understanding of the importance of groundwater compositions. Significant attention is being paid to the importance of colloids and complexing agents. Good planning seems to be in evidence in the Nevada program. Much cooperation and planning in the materials program is needed. Requirements concerning the performance of waste management systems were included. Other topics discussed at the symposium were interactive testing of waste forms, canister materials, and repository rock. Characterization of the chemical and physical environment in the near-field was considered by several speakers. These papers and discussions were part of the Seventh International Symposium on the Scientific Ban's for Nuclear Waste Management

  16. Focusing on Cause or Cure?: Priorities and Stakeholder Presence in Childhood Psychiatry Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C; Cho, Mildred K

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders outside the research community and

  17. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  18. Ethnographic research in immigrant-specific drug abuse recovery houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anna; Lee, Juliet P; García, Victor; Recarte, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Access to study populations is a major concern for drug use and treatment researchers. Spaces related to drug use and treatment have varying levels of researcher accessibility based on several issues, including legality, public versus private settings, and insider/outsider status. Ethnographic research methods are indispensable for gaining and maintaining access to hidden or "hard-to-reach" populations. Here, we discuss our long-term ethnographic research on drug abuse recovery houses created by and for Latino migrants and immigrants in Northern California. We take our field work experiences as a case study to examine the problem of researcher access and how ethnographic strategies can be successfully applied to address it, focusing especially on issues of entrée, building rapport, and navigating field-specific challenges related to legality, public/private settings, and insider/outsider status. We conclude that continued funding support for ethnography is essential for promoting health disparities research focused on diverse populations in recovery from substance use disorders.

  19. EPA Toxicologists Focus Innovative Research on PFAS Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have partnered with researchers at the National Toxicology Program to develop a tiered testing approach to quickly generate toxicity and kinetic information for approximately 75 PFAS compounds.

  20. Canada's International Education Strategy: Focus on Scholarships. CBIE Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey of approximately 40 professionals involved in various disciplines associated with international education across Canada, this study examines Canada's (federal, provincial, and territorial government) offering of scholarships to international students. Focused at the university level, the study elaborates on relevant international…

  1. Report Focuses on Integrity and Accessibility of Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    Rapid advances in digital technologies and enormous increases in the amount of data generated by research projects and a variety of instruments and sensors are providing new research opportunities. These advances, however, also can present challenges for ensuring that digital technologies are not used inappropriately and for managing an increasing amount of data, according to a new report issued by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine on 22 July. The new report, entitled “Ensuring the integrity, accessibility, and stewardship of research data in the digital age,” provides general principles and recommendations about the handling of research data. The report notes that the development of policies, standards, and infrastructure “is a critically important task” that will require a sustained effort from stakeholders including researchers, research institutions and sponsors, and professional societies and journals.

  2. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  3. Grazing systems research: Focusing on the managers-introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translating experimental results into management guidelines or as bases for specific decisions presents a substantial challenge for scientists, advisors and land managers. While inductive reasoning can be a valuable tool in developing general guidelines, particular wholly science-based relationships...

  4. Exploring a Knowledge-focused Trajectory for Researching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critically reviewing knowledge and environmental learning. In particular ... inclusive and national curriculum set the scene for mainstreaming ..... in six Foundation Phase classrooms, she identified a number of specific 'modes of enquiry' used.

  5. Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.

  6. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L.; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Hallett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of

  7. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pirio Richardson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including

  8. Interview series focuses on IDRC-funded research on climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Conversation is a series of interviews and videos of research partners working on climate change adaptation projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, funded through IDRC's Climate Change and Water program.

  9. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy population is seen as an important precondition for economic growth and competitiveness. Research into environmental health is therefore concerned with understanding the exposure and magnitude of impact on humans from environmental hazards...

  10. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  11. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  12. A Research Focused on Improving Vocalisation Level on Violin Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasiz, Gökalp

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to improve vocalisation levels of music teacher's candidates on performance works for violin education moving from difficulties faced by prospective teachers. At the same time, it was aimed to provide new perspectives to violin educators. Study group was composed of six 3rd grade students studying violin education in a State…

  13. Focus Article: Replication in Second Language Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Graeme; Richards, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the meaning and range of replication in L2 research from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. In the first half of the paper, it will be argued that key quantitative studies need to be replicated to have their robustness and generalizability tested and that this is a requirement of scientific inquiry. Such research…

  14. Faculty at Work: Focus on Research, Scholarship, and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study compared selected personal and environmental motivational variables in college faculty with allocation of work effort to research, scholarship, and service. Faculty were from eight liberal arts and sciences departments in a range of institution types. For all institutional types, self-valuation motivators significantly accounted for the…

  15. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  16. Refocusing International Astronomy Education Research Using a Cognitive Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    For over 40 years, the international astronomy education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about astronomy, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has motivated the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to advance a new model that allowing us to operate on students' astronomical learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (e.g., phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g., spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in astronomy and the space sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in astronomy beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  17. Research on health equity in the SDG era: the urgent need for greater focus on implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Diaz, Theresa

    2016-12-09

    The tremendous increase in knowledge on inequities in health and their drivers in recent decades has not been matched by improvements in health inequities themselves, or by systematic evidence of what works to reduce health inequities. Within health equity research there is a skew towards diagnostic studies in comparison to intervention studies showing evidence of how interventions can reduce disparities. The lack of sufficient specific evidence on how to implement specific policies and interventions in specific contexts to reduce health inequities creates policy confusion and partly explains the lack of progress on health inequities. In the field of research on equity in health, the time has come to stop focusing so much energy on prevalence and pathways, and instead shift to proposing and testing solutions. Four promising approaches to do so are implementation research, natural experimental policy studies, research on buy-in by policy-makers to action on health inequities, and geospatial analysis. The case for action on social determinants and health inequities has well and truly been made. The community of researchers on health equity now need to turn their attention to supporting implementation efforts towards achievements of the Sustainable Development Goals and substantive reductions in health inequities.

  18. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-focused primary healthcare social and emotional wellbeing research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Marie; Hackett, Maree Lisa

    2015-12-30

    Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian's (hereafter referred to as Indigenous(1)) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to improve health. However, concerns surrounding this research exist, arising from some previous research lacking community consultation, resulting in little community benefit or infringing on important cultural values. Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research (hereafter referred to as Values and Ethics), developed by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia in 2003, is the ethical standard for Indigenous-focused health research. Researchers must address its Values in research design and conduct. However, its impact on research processes is unclear. Local Protocols should also be considered. This review aims to systematically examine practices related to Values and Ethics, Local Protocols and the processes of conducting Indigenous-focused primary healthcare research in collaboration with external researchers. The following electronic databases and grey literature will be searched (2003 to current): MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit and HealthInfoNet--an Indigenous-specific research and program website. Indigenous-focused research will be included. Research must be conducted in one or more primary healthcare services, in collaboration with external researchers and with a focus on social and emotional well being. One reviewer will review titles and abstracts to remove obviously irrelevant research articles. Full-text research articles will be retrieved and independently examined by two reviewers. Data and quality assessment will be completed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quality will be assessed using modified versions of established quality assessment tools. This review will provide information on research processes and the impact of Values and Ethics on

  19. Testing Requirements to Manage Data Exchange Specifications in Enterprise Integration - A Schema Design Quality Focus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the requirements to test W3C XML Schema usage when defining message schemas for data exchange in any large and evolving enterprise integration project. We then decompose the XML Schema testing into four (4) aspects including the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification grammar, the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification semantics, the message schema conformance to design quality testing, and canonical semantics testing of the message schema. We describe these four testing aspects in some detail and point to other related efforts. We further focus to provide some technical details for the message schema design quality testing. As a future work, we describe the requirements for canonical semantics testing and potential solution approaches. Finally, we describe an implementation architecture for the message schema design quality testing.

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING NEUROMARKETING SPECIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must posses. Some informations are hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer. Neuromarketing helps us find what is inside of the black box without troubling the consumer with questions that he doesn’t want to answer or that he can’t answer. Today because of an extensive research in mapping cortical and subcortical activity in association with behaviors and thoughts, the confidence in neurological data is growing. Thanks to discoveries in perceptual sciences we can identify the parts of the brain that are responsible for the phenomena that we experience daily. For all those interested in information obtained through neuromarketing techniques it becomes evident that there are corresponding neural substrates of consumer decision making process and these substrates can be observed, measured, and possibly manipulated. The following paper reveals some important aspects of the use of neuromarketing in studying consumer behavior by presenting the concepts, methods and techniques used under this sophisticated name, the limitations and advantages of using neuromarketing techniques and the importance of this type of information in decision making process at a company level.

  1. Focus group positioning and analysis: a commentary on adjuncts for enhancing the design of health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1990-01-01

    As health care competition increases, and as the penalties for making poor decisions become potentially more devastating, market research continues to play an increasingly important role in the decision-making process for hospitals. Concern over the appropriate use of market research and the costs related to it remains high. As such, efficiency in research design and clarity in research outcome are clearly the goals. This paper examines the focus group process and its adjunctive role in enhancing the overall design of health care market research. Specifically, the function and placement of focus groups within the research plan as well as several methods of creative focus group analysis are considered within the context of an effective research design.

  2. Distributed and grid computing projects with research focus in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomidous, Marianna; Zikos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Distributed systems and grid computing systems are used to connect several computers to obtain a higher level of performance, in order to solve a problem. During the last decade, projects use the World Wide Web to aggregate individuals' CPU power for research purposes. This paper presents the existing active large scale distributed and grid computing projects with research focus in human health. There have been found and presented 11 active projects with more than 2000 Processing Units (PUs) each. The research focus for most of them is molecular biology and, specifically on understanding or predicting protein structure through simulation, comparing proteins, genomic analysis for disease provoking genes and drug design. Though not in all cases explicitly stated, common target diseases include research to find cure against HIV, dengue, Duchene dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, various types of cancer and influenza. Other diseases include malaria, anthrax, Alzheimer's disease. The need for national initiatives and European Collaboration for larger scale projects is stressed, to raise the awareness of citizens to participate in order to create a culture of internet volunteering altruism.

  3. Quality of life in mucopolysaccharidoses: construction of a specific measure using the focus group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M R; Schwartz, I; Costa, L S; Maia, H; Ribeiro, M; Guerreiro, L B; Acosta, A; Rocha, N S

    2018-01-15

    To describe the perceptions of patients, their caregivers, and their healthcare providers to the development of a new specific instrument for assessment of the quality of life (QoL) in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) using a qualitative focus group (FG) design. FGs were held in two Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro). Three versions of the new instrument were developed, each for a different age group: children (age 8-12 years), adolescents (age 13-17), and adults (age ≥ 18). The FGs mostly confirmed the relevance of items. All FGs unanimously agreed on the facets: School, Happiness, Life Prospects, Religiosity, Pain, Continuity of Treatment, Trust in Treatment, Relationship with Family, Relationship with Healthcare Providers, Acceptance, and Meaning of Life. The overall concept of QoL (as proposed by the WHO-World Health Organization) and its facets apply to this patient population. However, other specific facets-particularly concerning clinical manifestations and the reality of the disease-were suggested, confirming the need for the development of a specific QoL instrument for MPS.

  4. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  5. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2010-10-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease.

  6. Research on minimum sound specifications for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report documents research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to identify ways : to develop sound specifications for electric and hybrid vehicles. The research was conducted to support activities : related to the implem...

  7. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  8. Social Media and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN)--Focus on Twitter and the Development of a Disease-specific Community: #MPNSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Naveen; Gupta, Vikas; Mesa, Ruben; Thompson, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The advent of social media has led to the ability for individuals all over the world to communicate with each other, in real time, about mutual topics of interest in an unprecedented manner. Recently, the use of social media has increased among people interested in healthcare and medical research, particularly in the field of hematology and oncology, a field which frequently experiences rapid shifts of information and novel, practice-changing discoveries. Among the many social media platforms available to cancer patients and providers, one platform in particular, Twitter, has become the focus for the creation of disease-specific communities, especially for those interested in, affected by, or those who perform research in the fields of rare cancers, which historically have had a dearth of reliable information available. This article will focus on the initiation and progress of one such Twitter hematology/oncology community, #mpnsm, which was originally created for the purpose of serving as a venue for improving the interaction among patients, providers, researchers, and organizations with interest in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and to further the availability of reliable up-to-date analysis; relevant expert commentary; and readily usable information for patients, providers, and other groups interested in this field.

  9. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2018-05-01

    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  10. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  11. On the use of specific signal types in hearing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kurtz, T.; Parlitz, U.; Kaatze, U.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution, we review a number of specific signal types that have been introduced in auditory research in the past 20 years. Through the introduction of digital computers into experimental and theoretical hearing research, the freedom to construct and use specific acoustic stimuli in

  12. Density and Specific Gravity Metrics in Biomass Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal C. Wiemann; G. Bruce Williamson

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 publication of Measuring Wood Specific Gravity… Correctly in the American Journal of Botany, readers contacted us to inquire about application of wood density and specific gravity to biomass research. Here we recommend methods for sample collection, volume measurement, and determination of wood density and specific gravity for...

  13. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  14. Focus group interview: an underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, C E

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to increase awareness about and stimulate interest in using focus group interviews, a qualitative research technique, to advance the state-of-the-art of education and learning about health. After a brief discussion of small group process in health education, features of focus group interviews are presented, and a theoretical framework for planning a focus group study is summarized. Then, literature describing traditional and health-related applications of focus group interviews is reviewed and a synthesis of methodological limitations and advantages of this technique is presented. Implications are discussed regarding: need for more inductive qualitative research in health education; utility of focus group interviews for research and for formative and summative evaluation of health education programs; applicability of marketing research to understanding and influencing consumer behavior, despite notable distinctions between educational initiatives and marketing; and need for professional preparation faculty to consider increasing emphasis on qualitative research methods.

  15. Focusing on neuronal cell-type specific mechanisms for brain circuit organization, function and dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Li

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian brain circuits consist of dynamically interconnected neurons with characteristic morphology, physiology, connectivity and genetics which are often called neuronal cell types. Neuronal cell types have been considered as building blocks of brain circuits, but knowledge of how neuron types or subtypes connect to and interact with each other to perform neural computation is still lacking. Such mechanistic insights are critical not only to our understanding of normal brain functions, such as perception, motion and cognition, but also to brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and epilepsy, to name a few. Thus it is necessary to carry out systematic and standardized studies on neuronal cell-type specific mechanisms for brain circuit organization and function, which will provide good opportunities to bridge basic and clinical research. Here based on recent technology advancements, we discuss the strategy to target and manipulate specific populations of neuronsin vivo to provide unique insights on how neuron types or subtypes behave, interact, and generate emergent properties in a fully connected brain network. Our approach is highlighted by combining transgenic animal models, targeted electrophysiology and imaging with robotics, thus complete and standardized mapping ofin vivo properties of genetically defined neuron populations can be achieved in transgenic mouse models, which will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders.

  16. Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. Objective: We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries? Methods: Collaborators conducted seven to eight focus groups in each country using a standardized guideline. They analyzed the discussions with bottom-up coding in each thematic area. They then collated the data in a standardized report. The first and second authors systematically analyzed the reports, with direct input from collaborators. Results: The results describe a specific picture of union formation in each country. However, three themes emerge in all focus groups: commitment, testing, and freedom. The pervasiveness of these concepts suggests that marriage and cohabitation have distinct meanings, with marriage representing a stronger level of commitment. Cohabitation is a way to test the relationship, and represents freedom. Nonetheless, other discourses emerged, suggesting that cohabitation has multiple meanings. Conclusions: This study illuminates how context shapes partnership formation, but also presents underlying reasons for the development of cohabitation. We find that the increase in cohabitation has not devalued the concept of marriage, but has become a way to preserve marriage as an ideal for long-term commitment.

  17. The possible worlds of global health research: An ethics-focused discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ben; Plamondon, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Representations of the world enable global health research (GHR), discursively constructing sites in which studies can legitimately take place. Depoliticized portrayals of the global South frequently obscure messy legacies of colonialism and motivate technical responses to health problems with political and economic root causes. Such problematic representations of the world have not yet been rigorously examined in relation to global health ethics, a major site of scholarly effort towards GHR that promotes justice and fairness. We carried out a discourse analysis of four guidance documents relevant to the ethical practice of GHR, purposively selecting texts covering different genres (UN documents and journal articles) and prominent GHR foci (HIV and clinical trials). In light of increasing acknowledgement of the lessons Indigenous health scholarship holds for global health ethics, the four analyzed texts also included a set of principles developed to support Indigenous nation-building. Three of four documents featured global disparities as reasons for ethical caution. These inequalities appeared without explanation or causes, with generation of new scientific knowledge following as a logical response to such disparities. The fourth - Indigenous health-focused - document clearly identified 'colonialism' as a reason for both inequities in society, and related harmful research practices. Solutions to disparities in this text did not necessarily involve cutting-edge research, but focused instead on empowerment and responsiveness to community priorities and needs. These contrasting representations of the world were accomplished in ways that depended on texts' 'participants', or the people they represented; specific vocabularies or language usages; intertextual relationships to prior texts; and overall objectives or intentions of the author(s). Our results illustrate how ethics and other guidance documents serve as an important terrain for constructing, naturalizing or

  18. Securing Canada’s Information-Technology Infrastructure: Context, Principles, and Focus Areas of Cybersecurity Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the challenges of cybersecurity and ultimately the provision of a stable and resilient information-technology infrastructure for Canada and, more broadly, the world. We describe the context of current cybersecurity challenges by synthesizing key source material whose importance was informed by our own real-world experiences. Furthermore, we present a checklist of guiding principles to a unified response, complete with a set of action-oriented research topics that are linked to known operational limitations. The focus areas are used to drive the formulation of a unified and relevant research and experimental development program, thereby moving us towards a stable and resilient cyberinfrastructure. When cybersecurity is viewed as an inherently interdisciplinary problem of societal concern, we expect that fundamentally new research perspectives will emerge in direct response to domain-specific protection requirements for information-technology infrastructure. Purely technical responses to cybersecurity challenges will be inadequate because human factors are an inherent aspect of the problem. This article will interest managers and entrepreneurs. Senior management teams can assess new technical developments and product releases to fortify their current security solutions, while entrepreneurs can harness new opportunities to commercialize novel technology to solve a high-impact cybersecurity problem..

  19. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  20. Puzzle-solving in psychology : The neo-Galtonian vs. nomothetic research focuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautier, Stephane; Lacot, Emilie; Veldhuis, Michiel

    We compare the neo-Galtonian and nomothetic approaches of psychological research. While the former focuses on summarized statistics that depict average subjects, the latter focuses on general facts of form 'if conditions then restricted outcomes'. The nomothetic approach does not require

  1. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  2. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  3. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  4. [Bioethical Approach for Nursing Research -Focused on the Use of Research Ethics Committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ihn Sook

    2015-06-01

    This paper was written to introduce methods of using the research ethics committee (RES) from requesting the initial review to reporting the close-out for nursing researchers. General ethical principles were described by reviewing the 'Bioethics and Safety Act' and other related guidelines, and constructing some questions and answers. The results were composed of three parts; definition of RES, steps in using RES, and archiving. The 7 steps for using RES were; identifying whether the study needed to be reviewed, by the RES identifying whether the study could be exempted, requesting the initial review after preparing documents, requesting the re-review, requesting an amendment review, requesting a continuing review and reporting the close-out. Nursing researchers need to receive RES approval before starting nursing research involving human subjects. Nursing researchers are urged to use the steps reported in this paper to receive RES approval easily and quickly.

  5. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  6. Highly sensitive and specific protein detection via combined capillary isoelectric focusing and proximity ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padhan, N.; Yan, J.; Boge, A.; Scrivener, E.; Birgisson, H.; Zieba, A.; Gullberg, M.; Kamali-Moghaddam, M.; Claesson-Welsh, L.; Landegren, U.

    2017-01-01

    Detection and quantification of proteins and their post-translational modifications are crucial to decipher functions of complex protein networks in cell biology and medicine. Capillary isoelectric focusing together with antibody-based detection can resolve and identify proteins and their isoforms

  7. Implications for Focusing Research in Career and Technical Education and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Jeanea M.; Joerger, Richard M.; Elliot, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Education and educational research is shaped by philosophy, psychology, practice, and ever changing educational policies. Previous studies have expressed a need for a relevant and focused research agenda for career and technical education (CTE), workforce development education and career and technical education. A need for a relevant and timely…

  8. Linking Teacher Evaluation to Professional Development: Focusing on Improving Teaching and Learning. Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Laura; Biggers, Kietha; Croft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recently, teacher evaluation has become a major focus in educational policy debates and research efforts. This increased attention to teacher evaluation has raised questions about the relationship between evaluation and student outcomes. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (2005) and others have demonstrated with value-added research that there are…

  9. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  10. Effects of Focus of Accounting Research on the Quality of Accounting Education in Malaysian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiru Isa Dandago; Nor Azlina Binti Shaari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact of focus of research in accounting on the quality of accounting education in Malaysian Universities. Research in accounting is very important in Malaysian Universities, in particular, and the Malaysian tertiary educational institutions, in general, and it is expected that academic research in accounting would improve the quality of accounting education in the country. The study is mainly a literature review type, with some informal interviews conducted for confir...

  11. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen J. Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  12. Guidance on Performing Focused Ethnographies with an Emphasis on Healthcare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M. A.; Pillay, Jennifer J.; Boadu, Nana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Focused ethnographies can have meaningful and useful application in primary care, community, or hospital healthcare practice, and are often used to determine ways to improve care and care processes. They can be pragmatic and efficient ways to capture data on a specific topic of importance to individual clinicians or clinical specialties. While…

  13. Lin Receives 2010 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ning Lin has been awarded the Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Lin's thesis is entitled “Multi-hazard risk analysis related to hurricanes.” She is scheduled to present an invited talk in the Extreme Natural Events: Modeling, Prediction, and Mitigation session (NH20) during the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13-17 December in San Francisco, Calif. Lin will be formally presented with the award at the Natural Hazards focus group reception on 14 December 2010.

  14. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...

  15. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-06-23

    Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.

  16. A Review of the Research in Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Stephanie A; Johnson, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is a brief evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Since the development of EFT, efficacy and effectiveness research has accumulated to address a range of couple concerns. EFT meets or exceeds the guidelines for classification as an evidence-based couple therapy outlined for couple and family research. Furthermore, EFT researchers have examined the process of change and predictors of outcome in EFT. Future research in EFT will continue to examine the process of change in EFT and test the efficacy and effectiveness of EFT in new applications and for couples of diverse backgrounds and concerns. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  17. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  18. The accrual anomaly - focus on changes in specific unexpected accruals results in new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    are specifically analyzed, namely the unexpected inventory accrual component and the unexpected accounts receivable accrual component, i.e. changes in accruals not motivated by corresponding changes in company activity-level. Additionally and for comparison, the accounting accruals are split into expected...... and unexpected accruals, estimated by the extended Jones model like in both some US-analyses and some international studies of the accrual anomaly phenomenon. It is found that the persistence of earnings is decreasing in the magnitude of the unexpected accrual components of earnings and that the persistence...... of current earnings performance is particularly decreasing in the magnitude of unexpected changes in inventory. The special accrual parts are related to the perceptions of earnings persistence implicit in the market prices, and it is found that the differences in earnings persistence are not rationally...

  19. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  20. Broadening the focus of bat conservation and research in the USA for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Weller; Paul Cryan; O’Shea Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Appropriately, bat conservation in the USA during the 20th century focused on species that tend to aggregate in large numbers and locations (e.g. maternity roosts, hibernacula) where populations are most vulnerable. Extensive research into habitat needs (primarily for roosting) of reproductive females during the previous 2 decades has produced a wealth of information...

  1. A Program to Improve Student Engagement at Research-Focused Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V.; Hope, Sally E.; Wylie, Lauren J.; Zhao, Bob; Souza, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Promoting undergraduate engagement is an important and challenging obstacle at large research-focused universities. Thus, the current study evaluated whether a peer-led program of student-geared events could improve engagement among a diverse group of psychology students early on in their degrees. We randomly assigned interested second-year…

  2. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: Integrated waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Research into integrated waste management is undertaken in view of the impact of increasing populations and a strong national focus on industrial, agricultural and urban growth that is likely to result in the increase of human induced pressures...

  3. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  4. The research on business rules classification and specification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrušaitis, Egidijus

    2005-01-01

    The work is based on the research of business rules classification and specification methods. The basics of business rules approach are discussed. The most common business rules classification and modeling methods are analyzed. Business rules modeling techniques and tools for supporting them in the information systems are presented. Basing on the analysis results business rules classification method is proposed. Templates for every business rule type are presented. Business rules structuring ...

  5. Focused development of advanced practice nurse roles for specific patient groups in a Swiss university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichiger, Elisabeth; Zumstein-Shaha, Maya; Schubert, Maria; Herrmann, Luzia

    2018-02-01

    Background: To cover future health care needs of the population, new care models are necessary. The development of advanced nursing practice (ANP) offers the opportunity to meet these challenges with novel services. At the Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, ANP services and corresponding advanced practice nurse (APN) roles have been developed since 2011. Purpose: The aim is to develop innovative and evidence based ANP services to supplement health care for specific patient groups and their family members with the goal to improve safety and achieve better outcomes. Methods: Project-based ANP services are developed in close collaboration of clinical departments and the Nursing Development Unit (NDU) of the Directorate of Nursing. Structure, process and outcome data are collected for evaluation. Findings: Currently, five ANP services are established and running, eight more are in the developmental phase. Most services address the long term care of patients with chronic illnesses and their family members. Ten APNs work between 10 % and 80 %, three are leading an ANP-team. APNs work over 50 % in direct clinical practice, primarily in counselling. An ANP network connects APNs and NDU, promoting synergy and exchange. Conclusions: The available resources often constitute a challenge for the development of ANP services. Vital for the long-term success are an adequate extent of the position, the support by department directorate, the conceptual framework that is implemented across the whole hospital, and the development within project structures.

  6. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  7. Ageing Management for Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    good practice. This Safety Guide is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors. It may be used by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. While the intention is not to recommend ways in which to make the operation of a research reactor more effective or more efficient, the recommendations provided in this Safety Guide on managing ageing of SSCs to ensure safety will undoubtedly contribute to the enhancement of their long term reliability and availability. SCOPE. This Safety Guide covers all aspects relating to the establishment, implementation and continuous improvement of an ageing management programme. It not only focuses on managing the physical ageing of SSCs important to safety but also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence (non-physical ageing)

  8. Ageing Management for Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    good practice. This Safety Guide is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors. It may be used by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. While the intention is not to recommend ways in which to make the operation of a research reactor more effective or more efficient, the recommendations provided in this Safety Guide on managing ageing of SSCs to ensure safety will undoubtedly contribute to the enhancement of their long term reliability and availability. SCOPE. This Safety Guide covers all aspects relating to the establishment, implementation and continuous improvement of an ageing management programme. It not only focuses on managing the physical ageing of SSCs important to safety but also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence (non-physical ageing)

  9. Clinical Microbiological Aspects of Epileptic Seizures in the Tropical Countries with Specific Focus on Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma Kanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder; however, in Nigeria and other tropical regions, the causes of epileptic seizures differ greatly in etiology. This paper is an attempt to highlight some possible microbiological aspects of epileptic seizures. A literature review was carried out to identify the extent to which microbial infections were involved in the elicitation of epileptic seizures. Data were collected from several clinics in the community and hospitals in Nigeria and correlated with the evidence from the literature review. It was found that different microbial agents including viral, bacterial, protozoa, and fungal agents were involved in several aspects of epileptic seizures. Malaria was found to cause more than 88% of childhood epileptic seizures and 12% of adult seizures. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in more than 40% of adult patients. Partial seizures were uncommon. Cases of epileptic seizures associated with bacteria (e.g., brucellosis, viral, fungal, and protozoa infections were frequently reported. Malaria, tapeworm, and cysticercosis were some of the common infectious causes of epilepsy; however, in some cases, the cause remained unknown. From these findings, it was evident that microbiological aspects of epilepsies are possible research areas that might be developed. It is believed that the unraveling of the various microbiological factors in epileptic seizures would have important implications for understanding the underlying neurobiology, evaluating treatment strategies, and perhaps planning health-care resources for the affected. It will also help to improve the prognostic factors in initial seizure symptomatic etiology and presence of any structural cerebral abnormalities.

  10. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Youth: A Focus on Emerging Research beyond Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Patterson, Alexandria; Glasheen, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD. The review concludes with recommendations to advance the field of youth disaster research by exploring how disasters may impact children across multiple domains, as well as using cutting edge ecobiological approaches and advanced modeling strategies to better understand how youth adjust and thrive following natural disaster.

  11. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  12. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Maree; Fernando, Jamie K; Gwynn, Josephine D; Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L

    2017-10-11

    Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social-ecological perspective and incorporated 'two-way learning' principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed to identify perceptions or experiences. The

  13. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farnbach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Study type: Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Methods: Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. Results: We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social–ecological perspective and incorporated ‘two-way learning’ principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed

  14. Online Facebook Focus Group Research of Hard-to-Reach Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting discovery-oriented qualitative research about the life experiences of hard-to-reach individuals posed several challenges for recruiting participants and collecting rich textual data. In a study pertaining the experiences of Third Culture Kids (TCKs, we explored the benefits of the social media, such as Facebook as a platform to collect data. TCKs are individuals who define their sense of belonging to the third culture trailing their parents moving across borders during their developmental years. Adult TCKs live in many different countries, and accessing and interviewing respondents could be a difficult and costly endeavor. In this article, the authors share their experience conducting online, asynchronous focus groups using a Facebook platform. We reflect upon the process of setting up a secret Facebook focus group for research purposes, recruiting participants, rapport building between facilitator and participants, monitoring and keeping track of participants’ responses, and the dynamics emerging within an online focus group. We also discuss the novelty, limitations, and benefits of the Facebook focus group as an emerging mode for collecting qualitative data from hard-to-reach participants.

  15. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  16. The use of Facebook for virtual asynchronous focus groups in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2018-02-01

    The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.

  17. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  18. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nisbet

    Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  19. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  20. Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393

  1. Action research in rehabilitation with chronic stroke recovery: A case report with a focus on neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene; Bundgaard, Tina H; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Sørensen, Peter M B; Berro, Hamza M; Larsson, Bodil W

    2016-06-27

    Chronic stroke patients are primarily referred to general rehabilitation, rather than to specific neurorehabilitation. Currently, there are no Danish clinical guidelines for chronic stroke, but recent research in neuroplasticity has contributed to possible rehabilitation interventions for these patients. The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a specialized neuroplastic approach in combination with an already existing training program. The project is designed as an action research project concerning four participants with chronic stroke. Through ten intervention, a neuroplastic focus has been added to their group training program including daily home training. Participants were tested before and after the intervention with MAS, DGI, 6MWT, SSQLS. All four participants improved their functional levels and their quality of life following the intervention. This report indicates that a specific neuroplastic focus in combination with action research has an impact on the participants with chronic stroke. However, there is still no clarity regarding what type of rehabilitation methods can be considered the most efficacious in promoting neuroplasticity. This case report serves as a pilot project for further studies of how to implement neuroplasticity in physical therapy.

  2. Research as an event: a novel approach to promote patient-focused drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai JH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Hua Tsai, Ellen Janssen, John FP Bridges Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Patient groups are increasingly engaging in research to understand patients’ preferences and incorporate their perspectives into drug development and regulation. Several models of patient engagement have emerged, but there is little guidance on how to partner with patient groups to engage the disease community. Our group has been using an approach to engage patient groups that we call research as an event. Research as an event is a method for researchers to use a community-centered event to engage patients in their own environment at modest incremental cost. It is a pragmatic solution to address the challenges of engaging patients in research to minimize patients’ frustration, decrease the time burden, and limit the overall cost. The community, the event, and the research are the three components that constitute the research as an event framework. The community represents a disease-specific community. The event is a meeting of common interest for patients and other stakeholders, such as a patient advocacy conference. The research describes activities in engaging the community for the purpose of research. Research as an event follows a six-step approach. A case study is used to demonstrate the six steps followed by recommendations for future implementation. Keywords: patients’ perspectives, decision making, drug approval, patient engagement, patient organization, patients’ preference

  3. Measuring Development of Selected Poverty Risk Indicators in V4 Countries with Specific Focus on Slovak Republic and its Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beňuš Ondrej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of selected poverty indicators as measured by EU-Statistics on income and living conditions. Our orientation on these indicators underlines our focus on quantitative measurement. Spatial orientation was selected as the area of the Visegrad group countries serving as a research base for our investigation of poverty differences in the Central Europe. Further research is dedicated to Slovakia and its regions. In this article we aim to identify those quantitative poverty indicators that are responsible for poverty status of the most affected social group of people in the country.

  4. Linking research and education: an undergraduate research apprenticeship focusing on geologic and ecological impacts of the Elwha River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Eidam, E.; Webster, K. L.; Hale, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Experiential learning is becoming well-rooted in undergraduate curriculum as a means of stimulating interest in STEM fields, and of preparing students for future careers in scientific research and communication. To further these goals in coastal sciences, an intensive, research-focused course was developed at the UW Friday Harbor Labs. The course revolved around an active NSF-funded research project concerning the highly publicized Elwha River Restoration project. Between 2008 and 2014, four groups of research "apprentices" spent their academic quarter in residence at a small, coastal marine lab in a learning environment that integrated interdisciplinary lectures, workshops on data analysis and laboratory methods, and the research process from proposal to oceanographic research cruise to publication. This environment helped students gain important skills in fieldwork planning and execution, laboratory and digital data analyses, and manuscript preparation from start to finish—all while elevating their knowledge of integrated earth science topics related to a coastal restoration project. Students developed their own research proposals and pursued their individual interests within the overall research topic, thereby expanding the overall breadth of the NSF-funded research program. The topics of student interest were often beyond the researcher's expertise, which ultimately led to more interdisciplinary findings beyond the quarter-long class. This also provided opportunities for student creativity and leadership, and for collaboration with fellow course participants and with students from many other disciplines in residence at the marine lab. Tracking the outcomes of the diverse student group undertaking this program indicates that these undergraduate (and post-bac) students are generally attending graduate school at a high rate, and launching careers in education, coastal management, and other STEM fields.

  5. Indicators of national focus of the research published by Public Health journals edited in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Abel Laerte

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a set of bibliometric indicators and statistics which explain the high level of production of articles on research in public and collective health in Brazil which are published in the main nationally edited journals in the field. The predominance of publications in the Portuguese language by Brazilian authors results in a lower impact in terms of citations received as measured by the bibliometric indexes Scimago/Scopus and JCR/WoS. These bibliometric indexes are used to measure the production and performance of research and journals. Nevertheless, the performance of these same journals stands out in SciELO, and is competitive internationally in the broader context of Google Scholar Metrics. The challenge faced by journals in Brazil is developing and applying editorial policies for the valuation of research with a national focus, and its internationalization.

  6. Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina

    2012-12-01

    In exercise and cognition research, few studies have investigated whether and how the qualitative aspects of physical exercise may impact cognitive performance in the short or long term. This commentary, after recalling the evidence on the "dose-response" relationship, shifts the focus to intersections between different research areas that are proposed to shed light on how qualitative exercise characteristics can be used to obtain cognitive benefits. As concerns the acute exercise area, this commentary highlights the applied relevance of developmental and aging studies investigating the effects of exercise bouts differing in movement task complexity and cognitive demands. As regards the chronic exercise area, potential links to research on cognitive expertise in sport, functional ability in aging, and life skills training during development are discussed. "Gross-motor cognitive training" is proposed as a key concept with relevant implications for intervention strategies in childhood and older adulthood.

  7. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-01-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  8. Using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laboratory for Safety Focused Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey .C; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    Under the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) to conduct critical safety focused Human Factors research and development (R&D) for the nuclear industry. The LWRS program has the overall objective to develop the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant (NPP) operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and to ensure their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. One focus area for LWRS is the NPP main control room (MCR), because many of the instrumentation and control (I&C) system technologies installed in the MCR, while highly reliable and safe, are now difficult to replace and are therefore limiting the operating life of the NPP. This paper describes how INL researchers use the HSSL to conduct Human Factors R&D on modernizing or upgrading these I&C systems in a step-wise manner, and how the HSSL has addressed a significant gap in how to upgrade systems and technologies that are built to last, and therefore require careful integration of analog and new advanced digital technologies.

  9. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Bunn, William B; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Valberg, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in "New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)" from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to "lung overload." The species specificity of the

  10. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Long, Christopher M.; Bunn, William B.; Lapin, Charles A.; McClellan, Roger O.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in “New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)” from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the “traditional diesel exhaust” (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to'lung overload."The species specificity

  11. Focused transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates specific domains of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripfl, Jürgen; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    Recent neuroscience theories suggest that different kinds of self-regulation may share a common psychobiological mechanism. However, empirical evidence for a domain general self-regulation mechanism is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focused anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), facilitating the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), acts on a domain general self-regulation mechanism and thus modulates both affective and appetitive self-regulation. Twenty smokers participated in this within-subject sham controlled study. Effects of anodal left, anodal right and sham tDCS over the dlPFC on affective picture appraisal and nicotine craving-cue appraisal were assessed. Anodal right tDCS over the dlPFC reduced negative affect in emotion appraisal, but neither modulated regulation of positive emotion appraisal nor of craving appraisal. Anodal left stimulation did not induce any significant effects. The results of our study show that domain specific self-regulation networks are at work in the prefrontal cortex. Focused tDCS modulation of this specific self-regulation network could probably be used during the first phase of nicotine abstinence, during which negative affect might easily result in relapse. These findings have implications for neuroscience models of self-regulation and are of relevance for the development of brain stimulation based treatment methods for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with self-regulation deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthy lifestyle: Perceptions and attitudes of students (the results of a focus group research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.

  13. Family-Focused Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Reflections on 30 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J; Chung, Bowen

    2016-09-01

    Family-focused therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based intervention for adults and children with bipolar disorder (BD) and their caregivers, usually given in conjunction with pharmacotherapy after an illness episode. The treatment consists of conjoint sessions of psychoeducation regarding bipolar illness, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training. This paper summarizes over 30 years of research on FFT and family processes in BD. Across eight randomized controlled trials with adults and adolescents with BD, FFT and mood-stabilizing medications have been found to hasten recovery from mood episodes, reduce recurrences, and reduce levels of symptom severity compared to briefer forms of psychoeducation and medications over 1-2 years. Several studies indicate that the effects of FFT on symptom improvement are greater among patients with high-expressed emotion relatives. New research focuses on FFT as an early intervention for youth at risk for BD, neuroimaging as a means of evaluating treatment mechanisms, and progress in implementing FFT in community mental health settings. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. The social process of escalation: a promising focus for crisis management research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Johan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies a promising, new focus for the crisis management research in the health care domain. After reviewing the literature on health care crisis management, there seems to be a knowledge-gap regarding organisational change and adaption, especially when health care situations goes from normal, to non-normal, to pathological and further into a state of emergency or crisis. Discussion Based on studies of escalating situations in obstetric care it is suggested that two theoretical perspectives (contingency theory and the idea of failure as a result of incomplete interaction tend to simplify the issue of escalation rather than attend to its complexities (including the various power relations among the stakeholders involved. However studying the process of escalation as inherently complex and social allows us to see the definition of a situation as normal or non-normal as an exercise of power in itself, rather than representing a putatively correct response to a particular emergency. Implications The concept of escalation, when treated this way, can help us further the analysis of clinical and institutional acts and competence. It can also turn our attention to some important elements in a class of social phenomenon, crises and emergencies, that so far have not received the attention they deserve. Focusing on organisational choreography, that interplay of potential factors such as power, professional identity, organisational accountability, and experience, is not only a promising focus for future naturalistic research but also for developing more pragmatic strategies that can enhance organisational coordination and response in complex events.

  15. Outlining and dictating scientific manuscripts is a useful method for health researchers: A focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.

  16. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  17. Recent problems in research on transition to adulthood: Country focus Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Suzana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores theoretical and methodological aspects of transition to adulthood. The concept is discussed within the framework of life course paradigm. The concept of transition to adulthood is operationalized as four dimensions: family transition, professional (career transition, financial status transition and housing transition. We discuss in detail the process of becoming an adult in Serbian society. The thesis of specific type of transition to adulthood, named prolonged adolescence, has been fully examined. The analysis is based on data collected in a survey (2003 of young people aged 17-35. In the paper we focus on the sub sample of respondents aged 34-35 being a post-transitional cohort. The 34-35 cohort trajectory to adulthood is explored as an indicator of general trend in transition to adulthood in a period of radical social turmoil. .

  18. THE SPECIFIC MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED AT GENERAL MOTOR'S EUROPE ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Liliana Adela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. In fact, industrial segmentation can assist companies in several areas like: analysis of the market, selection of key markets and management and marketing. In this study I tried to make a better understanding of the total marketplace, including how and why customers buy and to develop strategies, plans and programs to profitability meet the needs of different market segments and to give the company a distinct competitive advantage. The Marketing Plan is based on an Information System which can be interpretaded in two different ways. In this case its singular form focusing on both formal and informal information system is appropriate. The investigation explains the environment of the European Business Team . The techniques used were: system maps, observations, interviews, questionnaires and company documents. The initial stage of exploring the situation starts usually with a dialog between the potential client - in this particular case the European Business Team – and the analyst. The vague impression is then given that not everything is running as it should be by the client. This was, however, not completely true in my case, as I had to go looking for problems. Preliminary investigations into product communication did show a feeling of unease between the departments. Having expressed the current situation of the European Business Team , I then chose three areas to study further. I had to

  19. Standardization of specifications and inspection procedures for LEU plate-type research reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    With the transition to high density uranium LEU fuel, fabrication costs of research reactor fuel elements have a tendency to increase because of two reasons. First, the amount of the powder of the uranium compound required increases by more than a factor of five. Second, fabrication requirements are in many cases nearer the fabrication limits. Therefore, it is important that measures be undertaken to eliminate or reduce unnecessary requirements in the specification or inspection procedures of research reactor fuel elements utilizing LEU. An additional stimulus for standardizing specifications and inspection procedures at this time is provided by the fact that most LEU conversions will occur within a short time span, and that nearly all of them will require preparation of new specifications and inspection procedures. In this sense, the LEU conversions offer an opportunity for improving the rationality and efficiency of the fuel fabrication and inspection processes. This report focuses on the standardization of specifications and inspection processes of high uranium density LEU fuels for research reactors. However, in many cases the results can also be extended directly to other research reactor fuels. 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Health Services Research and Health Economy - Quality Care Training in Gynaecology, with Focus On Gynaecological Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, M P; Fasching, P A; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Schrauder, M G; Bani, M R; Thiel, F C; Hack, C C; Hildebrandt, T; Beckmann, M W

    2011-12-01

    In the era of cost increases and reduced resources in the German healthcare system, the value of health services research and health economics is increasing more and more. Health services research attempts to develop concepts for the most effective ways to organise, manage, finance and deliver high-quality care and evaluates the implementation of these concepts with regard to daily routine conditions. Goals are the assessment of benefits and the economic advantages and disadvantages of new and established diagnostic methods, drugs and vaccines. Regarding these goals, it is clear that health services research goes hand in hand with health economics, which evaluates the benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in relation to the costs. Both scientific fields have focus principally on gynaecology and particularly on gynaecological oncology in Germany, as can be seen by numerous publications. These present several advantages compared with clinical trials - they uncover gaps in health care, question the material, staffing and consequently the financial resources required and they allow the estimation of value and the comparison of different innovations to identify the best options for our patients.

  1. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIiadou, Vasiliki; Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of "hearing impairment," as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other...... of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional......, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order...

  2. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy, Christopher W [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Armour, Elwood [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jiang Licai [OSMIC Inc., 1900 Taylor Rd., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min{sup -1} at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of {+-}5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  3. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang, Licai; Wong, John

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min(-1) at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of +/-5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  4. Work-life balance of nursing faculty in research- and practice-focused doctoral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah

    2015-01-01

    The growing shortage of nursing faculty and the need for faculty to teach doctoral students to address the shortage call for examination of factors that may contribute to the shortage, including those that are potentially modifiable, including work-life balance.This descriptive study examined work-life balance of a national sample of nursing faculty teaching in research-focused and practice-focused doctoral programs. Data were collected through an online survey of 554 doctoral program faculty members to identify their perceptions of work-life balance and predictors of work-life balance. Work-life balance scores indicated better work-life balance than expected. Factors associated with good work-life balance included higher academic rank, having tenure, older age, years in education, current faculty position, and no involvement in clinical practice. Current faculty position was the best predictor of work-life balance. Although work-life balance was viewed positively by study participants, efforts are needed to strengthen factors related to positive work/life in view of the increasing workload of doctoral faculty as the numbers of doctoral students increase and the number of seasoned faculty decrease with anticipated waves of retirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang Licai; Wong, John

    2007-01-01

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min -1 at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of ±5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD

  6. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  7. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  8. A critical reflection on the use of focus groups as a research method: lessons from trying to hear the voices of NGO beneficiaries in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, G.; Awumbila, M.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2009-01-01

    The focus group method has been used extensively in social science research in order to gain a deep understanding of participant perceptions of specific topics of interest. However, the method has rarely been used in the social accounting and accountability literature. This paper reviews and

  9. Nuclear Waste Separation and Transmutation Research with Special Focus on Russian Transmutation Projects Sponsored by ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Henri; Blomgren, Jan; Olsson, Nils

    2003-03-01

    High-level nuclear reactor waste is made up of relatively few long-lived radioactive species, among them plutonium, that contribute to difficulties with its storage and disposal. Separation of these species from larger waste volumes mainly constituting of uranium (about 95 %) coupled with nuclear incineration to fission products of plutonium and the so called minor actinides (Neptunium, Americium, and Curium) and transmutation of some of the long lived fission products to short lived or stable isotopes represents a viable nuclear waste management strategy to drastically reduce the time and space requirements for a bed-rock repository of the remaining waste. A remarkable increase in the international research and development on partitioning and transmutation has occurred during the recent years. The road-map report published in April 2001 by The European Technical Working Group on ADS for the development of a European demonstration facility for nuclear waste transmutation has high-lighted the ongoing European research and pointed out the need for further research. The road-map has given the different research activities a position in the ultimate goal of producing an ADS demonstrator and is guiding research planning on the national as well as on the EU level. The Advanced Accelerator Application (3A) program in the US, with the long term goals to enhance long term public safety, provide benefits for the repository, reduce proliferation risks and improve prospects for nuclear power has focused the research on nuclear waste transmutation. The reports on the 3A program indicates a change of the US former abandonment position towards reprocessing and fast reactors due to a strong incentive to eliminate the reactor plutonium and to lower the amount of high level reactor waste for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SKB's proposed research and development program for the next 3 years (FUD01) was presented by SKB in September 2001. It is proposed that the research program

  10. A Study of Factors Related to Dissertation Progress among Doctoral Candidates: Focus on Students' Research Self-Efficacy as a Result of Their Research Training and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna

    This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…

  11. [Advances in research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: focus on social cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients.

  12. Innovation in Researching the Effects of Frame – Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOKOLOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical formoriented practice doesn’t meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language processing. Contemporary studies are considering the ways how to allow second language learners to be rational in the sense that their mental models of language functioning are the most optimal. This paper outlines current cognitive perspectives on second language acquisition. Language learning involves the acquisition of frame instructions or input-processing instructions (explanation + structured-input activities. Competence and performance both emerge from the dynamic system of frequently used memorized constructions. Frames are dynamic contextualized activation of stereotyped situations. This system proves to be rational since it aims at optimal reflection of prior first language usage and induces learners to think consciously about some sort of rule in order to work out the meaning. The frame–based instruction consists of activities which present learners with a stimulus and require them to respond choosing the appropriate language form for communication. The targeted feature of such communicative tasks has two aims: 1. to stimulate communicative language use and 2. to target the use of a particular predetermined linguistic feature. The empirical research shows that frame-focused tasks direct learners attention to the meaning realized by the target form. Methodological basis includes some theoretical propositions from recent Relevance theory and cognitive linguistics.

  13. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kupcova Skalnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a skin cancer with permanently increasing incidence and resistance to therapies in advanced stages. Reports of spontaneous regression and tumour infiltration with T-lymphocytes makes melanoma candidate for immunotherapies. Cytokines are key factors regulating immune response and intercellular communication in tumour microenvironment. Cytokines may be used in therapy of melanoma to modulate immune response. Cytokines also possess diagnostic and prognostic potential and cytokine production may reflect effects of immunotherapies. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent advances in proteomic techniques for the detection and quantification of cytokines in melanoma research. Approaches covered span from mass spectrometry to immunoassays for single molecule detection (ELISA, western blot, multiplex assays (chemiluminescent, bead-based (Luminex and planar antibody arrays, ultrasensitive techniques (Singulex, Simoa, immuno-PCR, proximity ligation/extension assay, immunomagnetic reduction assay, to analyses of single cells producing cytokines (ELISpot, flow cytometry, mass cytometry and emerging techniques for single cell secretomics. Although this review is focused mainly on cancer and particularly melanoma, the discussed techniques are in general applicable to broad research field of biology and medicine, including stem cells, development, aging, immunology and intercellular communication.

  14. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Technical specifications are presented concerning safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  15. Research into specific risk assessment in project financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bestvina Bukvić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of investment justification in terms of risk enables the decision maker (investor to select, among available alternatives, the one with the most favourable correlation between the expected profit and assumed risk. At the micro level, the uncertainty of business success is extremely high in production activities, which is an additional incentive for taking a comprehensive approach to the issue of investment decision-making and the development of risk assessment techniques applicable in this particular segment of industry. Given the complexity of the manufacturing process, the length of the production cycle, market conditions, and entity-specific risks (which are difficult to measure, projects in manufacturing industry require a detailed and comprehensive assessment of specific risk factors and their cost-effectiveness. Ne - vertheless, since specific risks can be diversified, investment proposal assessments in practice usually do not cover their quantification and analysis. However, the majority of business entities do not have enough active projects in various industries to be able to fully diversify their business and thus minimize the level of specific risks. The impact of specific factors becomes one of the most important elements for business success. This paper analyses how far risk assessment methods regarding specific risks are used in practice. Furthermore, it analyses the significance of specific risks for total investment risk. This study gives new insi - ghts into the significance of specific risks to the overall investment assessment and the need for permanent development of traditionally used investment assessment models.

  16. Engaging families in physical activity research: a family-based focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-11-25

    Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide

  17. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Just, Eric; Podlusky, Sofia; Varga, John; Chang, Rowland W; Kibbe, Warren A

    2012-09-13

    Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of 'machine generated' sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. There was a near perfect (99.5%) agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor) to parse, abstract and assemble structured data from text data contained in the electronic health

  18. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  19. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well......Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...

  20. General problems specific to hot nuclear materials research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.

    1996-01-01

    During the sixties, governments have installed hot nuclear materials research facilities to characterize highly radioactive materials, to describe their in-pile behaviour, to develop and test new reactor core components, and to provide the industry with radioisotopes. Since then, the attitude towards the nuclear option has drastically changed and resources have become very tight. Within the changed political environment, the national research centres have defined new objectives. Given budgetary constraints, nuclear facilities have to co-operate internationally and to look for third party research assignments. The paper discusses the problems and needs within experimental nuclear research facilities as well as industrial requirements. Special emphasis is on cultural topics (definition of the scope of nuclear research facilities, the search for competitive advantages, and operational requirements), social aspects (overageing of personnel, recruitment, and training of new staff), safety related administrative and technical issues, and research needs for expertise and state of the art analytical infrastructure

  1. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  2. Safety of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements for all main areas of safety for research reactors, with particular emphasis on requirements for design and operation. It explains the safety objectives and concepts that form the basis for safety and safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of new research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives and concepts, and they are to be applied to the extent practicable for existing research reactors. The safety requirements established in this publication for the management of safety and regulatory supervision apply to site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation (including utilization and modification), and planning for decommissioning of research reactors (including critical assemblies and subcritical assemblies). The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies and other organizations with responsibilities in these areas and in safety analysis, verification and review, and the provision of technical support.

  3. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Strategies to control costs and quality: a focus on outcomes research for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Victor

    2004-04-01

    Rapid adoption of disease management has outpaced systematic evaluation of its net value in improving health outcomes and mitigating healthcare cost. This article identifies areas in which outcomes research in disease management is needed to demonstrate its value or to enhance its performance. Patient identification for disease management relies on administrative database queries but the trade-offs in sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of alternative queries are not well known. Large-scale deployment, rapid patient engagement, and repeated interactions between patients and nurses could be important attributes for attaining measurable improvements in quality and cost reduction over short periods of time, but these hypothesis need to be tested. There is a trend toward integration of multiple chronic disease management programs onto a single platform. To support this trend, there is a need for a corresponding set of integrated clinical guidelines or "meta-guidelines" that combine the contents of individual practice guidelines. The relative contribution of various disease management interventions in improving clinical results, lowering costs, and their respective ease of implementation is not known. Research leading to a better understanding of tradeoffs could lead to more rational resource allocation and better overall outcomes. Coordination between disease management programs and physician practices is lacking. Research aimed at defining operational and technical interfaces and cultural and behavioral professional adjustments necessary to achieve integration and coordination is needed. The lack of a consistent analytical framework for evaluating clinical and financial outcomes has made comparisons of reported results impossible and has rendered many reports unreliable. Theoretical work on a standard methodology that integrates clinical and financial outcomes and empiric validation is needed.

  5. Participatory design in Parkinson's research with focus on the symptomatic domains to be measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Larsen, Frank; Isaacs, Tom; Matthews, Helen; Duffen, Joy; Riggare, Sara; Capitanio, Fulvio; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Domingos, Josefa; Maetzler, Walter; Graessner, Holm

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the objective assessment of health related outcomes using technology providing quality measurements to be applied not only in daily clinical practice, but also in scientific research. Differences in the understandings of the condition and the terminology used between people with Parkinson's (PwPs), clinicians and technical developers may influence the progress of a participatory design process. This paper reports on a participatory design process to achieve a consensus among PwPs, clinicians and technologists over the selection of a set of symptomatic domains to be continuously assessed, in order to provide results relevant to both PwPs and clinicians. The methods used were a Web based user survey, end-user focus groups, ranking by combined methods, a Delphi process performed among clinicians and scientists, and prioritization of the results in a concertation workshop for PwPs, clinicians and technologists. The following symptomatic domains were commonly agreed by PwPs and clinicians to be of central importance in a system of continuous assessment: hypokinesia/bradykinesia, tremor, sway, gait, sleep and cognition. This list satisfied both the needs of the PwPs and the concerns of the clinicians regarding the means of advancing new strategies in assessment and interventions in PD. A participatory design strategy allowed the definition of a consensual list of symptomatic domains. Both the strategy and the achieved results may be of relevance for similar interdisciplinary approaches in the field of PD using a participatory design involving patients, clinicians and technologists.

  6. Development of X-ray and ion diagnostic methods for plasma focus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1986-12-01

    A review of experimental methods used for investigation of X-rays and ion-beams emmited from plasma focus facilities is presented. The research program has been realized at the Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swierk and at the Institut fuer Plasmaforschung in Stuttgart, within the frames of an international co-operation. The studies on ion emission from different PF facilities are reviewed. The application of CN-films with Al-filters and of different ion-pinhole cameras is described. The use of a Thomson mass-spectrometer adopted for plasma studies is presented. The time-resolved measurements combined with a simultaneous mass- and energy-analysis of the ion beams are also described. The most important results of these studies are summarized. Particular attention is also paid to the studies of the X-ray emission. The use of stereoscopic sets of vacuum pinhole cameras with thin Be-filters is described. The application of X-ray pinhole cameras equipped with miniature scintillators for time-resolved measurements is also presented. The most important results of the X-ray emission studies are summarized. 35 refs., 12 figs. (author)

  7. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  8. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  9. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Building a science of partnership-focused research: forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2012-07-01

    Building on growing interest in translational research, this paper provides an overview of a special issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Service Research, which is focused on the process of forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research. We propose that partnership-focused research is a subdiscipline of translational research which requires additional research to better refine the theoretical framework and the core principles that will guide future research and training efforts. We summarize some of the major themes across the eight original articles and three commentaries included in the special issue. By advancing the science of partnership-focused research we will be able to bridge the gap between child mental health prevention and services research and practice.

  11. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Information is presented concerning the Oak Ridge Research Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of effluents

  12. Mexican medicinal plants with anxiolytic or antidepressant activity: Focus on preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2016-06-20

    of the mechanism of action is inconclusive. The need for systematic studies in preclinical and clinical research is evident, and efforts should be done to fulfill these research. Finally, it is important also to study possible drug-herbal interactions to establish specific recommendations for people that use these plants as anxiolytic or antidepressant treatments either alone or in combination with another type of medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Inthira; Smith, Richard D

    2012-08-01

    Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI) is equivocal. Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection.

  14. Family Literacy and Second Language Literacy Research: Focus on Language Minority Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yıldırım

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Countries like the U. S. A. or Canada have citizens from various ethnic backgrounds. Although English is the dominant language in many parts of these countries, immigrants generally prefer speaking their native language when they are in their homes. Whatever the reason for using native language at home is, when we consider the children in these families, we can say that being exposed to different languages at home and at school may be a problem for their language development.Purpose of Study: There are many studies conducted in order to better understand the problems of language minority children. A great deal of literature on language minority students focuses on the ties between these children‟s literacy development and their literacy practices at home. In other words, these studies aim to see how the literacy events these children are exposed to at home affect their literacy learning in the second language.Methods: This paper is an attempt to put together and discuss various theoretical and empirical studies conducted on the literacy development of language minority children in English speaking countries.Findings: Literacy education of language minority students is not an easy task. It is very complicated and difficult to achieve as it requires a complete collaboration among all the responsible parties (teachers, families, researchers, education policy makers, school administrators. Conclusion and Recommendations: Successful collaboration among all the involved parties would bring successful outcomes in terms of children‟s healthy literacy development. The collaboration between teachers and families is the most vital one because these two parties are the ones that have one-to-one interaction with children.

  15. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  16. Specific features of occupational medicine in nuclear research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.M.; Quesne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to prevent the exposure of personnel to ionising radiation were taken as soon as the first nuclear laboratories were set up. This branch of occupational preventive medicine has since kept pace with advances in research and in the industrial applications of nuclear energy. (authors)

  17. The need for mental health services research focusing on poor young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.

    1999-06-01

    to be learned about the mental health status and needs of poor women, along with the impact of loss of public support on their physical and mental health. Access to mental health care within a managed care setting also needs to be addressed, and care taken to understand the particular needs of poor populations that will actually make these services accessible to them. Insufficient attention has thus far been paid to the cost implications of providing these services to the poor. While providing treatment is associated with significant costs, the costs of not providing care, especially the effects of depression on offspring, should not be overlooked. CHALLENGES TO EXAMINING MENTAL HEALTH IN POOR WOMEN: A number of suggestions were made for addressing practical and methodological challenges to providing mental health services. These include placing services for these individuals within their familiar medical settings, which requires close working relationships between psychiatric and medical personnel within these settings. Outreach is a necessary part of getting poor women into treatment, and should be a routine part of helping women become engaged with caregivers. Providing culturally sensitive treatments is an important focus too, through developing knowledge about the culturally based customs and expectations of target groups. Measurement issues need to be attended to, as most research instruments have been developed on middle class populations, and have not been examined for their psychometric properties and norms in less advantaged groups. Careful translation techniques are also required. Finally, working with institutions sponsoring research to educate them about special problems and challenges with these groups will help improve the quality and efficiency of the work accomplished.

  18. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  19. Focus on sex differences in grant applications submitted to the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, Debby G.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several measures have been implemented at international level to ensure that there is a greater focus on sex differences in health research. This study evaluates the effect of various formal incentives that were introduced by a Dutch financer of health research to encourage

  20. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  1. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  2. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  3. Specifics of Cyberbullying of Teachers in Czech Schools--A National Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Kamil; Szotkowski, René

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of the national research of cyberbullying of Czech teachers, which was realized in year 2016 in the entire Czech Republic. The research focused on the prevalence of cyberbullying of teachers, the impact of cyberbullying on teachers, strategies of coping with cyberbullying and methods of solving the incidents. The…

  4. Research highlights from the 2017 ERS International Congress: airway diseases in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Andersson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5 and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges.

  5. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  6. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  7. Challenges to socio-economic research in a changing society - with a special focus on Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppel, Birger; Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole; Winther, Gorm

    2005-01-01

    The process of changes in Arctic societies has been from a cultural order to an economic order, and from a closed society based on barter and subsistence to a society based on economic exchange through monetary means. Consequently, understanding the currents of change requires a definite focus...

  8. A New Method for Research on the Center-Focus Problem of Differential Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhengxin

    2014-01-01

    We will introduce Mironenko’s method to discuss the Poincaré center-focus problem, and compare the methods of Lyapunov and Mironenko. We apply the Mironenko method to discuss the qualitative behavior of solutions of some planar polynomial differential systems and derive the sufficient conditions for a critical point to be a center.

  9. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research and Practice: Workplace Education, Volume 7, Issue B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue focuses on workplace education and includes the following articles: "After the Grant Is Over" (Connie Nelson); "Around to Stay" (Shirley Penn and Mary Zorn); "A Conversation with FOB: What Benefits Does Workplace Ed Offer the Provider?"; "Reading Work" (Tracy Defoe and Sue Folinsbee); "Much More than ABE" (Don Block and Lori…

  10. COURSE : a new industry led consortium to focus and accelerate energy resources research at Alberta University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.J. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bailey, R. [Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kirk, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Luhning, R.W. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kratochvil, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This paper described a new initiative entitled COURSE (Coordination of University Research for Synergy and Effectiveness) which has been created through the collaboration of the energy industry, universities and the Alberta government to promote research in the field of energy resources. Calls for research proposals went out in June 1999 and January 2000. The selected projects will be funded by the Alberta Ministry of Innovation and Science through the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA). The major objectives of COURSE are to increase and align fundamental breakthrough university research with the industry needs, and to provide results that exceed what would be achieved by one university alone. An agreement has been reached whereby the universities own the technology and are the exclusive license agents of the research.

  11. Perspectives on Research Participation and Facilitation Among Dialysis Patients, Clinic Personnel, and Medical Providers: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Narendra, Julia H; Dorough, Adeline; Oberlander, Jonathan; Ordish, Antoinette; Wilkie, Caroline; Dember, Laura M

    2017-12-19

    Most prospective studies involving individuals receiving maintenance dialysis have been small, and many have had poor clinical translatability. Research relevance can be enhanced through stakeholder engagement. However, little is known about dialysis clinic stakeholders' perceptions of research participation and facilitation. The objective of this study was to characterize the perspectives of dialysis clinic stakeholders (patients, clinic personnel, and medical providers) on: (1) research participation by patients and (2) research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We also sought to elucidate stakeholder preferences for research communication. Qualitative study. 7 focus groups (59 participants: 8 clinic managers, 14 nurses/patient care technicians, 8 social workers/dietitians, 11 nephrologists/advanced practice providers, and 18 patients/care partners) from 7 North Carolina dialysis clinics. Clinics and participants were purposively sampled. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis. We identified 11 themes that captured barriers to and facilitators of research participation by patients and research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We collapsed these themes into 4 categories to create an organizational framework for considering stakeholder (narrow research understanding, competing personal priorities, and low patient literacy and education levels), relationship (trust, buy-in, and altruistic motivations), research design (convenience, follow-up, and patient incentives), and dialysis clinic (professional demands, teamwork, and communication) aspects that may affect stakeholder interest in participating in or facilitating research. These themes appear to shape the degree of research readiness of a dialysis clinic environment. Participants preferred short research communications delivered in multiple formats. Potential selection bias and inclusion of English-speaking participants only. Our findings

  12. Overview on neutron beam industry-focused strategic research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Razali Kassim; Abdul Jalil Abdul Hamid; Azali Muhammad; Muhammad Rawi Mohd Zain; Azhar Azmi

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA MARK II research reactor (RTP) at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) was commissioned in July 1982. RTP is a 1 MW steady state reactor which being used for reactor training and research related to neutron. Since then various works have been performed to utilise the neutrons produced from this steady state reactor. Projects undertaken are the development and utilization of the neutron radiography (myNR) and small angle neutron scattering (mySANS) facilities. This poster highlights the recent status the above neutron beam facilities and their application in materials science and technology research and education. (Author)

  13. Peer Mentoring for Undergraduates in a Research-Focused Diversity Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E.; Logan, Kay; Lindwall, Jennifer; Beals, Caitlyn

    2017-01-01

    To provide multi-dimensional support for undergraduates from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds who aspire to careers in research, the BUILD EXITO project, part of a major NIH-funded diversity initiative, matches each scholar with three mentors: peer mentor (advanced student), career mentor (faculty adviser), and research mentor (research…

  14. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...... the field with regard to usability evaluation and feedback....

  15. Geography should not be destiny: focusing HIV/AIDS implementation research and programs on microepidemics in US neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Yolken, Annajane; Cutler, Blayne; Trooskin, Stacey; Wilson, Phill; Little, Susan; Mayer, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Within the most heavily affected cities, a few neighborhoods account for a large share of new HIV infections. Addressing racial and economic disparities in HIV infection requires an implementation program and research agenda that assess the impact of HIV prevention interventions focused on increasing HIV testing, treatment, and retention in care in the most heavily affected neighborhoods in urban areas of the United States. Neighborhood-based implementation research should evaluate programs that focus on community mobilization, media campaigns, routine testing, linkage to and retention in care, and block-by-block outreach strategies.

  16. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  17. Researches focused on structure of aluminium alloys processed by rapid solidification, used in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfat, C.; Vasile, T.; Vasilescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper present some new results focused on an aluminium high temperature alloy, obtained by 'melt spinning method'. alloy composition, processing conditions, resulted structures and the influence between them are presented. There are studied the two zone structures of the alloy and the relation between processing conditions and the characteristics of the zones, with implications on mechanical behavior in real conditions. The final conclusion show that is possible to control the structure in order to improve material behavior. (author)

  18. Contextualize that sort focus in the work and research training of the pedagogical career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ruiz-Ducasse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper have purpose of perfecting continuous for learning and teaching process in the pedagogy careers, in this case, from a sort focus perspective. From development didactic of the labor investigative practice, he suggests idea about of the woman role. This work will let a change in the way proceeding of the professors’ future, to using the possibility that offer of the subject, for to guarantee a tally behaved and educate formation, which will let a first educate labor.

  19. Allele-Specific Alternative mRNA processing (ASARP) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A software pipeline for prediction of allele-specific alternative RNA processing events using single RNA-seq data. The current version focuses on prediction of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation modulated by genetic variants.

  20. FOCUS-GROUP AND ITS IMPACT IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE OF MARKETING RESEARCH ON THE ROMANIAN CAR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANEA Constantin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing a questionnaire is the most profound activity which makes an impact on a research in marketing. The investigation instrument finally determines the quality of this type of research. Never will a market research be able to exceed its questionnaire in point of quality. The present contribution succinctly itemizes a research project for the Romanian car market, emphasizing the importance of focus group, and appends, at the end, the concrete result, applied to the Romanian car market. The first part describes the hypotheses and sets out the objectives of the research, focusing on the market leader, i.e. Automobile Dacia Renault. The second section describes the practical process of designing the questionnaire, with a special stress laid on the impact of focus-group in the final version. The synthesis of focus group is materialized through a number of final remarks on the manner of concretely writing the questionnaire, which was put to practical use on the Romanian car market.

  1. Eastern forested watersheds: the OHER/ERD research focus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the environmental research programs conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is presented. The research is focussed on the pathways of movement of chemicals from the atmosphere, through terrestrial environments, to receiving water bodies and the effects of these chemicals and other anthropogenic activities on biological systems and biogeochemical processes exposed during transport. Three fundamental levels of the environmental hierarchy are encompassed: process, system, and landscape. 5 refs

  2. Topical and Geographical Focus of Chinese Oceanographic Research - A Study of Trends in Publication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Li, Rongfeng

    2008-01-01

    .... Funds increase rapidly for education and scientific research. From 1993 to 2006, enrollment of full time students in universities and colleges grew from 924,000 to 5,400,000, total number of students (including part-time...

  3. Building Capacity in Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships Through a Focus on Process and Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Bryant, Angela R; Walker, Deborah J; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Courtney, Dana; Adimora, Ada

    2015-01-01

    In health research, investigators and funders are emphasizing the importance of collaboration between communities and academic institutions to achieve health equity. Although the principles underlying community-academic partnered research have been well-articulated, the processes by which partnerships integrate these principles when working across cultural differences are not as well described. We present how Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) integrated participatory research principles with the process of building individual and partnership capacity. We worked with Vigorous Interventions In Ongoing Natural Settings (VISIONS) Inc., a process consultant and training organization, to develop a capacity building model. We present the conceptual framework and multicultural process of change (MPOC) that was used to build individual and partnership capacity to address health disparities. The process and capacity building model provides a common language, approach, and toolset to understand differences and the dynamics of inequity. These tools can be used by other partnerships in the conduct of research to achieve health equity.

  4. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    OpenAIRE

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology,...

  5. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available series of high level research programmes for ecosystem governance. These are illustrated in the fi gure below. The size of the individual circles indicates the priority attributed to the specifi c research theme by the symposium participants... Governance Socio-econ Define Economy of scale Context application Generic strategies/methods Link to democracy 3 Science Communication, learning & knowledge sharing 4 Integration of formal & traditional systems Hydrological boundaries Value...

  6. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  7. Risk of Bias in Reports of In Vivo Research: A Focus for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Macleod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of experimental findings depends on the rigour of experimental design. Here we show limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in a random sample of life sciences publications, significantly lower reporting of randomisation in work published in journals of high impact, and very limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in publications from leading United Kingdom institutions. Ascertainment of differences between institutions might serve both as a measure of research quality and as a tool for institutional efforts to improve research quality.

  8. Organisation and management of research and development facilities - from cost to profit focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Pearson, Alan; Nixon, Bill

    2003-01-01

    In this publication, we present the main findings of a research project into differences in organisation, management and activities between R&D cost centres, semi-profit centres, profit centres, and independent R&D businesses. First, a theoretical framework is presented and then the empirical

  9. A Framework for Teaching Practice-Based Research with a Focus on Service Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J.; Isokuortti, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice in social work education and agency practice is both complex and challenging. The analysis presented here builds upon the classic social work generalist framework (engagement, assessment, service planning and implementation, service evaluation, and termination) by developing a three-part framework to…

  10. Integrating Program Assessment and a Career Focus into a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Mary Scheuer

    2017-01-01

    Sociology research methods students in 2013 and 2016 implemented a series of "real world" data gathering activities that enhanced their learning while assisting the department with ongoing program assessment and program review. In addition to the explicit collection of program assessment data on both students' development of sociological…

  11. Plant invasions research in Latin America. Fast track to a more focused agenda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gardener, M. R.; Bustamante, R.O.; Herrera, I.; Durigan, G.; Pivello, V.R.; Moro, M. F.; Stoll, A.; Langdon, B.; Baruch, Z.; Rico, Adriana; Arredondo-Nuńez, A.; Flores, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2012), s. 225-232 ISSN 1755-0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : control * eradication * globalisation * inventories * novel ecosystem s * plant invasions * quarantine * Weed Risk Assessment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2012

  12. "Just Imagine That…": A Solution Focused Approach to Doctoral Research Supervision in Health and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth; Doherty, Kathleen; Andersen, Loretta; Bingham, Sharon; Crookes, Patrick; Ford, Karen; McSherry, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Effective supervision in doctoral research is critical to successful and timely completion. However, supervision is a complex undertaking with structural as well as relational challenges for both students and supervisors. This instructional paper describes an internationally applicable approach to supervision that we have developed in the health…

  13. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  14. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The Future of Research on Evidence-based Developmental Violence Prevention in Europe – Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eisner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Across Europe, there is an increasing demand for good evidence that can inform policies aimed at reducing violence against and among children and adolescents. However, there is still a paucity of high-quality research on effective prevention of bullying and violence, and researchers from different parts of Europe rarely discuss their findings. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence brings together work by prominent preventionscholars from across Europe, who show that significant progress is being made. The introduction presents nine recommendations about how prevention research could be further strengthened in Europe.

  16. Research on long-lived radioactive waste management: focus on environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre Jehan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies are in progress on deep geologic media to examine their potential for retrievable or non retrievable nuclear waste disposal. The primary objective of site investigations and experiments for the coming years will be the development of underground laboratories (observation of host rocks and fluids). Geologic research programs are designed to investigate the potential for deep construction and the ability of the underground media to isolate radioelements from the biosphere. Researches covered the following topics: understanding the media likely to be found in underground laboratories using 3-D geologic modelling; predicting the materials behaviour under various mechanical, thermal and radiation loadings; describing fluid transfers through the geosphere and assessing radioactive materials transport and/or blockage by understanding the multiple geochemical mechanisms involved. The geologic and climatic long term behaviours are also taken into account. (author). 13 figs

  17. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Čížková, Jana; Červenka, Jakub; Vodička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2697. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05534S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cytokine * cancer * melanoma * secretome * proteomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  18. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring.

  19. Specific features of X-ray generation by plasma focus chambers with deuterium and deuterium–tritium fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulatov, A. K., E-mail: bogolubov@vniia.ru; Krapiva, P. S.; Lemeshko, B. D.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moskalenko, I. N.; Prokuratov, I. A.; Selifanov, A. N. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The process of hard X-ray (HXR) generation in plasma focus (PF) chambers was studied experimentally. The radiation was recorded using scintillation detectors with a high time resolution and thermoluminescent detectors in combination with the method of absorbing filters. Time-resolved analysis of the processes of neutron and X-ray generation in PFs is performed. The spectra of HXR emission from PF chambers with deuterium and deuterium–tritium fillings are determined. In experiments with PF chambers filled with a deuterium–tritium mixture, in addition to the HXR pulse with photon energies of up to 200–300 keV, a γ-ray pulse with photon energies of up to 2.5–3.0 MeV is recorded, and a mechanism of its generation is proposed.

  20. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium.

  1. The Specification of Science Education Programs in the Local Public Library: Focusing on the Programs In G-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ja Ahn*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of 'G' has been made a number of achievements with its science program as a part of public library's cultural program during the last 5 years. Recently, the national science centre has been established in the same city, the debate is now needed whether the science program in the public library have reasons to be maintained or to be reduced. The aim of this research is on the operating strategies of the science program in the public library. The research methods include case studies of operational strategies in domestic and foreign science centre, the level of satisfaction of local citizen on the science program, the vision of science program in the advancement of public library in the century. In results, the research proposes that the science program in public library should be maintained, but with locally characterised programs. In addition, the study also advised on the provision of scientific information, the strengthened search functions, and the development of user-centred services for those in science fields.

  2. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  3. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  4. Teaching research ethics better: focus on excellent science, not bad scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Mark; Hunter, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    A recent report of the United States' Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues highlights how important it is for the research community to enjoy the "earned confidence" of the public and how creating a "culture of responsibility" can contribute to that confidence. It identifies a major role for "creative, flexible, and innovative" ethics education in creating such a culture. Other recent governmental reports from various nations similarly call for a renewed emphasis on ethics education in the sciences. We discuss why some common approaches to ethics education in the graduate sciences fail to meet the goals envisioned in the reports and we describe an approach, animated by primary attention on excellent science as opposed to bad scientists, that we have employed in our ethics teaching that we think is better suited for inspiring and sustaining responsible, trustworthy science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using Focus Groups to Research Sensitive Issues: Insights from Group Interviews on Nursing in the Northern Ireland “Troubles”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Jordan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the usefulness of focus groups for researching sensitive issues using evidence from a study examining the experiences of nurses providing care in the context of the Northern Ireland Troubles. They conducted three group interviews with nurses during which they asked about the issues the nurses face(d in providing nursing care amid enduring social division. Through a discursive analysis of within-group interaction, they demonstrate how participants employ a range of interpretive resources, the effect of which is to prioritize particular knowledge concerning the nature of nursing care. The identification of such patterned activity highlights the ethnographic value of focus groups to reveal social conventions guiding the production of accounts but also suggests that accounts cannot be divorced from the circumstances of their production. Consequently, the authors argue that focus groups should be considered most useful for illuminating locally sanctioned ways of talking about sensitive issues.

  6. English Water Meadows: historic relics or focus for environmental management and inter-disciplinary research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Hadrian

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated water meadows are found across Europe, from southern Scandinavia to Spain and in the Alpine regions and Italy. While the practice of engineering 'floated' meadow land for deliberate irrigation on hillsides and floodplains is widespread and ancient, since about 1600 AD the practice was widely adopted on floodplains in southern England where they improved the timing and productivity of grazing land and produced hay crops. They also became a part of English consciousness through art and literature. To some, water meadows are a relic of an agrarian past, to others they are the object of a range of foci for conservation, education, sustainable grass production, community engagement and recent research suggests water returned from meadow irrigation is beneficial to river water quality. Historically floodplain 'bedwork' water meadows grew from, and were integral in, the farming system of 'Wessex' involving sheep which produced dung for arable land and later supporting dairy and beef production, as well as hay. Where systems remain, this is largely due to the whim of individuals, the outcome of agri-environmental schemes. Water meadows may be managed by public, voluntary or private sector bodies. What is needed is a fresh look at how land owners, or communities, might micro-target them for heritage, habitat and grassland management. There are therefore interesting questions concerning their future: Who might invest in their restoration and maintenance? How might they be integrated into commercial farming? Are they of sufficient interest to restore en masse to become (once more) a major feature of the English chalk stream valleys? Do they provide a way into academic and public perception, combining environmental science, history, cultural heritage and environmental management? How might restoration and management become vehicles for public engagement? While each of these questions represents a major topic for discussion, this paper is an attempt to consolidate

  7. THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ON THE WEB – A TWO-EDGED TOOL IN FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Although  the  use  of  the  internet  is  expanding  rapidly  on  college  campuses,  little  is  known  about  student internet  use,  how  students  perceive  the  reality of  internet  information and  how successful they  are  in  searching  the internet.  The  aim  of  this  project  is  to  analyze  the  biochemical  issues  available  in  web  pages,  evaluating  contents quality,  trustworthiness  and  effectiveness.  Fourteen  sites  were  analyzed  regarding  to  contents,  presence  of bibliographical  references,  authorship,  titles  responsibility  and  adequacy  to  target  public.  The  great  majority  did  not mention  bibliographic  references  and  target  public.  Less  than  half  of  the  researched  sites  divulged  names  and/or graduation  status  of  information providers.  Some  sites  contained  critical  conceptual  errors,  such  as:  participation  of H2O  in  the  photosynthesis  dark  phase,  carnivore  animals  feeding  only  on  herbivores,  the  overall  equation  of photosynthesis with errors, NADH2 instead NAD+, etc. Half of them presented identical texts and figures. None of the analyzed  sites  was  thus  considered  excellent.  Our  data  strengthen  the  need  for  rigorous  evaluation  concerning  to educational research of biochemical themes on the web.

  8. Focus on the research utility of intravascular ultrasound - comparison with other invasive modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoye Angela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS is an invasive modality which provides cross-sectional images of a coronary artery. In these images both the lumen and outer vessel wall can be identified and accurate estimations of their dimensions and of the plaque burden can be obtained. In addition, further processing of the IVUS backscatter signal helps in the characterization of the type of the plaque and thus it has been used to study the natural history of the atherosclerotic evolution. On the other hand its indigenous limitations do not allow IVUS to assess accurately stent struts coverage, existence of thrombus or exact site of plaque rupture and to identify some of the features associated with increased plaque vulnerability. In order this information to be obtained, other modalities such as optical coherence tomography, angioscopy, near infrared spectroscopy and intravascular magnetic resonance imaging have either been utilized or are under evaluation. The aim of this review article is to present the current utilities of IVUS in research and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages over the other imaging techniques.

  9. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer – specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neha Gupta, Hassan Hatoum, Grace K DyDepartment of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007 is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel. A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.Keywords: ABI-007, Abraxane, nab

  10. Medical research and audit skills training for undergraduates: an international analysis and student-focused needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Interpreting, performing and applying research is a key part of evidence-based medical practice, however, incorporating these within curricula is challenging. This study aimed to explore current provision of research skills training within medical school curricula, provide a student-focused needs assessment and prioritise research competencies. A international, cross-sectional survey of final year UK and Irish medical students was disseminated at each participating university. The questionnaire investigated research experience, and confidence in the Medical Education in Europe (MEDINE) 2 consensus survey research competencies. Fully completed responses were received from 521 final year medical students from 32 medical schools (43.4% male, mean age 24.3 years). Of these, 55.3% had an additional academic qualification (49.5% Bachelor's degree), and 38.8% had been a named author on an academic publication. Considering audit and research opportunities and teaching experience, 47.2% reported no formal audit training compared with 27.1% who reported no formal research training. As part of their medical school course, 53.4% had not performed an audit, compared with 29.9% who had not participated in any clinical or basic science research. Nearly a quarter of those who had participated in research reported doing so outside of their medical degree course. Low confidence areas included selecting and performing the appropriate statistical test, selecting the appropriate research method, and critical appraisal. Following adjustment, several factors were associated with increased confidence including previous clinical research experience (OR 4.21, 2.66 to 6.81, Paudit skills training in the curriculum (OR 1.52, 1.03 to 2.26, P= 0.036) and research methods taught in a student selected component (OR 1.75, 1.21 to 2.54, P=0.003). Nearly one-third of students lacked formal training on undertaking research, and half of students lacked formal audit training and opportunities to

  11. A focus on the state of the art of food waste/losses issue and suggestions for future researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2017-10-01

    Today, the role of the supply chain (SC) strategies in Food-Waste/Losses (F-W/L) generation is neglected, because F-W/L are generally considered an unavoidable consequence of accidental events. Therefore, only operating plans are today put into practice, which aim at reducing the impact of product losses along the SC. This involves that structured analyses and strategic SC approaches are not available for the prevention/minimization of F-W/L. The paper aims at changing the perspective, and promoting the hypothesis that generation of F-W/L mainly depends on the SC strategies put into practice that are usually optimized on the basis of the market demand. The paper considers the F-W/L an intrinsic characteristic of the SC, which must be put in relation with the market demand and the shelf life of products, for given boundary conditions (legal constraints, politic decisions, climatic and micro macro-economic factors). Thus, the paper aims at reviewing the state of the art of the F-W/L issue, and proposing new research topics in the field of the prevention and minimization of F-W/L, by focusing on: (i) the forecasting of F-W/L, the implementation of adaptive-holistic approaches that model the non-stationary and holistic behaviour of the phenomenon; (ii) the determination of analytical conditions that entail the generation of F-W/L, in relation to the implementation of specific SC strategies; (iii) the study of mathematical models for the assessment of the shelf life, and the evaluation of innovative technologies, which enable the shelf life monitoring; (iv) the study of new shelf life-dependent demand models based on the consumer-utility theory; (v) the redesign of the logistic SC management models, by proposing new SC coordination models, planning and replenishment strategies, and pricing models, for the prevention/minimization of the predictable component of F-W/L; (vi) the design of new risk assessment plans for the management of the accidental component of F

  12. In the Eye of the Beholder: Owner Preferences for Variations in Cats’ Appearances with Specific Focus on Skull Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Sordo, Lorena; Chen, Ruoning; Caney, Sarah M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recently, there has been an increase in popularity of cats with different skull shapes, including shortened or lengthened muzzles. Skull shape, like other physical features, may affect human preferences; however, it is also more likely to have an impact on the welfare of the cat. We asked people to score their preference for 15 pictures of cats across two surveys. Extreme face shapes (those that were very short or very long) were least preferred. Short-faced cats were less popular amongst cat owners from animal related jobs as opposed to other people. Respondents that had a short or long-faced cat preferred cats with the same skull shape, but also had lower preferences for the opposite skull shape. Respondents from Asia, as compared to those from elsewhere, gave higher preference scores to both long and short-faced cats. Amongst the other features, green eyes, a ginger coat color and medium length coat were most preferred, although the ability to draw conclusions around these features is limited, given they are not necessarily independent of skull shape. This study provides the first evidence that preferences for cat breeds, and their associated skull morphologies, are driven by both culture and owner experience. This information may inform future research concerning the preferences of cat owners. Abstract Changes in the popularity of cat breeds are largely driven by human perceptions of, and selection for, phenotypic traits including skull morphology. The popularity of breeds with altered skull shapes appears to be increasing, and owner preferences are an important part of this dynamic. This study sought to establish how and why a range of phenotypic attributes, including skull shape, affect preferences shown by cat owners. Two questionnaires were distributed on-line to cat owners who were asked to rate preferences for pictures of cats on a 0–10 scale. Veterinarian consensus established the skull types of the cats pictured (i.e., level of

  13. Analysis of the intellectual structure of human space exploration research using a bibliometric approach: Focus on human related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sik; Lee, Yoon-Sun; Lee, Jaeho; Chang, Byung Chul

    2018-02-01

    Human space exploration (HSE) is an interdisciplinary field composed of a range of subjects that have developed dramatically over the last few decades. This paper investigates the intellectual structure of HSE research with a focus on human related factors. A bibliometric approach with quantitative analytical techniques is applied to study the development and growth of the research. This study retrieves 1921 papers on HSE related to human factors from the year 1990 to the year 2016 from Web of Science and constructs a critical citation network composed of 336 papers. Edge-betweenness-based clustering is used to classify the citation network into twelve distinct research clusters based on four research themes: "biological risks from space radiation," "health and performance during long-duration spaceflight," "program and in-situ resources for HSE missions," and "habitat and life support systems in the space environment." These research themes are also similar to the classification results of a co-occurrence analysis on keywords for a total of 1921 papers. Papers with high centrality scores are identified as important papers in terms of knowledge flow. Moreover, the intermediary role of papers in exchanging knowledge between HSE sub-areas is identified using brokerage analysis. The key-route main path highlights the theoretical development trajectories. Due to the recent dramatic increase in investment by international governments and the private sector, the theoretical development trajectories of key research themes have been expanding from furthering scientific and technical knowledge to include various social and economic issues, thus encouraging massive public participation. This study contributes to an understanding of research trends and popular issues in the field of HSE by introducing a powerful way of determining major research themes and development trajectories. This study will help researchers seek the underlying knowledge diffusion flow from multifaceted

  14. Overview of recent endeavors on personal aerial vehicles: A focus on the US and Europe led research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolong; Kreimeier, Michael; Stumpf, Eike; Zhou, Yaoming; Liu, Hu

    2017-05-01

    Personal aerial vehicles, an innovative transport mode to bridge the niche between scheduled airliners and ground transport, are seen by aviation researchers and engineers as a solution to provide fast urban on-demand mobility. This paper reviews recent research efforts on the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), with a focus on the US and Europe led research activities. As an extension of the programmatic level overview, several enabling technologies, such as vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL), automation, distributed electric propulsion, which might promote the deployment of PAVs, are introduced and discussed. Despite the dramatic innovation in PAV concept development and related technologies, some challenging issues remain, especially safety, infrastructure and public acceptance. As such, further efforts by many stakeholders are required to enable the real implementation and application of PAVs.

  15. Research on pinches driven by Speed-2 generator: Hard X-ray and neutron emission in plasma focus configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Pavez, C. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Castillo, F. [Insitituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico); Kies, W. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Speed-2 is a generator based on Marx technology and was designed in the University of Dusseldorf. Speed-2 consists on 40 +/- Marx modules connected in parallel (4.1 {mu}F equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt {approx} 10{sup 13} A/s). Currently Speed-2 is operating at CCHEN (Chilean nuclear energy commission), being the most powerful and energetic device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the previous works developed in Speed-2 at Dusseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X-ray emission and the neutron emission from Speed-2 was not completely studied. The research program at CCHEN considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded Z-pinch, wire arrays) at current of hundred of kilo- to mega-amperes, using the Speed-2 generator. The Chilean operation has begun implementing and developing diagnostics in a conventional plasma focus configuration operating in deuterium in order to characterize the neutron emission and the hard X-ray production. Silver activation counters, plastics CR39 and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors are used to characterize the neutron emission. Images of metallic plates with different thickness are obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize an effective energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge. (authors)

  16. Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault

  17. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students’ Ability to Read Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacum, Edwin B. Van; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach—based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory—means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors’ arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students’ ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students’ evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. PMID:26086657

  18. Asthma-specific cognitions, self-focused attention, and fear of negative evaluation in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N; Tackett, Alayna P; Suorsa, Kristina I; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of asthma-specific thought intrusion (TI) and thought suppression (TS) on two cognitive-affective variables (self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation) among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma. Participants were 290 AYAs who completed assessment questionnaires and participated in a written exercise electronically. Asthma-TI and TS were reported by participants following participation in a writing assignment. Asthma-TI was associated with increased private, public, and social anxiety self-focused attention, and greater fear of negative evaluation. Interestingly, asthma-TS was not associated with these same outcome variables. Findings suggest illness-specific cognitions are associated with cognitive-affective variables and it may be important to assess for illness-specific intrusive thoughts following asthma-focused medical appointments. Additionally, findings suggest the importance of assessing asthma-TI and TS separately in order to better understand thoughts about health and psychological functioning.

  19. Grupo focal em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens Focus groups in qualitative research about reading with youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cabral da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma experiência em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens na área da Educação, utilizando-se como método de coleta de dados o grupo focal. O método foi descrito e analisado à luz da abordagem sócio-histórica da linguagem. Além disso, o texto discute os desafios e as reflexões éticas em relação à utilização do método.This paper describes a qualitative research about reading with youths in the educational fields using focus groups methodology. The concept of focus groups was described and analyzed in the light of the social historical perspective of language. Furthermore, this text discusses the challenges and the ethical concerns regarding this methodology.

  20. How to Research People's First Impressions of Websites? Eye-Tracking as a Usability Inspection Method and Online Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herendy, Csilla

    The visual surface of the Hungarian governmental portal - magyarorszag.hu - was inspected in 2007 with two different inspection methods: Eye tacking research and Online focus group research. Both methods help to understand and to chart not only the usability of different websites but also the affective imp ressions associated with the websites. In this study, an Experimental and a Control-group were tested to assess the usability of the site and the emotional re actions to it. The results reveal that the Hungarian government website is too complicated, dull and difficult to apprehend at a glance.

  1. Applications of Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells; Focused on Disease Modeling, Drug Screening and Therapeutic Potentials for Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Yong Soon; Chaudhari, Pooja; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research have significantly changed our perspectives on regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. In this review, we describe the human iPSC generation from developmentally diverse origins (i.e. endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm- tissue derived human iPSCs) and multistage hepatic differentiation protocols, and discuss both basic and clinical applications of...

  2. Perceptions of Faculty toward Integrating Technology in Undergraduate Higher Education Traditional Classrooms at Research-Focused Regional Universities in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Cheri Deann

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of faculty members who use technology in undergraduate higher education traditional classrooms in research-focused regional universities in South Texas. Faculty members at research-focused regional universities are expected to divide time judiciously into three major areas: research, service, and…

  3. Economic terms and beyond how researchers in specialised varieties of English can benefit from focusing on terms

    CERN Document Server

    Resche, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, and the evolution of the ideas that have nurtured it. Choosing the field of economics as an example, the author approaches terms from a diachronic, descriptive and contextual perspective, focusing on neonyms, metaphorical, ambiguous or indeterminate terms, as well as inte

  4. Mapping the author gender-distribution of disease-specific medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.P.; Schneider, J.W.; Nielsen, M.W.

    2016-07-01

    This short paper responds to a recent call for attention to the “diversity challenge” in biomedical research, specifically with regard to gender diversity. The lack of diversity can be limiting for the progression of knowledge production, a viewpoint shared by both the European Commission, the League of European Research Universities and the National Institute of Health. (Author)

  5. PROVISION OF RESEARCH SUPPORT SERVICES TO ODL LEARNERS BY TUTORS: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University’s Bachelor of Education (Educational Management Research Students’ Supervision Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichaona MAPOLISA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students

  6. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  7. Patients’ and caregivers’ needs, experiences, preferences and research priorities in spiritual care: A focus group study across nine countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Lucy Ellen; Brighton, Lisa Jane; Sinclair, Shane; Karvinen, Ikali; Egan, Richard; Speck, Peter; Powell, Richard A; Deskur-Smielecka, Ewa; Glajchen, Myra; Adler, Shelly; Puchalski, Christina; Hunter, Joy; Gikaara, Nancy; Hope, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spiritual distress is prevalent in advanced disease, but often neglected, resulting in unnecessary suffering. Evidence to inform spiritual care practices in palliative care is limited. Aim: To explore spiritual care needs, experiences, preferences and research priorities in an international sample of patients with life-limiting disease and family caregivers. Design: Focus group study. Setting/participants: Separate patient and caregiver focus groups were conducted at 11 sites in South Africa, Kenya, South Korea, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland and Poland. Discussions were transcribed, translated into English and analysed thematically. Results: A total of 74 patients participated: median age 62 years; 53 had cancer; 48 were women. In total, 71 caregivers participated: median age 61 years; 56 were women. Two-thirds of participants were Christian. Five themes are described: patients’ and caregivers’ spiritual concerns, understanding of spirituality and its role in illness, views and experiences of spiritual care, preferences regarding spiritual care, and research priorities. Participants reported wide-ranging spiritual concerns spanning existential, psychological, religious and social domains. Spirituality supported coping, but could also result in framing illness as punishment. Participants emphasised the need for staff competence in spiritual care. Spiritual care was reportedly lacking, primarily due to staff members’ de-prioritisation and lack of time. Patients’ research priorities included understanding the qualities of human connectedness and fostering these skills in staff. Caregivers’ priorities included staff training, assessment, studying impact, and caregiver’s spiritual care needs. Conclusion: To meet patient and caregiver preferences, healthcare providers should be able to address their spiritual concerns. Findings should inform patient- and caregiver-centred spiritual care provision, education and

  8. A guide to writing a scientific paper: a focus on high school through graduate level student research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.

  9. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lacum, Edwin B; Ossevoort, Miriam A; Goedhart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach-based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory-means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors' arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students' ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students' evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. © 2014 E. B. Van Lacum et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Focus on International Cooperation in D and D Cost Estimations for Research Reactors and the Role of the IAEA in It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniska, V.; Laraia, M.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating decommissioning costs and collecting funds are the prerequisites for safe, timely and cost effective decommissioning. These issues were addressed by main international organizations involved in decommissioning - IAEA, OECD/NEA and European Commission. While the activities of OECD/NEA and European Commission are focused mainly on nuclear power plants, the activities of IAEA involve the whole spectrum of nuclear facilities worldwide and the aspects of decommissioning of research reactors, due to their spread in member states, have the special position in IAEA activities. The experience in decommissioning of research reactors was accumulated in developed countries and international activities are needed to support the planning and implementation of decommissioning of research reactors in other IAEA Member States. Decommissioning costing plays the key role among these issues. One of the main results of the common effort of the above listed organisations in costing is the standardised structure of decommissioning cost items which was jointly published as the common platform for harmonisation in decommissioning costing and is recommended for general use. Main subject of the paper is the preliminary presentation of a new IAEA project planned for the period 2009-2011 with the objectives to develop the robust standardised cost estimation methodology, which implements the standardised cost structure. The aim of the proposed methodology is to support the Member States to prepare their own specific cost estimates for research reactors. The planned target is the parametric cost estimating model applicable for various types of research reactors and for various national decommissioning backgrounds. The model is supported by facility inventory database and database of unit factors and data specific for facility to be decommissioned. The paper reviews main types of research reactors; the currant practice for decommissioning costing which will be implemented in the

  12. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  13. Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses specifically recombine with different endogenous retroviral sequences to generate mink cell focus-forming viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L H; Cloyd, M W

    1985-01-01

    A group of mink cell focus-forming (MCF) viruses was derived by inoculation of NFS/N mice with Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV 1387) and was compared to a similarly derived group of MCF viruses from mice inoculated with Friend MuLV (Fr-MuLV 57). Antigenic analyses using monoclonal antibodies specific for MCF virus and xenotropic MuLV envelope proteins and genomic structural analyses by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide finger-printing indicated that the Moloney and Friend MCF viruses arose by recombination of the respective ecotropic MuLVs with different endogenous retrovirus sequences of NFS mice.

  14. Using a creativity-focused science program to foster general creativity in young children: A teacher action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani

    The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful

  15. Applications of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells; focused on disease modeling, drug screening and therapeutic potentials for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yong Soon; Chaudhari, Pooja; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2010-12-14

    The recent advances in the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research have significantly changed our perspectives on regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. In this review, we describe the human iPSC generation from developmentally diverse origins (i.e. endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm- tissue derived human iPSCs) and multistage hepatic differentiation protocols, and discuss both basic and clinical applications of these cells including disease modeling, drug toxicity screening/drug discovery, gene therapy and cell replacement therapy.

  16. A Study on Environmental Research Trends Using Text-Mining Method - Focus on Spatial information and ICT -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. J.; Oh, K. Y.; Joung-ho, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recently there are many research about analysing the interaction between entities by text-mining analysis in various fields. In this paper, we aimed to quantitatively analyse research-trends in the area of environmental research relating either spatial information or ICT (Information and Communications Technology) by Text-mining analysis. To do this, we applied low-dimensional embedding method, clustering analysis, and association rule to find meaningful associative patterns of key words frequently appeared in the articles. As the authors suppose that KCI (Korea Citation Index) articles reflect academic demands, total 1228 KCI articles that have been published from 1996 to 2015 were reviewed and analysed by Text-mining method. First, we derived KCI articles from NDSL(National Discovery for Science Leaders) site. And then we pre-processed their key-words elected from abstract and then classified those in separable sectors. We investigated the appearance rates and association rule of key-words for articles in the two fields: spatial-information and ICT. In order to detect historic trends, analysis was conducted separately for the four periods: 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. These analysis were conducted with the usage of R-software. As a result, we conformed that environmental research relating spatial information mainly focused upon such fields as `GIS(35%)', `Remote-Sensing(25%)', `environmental theme map(15.7%)'. Next, `ICT technology(23.6%)', `ICT service(5.4%)', `mobile(24%)', `big data(10%)', `AI(7%)' are primarily emerging from environmental research relating ICT. Thus, from the analysis results, this paper asserts that research trends and academic progresses are well-structured to review recent spatial information and ICT technology and the outcomes of the analysis can be an adequate guidelines to establish environment policies and strategies. KEY WORDS: Big data, Test-mining, Environmental research, Spatial-information, ICT Acknowledgements: The

  17. Inclusion as a focus of employment-related research in intellectual disability from 2000 to 2010: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Cobigo, Virginie; Hamilton, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping review of the research literature on community-based employment for individuals with intellectual disabilities from 2000 to 2010. The review examined the variables studied in each paper, and considered the degree to which elements of social inclusion were addressed. The search strategy identified a total of 245 articles, the total pool of which was reduced to 42 following abstract and text review. Two researchers reviewed the final set of articles and extracted information relevant to the study goals. Independent and dependent measures used in the studies were categorized relative to a conceptual model of social inclusion. The frequency with which each aspect of inclusion was addressed in the studies was totalled, and the resulting pattern analyzed qualitatively. The analysis revealed that the majority of papers identified the work role achieved (i.e. employment and pay rates, job titles) as the primary construct of interest, while fewer than 5 articles focused on central aspects of inclusion, such as sense of belonging, reciprocity, and need fulfillment. This study profiles the evidence base relative to inclusive employment for people with intellectual disabilities. The lack of evidence on the degree to which social inclusion is being achieved through community-based employment highlights a critical area requiring attention.

  18. What specifications for a centre or network of excellence in clinical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Vincent; Lang, Marie; Thoby, Frédérique

    2016-02-01

    The Giens 2015 Workshop Round Table entitled "What specifications for a centre or network of excellence in clinical research?" took a viewpoint distinct from earlier work and studies on changes in clinical research activities in France. The purpose of the present work was to identify, starting from concrete examples, the main strengths and advantages of clinical research activity in France related, in part, to the background environment and also to the specific characteristics of the investigation centres considered to be among the most high-performance units in activity. The criteria retained were grouped into a set of specifications that could be used to establish a "label of excellence" upon which the different teams and clinical research centres could model themselves. It was thus considered that belonging to a centre or structured network with at least a national configuration, when this is possible for the medial topic in question, constitutes a real advantage. Four benchmarks were identified: the scientific and clinical expertise of the head investigator, as well as the qualification and operational capacity of the centre's team; definition and measurement of performance using clearly displayed indicators and evaluation procedures; the quality of the overall trial "process" and of each of its component steps; communication, because know-how and promotion go hand in hand, with the main objective of informing the professional and general public about the value of the research centre meeting the above-mentioned criteria, about its networks of competencies, and more generally, about the important assets of the background of clinical research in France. This sector of research is funded by the public authorities via calls for public grants, financial aids for structures supporting clinical research in the University Hospital Centres and other healthcare institutions allowing for a professionalization of the research occupations, and the national public health

  19. NASA Fixed Wing Project Propulsion Research and Technology Development Activities to Reduce Thrust Specific Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; DelRasario, Ruben; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the propulsion research and technology portfolio of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Fixed Wing Project. The research is aimed at significantly reducing the thrust specific fuel/energy consumption of notional advanced fixed wing aircraft (by 60 % relative to a baseline Boeing 737-800 aircraft with CFM56-7B engines) in the 2030-2035 time frame. The research investments described herein are aimed at improving propulsive efficiency through higher bypass ratio fans, improving thermal efficiency through compact high overall pressure ratio gas generators, and exploring the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion propulsion and hybrid gas-electric propulsion concepts.

  20. South African exporter performance: new research into firm-specific and market characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher May

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The export marketing performance of any firm is influenced by a multitude of different factors. Given the multi-faceted nature of the export market, this research study investigated specific factors such as how firm-specific characteristics, product characteristics, market characteristics and export marketing strategies impact on the export marketing performance of South African manufacturing firms. Some of the findings of this research study indicated that firm size, investment commitment and careful planning, as firm-specific characteristics, had a significant influence on export marketing performance. The relationship between export experience and export marketing performance was insignificant. The degree of pricing adaptation and product adaptation had a significant effect on export marketing performance, while this was not the case with respect to the degree of promotion adaptation and distributor support.

  1. Stroke and myocardial infarction: a comparative systematic evaluation of gender-specific analysis, funding and authorship patterns in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Wiedmann, Silke; Endres, Matthias; Nolte, Christian H; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Heuschmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Major gender differences exist in cardiovascular diseases and lead to different outcomes in women and men. However, attention and incorporation of sex-/gender-specific research might vary among disciplines. We therefore conducted a systematic review comparing publication characteristics and trends between stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) with respect to sex- and gender-related aspects. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed to identify gender-/sex-related articles published for stroke and MI between 1977 and 2008. A specifically designed text mining program was used, and all literature was rated by two independent investigators. Publications were classified according to type of research performed, publication year, funding, geographical location, and gender of first and last authors. 962 articles were retrieved and limited to 405 (42%) gender-relevant publications; 131 on stroke and 274 on MI. Type of performed research differed, especially in disease management, which received little attention (17%) in stroke, while representing the major focus in MI (40%). In both areas, clinical presentation received little attention (3 and 5%). Although publications progressively increased in both fields, an 8- to 10-year time gap emerged for stroke compared to MI. Last authors in both areas were predominantly men, but female last authorship is increasing more significantly over time in the field of stroke. Research on sex and gender differences in MI and stroke is largely underfunded, particularly by the EU. The data demonstrate how sex-/gender-specific research differs between specialties, most likely due to the diverse interest, funding opportunities and authorship distributions identified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    skin or the disease pathology. This work provides a complete overview of the different available in vitro psoriasis models and suggests improvements for future models. Moreover, a focus was given to psoriatic skin equivalent models, as they offer several advantages over the other models, including commercial availability and validity. The potential and reported applicability of these models in psoriasis pre-clinical research is extensively discussed. As such, this work offers a guide to researchers in their choice of pre-clinical psoriasis model depending on their type of research question.

  3. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  4. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  5. Assessment of Soft Power Strategies: Towards an Aggregative Analytical Model for Country-Focused Case Study Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patalakh Artem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper advances a realist analytical model for case studies of national soft power policies. First, it argues that for the purposes of realist analysis, a soft power policy must be considered as a rational strategy pursued under the conditions of competition. Furthermore, it emphasises the importance of taking into account the specificities of the recipient state as well as the fact that a soft power strategy is targeted at both its elite and its public. In addition, the article substantiates the necessity to draw a clear-cut distinction between soft power sources and instruments and shows possible shortcomings that research can have should this distinction fail to be made. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of a competitor’s presence on a soft power strategy and specifies the terms under which disregarding this impact may engender a wrong conclusion.

  6. Creating Learning Experiences that Promote Informal Science Education: Designing Conservation-Focused Interactive Zoo Exhibits through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Peter

    Research on exhibit design over the past twenty years has started to identify many different methods to increase the learning that occurs in informal education environments. This study utilized relevant research on exhibit design to create and study the effectiveness of a mobile interactive exhibit at the Seneca Park Zoo that promotes socialization, engagement in science, and conservation-related practices among guests. This study will serve as one component of a major redesign project at the Seneca Park Zoo for their Rocky Coasts exhibit. This action research study targeted the following question, "How can interactive exhibits be designed to promote socialization, engagement in science, and real-world conservation-related practices (RCPs) among zoo guests?" Specific research questions included: 1. In what ways did guests engage with the exhibit? 2. In what ways were guests impacted by the exhibit? a) What evidence exists, if any, of guests learning science content from the exhibit? b) What evidence exists, if any, of guests being emotionally affected by the exhibit? c) What evidence exists, if any, of guests changing their RCPs after visiting the exhibit? Data were collected through zoo guest surveys completed by zoo guests comparing multiple exhibits, interviews with guests before and after they used the prototype exhibit, observations and audio recordings of guests using the prototype exhibit, and follow-up phone interviews with guests who volunteered to participate. Data were analyzed collaboratively with members of the zoo's exhibit Redesign Team using grounded theory qualitative data analysis techniques to find patterns and trends among data. Initial findings from data analysis were used to develop shifts in the exhibit in order to increase visitor engagement and learning. This process continued for two full action research spirals, which resulted in three iterations of the prototype exhibit. The overall findings of this study highlight the ways in which

  7. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research data management support for large-scale, long-term, interdisciplinary collaborative research centers with a focus on environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt, C.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bareth, G.; Lang, U.

    2017-12-01

    Science conducted in collaborative, cross-institutional research projects, requires active sharing of research ideas, data, documents and further information in a well-managed, controlled and structured manner. Thus, it is important to establish corresponding infrastructures and services for the scientists. Regular project meetings and joint field campaigns support the exchange of research ideas. Technical infrastructures facilitate storage, documentation, exchange and re-use of data as results of scientific output. Additionally, also publications, conference contributions, reports, pictures etc. should be managed. Both, knowledge and data sharing is essential to create synergies. Within the coordinated programme `Collaborative Research Center' (CRC), the German Research Foundation offers funding to establish research data management (RDM) infrastructures and services. CRCs are large-scale, interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, long-term (up to 12 years), university-based research institutions (up to 25 sub-projects). These CRCs address complex and scientifically challenging research questions. This poster presents the RDM services and infrastructures that have been established for two CRCs, both focusing on environmental sciences. Since 2007, a RDM support infrastructure and associated services have been set up for the CRC/Transregio 32 (CRC/TR32) `Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation' (www.tr32.de). The experiences gained have been used to arrange RDM services for the CRC1211 `Earth - Evolution at the Dry Limit' (www.crc1211.de), funded since 2016. In both projects scientists from various disciplines collect heterogeneous data at field campaigns or by modelling approaches. To manage the scientific output, the TR32DB data repository (www.tr32db.de) has been designed and implemented for the CRC/TR32. This system was transferred and adapted to the CRC1211 needs (www.crc1211db.uni-koeln.de) in 2016. Both

  9. Research focus and trends in nuclear science and technology in Ghana: a bibliometric study based on the INIS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, E. A.; Bilson, A.

    2015-01-01

    The peaceful application of atomic energy was introduced into Ghana about fifty years ago. This is the first bibliometric study of nuclear science and technology research publications originating from Ghana and listed in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The purpose was to use the simple document counting method to determine the geographical distribution, annual growth and the subject areas of the publications as well as communication channels, key journals and authorship trends. The main findings of the study were that, a greater number of the nuclear science and technology records listed in the Database were published in Ghana (598 or 56.57% against 459 or 43.43% published outside Ghana). There has been a steady growth in the number of publications over the years with the most productive year being 2012. The main focus of research has been in the area of applied life sciences, comprising plant cultivation & breeding, pest & disease control, food protection and preservation, human nutrition and animal husbandry; followed by chemistry; environmental sciences; radiation protection; nuclear reactors; physics; energy; and radiology and nuclear medicine. The area with the least number of publications was safeguards and physical protection. The main channel of communicating research results was peer reviewed journals and a greater number of the journal articles were published in Ghana followed by the United Kingdom, Hungary and the Netherlands. The core journals identified in this study were Journal of Applied Science and Technology; Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry; Journal of the Ghana Science Association; Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Journal of the Kumasi University of Science and Technology; West African Journal of Applied Ecology; Ghana Journal of Science; Applied Radiation and Isotopes; Annals of Nuclear Energy, IOP Conference Series (Earth and Environmental Science) and Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Eighty percent

  10. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: Insights from a public dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelson Julia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. Methods We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Results Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Conclusion Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record

  11. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: insights from a public dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Donald J; Swinton, Marilyn; Schwartz, Lisa; Abelson, Julia; Charles, Cathy; Northrup, David; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana

    2008-11-19

    The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record for purposes other than clinical care. This could be done, for

  12. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2008-01-01

    Human factors and situational variables, which ca, when modified, interfere in the actions of operators of nuclear installations is studied. This work is focused in the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that can lead to accidents or even other events which can originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named 'Behavioral Analysis' is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also situational, including in these categories; physical variables, work environment, organizational and the social ones. The subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behaviour analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  13. Diagnostic systems for the nuclear fusion and plasma research in the PF-24 plasma focus laboratory at the IFJ PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of diagnostics dedicated to PF-24 - new medium size - plasma focus (PF device built and operated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The PF-24 can operate at energy level up to 93 kJ and charging voltage up to 40 kV. Each condenser is connected with a specially designed spark gap with a very small jitter, which ensures a high effi ciency and a low current rise time. The working parameters of PF-24 generator make it a suitable tool for testing new detection systems to be used in fusion research. Four types of such detection systems are presented in this article: three diagnostic systems used to measure electric quantities (Rogowski coil, magnetic probe, capacitance probe, neutron counter based on beryllium activation, fast neutron pinhole camera based on small-area BCF-12 plastic scintillation detectors and high-speed four-frame soft X-ray camera with microchannel plate.

  14. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of human factors and situational variables, which, when modified, can interfere in the work actions of the operators of nuclear installations. This work is focused on the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that may lead to accidents or even other events which may originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named - Behavioral Analysis - is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also the situational ones, which include physical, work, environment, organizational and social variables. Subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behavior analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  15. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  16. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project VII. Systems analysis specification of computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, I.B.; Kaul, M.K.; Post, R.I.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Vinson, T.J.

    1979-02-01

    An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants

  17. An open dialogue on the draft focus and themes for the next ITS strategic research plan : engaging stakeholders in their discussion and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The : purpose : of : this : document : is : to : identify : the : focus : and : themes : for : the : next : installment : of : the : ITS : Strategic : Research : Plan : and : to : invite : stakeholders : to : participate : in : their : discussion. : ...

  18. Specificity in the licensing process of reduced enrichment in the Bulgarian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, Marietta; Gorinov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The presented paper considers some specific questions of the licensing process regarding the reconstruction of the Bulgarian IRT-2000 research reactor, which includes conversion to the low enriched fuel. This specificity has risen as a result of two facts. The design of the reactor reconstruction was made on the basis of the existing fresh 36% highly enriched fuel. But after finishing of the design process, this fresh highly enriched fuel was shipped back to Russia in the framework of the RERTR program. These facts have involved some changes in both - in the licensing and the design processes. Re-analysis of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations is required to be made on the base of the technical specifications of the new LEU fuel. To facilitate the licensing process the NRA has adopted regulatory acceptance criteria for approval of the reactor core design with LEU fuel. (author)

  19. Task-Specific and Functional Effects of Speed-Focused Elliptical or Motor-Assisted Cycle Training in Children With Bilateral Cerebral Palsy: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L; Stanley, Christopher J; Ohlrich, Laurie; Alter, Katharine E

    2017-08-01

    Locomotor training using treadmills or robotic devices is commonly utilized to improve gait in cerebral palsy (CP); however, effects are inconsistent and fail to exceed those of equally intense alternatives. Possible limitations of existing devices include fixed nonvariable rhythm and too much limb or body weight assistance. To quantify and compare effectiveness of a motor-assisted cycle and a novel alternative, an elliptical, in CP to improve interlimb reciprocal coordination through intensive speed-focused leg training. A total of 27 children with bilateral CP, 5 to 17 years old, were randomized to 12 weeks of 20 minutes, 5 days per week home-based training (elliptical = 14; cycle = 13) at a minimum of 40 revolutions per minute, with resistance added when speed target was achieved. Primary outcomes were self-selected and fastest voluntary cadence on the devices and gait speed. Secondary outcomes included knee muscle strength, and selective control and functional mobility measures. Cadence on trained but not nontrained devices increased, demonstrating task specificity of training and increased exercise capability. Mean gait speed did not increase in either group, nor did parent-reported functional mobility. Knee extensor strength increased in both. An interaction between group and time was seen in selective control with scores slightly increasing for the elliptical and decreasing for the cycle, possibly related to tighter limb coupling with cycling. Task-specific effects were similarly positive across groups, but no transfer was seen to gait or function. Training dose was low (≤20 hours) compared with intensive upper-limb training recommendations and may be insufficient to produce appreciable clinical change.

  20. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  1. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  2. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of…

  3. Research supporting potential modification of the NASA specification for dry heat microbial reduction of spacecraft hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, James A.; Beaudet, Robert; Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary method currently used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts to comply with planetary protection re-quirements. However, manufacturing processes often involve heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. At present, the specifica-tion in NASA document NPR8020.12, describing the process lethality on B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) bacterial spores, does not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit for processing outside a narrow temperature, time and humidity window. Our results from a comprehensive multi-year laboratory research effort have generated en-hanced data sets on four aspects of the current specification: time and temperature effects in combination, the effect that humidity has on spore lethality, and the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance (so called "hardies"). This paper describes potential modifications to the specification, based on the data set gener-ated in the referenced studies. The proposed modifications are intended to broaden the scope of the current specification while still maintaining confidence in a conservative interpretation of the lethality of the DHMR process on microorganisms.

  4. Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is a revision of Safety Series No. 35-G2 on safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors. It provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for the categorization, safety assessment and approval of research reactor experiments and modification projects. Specific safety considerations in different phases of utilization and modification projects are covered, including the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases. Guidance is also provided on the operational safety of experiments, including in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices. Examples of the application of the safety categorization process for experiments and modification projects and of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment are also provided. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system for the utilization and modification of a research reactor; 3. Categorization, safety assessment and approval of an experiment or modification; 4. Safety considerations for the design of an experiment or modification; 5. Pre-implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 6. Implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 7. Post-implementation phase of a utilization or modification project; 8. Operational safety of experiments at a research reactor; 9. Safety considerations in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices; 10. Safety aspects of out-of-reactor-core installations; Annex I: Example of a checklist for the categorization of an experiment or modification at a research reactor; Annex II: Example of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment at a research reactor; Annex III: Examples of reasons for a modification at a research reactor.

  5. Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This Safety Guide is a revision of Safety Series No. 35-G2 on safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors. It provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for the categorization, safety assessment and approval of research reactor experiments and modification projects. Specific safety considerations in different phases of utilization and modification projects are covered, including the pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation phases. Guidance is also provided on the operational safety of experiments, including in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices. Examples of the application of the safety categorization process for experiments and modification projects and of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment are also provided. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system for the utilization and modification of a research reactor; 3. Categorization, safety assessment and approval of an experiment or modification; 4. Safety considerations for the design of an experiment or modification; 5. Pre-implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 6. Implementation phase of a modification or utilization project; 7. Post-implementation phase of a utilization or modification project; 8. Operational safety of experiments at a research reactor; 9. Safety considerations in the handling, dismantling, post-irradiation examination and disposal of experimental devices; 10. Safety aspects of out-of-reactor-core installations; Annex I: Example of a checklist for the categorization of an experiment or modification at a research reactor; Annex II: Example of the content of the safety analysis report for an experiment at a research reactor; Annex III: Examples of reasons for a modification at a research reactor.

  6. MMCTP: a radiotherapy research environment for Monte Carlo and patient-specific treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, A; DeBlois, F; Stroian, G; Al-Yahya, K; Heath, E; Seuntjens, J

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective and retrospective treatment planning studies. We designed the software package 'McGill Monte Carlo treatment planning' (MMCTP) for the research development of MC and patient-specific treatment planning. The MMCTP design consists of a graphical user interface (GUI), which runs on a simple workstation connected through standard secure-shell protocol to a cluster for lengthy MC calculations. Treatment planning information (e.g., images, structures, beam geometry properties and dose distributions) is converted into a convenient MMCTP local file storage format designated, the McGill RT format. MMCTP features include (a) DICOM R T, RTOG and CADPlan CART format imports; (b) 2D and 3D visualization views for images, structure contours, and dose distributions; (c) contouring tools; (d) DVH analysis, and dose matrix comparison tools; (e) external beam editing; (f) MC transport calculation from beam source to patient geometry for photon and electron beams. The MC input files, which are prepared from the beam geometry properties and patient information (e.g., images and structure contours), are uploaded and run on a cluster using shell commands controlled from the MMCTP GUI. The visualization, dose matrix operation and DVH tools offer extensive options for plan analysis and comparison between MC plans and plans imported from commercial treatment planning systems. The MMCTP GUI provides a flexible research platform for the development of patient-specific MC treatment planning for photon and electron external beam radiation therapy. The impact of this tool lies in the fact that it allows for systematic, platform

  7. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  8. A Development of Technical Specification of a Research Reactor with Plate Fuels Cooled by Upward Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sujin; Kim, Jeongeun; Kim, Hyeonil

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the TS(Technical Specifications) are definitions, safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls. TS for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been developed since many years until now. On the other hands, there are no applicable modernized references of TS for research reactors with many differences from NPPs in purpose and characteristics. Fuel temperature and Departure from Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) are being used as references from the thermal-hydraulic analysis point of view for determining whether the design of research reactors satisfies acceptance criteria for the nuclear safety or not. Especially for research reactors using plate-type fuels, fuel temperature and critical heat flux, however, are very difficult to measure during the reactor operation. This paper described the outline of main contents of a TS for open-pool research reactor with plate-type fuels using core cooling through passive systems, where acceptance criteria for nuclear safety such as CHF and fuel temperature cannot be directly measured, different from circumstances in NPPs. Thus, three independent variables instead of non-measurable acceptance criteria: fuel temperature and CHF are considered as safety limits, i.e., power, flow, and flow temperature

  9. Tackling the Reproducibility Problem in Systems Research with Declarative Experiment Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Ivo [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Maltzahn, Carlos [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lofstead, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Validating experimental results in the field of computer systems is a challenging task, mainly due to the many changes in software and hardware that computational environments go through. Determining if an experiment is reproducible entails two separate tasks: re-executing the experiment and validating the results. Existing reproducibility efforts have focused on the former, envisioning techniques and infrastructures that make it easier to re-execute an experiment. In this work we focus on the latter by analyzing the validation workflow that an experiment re-executioner goes through. We notice that validating results is done on the basis of experiment design and high-level goals, rather than exact quantitative metrics. Based on this insight, we introduce a declarative format for specifying the high-level components of an experiment as well as describing generic, testable conditions that serve as the basis for validation. We present a use case in the area of storage systems to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. We also discuss limitations and potential benefits of using this approach in other areas of experimental systems research.

  10. Trends in Research on the Security of Medical Information in Korea: Focused on Information Privacy Security in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Woon; Cho, Namin; Jang, Hye-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Information technology involves a risk of privacy violation in providing easy access to confidential information,such as personal information and medical information through the Internet. In this study, we investigated medical information security to gain a better understanding of trends in research related to medical information security. We researched papers published on '의료정보' and 'medical information' in various Korean journals during a 10-year period from 2005 to 2015. We also analyzed these journal papers for each fiscal year; these papers were categorized into the areas of literature research and empirical research, and were further subdivided according to themes and subjects. It was confirmed that 48 papers were submitted to 35 academic journals. There were 33 (68.8%) literature review articles, and analysis of secondary data was not carried out at all. In terms of empirical research, 8 (16.7%) surveys and 7 (14.6%) program developments were studied. As a result of analyzing these papers according to the research theme by research method, 17 (35.4%) papers on laws, systems, and policies were the most numerous. It was found that among the literature research papers on medical personnel were the most common, and among the empirical research papers, research on experts in information protection and medical personnel were the most common. We suggest that further research should be done in terms of social perception, human resource development, and technology development to improve risk management in medical information systems.

  11. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  12. Student teaching and research laboratory focusing on brain-computer interface paradigms--A creative environment for computer science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an applied concept of a brain-computer interface (BCI) student research laboratory (BCI-LAB) at the Life Science Center of TARA, University of Tsukuba, Japan. Several successful case studies of the student projects are reviewed together with the BCI Research Award 2014 winner case. The BCI-LAB design and project-based teaching philosophy is also explained. Future teaching and research directions summarize the review.

  13. Specific schedule conditions for the formation of personnel of A or B category working in nuclear facilities. Option research center

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This document describes the specific dispositions relative to the Research Center, for the formation to the conventional and radiation risks prevention of personnel of A or B category working in nuclear facilities. The application domain, the applicable documents, the liability, the specificity of the Research Center and of the retraining, the Passerelle formation, are presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Puig, Marieva; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eida; Morales, Marangelie; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV, the objective being to discover why they engaged in maladaptive behaviors as a way of coping with felt stigma. We used deductive and inductive analysis to codify the resulting data. Concepts associated with the word stigma, emotional reactions to felt stigma, and the impact of felt stigma on self-schema helped elucidate how the internalization of felt stigma can lead to negative affective states and self-destructive behaviors (e.g., drug use and syringe exchange). Results underline the importance of developing intervention models that reduce stigma as a means of HIV prevention in vulnerable populations.

  15. The Body as a Substrate of Differentiation. Shifting the Focus from Race Science to Life Scientists' Research on Human Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipphardt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article suggests to focus on the history of human variation instead of focussing on the history of race science. It views the latter as a subset of the former, hence views race science as embedded into the larger field of life scientists' investigations into human variation. This paper explores why human variation is such an attractive and productive object particularly for the life sciences. It proposes that knowledge about human variation is incomplete in a promising way, and ...

  16. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a certain trait, the following specific procedures in evaluation of the trait are necessary: the estimation of a popping volume and flake quality in popping maize; the determination of sugars and harvest maturity in sweet maize; the determination of oil in selected samples of high-oil maize types, and so forth. Breeding programmes for speciality maize, except high-amylose maize, have been implemented at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Belgrade, for the last 45 years. A great number of high-yielding sweet maize hybrids, popping maize, high-oil and high-lysine, flint and white-seeded maize hybrids were developed during this 45-year period. Auspicious selection and breeding for these traits is facilitated by the abundant genetic variability and technical and technological possibilities necessary for successful selection.

  17. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r = .15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  18. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  19. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  20. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  1. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2013-08-13

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.

  2. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000

  3. Medical records confidentiality and public health research: two values at stake? An italian survey focus on individual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilia Toccaceli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a time when Europe is preparing to introduce new regulations on privacy protection, we conducted a survey among 1700 twins enrolled in the Italian Twin Register about the access and use of their medical records for public health research without explicit informed consent. A great majority of respondents would refuse or are doubtful about the access and use of hospital discharge records or clinical data without their explicit consent. Young and female individuals represent the modal profile of these careful people. As information retrieved from medical records is crucial for progressing knowledge, it is important to promote a better understanding of the value of public health research activities among the general population. Furthermore, public opinions are relevant to policy making, and concerns and preferences about privacy and confidentiality in research can contribute to the design of procedures to exploit medical records effectively and customize the protection of individuals’ medical data.

  4. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Modelling complex biophysical processes associated with diseases. Case study: the ecology of vibriocholerae in the Mozambican channel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available will be undertaken. Non-linear dynamics and chaos theory will be applied to enhance our understanding of the link between the microbial ecology, remote sensing and meteorological data. Focus on CSIR Research in Water Resources Contact details: CSIR Natural...

  5. Researchers and Institutions in the Periphery: Challenges in Measuring Research Capacity for Geographically Specific Programs in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkers, J.

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. research funding system supports two geographically targeted government programs designed to enhance the research capacity of less competitive states in seeking federal research funds. Program eligibility is based on a relatively narrow measures of overall jurisdiction research funding track record. Yet, in order to adequately measure and address improved capacity development in these areas, a more nuanced understanding of the research capacity in these settings is needed. While the metric of prior research funding metric may be useful in assigning jurisdictions program eligibility, they do not account for variations within or across these areas, nor for factors that may function differently in lower capacity regions. This paper addresses the particular institutional and social/human capital aspects of measuring and identifying research capacity in these regions. Institutional data are used to categorize institutions within and across eligible jurisdictions. Survey data are used to address capacity issues and factors relevant to capacity development at the researcher level. (Author)

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Distributed Leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory Development, Empirical Evidence and Future Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Risku, Mika; Collin, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a meta-analysis of research conducted on distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013. It continues the review of distributed leadership commissioned by the English National College for School Leadership (NCSL) ("Distributed Leadership: A Desk Study," Bennett et al., 2003), which identified two gaps in the research…

  7. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

  8. Research Productivity in Rehabilitation, Disability, and Allied Health Programs: A Focus Group Perspective on Minority-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Fariborz; Manyibe, Edward O.; Washington, Andre L.; Johnson, Jean; Davis, Dytisha; Eugene-Cross, Kenyotta; Moore, Cayla A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The article outlines select individual and institutional factors that could contribute to rehabilitation, disability, and health research productivity among minority-serving institutions (MSIs; i.e., historically Black colleges/universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, and American Indian tribal colleges/universities). Method: We…

  9. Qualitative to Quantitative and Spectrum to Report: An Instrument-Focused Research Methods Course for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alyssa C.; Boucher, Michelle A.; Pulliam, Curtis R.

    2015-01-01

    Our Introduction to Research Methods course is a first-year majors course built around the idea of helping students learn to work like chemists, write like chemists, and think like chemists. We have developed this course as a hybrid hands-on/ lecture experience built around instrumentation use and report preparation. We take the product from one…

  10. Left Brain/Right Brain: Research and Learning. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppele, Ruth

    This 27-item bibliography represents the variety of articles added to the ERIC database from 1983 through 1988 on left-brain/right-brain research, theory, and application as it relates to classroom incorporation. Included are conflicting opinions as to the usefulness of left-brain/right-brain studies and their application in the learning…

  11. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review focused on Data Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; Slagt, M.I.; van Wesel, F.

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving

  12. The contribution of mixed methods research to the field of childhood trauma: a narrative review focused on data integration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; Slagt, M.; Wesel, F. van

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or “yield”). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving

  13. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

  14. Privilege and status in an unequal society: shifting the focus of health promotion research to include the maintenance of advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine

    2010-10-01

    There has been a great deal of social policy and health promotion practice directed toward the inclusion of underprivileged groups with the aim of improving their health. This focus on disadvantaged people and poor communities, to help them empower themselves and improve their lot, often fails because it ignores the role of the broader society. We neglect to note the crucial part that the advantaged play in perpetuating inequalities. Theory and empirical work from sociology and anthropology points to the everyday ways in which privileged people are able to maintain their advantage and even hi-jack the benefits of public health programmes designed to improve the health of the poor. Some examples from these other disciplines suggest ways in which a social psychological perspective can contribute to an understanding of how inequalities and poverty are perpetuated in everyday life. These understandings will inform the effectiveness of social programmes to reduce inequalities.

  15. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  16. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  17. A decade of research on health content in the media: the focus on health challenges and sociocultural context and attendant informational and ideological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N

    2006-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the health and illness content of popular media in the domains of advertising, journalism, and entertainment. This article reviews the past 10 years of this research, describing the relationship between the health topics addressed in the research, the shifting focus of concerns about the media, and, ultimately, the variation in problems for health promotion. I suggest that research attending to topics related to bodily health challenges focused on whether popular media accurately or appropriately represented health challenges. The implication was that there is some consensus about more right or wrong, complete or incomplete ways of representing an issue; the problem was that the media are generally wrong. Alternatively, research addressing topics related to sociocultural context issues focused on how certain interests are privileged in the media. The implication was that competing groups are making claims on the system, but the problem was that popular media marginalizes certain interests. In short, popular media is not likely to facilitate understandings helpful to individuals coping with health challenges and is likely to perpetuate social and political power differentials with regard to health-related issues. I conclude by offering some possibilities for future health media content research.

  18. Toward an integrative understanding of narrative and emotion processes in Emotion-focused therapy of depression: implications for theory, research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.

  19. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  20. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Tromsoe Univ.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  1. Doing Institutional Research: A Focus on Professional Development. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research (9th, Durham, New Hampshire, October 17-19, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana M., Ed.

    Institutional research that focuses on professional development is addressed in 35 papers from the 1982 meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research. Titles and authors include the following: "Modeling College Student Adjustment and Retention for the Individual Institution" (Norman D. Aitken); "The Development Saga of an…

  2. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  3. Using customer-focused research and design to build a self-service online store: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi MB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Ahmadi,1 William Trefzger,2 Rich Morey,1 Ileana Quintas31Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, 2Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, 3IQ Solutions, Inc, Rockville, MD, USAAbstract: American government information centers need to be responsive to an increasingly customer driven information environment while ensuring the sustainability of operations. Enhanced self-service options offer one avenue for addressing both of these needs. This article presents a case study of how the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration used extensive stakeholder research and a customer-centric design to reframe its service model by building a self-service online store that integrates access to more than 1300 behavioral health publications previously housed in two separate clearinghouses. The redesigned Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Store offers users a modern e-commerce website that not only helps customers find, order, download, and share products, but also encourages serendipitous content exploration, which has led to increased orders containing both substance abuse and mental health publications.Keywords: customer research, taxonomy, usability testing, web analytics, web design

  4. Fund my treatment!: A call for ethics-focused social science research into the use of crowdfunding for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Mathers, Annalise; Crooks, Valorie A

    2016-11-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising money from large groups of individuals, often through the use of websites dedicated to this purpose. Crowdfunding campaigns aimed at raising money to pay for expenses related to receiving medical treatment are receiving increased media attention and there is evidence that medical crowdfunding websites are heavily used. Nonetheless, virtually no scholarly attention has been paid to these medical crowdfunding campaigns and there is no systematic evidence about how widely they are used and for what reasons, and what effects they have on the provision of medical care and individuals' relationships to their health systems. Ethical concerns have been raised in relation to these campaigns, focusing on issues for campaigners and donors such as exposure to fraudulent campaigns, loss of privacy, and fairness in how medical crowdfunding funds are distributed. Medical crowdfunding websites themselves have not been systematically studied, despite their significant influence on how these campaigns are developed and promoted. In this paper, we identify three very broad and pressing ethical questions regarding medical crowdfunding for social scientists to address and offer some preliminary insights into key issues informing future answers to each: Who benefits the most from medical crowdfunding and how does medical crowdfunding affect access to medical care; How does medical crowdfunding affect our understanding of the causes of inadequate access to medical care; and How are campaigner and donor privacy affected by website design? Our observations indicate the need for increased scholarly attention to the ethical and practical effects of medical crowdfunding for campaigners, recipients, donors, and the health system as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of the state-of-the-art and focused research in range systems, task 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, J. K.

    1986-07-01

    This final report presents the latest research activity in voice compression. We have designed a non-real time simulation system that is implemented around the IBM-PC where the IBM-PC is used as a speech work station for data acquisition and analysis of voice samples. A real-time implementation is also proposed. This real-time Voice Compression Board (VCB) is built around the Texas Instruments TMS-3220. The voice compression algorithm investigated here was described in an earlier report titled, Low Cost Voice Compression for Mobile Digital Radios, by the author. We will assume the reader is familiar with the voice compression algorithm discussed in this report. The VCB compresses speech waveforms at data rates ranging from 4.8 K bps to 16 K bps. This board interfaces to the IBM-PC 8-bit bus, and plugs into a single expansion slot on the mother board.

  6. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  8. "HEY, MOM, THANKS!": USE OF FOCUS GROUPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLACE-SPECIFIC MATERIALS FOR A COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION CAMPAIGN. (R827027)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  11. Acquisition of a Multi-Domain Advanced Real-Time Simulator to Support DoD-focused Interdisciplinary Research at CSUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6...0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU UU UU UU 17-10-2017 25-Jul-2016 24-Jul-2017 Final...Report: Acquisition of a Multi-Domain Advanced Real- Time Simulator to Support DoD-focused Interdisciplinary Research at CSUB The views, opinions and

  12. A Design-Based Research Project on Information Literacy Focusing on Process, Reflections and Self-Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majbritt Ursula Johansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many curriculums assume that the new generation of students are digital natives and information literate. However, studies show that this is not often the case. From these studies and our own experiences working with multidisciplinary students in the Health Sciences we found that students were not as information literate as required in the curriculum. Using Design Based Research as a method (following the four phases below, we developed a new information search process and a web-based tool with feedback opportunities from teachers and librarians in order to qualify the students competencies. Problem identification: Despite earlier initiatives from library and department, the students didn’t achieve higher levels of information literacy. Prototyping: Requirements and educational material were merged and tested while gathering feedback. Iterations: The prototype and feedback were evaluated and developed into a new information search process, which was tested and evaluated. Reflection and generalization: Initiative was taken to develope a web-based application visualizing the steps with the learning points: self-feedback, peer-feedback and counselor feedback. The result of the project is a new information search process model and a web-based learning environment called B!NKO 2.0. The evaluations have shown positive feedback on both the process and the web tool. The project has opened up new possibilities that go beyond the Health multidisciplinary students. A new project concerning the Humanities and Social Sciences is incipient. In this project new functionalities are also expected. B!NKO 2.0 has to a great extent shown its worth to help Health multidisciplinary students to get a deeper understanding of information literacy, and how to develop and change searches to get better results. B!NKO 2.0 has also given a positive "side effect” on the librarians work. Time spend on the "Book a Librarian” service have decreased for the librarians using

  13. The relevance of preclinical research models for the development of antimigraine drugs: Focus on 5-HT1B/1D and CGRP receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S.; Villalon, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    to the relief of migraineurs. Pathophysiological factors culminating into migraine headaches have not yet been completely deciphered and, thus, pose an additional challenge for preclinical research in the absence of any direct experimental marker. Migraine provocation experiments in humans use a head......-score to evaluate migraine, as articulated by the volunteer, which cannot be applied to laboratory animals. Therefore, basic research focuses on different symptoms and putative mechanisms, one at a time or in combination, to validate the hypotheses. Studies in several species, utilizing different preclinical...... incorporating the newer ideas/techniques in order to get better insights into migraine pathophysiology. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...

  14. Work-life balance – the impact of national policies. A comparative study between Germany and Greece with a special focus on early career researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Lola, Magda; Meyer, Dagmar M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted regarding the link between good work-life balance and the representation of women in senior professional positions. However, many of these studies are not entirely applicable to the case of researchers, or they miss out on a number of aspects that are rather specific to researchers. In this paper we discuss some of the issues that have a bearing on the topic of work-life balance for researchers from the perspective of two different counties, Germany...

  15. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D

    2013-11-01

    Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed. Scientific problems with the animal models include the use of crude, uncontrolled and non-standardised methods for traumatisation, an inability to model all key trauma mechanisms, and complex modulating effects of general anaesthesia on target organ physiology. Such effects depend on the anaesthetic and influence the cardiovascular system, respiration, breathing, cerebral haemodynamics, neuroprotection, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Some anaesthetics also bind to the NMDA brain receptor with possible differential consequences in control and anaesthetised animals. There is also some evidence for gender-specific effects. Despite the fact that these issues are widely known, there is little published information on their potential, at best, to complicate data interpretation and, at worst, to invalidate animal models. There is also a paucity of detail on the anaesthesiology used in studies, and this can hinder correct data evaluation. Welfare issues relate mainly to the possibility of acute pain as a side-effect of traumatisation in recovered animals. Moreover, there is the increased potential for animals to suffer when anaesthesia is temporary, and the procedures invasive. These dilemmas can be addressed, however, as a diverse range of replacement approaches exist, including computer and mathematical

  16. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States experience a disproportionately high burden of harms from substance misuse. Research is therefore required to improve our understanding of substance use in Indigenous populations and provide evidence on strategies effective for reducing harmful use. A search of 13 electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2014 focusing on substance use and Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Relevant abstracts were classified as data or non-data based research. Data-based studies were further classified as measurement, descriptive or intervention and their trends examined by country and drug type. Intervention studies were classified by type and their evaluation designs classified using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. There was a statistically significant increase from 1993 to 2014 in the percentage of total publications that were data-based (P Indigenous drug and alcohol field are required. The dominance of descriptive research in the Indigenous drug and alcohol field is less than optimal for generating evidence to inform Indigenous drug and alcohol policy and programs. [Clifford A, Shakeshaft A. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:509-522]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Nod Factor Effects on Root Hair-Specific Transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: Focus on Plasma Membrane Transport Systems and Reactive Oxygen Species Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Isabelle; Drain, Alice; Guichard, Marjorie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Boscari, Alexandre; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Brunaud, Véronique; Cottaz, Sylvain; Rancurel, Corinne; Da Rocha, Martine; Fizames, Cécile; Fort, Sébastien; Gaillard, Isabelle; Maillol, Vincent; Danchin, Etienne G J; Rouached, Hatem; Samain, Eric; Su, Yan-Hua; Thouin, Julien; Touraine, Bruno; Puppo, Alain; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Pauly, Nicolas; Sentenac, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF) for 4 or 20 h was carried out. This provided a repertoire of genes displaying expression in root hairs, responding or not to NF, and specific or not to legumes. In analyzing the transcriptome dataset, special attention was paid to pumps, transporters, or channels active at the plasma membrane, to other proteins likely to play a role in nutrient ion uptake, NF electrical and calcium signaling, control of the redox status or the dynamic reprogramming of root hair transcriptome induced by NF treatment, and to the identification of papilionoid legume-specific genes expressed in root hairs. About 10% of the root hair expressed genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by NF treatment, suggesting their involvement in remodeling plant functions to allow establishment of the symbiotic relationship. For instance, NF-induced changes in expression of genes encoding plasma membrane transport systems or disease response proteins indicate that root hairs reduce their involvement in nutrient ion absorption and adapt their immune system in order to engage in the symbiotic interaction. It also appears that the redox status of root hair cells is tuned in response to NF perception. In addition, 1176 genes that could be considered as "papilionoid legume-specific" were identified in the M. truncatula root hair transcriptome, from which 141 were found to possess an ortholog in every of the six legume genomes that we considered, suggesting their involvement in essential functions specific to legumes. This

  18. Nod factor effects on root hair-specific transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: focus on plasma membrane transport systems and reactive oxygen species networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eDAMIANI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF for 4 h or 20 h was carried out. This provided a repertoire of genes displaying expression in root hairs, responding or not to NF and specific or not to legumes. In analyzing the transcriptome dataset, special attention was paid to pumps, transporters or channels active at the plasma membrane, to other proteins likely to play a role in nutrient ion uptake, NF electrical and calcium signaling, control of the redox status or the dynamic reprogramming of root hair transcriptome induced by NF treatment, and to the identification of papilionoid legume-specific genes expressed in root hairs. About 10 percent of the root hair expressed genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by NF treatment, suggesting their involvement in remodeling plant functions to allow establishment of the symbiotic relationship. For instance, NF-induced changes in expression of genes encoding plasma membrane transport systems or disease response proteins indicate that root hairs reduce their involvement in nutrient ion absorption and adapt their immune system in order to engage in the symbiotic interaction. It also appears that the redox status of root hair cells is tuned in response to NF perception. In addition, 1,176 genes that could be considered as papilionoid legume-specific were identified in the M. truncatula root hair transcriptome, from which 141 were found to possess an orthologue in every of the 6 legume genomes that we considered, suggesting their involvement in essential functions

  19. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Katherine I.

    One of the most overlooked and complex problems that universities and colleges face nation-wide is how to reduce and eliminate research misconduct. Because of the confidential nature of allegations of research misconduct and the high rate of underreporting, administrators at scholarly institutions struggle with understanding the cause of such behavior. Without a clear picture of the prevalence of misconduct or the barriers to reporting, leaders at institutions of higher learning find themselves at a disadvantage when dealing with these problems. This uncertainty coupled with a growing regulatory emphasis from federal funding agencies, results in a reactionary approach while questionable practices go unchecked. In the early 2000s, federal funding agencies began requiring colleges and universities to provide training in the responsible conduct of research prior to receiving funding. The Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training covers research misconduct (falsification of data, fabricating data, and plagiarism) as well as other topics related to research misbehaviors (mentoring, peer review, data management, authorship, etc). This emphasis on training, while well intended, has not had a significant impact on faculty and student knowledge about misconduct. Authentic Leadership Theory is based on Aristotle's concept of authenticity and has gained attention over the last decade. It is comprised of four main components: Balanced processing, internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, and self-awareness. These types of leaders focus on moral standards and values and that is what guides his or her leadership. This study evaluates the impact authentic leaders have on shaping the ethical attitudes of faculty when they are placed in direct departmental supervisory positions. A survey of faculty from 15 Mississippi colleges and universities was conducted. Results indicate that the self-awareness and relational transparency constructs of authentic leadership

  20. Mixed Methods Research Prevalence Studies: Field-Specific Studies on the State of the Art of Mixed Methods Research

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Azorín, José F.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) has always welcomed two main kinds of manuscripts: original empirical articles and methodological/theoretical articles (Creswell & Tashakkori, 2007; Fetters & Freshwater, 2015a; Mertens, 2011). Both types of articles must clearly state methodological aims, review mixed methods literature relative to the methodological aim, and advance the field of mixed methods—empirical articles must address integration (Fetters & Freshwater, 2015b). In this edito...

  1. Design of patient-specific focused ultrasound arrays for non-invasive brain therapy with increased trans-skull transmission and steering range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    The use of a phased array of ultrasound transducer elements to sonicate through the skull has opened the way for new treatments and the delivery of therapeutics beyond the blood-brain barrier. The limited steering range of current clinical devices, particularly at higher frequencies, limits the regions of the brain that are considered treatable by ultrasound. A new array design is introduced that allows for high levels of beam steering and increased transmission throughout the brain. These improvements are achieved using concave transducers normal to the outer-skull surface in a patient-specific configuration to target within the skull, so that the far-field of each beam is within the brain. It is shown that by using pulsed ultrasound waves timed to arrive in-phase at the desired target, sufficient levels of acoustic energy are delivered for blood-brain barrier opening throughout the brain.

  2. Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

    1984-01-01

    The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

  3. Transdisciplinarity Within the North American Climate Change Mitigation Research Community, Specifically the Carbon Dioxide Capture, Transportation, Utilization and Storage Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Steven Michael

    This research investigates the existence of and potential challenges to the development of a transdisciplinary approach to the climate change mitigation technology research focusing on carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) in North America. The unprecedented challenge of global climate change is one that invites a transdisciplinary approach. The challenge of climate change mitigation requires an understanding of multiple disciplines, as well as the role that complexity, post-normal or post-modern science, and uncertainty play in combining these various disciplines. This research followed the general discourse of transdisciplinarity as described by Klein (2014) and Augsburg (2016) which describe it as using transcendence, problem solving, and transgression to address wicked, complex societal problems, and as taught by California School of Transdisciplinarity, where the research focuses on sustainability in the age of post-normal science (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). Through the use of electronic surveys and semi-structured interviews, members of the North American climate change mitigation research community shared their views and understanding of transdisciplinarity (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009). The data indicate that much of the research currently being conducted by members of the North American CCUS research community is in fact transdisciplinary. What is most intriguing is the manner in which researchers arrived at their current understanding of transdisciplinarity, which is in many cases without any foreknowledge or use of the term transdisciplinary. The data reveals that in many cases the researchers now understand that this transdisciplinary approach is borne out of personal beliefs or emotion, social or societal aspects, their educational process, the way in which they communicate, and in most cases, the CCUS research itself, that require this transdisciplinary approach, but had never thought about giving it a name or understanding its origin or

  4. Using focus groups in the consumer research phase of a social marketing program to promote moderate-intensity physical activity and walking trail use in Sumter County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.

  5. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Nasser, Hayedeh

    2014-01-01

    Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988) cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  6. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Dehnad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988 cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  7. Applied Logistics Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    .... Specific research tasks could focus on feasibility studies, cost-benefit analyses, modeling and simulation, front-end analyses, field test support activities, and demonstration system development...

  8. Longitudinal profiling of the tissue-specific expression of genes related with insulin sensitivity in dairy cows during lactation focusing on different fat depots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Saremi

    Full Text Available In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c. AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each were biopsied covering week -3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation.

  9. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  10. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  11. The Research Potential of Educational Theory: On the Specific Characteristics of the Issues of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I present the argument that educational theory has specific character, which distinguishes it from most scientific disciplines. It requires the application of not only strictly scientific methods, which essentially consist of descriptions and explanations, but also normative ones, which indicate how it is related to philosophy and…

  12. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; Van Den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; Van Es, Johan H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  13. Il campo dello sviluppo e le migrazioni contemporanee: analisi di un’esperienza di ricerca - The development field and contemporary migrations: focusing on a research experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenia Marabello

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between migration and development, mainly connotated in favourable terms, proposes with urgency migrants as development agents. They are defined as the new diasporas. Exploring a co-development project financed by the MIDA Ghana-Senegal Programme involving Ghanaian migrants in Modena (Italy, a retrospective analysis focuses on the research setting conditions and opportunities. As an anthropologist, the researcher was first involved as a consultant for the evaluation project implementation and subsequently continued the analysis within academic institutions. With the aim to illustrate the potentialities for applied anthropology, the author will look at the discrepancies and the circular nature of the ethnographic data production and elaboration within the two fieldwork experiences.

  14. ISA-TAB-Nano: A Specification for Sharing Nanomaterial Research Data in Spreadsheet-based Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background and motivation The high-throughput genomics communities have been successfully using standardized spreadsheet-based formats to capture and share data within labs and among public repositories. The nanomedicine community has yet to adopt similar standards to share the diverse and multi-dimensional types of data (including metadata) pertaining to the description and characterization of nanomaterials. Owing to the lack of standardization in representing and sharing nanomaterial data, most of the data currently shared via publications and data resources are incomplete, poorly-integrated, and not suitable for meaningful interpretation and re-use of the data. Specifically, in its current state, data cannot be effectively utilized for the development of predictive models that will inform the rational design of nanomaterials. Results We have developed a specification called ISA-TAB-Nano, which comprises four spreadsheet-based file formats for representing and integrating various types of nanomaterial data. Three file formats (Investigation, Study, and Assay files) have been adapted from the established ISA-TAB specification; while the Material file format was developed de novo to more readily describe the complexity of nanomaterials and associated small molecules. In this paper, we have discussed the main features of each file format and how to use them for sharing nanomaterial descriptions and assay metadata. Conclusion The ISA-TAB-Nano file formats provide a general and flexible framework to record and integrate nanomaterial descriptions, assay data (metadata and endpoint measurements) and protocol information. Like ISA-TAB, ISA-TAB-Nano supports the use of ontology terms to promote standardized descriptions and to facilitate search and integration of the data. The ISA-TAB-Nano specification has been submitted as an ASTM work item to obtain community feedback and to provide a nanotechnology data-sharing standard for public development and adoption. PMID

  15. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a...

  16. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  17. IAEA co-ordinated research programme on the transport of low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prepares regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, and periodically revised editions of these are published. These regulations are adopted by individual countries across the world and by international organisations concerned with transport. Whilst it is desirable to have a stable framework of regulatory requirements, there is also a need to take account of technical advances and operational experience and revise the regulations. From time to time Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) are established to investigate particular areas of the regulations that are giving concern. In 1996 the IAEA Standing Advisory Group on the Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) concluded that the requirements for classification, packaging and transport of low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCO) did not always have a strong radiation protection basis. Accordingly SAGSTRAM established a CRP with an overall objective to develop a dose-based approach for establishing LSA/SCO requirements. Six countries are participating in this CRP. Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, United Kingdom and United States. Each country is carrying out work that is outlined in agreements with the IAEA, with the work aimed at meeting the specific objective of the agreement and also contributing to achieving the overall objective of the CRP. Completion of the CRP usually involves the preparation of an IAEA TECDOC by a Consultant Services Meeting (CSM), and this TECDOC will summarise the work performed under the CRP and include any recommendations made by the CRP. Following the establishment of the CRP in 1997, the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was held in December 1997. The second RCM was held in March 1999, with the final RCM planned for the end of 2000. The work being carried out by Brazil and Canada is focused upon the transport of uranium and thorium ores, and is a mixture of theoretical and

  18. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  19. Light up ADHD: I. Cortical hemodynamic responses measured by functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): Special Section on "Translational and Neuroscience Studies in Affective Disorders" Section Editor, Maria Nobile MD, PhD. This Section of JAD focuses on the relevance of translational and neuroscience studies in providing a better understanding of the neural basis of affective disorders. The main aim is to briefly summarise relevant research findings in clinical neuroscience with particular regards to specific innovative topics in mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Maddalena; Nobile, Maria; Bellina, Monica; Crippa, Alessandro; Brambilla, Paolo

    2018-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in cognitive and emotional self-control. Optical technique acquisitions, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), seem to be very promising during developmental ages, as they are non- invasive techniques and less influenced by body movements than other neuroimaging methods. Recently, these new techniques are being widely used to measure neural correlates underlying neuropsychological deficits in children with ADHD. In a short series of articles, we will review the results of functional NIRS (fNIRS) studies in children with ADHD. The present brief review will focus on the results of the fNIRS studies that investigate cortical activity during neuropsychological and/or emotional tasks. According to the reviewed studies, children and adolescents with ADHD show peculiar cortical activation both during neurological and emotional tasks, and the majority of the reviewed studies revealed lower prefrontal cortex activation in patients compared to typically developmental controls. a consistent interpretation of these results is limited by the substantial methodological heterogeneity including patients' medication status and washout period, explored cerebral regions, neuropsychological tasks, number of channels and sampling temporal resolutions. fNIRS seems to be a promising tool for investigating neural substrates of emotional dysregulation and executive function deficits in individuals with ADHD during developmental ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh): Driving Innovation in Translational Research Through an Incentive-Based, Problem-Focused Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicole Edgar; Maier, John; Yasko, Laurel; Mathias, David; Qua, Kacy; Wagner, Erika; Miller, Elizabeth; Reis, Steven E

    2017-05-01

    Translational research aims to move scientific discoveries across the biomedical spectrum from the laboratory to humans, and to ultimately transform clinical practice and public health policies. Despite efforts to accelerate translational research through national initiatives, several major hurdles remain. The authors created the Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh) as an incentive-based, problem-focused approach to solving identified clinical or public health problems at the University of Pittsburgh Clinical and Translational Science Institute in spring 2014. With input from a broad range of stakeholders, PInCh leadership arrived at the challenge question: How do we empower individuals to take control of their own health outcomes? The authors developed the PInCh's three-round proposal submission and review process as well as an online contest management tool to support the process. Ninety-two teams submitted video proposals in round one. Proposals included mobile applications (29; 32%), other information technology (19; 21%), and community program (22; 24%) solutions. Ten teams advanced to the final round, where three were awarded $100,000 to implement their solution over 12 months. In a 6-month follow-up survey, 6/11 (55%) team leaders stated the PInCh helped to facilitate connections outside their normal sphere of collaborators. Additional educational training sessions related to problem-focused research will be developed. The PInCh will be expanded to engage investment and industry communities to facilitate the translation of solutions to clinical practice via commercialization pathways. External organizations and other universities will be engaged to use the PInCh as a mechanism to fuel innovation in their spaces.

  1. Substantiation of the TVR-M reactor parameter selection and specific features of the research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Kiselev, G.V.; Shvedov, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    Comparative analysis of characteristics of the T-VR-M(ITEP, USSR), GRHF(France) and PIK(LNPI USSR) high-flux heavy water cooled and moderated research reactors is given. The TVR-M reactor design concepts are mainly based on a 35-year experience in operating of the first Soviet heavy water research TVR reactor. As a result of the reactor reconstruction its thermal power will increase up to 25 MW neutron flux in experimental channels will increase 10 fold and reach 5.6x10 14 neutron/cm 2 xc. The TVR-M reactor has the quality value the ratio of maximum thermal neutron flux value the reflector to reactor power in practically the same as for the GRHF reactor (2.24x10 13 (neutron/cm 2 xc)/MW) which allows one to place it among the best research reactors in the world. Maximum fuel burnup of the order of 50% and minimum fuel loading are forseen for the TVR-M reactor which provides for operation cost minimum as compared to the GRHF and PIK reactors. The TVR-M reactor practically does not yield to the PIK and GRMF reactors in experimental channel quantity and exceeds the in the number of vertical channels. The TVR-M reactor experimental capabilities allow one to reduce measuring time and provide for conducting the experiments at a qualitatively new level. At the same time capabilities of radioactive nuclide production in qualitative and quantitative senses are increased

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  3. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. © 2013 Helen Keller International © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  5. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-07-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  6. Learning from research on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals: a review of the literature 2004-2008 with a focus on emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Ina

    2009-09-01

    A review, focusing on emotion, was conducted of reported studies on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals (2004-2008). Findings were intended to offer guidelines on information services and information literacy training, to note gaps in research and to raise research interest. Databases were searched for literature published from January 2004 to December 2008 and indexed on eric, Library and Information Science Abstracts, medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Social Work Abstracts; SocINDEX with Full Text; SPORTDiscus; cinhal; and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key journals were manually scanned and citations followed. Literature was included if reporting on issues concerning emotion. Emotion in information behaviour in healthcare contexts is scantily addressed. This review, however, offers some insight into the difficulty in identifying and expressing information needs; sense making and the need to fill knowledge gaps; uncertainty; personality and coping skills; motivation to seeking information; emotional experiences during information seeking; self-confidence and attitude; emotional factors in the selection of information channels; and seeking information for psychological or emotional reasons. Suggestions following findings, address information literacy programs, information services and research gaps.

  7. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-01-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  8. Towards Python-based Domain-specific Languages for Self-reconfigurable Modular Robotics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Mikael; Johan Christensen, David; Brandt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of operating system and high-level languages in the development of software and domain-specific languages (DSLs) for self-reconfigurable robotics. We review some of the current trends in self-reconfigurable robotics and describe the development of a software system...... for ATRON II which utilizes Linux and Python to significantly improve software abstraction and portability while providing some basic features which could prove useful when using Python, either stand-alone or via a DSL, on a self-reconfigurable robot system. These features include transparent socket...... communication, module identification, easy software transfer and reliable module-to-module communication. The end result is a software platform for modular robots that where appropriate builds on existing work in operating systems, virtual machines, middleware and high-level languages....

  9. Research of coincidence method for calculation model of the specific detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangchun, Hu; Suping, Liu; Jian, Gong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    The physical size of specific detector is known normally, but production business is classified for some sizes that is concerned with the property of detector, such as the well diameter, well depth of detector and dead region. The surface source of even distribution and the sampling method of source particle isotropy sport have been established with the method of Monte Carlo, and gamma ray respond spectral with the {sup 152}Eu surface source been calculated. The experiment have been performed under the same conditions. Calculation and experiment results are compared with relative efficiency coincidence method and spectral similar degree coincidence method. According to comparison as a result, detector model is revised repeatedly to determine the calculation model of detector and to calculate efficiency of detector and spectra. (authors)

  10. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  12. Study of cold and hot sources in a research reactor. (Physics, specifications, operation, utilization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safieh, J.

    1982-10-01

    A brief description of the reactor, sources and experimental channels (ORPHEE being taken as example) is first given. The first part deals with the hot neutron source, mainly made of a graphite block to be carried at a temperature of 1500 0 K by nuclear heating. The present study focused on the determination, with the code MERCURE IV, of heat sources generated in the graphite block. From these results the spatial distribution of temperatures have been calculated with two different methods. Mechanical and thermal stresses have been calculated for the hot points. Then, the outlet neutron spectra is determined by means of the code APOLLO. Finally, the operation of the device is presented and the risks and the safety measures are given. The second part deals with cold neutron sources comprising mainly a cold moderator (liquid hydrogen 20.4 0 K). The helium coolant circuit liquefies the hydrogen by means of heat exchange in a condenser. Cold neutron yields calculations are developed by means of the code THERMOS in the plane and cyclindrical geometries. Heat sources generated by nuclear radiations are calculated. A detailed description of the device and its coolant circuit is given, and a risk analysis is finally presented. The third part deals with the part of thermal cold and hot neutrons in the study of matter and its dynamics. Technical means needed to obtain a monochromatic beam, for diffraction experiments, are recalled emphasizing on the interest of these neutrons with regard to X radiation. Then, one deals with cold neutron guides. Finally, the efficiency of two neutron guides is calculated. 78 refs [fr

  13. Should Research on the Nutritional Potential and Health Benefits of Fermented Cereals Focus More on the General Health Status of Populations in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent-Babot, Caroline; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-25

    Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods. Using examples, we argue that research on traditional fermented cereals in developing countries should focus more on their effect on inflammation and oxidative stress under conditions including infectious or non-infectious gut inflammation.

  14. Should Research on the Nutritional Potential and Health Benefits of Fermented Cereals Focus More on the General Health Status of Populations in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Laurent-Babot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods. Using examples, we argue that research on traditional fermented cereals in developing countries should focus more on their effect on inflammation and oxidative stress under conditions including infectious or non-infectious gut inflammation.

  15. 氪气工质霍尔推力器束聚焦特性研究%Research on Beam Focusing Characteristics of Krypton Hall Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏国俊; 宁中喜; 欧阳磊; 王亚楠; 黎润; 于达仁

    2017-01-01

    以研究氪气替代氙气作为霍尔推力器工质时,等离子体束发散程度大等束聚焦特性问题为目的,通过以霍尔推力器磁场参数、放电电压和阳极工质流量分别作为单一变量进行实验研究,考察其对推力器等离子体束聚焦影响情况.使用HET-P70霍尔推力器进行相关实验,通过改变磁场参数来研究磁场位形对氪气工质推力器性能的影响,最终发现合适磁场位形形成的磁聚焦状态,即实验一中的工况3,可以使羽流发散角达到11.5°,此时推力器放电电压在400V,阳极工质流量3mg/s.另外,通过实验二和实验三,考察阳极工质流量和放电电压对氪等离子体束聚焦的影响机理,发现两个放电参数的变化主要改变了中性气体主电离区位置,进而影响等离子体束聚焦状态.电离位置在设定工况下外移9%,会使得羽流发散半角增大约12°.所以,磁场位形和中性气体的电离位置是影响氪等离子体束聚焦的重要因素,在对氪气霍尔推力器进行设计优化时应予重点考虑.%For the purpose to study the problems of plasma beam focusing,like bad spreading state of plas-ma beam,when krypton is used to replace xenon as the propellant of the electric propulsion,regarding magnet-ic field parameters,discharge voltage and propellant flow of anode as a single variable respectively,three exper-imental researches have been carried out to investigate their effects on beam focusing of the thruster. Experiments was made by the HET-P70 hall thruster to study the effects of magnetic field configuration on krypton thruster performance by changing the parameters of magnetic field,finally finding that the appropriate field configuration can form magnetic focusing state,as case 3 of the first experiment,it can make the plume divergence angle to be 11.5°. And the discharge voltage is 400V,while the propellant flow of anode is 3mg/s at the moment. In addi-tion,the influencing mechanism of

  16. Etiology of Organ-Specific Autoimmunity: Basic Research and Clinical Implications in IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S Eisenbarth

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity develops in the setting of genetic susceptibility and can be monogenic (eg, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I with Addison’s disease, mucocutaneous candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, which is autosomal recessive with the causative gene on the tip of chromosome 21 or polygenic (usually with important alleles within the major histocompatibility complex [eg, type I diabetes]. In addition to genetic susceptibility, many autoimmune disorders can be classified into etiological categories (oncogenic, drug-induced, diet-induced, infectious or idiopathic. For most autoimmune disorders there are multiple target autoantigens and, for type I diabetes, a combinatorial approach (eg, expression of at least two autoantibodies of insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and/or ICA512/IA-2 is the best predictor of diabetes risk. Finally, antigen-specific therapies hold promise for the prevention and therapy of autoimmunity, eg, parenteral or oral therapy with insulin delays or prevents type I diabetes in animal models, and a small pilot trial of parenteral insulin in humans suggests that such therapy may similarly prevent diabetes in humans.

  17. HTTR hydrogen production system. Structure and main specifications of mock-up test facility (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Michio; Aita, Hideki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takada, Shoji; Inaba, Yoshitomo

    2007-03-01

    The mock-up test facility was fabricated to investigate performance of the steam generator for mitigation of the temperature fluctuation of helium gas and transient behavior of the hydrogen production system for HTTR and to obtain experimental data for verification of a dynamic analysis code. The test facility has an approximate hydrogen production capacity of 120Nm 3 /h and the steam reforming process of methane; CH 4 +H 2 O=3H 2 +CO, was used for hydrogen production of the test facility. An electric heater was used as a heat source instead of the reactor in order to heat helium gas up to 880degC (4MPa) at the chemical reactor inlet which is the same temperature as the HTTR hydrogen production system. Fabrication of the test facility was completed in February in 2002, and seven cycle operations were carried out from March in 2002 to December in 2004. This report describes the structure and main specifications of the test facility. (author)

  18. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  19. Meeting Expanding Needs to Collect Food Intake Specificity: The Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHeel, Nancy; Pettit, Janet; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Food and nutrient databases are populated with data obtained from a variety of sources including USDA Reference Tables, scientific journals, food manufacturers and foreign food tables. The food and nutrient database maintained by the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) at the University of Minnesota is continually updated with current nutrient data and continues to be expanded with additional nutrient fields to meet diverse research endeavors. Data are strictly evaluated for reliability and relevance before incorporation into the database; however, the values are obtained from various sources and food samples rather than from direct chemical analysis of specific foods. Precise nutrient values for specific foods are essential to the nutrition program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Specific foods to be included in the menus of astronauts are chemically analyzed at the Johnson Space Center for selected nutrients. A request from NASA for a method to enter the chemically analyzed nutrient values for these space flight food items into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software resulted in modification of the database and interview system for use by NASA, with further modification to extend the method for related uses by more typical research studies.

  20. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    high-risk children with ASD, but also in high-risk children without ASD and in low-risk children. Sex differences in young children with ASD do not appear to be ASD-specific but instead reflect typically occurring sex differences seen in children without ASD. Results did not support a female protective effect hypothesis.

  1. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  3. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  4. The relationship between autobiographical self-focus and memory specificity/overgenerality (Relación entre auto-focus autobiográfico y especificidad/sobregeneralización de la memoria) : Differences between Individuals with and without a diagnosis of depression ( Diferencias entre personas con y sin un diagnostico de depresion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, M.; Carrera, M.; Alonso-Arbiol, I.

    2016-01-01

    Research has revealed that clinical depression is related to reduced specificity and/or overgenerality in autobiographical memory. We set out to investigate this relationship by comparing depressed (n = 40) and non-depressed (n = 40) individuals not only in terms of autobiographical memory

  5. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  6. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  7. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire in research and clinical practice: a comprehensive scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Fast, Hilary; Campbell, Sandy; Yuksel, Nese; Lewis, Jacqueline E; Ross, Sue

    2016-09-01

    The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was developed as a validated research tool to measure condition-specific QOL in early postmenopausal women. We conducted a comprehensive scoping review to explore the extent of MENQOL's use in research and clinical practice to assess its value in providing effective, adequate, and comparable participant assessment information. Thirteen biomedical and clinical databases were systematically searched with "menqol" as a search term to find articles using MENQOL or its validated derivative MENQOL-Intervention as investigative or clinical tools from 1996 to November 2014 inclusive. Review articles, conference abstracts, proceedings, dissertations, and incomplete trials were excluded. Additional articles were collected from references within key articles. Three independent reviewers extracted data reflecting study design, intervention, sample characteristics, MENQOL questionnaire version, modifications and language, recall period, and analysis detail. Data analyses included categorization and descriptive statistics. The review included 220 eligible papers of various study designs, covering 39 countries worldwide and using MENQOL translated into more than 25 languages. A variety of modifications to the original questionnaire were identified, including omission or addition of items and alterations to the validated methodological analysis. No papers were found that described MENQOL's use in clinical practice. Our study found an extensive and steadily increasing use of MENQOL in clinical and epidemiological research over 18 years postpublication. Our results stress the importance of proper reporting and validation of translations and variations to ensure outcome comparison and transparency of MENQOL's use. The value of MENQOL in clinical practice remains unknown.

  9. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient

  10. The scientific legacy of Little Hans and Little Albert: future directions for research on specific phobias in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Muris, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We review issues associated with the phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents and provide suggestions for future research and clinical practice. In doing so, we highlight the early case studies of Little Hans and Little Albert and the advances that have been made following the publication of these seminal cases. In recent years, we have witnessed a deeper understanding of the etiology of specific phobias and developed a rich array of evidence-based assessments and treatments with which to address specific phobias in youth. Although much has been accomplished in this area of inquiry, we also note that much remains to be done before we can advance more fully our understanding, assessment, and treatment of specific phobias in youth. It will be important for future work to build more firmly on these developments and to better determine the moderators and mediators of change with our evidence-based treatments and to more vigorously pursue their dissemination in real-word settings.

  11. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  12. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of lightweight concrete research relevant to the AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications : potential revisions for definition and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Much of the fundamental basis for the current lightweight concrete provisions in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specifications is based on research of lightweight concrete (LWC) from the 1960s. The LWC that was : part of this research used tradition...

  14. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  15. Current clinical research environment: focus on psychiatry Cenário atual da pesquisa clínica: foco em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of international guidelines on Good Clinical Practices (GCP in 1996, immediately followed by the publication of Resolution CNS 196/96 in Brazil, created a great opportunity for Brazilian research centers to participate in international trials. Such studies must be strictly monitored in order to assure compliance with the regulations, as well as with the standards of patient safety. Clear agreement among the investigator, the sponsor and the institution carrying out the study must be previously defined in order to avoid any conflicts of interest during or after the study. Operational aspects, such as the time needed to gain regulatory approval of the study design, strategies for patient recruitment/retention and appropriate logistics, are also important. In 2005, the Brazilian National Clinical Research Network was established, bringing together a number of research centers in teaching hospitals. The objective was to subsidize public clinical research with state-of-the-art practices and appropriate technical/scientific training programs. The development of research protocols that prioritize public health care needs in Brazil is other fundamental goal of this network. This article addresses general aspects of clinical research, as well as some specific issues in psychiatry. Improving the health and quality of life of the global population is certainly the major objective of all of the work done in this area.A introdução de diretrizes internacionais de Boas Práticas Clínicas, em 1996, imediatamente seguida pela publicação da Resolução do Conselho Nacional de Saúde 196/96, abriu uma grande oportunidade para a participação de centros de pesquisa brasileiros em estudos internacionais. Tais estudos devem ser estritamente monitorados, a fim de assegurar a adesão às legislações, assim como garantir a segurança dos pacientes envolvidos. A fim de evitar possíveis conflitos de interesse durante e após o estudo, todos os

  16. Geometrical modification transfer between specific meshes of each coupled physical codes. Application to the Jules Horowitz research reactor experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplex, B.

    2011-01-01

    The CEA develops and uses scientific software, called physical codes, in various physical disciplines to optimize installation and experimentation costs. During a study, several physical phenomena interact, so a code coupling and some data exchanges between different physical codes are required. Each physical code computes on a particular geometry, usually represented by a mesh composed of thousands to millions of elements. This PhD Thesis focuses on the geometrical modification transfer between specific meshes of each coupled physical code. First, it presents a physical code coupling method where deformations are computed by one of these codes. Next, it discusses the establishment of a model, common to different physical codes, grouping all the shared data. Finally, it covers the deformation transfers between meshes of the same geometry or adjacent geometries. Geometrical modifications are discrete data because they are based on a mesh. In order to permit every code to access deformations and to transfer them, a continuous representation is computed. Two functions are developed, one with a global support, and the other with a local support. Both functions combine a simplification method and a radial basis function network. A whole use case is dedicated to the Jules Horowitz reactor. The effect of differential dilatations on experimental device cooling is studied. (author) [fr

  17. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  18. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  19. School Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    School climate research is clearly evolving. The field demands rigorous and empirically sound research that focuses on relating specific aspects and activities of interventions to changes in specific components of school climate. We also need empirical evidence based on sound research techniques on how both interventions and climate affect…

  20. An 8/15-channel Tx/Rx head neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1 + shimming for whole-brain MRI focused on the cerebellum at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenrot, Viktor; Brunheim, Sascha; Rietsch, Stefan H G; Koopmans, Peter J; Ernst, Thomas M; Kraff, Oliver; Orzada, Stephan; Quick, Harald H

    2018-02-09

    To design and evaluate an 8/15-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) head-neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1+ shimming for whole-brain MRI with focus on improved functional MRI of the cerebellum at 7 T. An 8-channel transceiver RF head coil was combined with a 7-channel receive-only array. The noise parameters and acceleration capabilities of this 8Tx/15Rx coil setup were compared with a commercially available 1Tx/32Rx RF head coil. Region-specific 8-channel B1+ shimming was applied when using the 8Tx/15Rx RF coil. To evaluate the capability for functional MRI of the cerebellum, temporal SNR and statistical nonparametric maps for finger-tapping experiments with 14 healthy subjects were derived by applying a variable slice thickness gradient-echo echo-planar functional MRI sequence. The 8Tx/15Rx setup had a lower maximum noise correlation between channels, but higher average correlations compared with the 1Tx/32Rx coil. Both RF coils exhibited identical g-factors in the cerebellum with R = 3 acceleration. The enlarged FOV of the 8Tx/15Rx coil in combination with region-specific B1+ shimming increased homogeneity of the transmission field and temporal SNR in caudal cerebellar regions. Temporal SNR losses in cranial parts were reduced, resulting in more highly significant voxels in the caudally activated areas and identical patterns in the cranial cerebellar parts during a finger-tapping task. Compared with the 1Tx/32Rx RF coil, the presented 8Tx/15Rx RF coil combination successfully improves functional MRI of the human cerebellum at 7 T while maintaining whole-brain coverage. A clear temporal SNR gain in caudal cerebellar regions is shown. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Mental condition and specificity of mental disorders in a group of workers from southern Poland: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide empirical evidence regarding types and increasing prevalence of mental disorders affecting Polish working population in the years 2014-2016. The research questions concerned the specific characteristics of the types of mental disorders and their prevalence as well as the differences between males and females. Types of mental disorders were investigated using a clinical method, a structured interview, as well as medical record data gathered in the years 2014-2016 in one mental health treatment center. The study was conducted in the population of 1578 working individuals aged 18-64 years old, in various forms of employment, including flexible employment (self-employment, task assignment agreement) and contract employment. The research population consisted of 998 females and 580 males, aged 18-64 years old. The study aimed at investigating types and the prevalence rate of mental disorders developed in the examined working Poles, also with reference to the sex of the study participants as well as the age at which they started seeking treatment. The prevailing disorders include neurotic disorders; diagnosed according to the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) classification as a range of anxiety disorders, mixed anxiety-depressive disorders, stress-related and somatoform disorders; as well as personality disorders. The prevalence rate of the aforementioned disorders was found to be higher among working females than in the group of working males. The overall study conclusions based on the research data analysis point to the fact that the prevalence rate of various types of mental disorders displayed by the examined working males and females increased significantly in the years 2014-2016. Med Pr 2018;69(1):13-28. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Scoliosis Research Society members attitudes towards physical therapy and physiotherapeutic scoliosis specific exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Cindy L; Glassman, Steven D; Knott, Patrick T; Carreon, Leah Y; Hresko, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes regarding non-operative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may be changing with the publication of BRAiST. Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) are used to treat AIS, but high-quality evidence is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of members of the Scoliosis Research Society towards PSSE. A survey was sent to all SRS members with questions on use of Physical Therapy (PT) and PSSE for AIS. The majority of the 263 respondents were from North America (175, 67 %), followed by Asia (37, 14 %) and Europe (36, 14 %). The majority of respondents (166, 63 %) prescribed neither PT nor PSSE, 28 (11 %) prescribed both PT and PSSE, 39 (15 %) prescribe PT only and 30 (11 %) prescribe PSSE only. PT was prescribed by 67 respondents, as an adjunct to bracing (39) and in small curves (32); with goals to improve aesthetics (27) and post-operative outcomes (25). Of the 196 who do not prescribe PT, the main reasons were lack of evidence (149) and the perception that PT had no value (112). PSSE was prescribed by 58 respondents. The most common indication was as an adjunct to bracing (49) or small curves (41); with goals to improve aesthetics (36), prevent curve progression (35) and improve quality of life (31). Of the respondents who do not prescribe PSSE, the main reasons were lack of supporting research (149), a perception that PSSE had no value (108), and lack of access (63). Most respondents state that evidence of efficacy may increase the role of PSSE, with 85 % (223 of 263) favoring funding PSSE studies by the SRS. The results show that 22 % of the respondents use PSSE for AIS, skepticism remains regarding the benefit of PSSE for AIS. Support for SRS funded research suggests belief that there is potential benefit from PSSE and the best way to assess that potential is through evidence development.

  3. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  4. Economics of nuclear desalination: New developments and site specific studies. Final results of a coordinated research project 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    Following successive General Conference Resolutions since the mid-eighties, the IAEA has continued to promote nuclear desalination and has been providing its Member States with the publication of guidebooks, technical documents and computer programs on nuclear desalination as well as the provision of technical assistance through the framework of technical cooperation programs. In 1997, the IAEA launched the International Nuclear Desalination Advisory Group (INDAG), with well known experts from 16 participating Member States. INDAG has not only been successful in its advisory role in all aspects dealing with nuclear desalination, but has also been extremely efficient in promoting exchange of information and creating contacts between technology providers and its end-users. A number of technical cooperation projects have assessed the feasibility of particular nuclear desalination projects. Under the IAEA inter-regional technical cooperation (TC) framework, several international collaboration activities were completed. For example: between China and Morocco; the Republic of Korea and Indonesia; France and Tunisia; and in Pakistan. TC national projects for the United Arab Emirates, Algeria and Jordan, for the techno-economic feasibility studies of nuclear desalination plants, are currently being considered. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP1) on Optimization of the Coupling of Nuclear Reactors and Desalination Systems was completed in 2003 with the participation of 11 Member States. The results of the CRP were published as IAEA-TECDOC-1444 (2005). Following recommendations from INDAG, a second CRP (CRP2) on Economic Research on, and Assessment of, Selected Nuclear Desalination Projects and Case Studies with the participation of ten Member States. It was started in 2002 and was completed in 2006. The scope of CRP2 was to enable the Member States to dispose of precise and well validated methods for desalination cost evaluations and to contribute to the IAEA's efforts

  5. What Matters for Staying On-Track and Graduating in Chicago Public Schools: A Focus on English Language Learners. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Julia; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Allensworth, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    One out of every seven students in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is designated as an English language learner (ELL), and 30 percent of students in the entire district have been designated as ELLs at some point while enrolled in CPS. Many of the policies, programs, and resources targeting the needs of ELL students focus on students in elementary…

  6. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  7. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  8. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership Is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Katherine I.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most overlooked and complex problems that universities and colleges face nation-wide is how to reduce and eliminate research misconduct. Because of the confidential nature of allegations of research misconduct and the high rate of underreporting, administrators at scholarly institutions struggle with understanding the cause of such…

  9. FAIRNESS 2016 [4. workshop for young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany), 14-19 Feb 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    FAIRNESS 2016 was the fourth edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on February 14-19 2016 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI facility close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. young non-tenured scientists, postdocs and advanced PhD students to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Atomic and plasma physics, biophysics, material sciences and applications • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • Experimental programs APPA, CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, as well as BES, NICA and the RHIC beam energy scan For these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2016 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that is dedicated to the

  10. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: antimicrobial properties of copper and its effects on micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available understanding of the mechanisms involved in copper toxicity in bacteria to better understand the potential applications of copper in treating drinking water. Further research is needed to determine why the growth continues after initial inactivation and whether...

  11. Using Focus Groups in the Consumer Research Phase of a Social Marketing Program to Promote Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Trail Use in Sumter County, South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer researc...

  12. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  13. Study of the 99Mo production effect on some of research reactor core specification using DARE-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Ezzuddin, H.

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the major basis of Mo- production using irradiation method for targets of enriched uranium is presented. Factors such as neutron flux, time of irradiation, and enrichment ration have also been analyzed. It was concluded that Mo-production requires nuclear reactors having high neutron fluxes, and that raising the neutron flux results in increasing the Mo-activities especially at fluxes that are higher than 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Time of irradiation was found to have adverse i.e. positive and negative effects on Mo activity. Therefore, the optimum irradiation time should be determined. The Mo-production was modeled through a set of differential equation with respect to time with aim to study the most influencing factors on Mo production, especially the effects of neutron flux and time of irradiation. In addition, the mass of plutonium produced during the irradiation of low enriched uranium has been evaluated. An investigation as to whether 99 Mo could be produced in the Syrian MNSR has been made. The result shows that a specific activity of 0.3773 Ci/g for 99 Mo could be produced. In future, a nuclear research reactor having neutron flux of 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 and 8 irradiation sites suitable for targets of 5 g of 235 U could produce about 5000 Ci on a weekly. Calculation and simulation have been achieved using the already developed DARE-P simulation language which was modified and improved in the nuclear Engineering Department in the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria. (author)

  14. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  15. A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health.

  16. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  17. Inhibitions and implications associated with celebrity participation in health-related social marketing: an exploratory research focused on HIV prevention in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Beatriz; Proença, João F

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses motivations and inhibitions among celebrities to participate in health-related social marketing. The research identifies the implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. Results from in-depth interviews with 27 Portuguese celebrities show that they expect a fee for endorsements of commercial and government social marketing, despite the positive image they may gain from endorsing public health. The results demonstrate an absence of celebrity prejudice against HIV because of its serious nature and the social stigma attached to AIDS. This research suggests there is a positive bias and presents helpful information for negotiations between institutions and celebrities.

  18. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: improved methods for aquifer vulnerability assessments and protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessments and Protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils Groundwater resources are increas- ingly threatened by pollution. The AVAP project was initiated to develop improved... characteristics. Both intrinsic and specific vulnerability are taken into account. The approach used to determine the vulnerability of the in- termediate zone involved the descrip- tion and quantification of the factors that influence vulnerability (unsatu...

  19. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Kimmel, Paul L; Ojo, Akinlolu; Adu, Dwomoa; Parekh, Rulan S

    2015-12-07

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya) over a 5-year period. Approximately 4000 participants with specified kidney disease diagnoses and 4000 control participants will be enrolled in the four African countries. In addition, approximately 50 families with hereditary glomerular disease will be enrolled. The study includes both pediatric and adult participants age research infrastructure can be successfully established in Africa. This study will provide clinical, biochemical, and genotypic data that will greatly increase the understanding of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Five focus strategies to organize health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Linna, Miika; Malmström, Tomi; Torkki, Paulus; Lillrank, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    The focused factory is one of the concepts that decision-makers have adopted for improving health care delivery. However, disorganized definitions of focus have led to findings that cannot be utilized systematically. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategic options to focus health care operations. First the literature on focus in health care is reviewed revealing conceptual challenges. Second, a definition of focus in terms of demand and requisite variety is defined, and the mechanisms of focus are explicated. A classification of five focus strategies that follow the original idea to reduce variety in products and markets is presented. Finally, the paper examines managerial possibilities linked to the focus strategies. The paper proposes a framework of five customer-oriented focus strategies which aim at reducing variety in different characteristics of care pathways: population; urgency and severity; illnesses and symptoms; care practices and processes; and care outcomes. Empirical research is needed to evaluate the costs and benefits of the five strategies and about system-level effects of focused units on competition and coordination. Focus is an enabling condition that needs to be exploited using specific demand and supply management practices. It is essential to understand how focus mechanisms differ between strategies, and to select focus that fits with organization's strategy and key performance indicators. Compared to previous more resource-oriented approaches, this study provides theoretically solid and practically relevant customer-oriented framework for focusing in health care.

  1. Review of Recent Applied Linguistics Research in Finland and Sweden, with Specific Reference to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbom, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    This review covers recent applied linguistic research in Finland and Sweden during the years 2006-2011, with particular emphasis on foreign language learning and teaching. Its primary aim is to inform the international research community on the type of research that is going on in these countries. Special attention is given to topics which have…

  2. Detailed Geoecological Research of Terroir with the Focus on Georelief and Soil – A Case Study of Krátke Kesy Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falťan Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present the application of the detailed geoecological research for use by the identification of natural elements of terroir, based on the example of cadastral area Krátke Kesy. The characteristics of georelief (influencing the microclimate of vineyards and soil characteristics (affecting the vineyard nutrition are the most important elements of a terroir on a local scale. We present maps of 10 types of geoecological complexes in topic dimension, whose borders were allocated on the base of georelief as a leading factor of regionalization. Foot slopes, transport slopes and terraces prevail in the vineyard. Cultivated Haplic and Luvi-Haplic Chernozem of the Danube Lowland have excellent conditions for precision agriculture. The impact of soil factors on vineyards was evaluated with the use of accredited laboratory analysis. Using statistical methods, we confirmed the hypothesis that the relationship between observed relevant soil elements in the study area and sugar content of grape is direct, and between the soil elements and acids in must is indirect. The biggest dependence was seen for magnesium, zinc and copper. Research results were presented in the form of maps and tables that can find use in vineyard and landscape-ecological practice.

  3. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  4. A systematic review of biochar research, with a focus on its stability in situ and its promise as a climate mitigation strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel P Gurwick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Claims about the environmental benefits of charring biomass and applying the resulting "biochar" to soil are impressive. If true, they could influence land management worldwide. Alleged benefits include increased crop yields, soil fertility, and water-holding capacity; the most widely discussed idea is that applying biochar to soil will mitigate climate change. This claim rests on the assumption that biochar persists for hundreds or thousands of years, thus storing carbon that would otherwise decompose. We conducted a systematic review to quantify research effort directed toward ten aspects of biochar and closely evaluated the literature concerning biochar's stability. FINDINGS: We identified 311 peer-reviewed research articles published through 2011. We found very few field studies that addressed biochar's influence on several ecosystem processes: one on soil nutrient loss, one on soil contaminants, six concerning non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes (some of which fail to support claims that biochar decreases non-CO2 GHG fluxes, and 16-19 on plants and soil properties. Of 74 studies related to biochar stability, transport or fate in soil, only seven estimated biochar decomposition rates in situ, with mean residence times ranging from 8 to almost 4,000 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our review shows there are not enough data to draw conclusions about how biochar production and application affect whole-system GHG budgets. Wide-ranging estimates of a key variable, biochar stability in situ, likely result from diverse environmental conditions, feedstocks, and study designs. There are even fewer data about the extent to which biochar stimulates decomposition of soil organic matter or affects non-CO2 GHG emissions. Identifying conditions where biochar amendments yield favorable GHG budgets requires a systematic field research program. Finally, evaluating biochar's suitability as a climate mitigation strategy requires comparing its effects with

  5. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  6. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenstein, David [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  7. Meeting Report of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Surgical Research: Summary of Presentations, Labs, and Workshops, Focusing on Experimental Surgery, Las Vegas, NV, October 4-6, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L; Ziegelhofer, Tracy; Ehrmann, Jon

    2018-04-11

    The 33rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Surgical Research was held from October 4 to 6, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The meeting welcomed >160 participants from 27 different states and five countries representing the organization's diverse membership of technicians, veterinarians, medical doctors, and biomedical researchers. The Academy's annual meeting is focused on promoting the advancement of professional and academic standards, education, and research related to the art and science of experimental surgery. Presentations included four invited keynote speakers and 30 selected lectures and posters. A primary strength of the meeting was that lectures were complimented with practical sessions that included four wet lab and two dry lab half-day courses. Likewise, participants were brought together in workshops emphasizing research workflow from starting experimental design to readying results for publication. In this report, we present the highlights from this meeting and some selected abstracts that illustrate the diverse scientific expertise of the Academy and progress in surgical research.

  8. Young Black Gay/Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Review and Content Analysis of Health-Focused Research Between 1988 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryan M; Harper, Gary W

    2017-09-01

    Black young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YGBMSM) are at high risk for negative health outcomes, though this population is underrepresented in the health literature. An extensive literature review and content analysis of health-related peer-reviewed articles (1988-2013) was conducted that targeted Black YGBMSM, examining five content areas: sexual health, health care, substance use, psychosocial functioning, and sociostructural factors. A coding sheet was created to collect information on all content areas and related subtopics and computed descriptive statistics. Out of 54 articles, most were published after 2004 ( N = 49; 90.7%) and addressed some aspect of sexual health ( N = 50; 92.6%). Few articles included content on psychosocial functioning, including bullying/harassment, suicide, and racial/ethnic identity. Data on health care delivery/receipt and health insurance were underrepresented; tobacco use and substance abuse were seldom addressed. Important sociostructural factors, including sexual networks and race-based discrimination, were poorly represented. Last, there was a noteworthy deficit of qualitative studies and research exploring intersectional identity and health. This review concludes that studies on Black YGBMSM health places sex at the forefront to the neglect of other critical health domains. More research is needed on the diverse health issues of a vulnerable and underexamined population.

  9. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  10. The Role of Physiotherapy Extended Scope Practitioners in Musculoskeletal care with Focus on Decision Making and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan; Yoward, Samantha; Dawson, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    Physiotherapy extended scope practitioner (ESP) roles are widely utilized in the management of musculoskeletal conditions. The present article reviews the current literature, with particular emphasis on the decision-making process, patient/clinician interaction and clinical outcomes. A systematic review of musculoskeletal extended scope practice was carried out. The review focused on the outcome of interventions, and the interactions and decision-making processes between ESPs and their patients. A wide search strategy was employed, through multiple databases, grey literature and experts in the field. Qualitative and quantitative studies alike were included and a mixed-methods synthesis approach was undertaken in analysing the findings of included studies. A total of 476 articles were identified for inclusion, 25 of which (22 quantitative and three qualitative) meeting the criteria for full quality appraisal and synthesis. It was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis owing to data heterogeneity. The results showed high patient satisfaction with the ESP role, support for ESP staff listing patients for orthopaedic surgery, a high positive correlation of decision making between ESPs and orthopaedic surgeons and evidence of a positive impact on patient outcomes. Qualitative themes reflected the importance of ESP clinical decision making and interpersonal skills and their role in patient education. There is broad support for the physiotherapy ESP role and evidence of favourable outcomes from ESP intervention. Clinical decisions made by ESPs correlate well with those of medical colleagues, although there is a lack of detail explaining the ESP decision-making process itself and the influences and mechanisms by which this occurs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  12. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H M; Fritzsche, J; Tkatsch, H; Waag, F; Karch, K; Henze, K; Delbeck, S; Budde, J

    2013-01-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences. (paper)

  13. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H. M.; Fritzsche, J.; Tkatsch, H.; Waag, F.; Karch, K.; Henze, K.; Delbeck, S.; Budde, J.

    2013-11-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences.

  14. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according......, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors...

  15. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  16. Can National Research Assessment Exercises Be Used Locally to Inform Research Strategy Development? The Description of a Methodological Approach to the UK RAE 2008 Results with a Focus on One Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidpath, Daniel D.; Allotey, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    National mechanisms for comparing the research profiles of higher education institutions (HEIs) have become increasingly common. Probably the best known of these is the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) conducted in the United Kingdom, and used as the basis for the allocation of research funding. Such exercises are expensive. They would have…

  17. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  18. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  19. From local strains to specific starters: the process structuring a research program on the activation and management of a biotechnological resource

    OpenAIRE

    Casalta, Erick; Bona, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a research-action program carried out in Corsica with a group of cheese makers to develop specific starters. Based on the direct participation of the cheese makers, this study consisted in designing starters with lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from milks and cheeses of this group of cheese makers. This process modified an individually and empirically used resource, local strains, into a shared and collectively managed resource, specific starters. Patrimonial featur...

  20. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  1. CROSS-COMPLIANCE Facilitating the CAP reform: Compliance and competitiveness of European agriculture : Specific Targeted Research or Innovation Project (STREP) Integrating and Strengthening the European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Bezlepkina, I.; Winsten, J.; Fox, G.

    2008-01-01

    The prime aim or the project was on assessing the impacts of compliance with standards, more specifically those part of cross-compliance, on EU’s external competitiveness. This is why in several deliverables and also in the main text of this Deliverable 13 a lot of attention is given to the EU and

  2. Consensus Report by Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators and Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Consortium Joint Working Committees: Supportive Care Guidelines for Management of Veno-Occlusive Disease in Children and Adolescents, Part 1: Focus on Investigations, Prophylaxis, and Specific Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Rajinder P S; Mahadeo, Kris M; Taragin, Benjamin H; Dvorak, Christopher C; McArthur, Jennifer; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Duncan, Christine N; Tamburro, Robert; Gehred, Alison; Lehmann, Leslie; Richardson, Paul; Auletta, Jeffery J; Woolfrey, Ann E

    2017-11-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a common and potentially fatal complication in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). It occurs in about one-third of all patients undergoing transplantation and is fatal in 50% of patients with severe disease. Early intervention and specific treatment with defibrotide are associated with improved outcomes. However, there is a lack of supportive care guidelines for management of the multiorgan dysfunction seen in most cases. There is high variability in the management of VOD, which may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality. Although there is ample research in the specific treatment of VOD, there is paucity of literature regarding the management of ascites, transfusions requirements, fluids and electrolyte dysfunction, delirium, and investigations in children with VOD. The joint working committees of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators and the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Consortium collaborated to develop a series of evidence-based supportive care guidelines for management of VOD. The quality of evidence was rated and recommendations were made using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. This manuscript is part 1 of the series and focuses on the need to develop these guidelines; methodology used to establish the guidelines; and investigations needed for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of VOD in children. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Locating sex- and gender-specific data in health promotion research: evaluating the sensitivity and precision of published filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Lorenzetti

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Although search filters can facilitate the identification of research evidence to enable decision making, variability in study abstracting and indexing can limit the generalizability and usability of these filters. This potential for variability should be considered when deciding to incorporate a search filter into any literature search. This research highlights the importance of this awareness when developing strategies for searching the published literature and the potential value of supplementing database searching with other methods of study identification.

  4. Corporate philanthropic responses to emergent human needs: the role of organizational attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Whiteman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate philanthropy typically focuses on organization-external pressures and aggregated donation behavior. Hence, our understanding of the organization-internal structures that determine whether a given organization will respond philanthropically to a specific human need remains

  5. Propensity score estimation to address calendar time-specific channeling in comparative effectiveness research of second generation antipsychotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie B Dusetzina

    Full Text Available Channeling occurs when a medication and its potential comparators are selectively prescribed based on differences in underlying patient characteristics. Drug safety advisories can provide new information regarding the relative safety or effectiveness of a drug product which might increase selective prescribing. In particular, when reported adverse effects vary among drugs within a therapeutic class, clinicians may channel patients toward or away from a drug based on the patient's underlying risk for an adverse outcome. If channeling is not identified and appropriately managed it might lead to confounding in observational comparative effectiveness studies.To demonstrate channeling among new users of second generation antipsychotics following a Food and Drug Administration safety advisory and to evaluate the impact of channeling on cardiovascular risk estimates over time.Florida Medicaid data from 2001-2006.Retrospective cohort of adults initiating second generation antipsychotics. We used propensity scores to match olanzapine initiators with other second generation antipsychotic initiators. To evaluate channeling away from olanzapine following an FDA safety advisory, we estimated calendar time-specific propensity scores. We compare the performance of these calendar time-specific propensity scores with conventionally-estimated propensity scores on estimates of cardiovascular risk.Increased channeling away from olanzapine was evident for some, but not all, cardiovascular risk factors and corresponded with the timing of the FDA advisory. Covariate balance was optimized within period and across all periods when using the calendar time-specific propensity score. Hazard ratio estimates for cardiovascular outcomes did not differ across models (Conventional PS: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.81-3.18 versus calendar time-specific PS: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.77-3.04.Changes in channeling over time was evident for several covariates but had limited impact on cardiovascular risk

  6. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  7. Experimental research on specific activity of 24Na using Chinese reference man phantom irradiated by 252Cf neutrons source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Yang Yifang; Lu Yongjie; Zhang Jianguo; Xing Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specific activity of '2 4 Na per unit neutron fluence, A B/Φ ,in blood produced for Chinese reference man irradiated by 252 Cf neutron source,and to analyze the effects of scattering neutrons from ground,wall,and ceiling in irradiation site on it.Methods: A 252 Cf neutron source of 3×10 8 n/s and the anthropomorphic phantom were used for experiments. The phantom was made from 4 mm thick of outer covering by perspex and the liquid tissue-equivalent substitute in it. The data of phantom dimensions fit into Chinese reference man.The weight ratios of H, N, O and C in substitute equal from source to long axis of phantom were 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 m, respectively. Both the neutron source and the position of xiphisternum of the phantom were 1.6 m above the floor. Results: The average specific activity of 24 Na per unit neutron fluence was related to the irradiation-distances, d, and its maximum value, A B/ΦM , deduced by experimental data was about 1.85×10 -7 Bq·cm 2 ·g -1 . Conclusions: The A B/ΦM corresponds to that of phantom irradiated by plane-parallel beams, and the value is about more 3% than that by BOMAB phantom reported in literature. It has shown that floor-(wall-)scattered neutrons in irradiation site have significant contribution to the specific activity of 24 Na, but they contributed relatively little to the induced neutron doses. Consequently,using the specific activity of 24 Na for assessing accidental neutron doses received by an individual, the contribution of scattered neutrons in accident site will lead dose to be overestimated, and need to be correct. (authors)

  8. Patterns of symptom control and palliative care-focused original research articles in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Diana D; DiGiovanni, Julia; Skamene, Sonia; Noveroske Philbrick, Sarah; Wang, Yanbing; Barnes, Elizabeth A; Chow, Edward; Sullivan, Adam; Balboni, Tracy A

    2018-04-01

    A significant portion of radiation treatment (30-40%) is delivered with palliative intent. Given the frequency of palliative care (PC) in radiation oncology, we determined the patterns of research focusing on symptom control and palliative care (SCPC) in two prominent radiation oncology journals from 2005-2014. Original research manuscripts published from 2005-2014 in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics (Red Journal) and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal (Green Journal) were reviewed to categorize articles as PC and/or SCPC. Articles were categorized as PC if it pertained to any aspect of treatment of metastatic cancer, and as SCPC if symptom control in the metastatic cancer setting was the goal of the research inquiry and/or any domain of palliative clinical practice guidelines was the goal of research inquiry. From 2005-2014, 4.9% (312/6,386) of original research articles published in the Red Journal and 3.5% (84/2,406) published in the Green Journal pertained to metastatic cancer, and were categorized as PC. In the Red Journal, 1.3% (84/6,386) of original research articles were categorized as SCPC; 1.3% (32/2,406) of articles in the Green Journal were categorized as SCPC. There was no trend observed in the proportion of SCPC articles published over time in the Red Journal (P=0.76), the Green Journal (P=0.48), or both journals in aggregate (P=0.38). Despite the fact that palliative radiotherapy is a critical part of radiation oncology practice, PC and SCPC-focused original research is poorly represented in the Red Journal and the Green Journal.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... 1School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Aga Khan .... “Focus on Opportunity, Ability and Motivation” (FOAM) framework ... children (-28%), before eating (-4%), and after attending to a child.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-08-08

    Aug 8, 2013 ... Preconception genetic screening and counselling should be the main focus of .... important variable that influences the acceptability, practice and success of ... attention. Study done among health care workers and medical.

  12. Final report of the specific research. Investigations on the analysis of bio-protective factors against radiation. 1998-2000 FY (Research Group of NIRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report concerns investigations in the title conducted by 8 groups of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period of 1998-2000. The groups are for investigation of: Effects of p53 tumor suppressor gene in radiation-induced leukemia, Role of atm-gene in dose rate effect of ionizing radiation, Function of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PK{sub cs}), Functional complementation of radiation-sensitive mutant M10 cell line by human XRCC4 cDNA expression, Role of radiation-induced apoptosis in digital defects in embryonic mice, Functional analysis of S-phase specific novel nuclear protein NP95 by gene targeting, Role of chemokine in T cell development and lymphomagenesis, and establishment of production techniques of gene-modified mice using embryonic stem cells for genetic analysis of radiation-sensitive genes. The groups describe summaries of their studies and published original articles are also given. (N.I.)

  13. Final report of the specific research. Investigations on the analysis of bio-protective factors against radiation. 1998-2000 FY (Research Group of NIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    This report concerns investigations in the title conducted by 8 groups of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period of 1998-2000. The groups are for investigation of: Effects of p53 tumor suppressor gene in radiation-induced leukemia, Role of atm-gene in dose rate effect of ionizing radiation, Function of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PK cs ), Functional complementation of radiation-sensitive mutant M10 cell line by human XRCC4 cDNA expression, Role of radiation-induced apoptosis in digital defects in embryonic mice, Functional analysis of S-phase specific novel nuclear protein NP95 by gene targeting, Role of chemokine in T cell development and lymphomagenesis, and establishment of production techniques of gene-modified mice using embryonic stem cells for genetic analysis of radiation-sensitive genes. The groups describe summaries of their studies and published original articles are also given. (N.I.)

  14. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  15. Turnover in Principalship Focus of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Data available from a handful of states suggest that only about half of beginning principals remain in the same job five years later, and that many leave the principalship altogether when they go. Whether this apparent churn in the principal's office signals a problem, progress, or business as usual seems to be a matter for debate, though. Among…

  16. Four Dimensions of Brand-Focused Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischick, Caity McLaughlin

    2017-01-01

    Not long ago, "brand" was an unmentionable word in the higher education landscape--one that came with suspicious connotations of consumer packaged goods and retail. Today, however, there is increasingly broad acceptance that a higher education institution's (HEI's) brand is critical to attracting and retaining the best students and…

  17. The need for a holistic approach in mangrove-related fisheries research: a specific review of the German and Brazilian research project MADAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Paul, U; Schneider, H

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the bilateral German-Brazilian mangrove development and management (MADAM) programme (mangrove dynamics and management) was to generate the scientific basis to enable the sustainable stewardship of the resources of the Caeté mangrove estuary in north-east Brazil in the sense of integrated coastal (zone) management. Main emphasis was given to fishes and crabs captured by artisanal fishermen. This paper describes the project strategy as developed and modified in the context of research results obtained over a period of 10 years. It is argued that a continuous discussion process is essential to assess the validity of the strategies formulated at the beginning of a medium-term project, particularly if the project is of an interdisciplinary nature. To achieve this, it was necessary to acquire in-depth knowledge of natural processes as well as of the relevant institutional, cultural, economic, social and political dynamics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  20. Research on MgLi and a specifically German consequence. MgLi-Forschung und ihre spezifisch deutsche Konsequenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehmann, F [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1994-05-01

    When light weight structural applications are of prime concern, magnesium cannot be ignored. When magnesium is of prime concern, of course, the research cannot be ignored, either. Since there is not much to be ignored (or not), however, it is the research on MgLi that takes the lead in the German press. ''Rock-solid as Kruppstahl'' was it meant to be, though MgLi-alloys soften quite appreciable already at ambient temperature. A hydrogen treatment of the MgLi melt was the phenomenon that was naturally astounded. In the meantime, however, it became very tranquilly around the contest for the selection of the species from the ''MgLi-Born''. Has the hot air already escaped Warm wind is not bad in each case. Daily discipline, however, has scaled ever since with the natural beauty of the more concrete results by working. What follows is an article that looks upon this particular German variant at the ''histoire parallele'' in the field of metallic innovations as well as upon the sound base of such deliberately outbalanced renaissances. (orig.)

  1. Report of the consultants' meeting on the identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries' was held at IAEA, Vienna, April 12- 14, 2000. Four consultants, with expertise in nutrient dynamics drawn from National Agricultural Research Organisations and Universities, attended the meeting together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Divisions. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of nutrient dynamics in crop/pasture/ livestock systems in developing and developed agricultural systems. These were complemented by a paper on the development of 15 N techniques to study the contribution of N from crop residues and human, animal and industrial waste products developed at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The consultants were of the opinion that in view of of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's comparative advantage in operating (both technically and administratively) Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) the proposal to initiate an FAO/IAEA CRP on quantification of nutrient budget and flows in integrated crop/livestock systems is appropriate. They identified a well focused area of the CRP and also provided recommendations on its formulation and implementation

  2. Report of the consultants' meeting on the identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries' was held at IAEA, Vienna, April 12- 14, 2000. Four consultants, with expertise in nutrient dynamics drawn from National Agricultural Research Organisations and Universities, attended the meeting together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Divisions. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of nutrient dynamics in crop/pasture/ livestock systems in developing and developed agricultural systems. These were complemented by a paper on the development of {sup 15}N techniques to study the contribution of N from crop residues and human, animal and industrial waste products developed at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The consultants were of the opinion that in view of of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's comparative advantage in operating (both technically and administratively) Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) the proposal to initiate an FAO/IAEA CRP on quantification of nutrient budget and flows in integrated crop/livestock systems is appropriate. They identified a well focused area of the CRP and also provided recommendations on its formulation and implementation.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  4. If We Build It, Will They Come? Perceptions of HIV Cure-Related Research by People Living with HIV in Four U.S. Cities: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Taylor, Jeff; Gilbertson, Adam; Palm, David; Auerbach, Judith D; Dubé, Karine

    2018-01-01

    Global interest and investment in the search for an HIV cure has increased. Research has focused on what experts refer to as a sterilizing or eradicating cure, where HIV is eliminated from the body, and on what is often called a functional cure, where HIV remains, kept durably suppressed in the absence of antiretroviral treatment and therapy (ART). Many believe that a functional cure is likely to be found first. HIV cure studies will require active participation by people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Their desires and perceptions will be important to effectively recruit study participants and for the uptake of any future strategy that demonstrates safety and efficacy. The perspectives of PLWHIV are essential to advancing HIV cure research, and they should be taken into consideration as biomedical research advances. We conducted 10 focus groups in four U.S. cities, eliciting perspectives of PLWHIV on HIV cure and cure research. Most participants conceived of a cure as eradicating, and felt favorably toward it. In addition to the physical benefits of a potential cure, participants valued the possible de-stigmatization related to no longer living with HIV, liberation from concerns about transmitting HIV, and freedom from the burden of daily medication. Many participants did not regard a functional cure as an improvement over controlling HIV through ART, were distrustful about viral rebound potential, and noted concerns about medical complications and accompanying psychological distress. Some felt that the risks of HIV cure research were not worth taking. Many were skeptical about science's ability to eliminate HIV from the body.

  5. Grooming a CAT: customizing CAT administration rules to increase response efficiency in specific research and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallen, Michael A; Cook, Karon F; Amtmann, Dagmar; Knowlton, Elizabeth; Gershon, Richard C

    2018-05-05

    To evaluate the degree to which applying alternative stopping rules would reduce response burden while maintaining score precision in the context of computer adaptive testing (CAT). Analyses were conducted on secondary data comprised of CATs administered in a clinical setting at multiple time points (baseline and up to two follow ups) to 417 study participants who had back pain (51.3%) and/or depression (47.0%). Participant mean age was 51.3 years (SD = 17.2) and ranged from 18 to 86. Participants tended to be white (84.7%), relatively well educated (77% with at least some college), female (63.9%), and married or living in a committed relationship (57.4%). The unit of analysis was individual assessment histories (i.e., CAT item response histories) from the parent study. Data were first aggregated across all individuals, domains, and time points in an omnibus dataset of assessment histories and then were disaggregated by measure for domain-specific analyses. Finally, assessment histories within a "clinically relevant range" (score ≥ 1 SD from the mean in direction of poorer health) were analyzed separately to explore score level-specific findings. Two different sets of CAT administration rules were compared. The original CAT (CAT ORIG ) rules required at least four and no more than 12 items be administered. If the score standard error (SE) reached a value CAT was stopped. We simulated applying alternative stopping rules (CAT ALT ), removing the requirement that a minimum four items be administered, and stopped a CAT if responses to the first two items were both associated with best health, if the SE was CAT ORIG and CAT ALT . CAT ORIG and CAT ALT scores varied little, especially within the clinically relevant range, and response burden was substantially lower under CAT ALT (e.g., 41.2% savings in omnibus dataset). Alternate stopping rules result in substantial reductions in response burden with minimal sacrifice in score precision.

  6. Drilling Specifications: Well Installations in the 300 Area to Support PNNL's Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2008-01-01

    Part of the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) will be installation of a network of high density borings and wells to monitor migration of fluids and contaminants (uranium), both in groundwater and vadose zone, away from an surface infiltration plot (Figure A-1). The infiltration plot will be located over an area of suspected contamination at the former 300 Area South Process Pond (SPP). The SPP is located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site, within the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the support of FH shall stake the well locations prior to the start of drilling. Final locations will be based on accessibility and will avoid any surface or underground structures or hazards as well as surface contamination

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... specific causes of maternal deaths and identify specific contributing factors. This study therefore aimed to ... third delay were mainly contributed by lack of blood transfusion. (5%, n=18), lack of skills (2%, n=8), .... observed in Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital, where slightly over a half had died within 24 ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-04-11

    Apr 11, 2012 ... nephropathy in a sub-Saharan African population with type 2 ... of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) BP, pulse pressure (PP) and mean ... This may have implication for kidney disease risk stratification and ... specific or non specific of diabetes such as hypertension and non-optimal blood pressure levels [1,2].

  9. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that ...

  10. Trends in Education-Specific Life Expectancy, Data Quality, and Shifting Education Distributions: A Note on Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-06-01

    Several recent articles have reported conflicting conclusions about educational differences in life expectancy, and this is partly due to the use of unreliable data subject to a numerator-denominator bias previously reported as ranging from 20 % to 40 %. This article presents estimates of life expectancy and lifespan variation by education in the United States using more reliable data from the National Health Interview Survey. Contrary to prior conclusions in the literature, I find that life expectancy increased or stagnated since 1990 among all education-race-sex groups except for non-Hispanic white women with less than a high school education; there has been a robust increase in life expectancy among white high school graduates and a smaller increase among black female high school graduates; lifespan variation did not increase appreciably among high school graduates; and lifespan variation plays a very limited role in explaining educational gradients in mortality. I also discuss the key role that educational expansion may play in driving future changes in mortality gradients. Because of shifting education distributions, within an education-specific synthetic cohort, older age groups are less negatively selected than younger age groups. We could thus expect a greater concentration of mortality at younger ages among people with a high school education or less, which would be reflected in increasing lifespan variability for this group. Future studies of educational gradients in mortality should use more reliable data and should be mindful of the effects of shifting education distributions.

  11. Experimental Research on the Specific Energy Consumption of Rock Breakage Using Different Waterjet-Assisted Cutting Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the specific energy consumption (SE of rock breakage by cutting heads assisted by different types of waterjet and to identify optimal waterjet parameters and assistance types, rock cutting with and without waterjets was carried on a rock fragmentation test bed. SE is a comprehensive evaluation index and was developed according to the applied load on cutting head, and the SE under different cutting conditions was compared and analyzed. The results show that the SE of rock breakage without waterjet assistance increased with the increasing of rock compressive strength (RCS but that the limited drilling depth decreased. The effect of the waterjet pressure on the SE of rock breakage by the cutting head I was marked, and SE decreased by 30∼40% when the ratio between RCS and waterjet pressure was less than 1. However, the function of the waterjet assistance was poor; therefore, a ratio of 1 could be used to distinguish the rock breakage effect of cutting head I. For cutting head II, the rock damage from the waterjet impact was limited due to the large waterjet standoff distance; thus the rock breakage performance of cutting head II was also limited. The waterjet impacting at the tip of the conical pick using cutting head III could enter into the cracks caused by the mechanical pick and fracture the rock. Therefore, the rock breakage performance of cutting head III was better than that of cutting head II.

  12. A new approach to improve the specificity of flow-mediated dilation for indicating endothelial function in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Batterham, Alan M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2013-02-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive indicator of endothelial function and is routinely expressed as the percentage change in arterial diameter (FMD%) from a resting baseline (Dbase) to a postischemic peak (Dpeak). This expression is equivalent to the ratio of Dpeak/Dbase and is, therefore, dependent on important statistical assumptions, which have never been analysed in the context of FMD%. We aimed to investigate these assumptions, via a comparison of FMD between samples of children and adults, as well as to explore other approaches to scaling diameter change for Dbase. We found that FMD% did not scale accurately for interindividual differences in Dbase but, as expected, overestimated endothelial function for low Dbase and vice versa. We argue that this imprecise scaling of FMD% is predictable, not explained by physiology and is probably common. This problem is resolved by applying scaling principles, whereby the difference in diameter is the outcome and Dbase is a covariate in a logarithmic-linked generalized linear model. A specific allometric expression of FMD can be derived and we found this to be Dpeak/Dbase rather than a simple ratio in our particular dataset. We found that sample differences in endothelial function were inaccurate with FMD% versus our new allometric approach, and that FMD% misclassified participants into 'high' and 'low'cohorts, which has implications for prognostic-type studies. We conclude that the general use of FMD% could have led to biased comparisons of different conditions and/or populations in past studies. Our new approach to scaling FMD is flexible for different datasets and is not based on the current assumption that a percentage change is appropriate in all circumstances.

  13. Research of the serum level of neuron-specific enolase in children with various types of seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relevance between the level changes of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE and neuronal damage in various seizure types of children with epilepsy. Methods According to the classification criteria of seizure types formulated by International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE in 1981, 190 children with epilepsy were enrolled including tonic-clonic seizure group (41 cases, tonic seizure group (34 cases, clonic seizure group (22 cases, myoclonic seizure group (12 cases, atonic seizure group (17 cases, absence seizure group (22 cases, simple partial seizure group (21 cases and complex partial seizure group (21 cases, and 64 healthy children were enrolled as control group. The long-range vedio-electroencephalogram (VEEG was operated and the blood samples were collected from these cases within 72 h after their seizures. Results The serum NSE levels of epileptic children were significantly higher than control group (P = 0.000. Among these seizure groups, serum NSE in myoclonic seizure group [(32.42 ± 6.62 ng/ml] was significantly higher than the other types, except for tonic-clonic seizure group (P = 0.062. There was no significant difference among the other types (P > 0.05, for all. According to rank correlation analysis, there was positive corrlation between serum NSE levels and VEEG abnormal intensity (rs = 0.613, P = 0.000. Conclusion The serum NSE were markedly increased in children with epilepsy after seizures, suggesting that a certain degree of neuronal damage may result from seizures; the higher NSE levels were, the more serious neuronal damage caused by epileptiform discharges was. The serum NSE levels in myoclonic seizure group and tonic-clonic seizure group were significantly higher than other seizure types, indicating the two kinds of seizures may result in greater neuronal damage.

  14. Specifics of nursing care for a patient with nutritional stoma.

    OpenAIRE

    MUSILOVÁ, Klára

    2017-01-01

    Main goal of the thesis was to map out the specifics of nursing care for a patient with a nutritious stoma. Three research questions have been identified in connection to this goal. First research question was focused on mapping out the nursing care for a patient prior applying the nutritious stoma. Second research question was focusing on nursing care for a patient while the nutritious stoma is being applied, and the last third question researches the nursing care for a patient after applyin...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rest of the course. The FMHS also has also focused on community-based ... to increase the student numbers to address the dearth of human resources for health in Africa. .... tutorial podcasts in: emergency medicine, family medicine ..... Internet-based dissemination of educational video presentations: a primer in video ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... Methods: Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and .... Both individual interviews and FGDs revealed similar views; therefore .... emotional solidarity in case of adverse events, mosquito nets, food, .... and of their parents/caretakers and therefore may not reflect the.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... were as required by the human resource building block. While, the insurance providers have a responsibility of motivating doctors to improve their services or provide appropriate services by ensuring health services are affordable and accessible. This study was focusing on the service delivery pillar of the ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-25

    Feb 25, 2013 ... Refractive error is an optical defect intrinsic to the eye which prevents the light from being brought to a single focus on the retina thus reducing normal vision [1]. Refractive error is a major contributor to visual impairment which is a significant cause of morbidity in children worldwide [2]. Since children do not ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... 2. Introduction. Recent estimates show that the overall ante-natal care (ANC) ... important milestones required to achieve optimum maternal and child health. ... 15-49 years. The survey was conducted by the National Population .... means univariate analyses to determine the odds of utilization of focused ...

  20. Proceedings of the IAEA technical meeting in collaboration with NEA on specific applications of research reactors: provision of nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bernard, D.; Cabellos, O.; Lee, Y.O.; Oberstedt, S.; Oshima, M.

    2010-07-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have played and continue to play a key role in the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The main applications of most RRs continue to be radioisotope production, neutron beam applications, silicon doping and material irradiation for nuclear systems, as well as teaching and training for human resource development. What has been perceived as less important is the role of RRs to provide nuclear data, utilizing their inherent capability of integral experiments, benchmark, and validation analyses, particularly for the assessment of the safety margin and improvement of economic efficiency in the development and licensing of future nuclear power plants. In this respect, the previous International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, held in Nice, France, from 22 to 27 April 2007, especially emphasized atomic and nuclear data needs for basic nuclear physics research, innovative power reactors and future fuel cycles (e.g., fast reactors, dedicated reactors for nuclear waste transmutation, accelerator driven systems, the Th-U fuel cycle, etc.), and the realization of fusion reactors (e.g., ITER). Other fields in which nuclear data are required relate to the testing of materials needed for such facilities, the evaluation of radioisotope production and their medical application, the simulation via computer software radiation of doses to patients and advanced cancer therapies, as well as the improvement of analytical techniques adopted for cultural heritage diagnostics and material composition analysis. RRs continue to occupy a visibly important place in these areas of study and application along with dedicated accelerator-based neutron sources. For example, an installation like the Lohengrin Fission Fragment Separator at Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, remains a unique place to study fission fragments and their properties as products of thermal neutron induced fission. Equally, the importance of

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    change behaviour to implement a culture of safe patient care. It is important that ... must be encouraged and accountability ensured, which implies that a learning ..... Space was provided for comments for each specific statement and at the end.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCSA) urged ... Students' ability to learn is to a great extent affected by their perception of the specific ... discussions were held with the class leaders to identify possible themes/ topics to describe ... Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Bloemfontein:.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this change in disease profile necessitates a realignment of physiotherapy practice[9] and ... However, the time available to teach physiotherapy-specific skills and .... and higher education and was trained in the Participlan process.[19] This.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... management among teaching hospital staff in south east Nigeria: an intervention study ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network ... and specifically the infection prevention and control team in the.

  5. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  6. Use of a Graded Approach in the Application of the Safety Requirements for Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  7. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  10. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  11. The integration of physiologically-targeted skin care in the management of atopic dermatitis: focus on the use of a cleanser and moisturizer system incorporating a ceramide precursor, filaggrin degradation products, and specific "skin-barrier-friendly" excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be considered the "poster disease" for exemplifying the significance of abnormalities of the epidermal barrier that occur predominantly within the stratum corneum (SC) and upper epidermis. Specifically, impairments of the SC permeability barrier, antimicrobial barrier, and immunologic barrier contribute markedly to the fundamental pathophysiology of AD. The multiple clinical sequelae associated with epidermal barrier impairments inherent to AD include dry skin, pruritus, increased skin sensitivity to irritants and allergens, eczematous skin changes, staphylococcal skin and anterior nares colonization, and increase in some cutaneous infections (ie, molluscum contagiosum). This article addresses the pathophysiology of AD with clinically relevant correlations, and discusses the scientific basis of a specially designed cleanser and moisturizer system that incorporates ceramide technology and filaggrin degradation products along with other "barrier-friendly" excipients.

  12. Specific outcomes of the research on the radiation stability of the French nuclear glass towards alpha decay accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuget, S.; Delaye, J.-M.; Jégou, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term behavior of SON68 nuclear glass towards alpha decay accumulation. The effect of the radiation damage induced by alpha decay and also helium build-up were investigated by examining glass specimens, doped with a short-lived actinide 244Cm, irradiated by light and heavy ions. Additionally, atomistic simulations by molecular dynamics have provided further information on the atomic-scale effects of the macroscopic phenomena observed. These studies have shown that some macroscopic properties vary with the accumulation of alpha decay, but then stabilize after integrated doses of the order of 4 × 1018 α g-1. For example, the glass density diminishes by about 0.6%, its Young's modulus by about 15%, and its hardness by about 30%, while its fracture toughness increases by around 50%. The SEM and TEM characterization showed that the glass is still homogeneous. No phase separation, crystallization or bubbles formation was noticed up to an alpha decay dose corresponding to several thousand years of disposal of nuclear glass canister. Moreover the initial alteration rate of the glass is not significantly affected by the glass damage induced by alpha decays or heavy ions irradiations. The comparison of the macroscopic evolutions of the Cm doped glass with those obtained for glasses irradiated with light or heavy ions (from either experimental and molecular dynamic studies) suggests that the macroscopic evolutions are induced by the nuclear interactions induced by the recoil nuclei of alpha decay. The analysis of the behavior of the glass structure subjected to ballistic effects with various spectroscopic studies, together with the results of atomistic modeling by molecular dynamics, have identified some slight changes in the local order around some cations. Moreover a modification of the medium-range order has also been demonstrated through changes in the bond angles between network

  13. Specific outcomes of the research on the radiation stability of the French nuclear glass towards alpha decay accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuget, S., E-mail: sylvain.peuget@cea.fr; Delaye, J.-M.; Jégou, C.

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term behavior of SON68 nuclear glass towards alpha decay accumulation. The effect of the radiation damage induced by alpha decay and also helium build-up were investigated by examining glass specimens, doped with a short-lived actinide {sup 244}Cm, irradiated by light and heavy ions. Additionally, atomistic simulations by molecular dynamics have provided further information on the atomic-scale effects of the macroscopic phenomena observed. These studies have shown that some macroscopic properties vary with the accumulation of alpha decay, but then stabilize after integrated doses of the order of 4 × 10{sup 18} α g{sup −1}. For example, the glass density diminishes by about 0.6%, its Young’s modulus by about 15%, and its hardness by about 30%, while its fracture toughness increases by around 50%. The SEM and TEM characterization showed that the glass is still homogeneous. No phase separation, crystallization or bubbles formation was noticed up to an alpha decay dose corresponding to several thousand years of disposal of nuclear glass canister. Moreover the initial alteration rate of the glass is not significantly affected by the glass damage induced by alpha decays or heavy ions irradiations. The comparison of the macroscopic evolutions of the Cm doped glass with those obtained for glasses irradiated with light or heavy ions (from either experimental and molecular dynamic studies) suggests that the macroscopic evolutions are induced by the nuclear interactions induced by the recoil nuclei of alpha decay. The analysis of the behavior of the glass structure subjected to ballistic effects with various spectroscopic studies, together with the results of atomistic modeling by molecular dynamics, have identified some slight changes in the local order around some cations. Moreover a modification of the medium-range order has also been demonstrated through changes in the bond angles

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  19. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-18

    Aug 18, 2011 ... Syphilis. Methods: The study population included all donors who donated blood from January 2006 to November 2009. The data was collected ... Laboratory diagnosis is based on serological tests to detect the specific antibody produced against the ... Performing these diagnostic tests in blood donors is.