WorldWideScience

Sample records for research shows deformation

  1. 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Rock Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, James G.; Gray, Nancy Ryan

    2009-09-21

    The GRC on Rock Deformation highlights the latest research in brittle and ductile rock mechanics from experimental, field and theoretical perspectives. The conference promotes a multi-disciplinary forum for assessing our understanding of rock strength and related physical properties in the Earth. The theme for the 2008 conference is 'Real-time Rheology'. Using ever-improving geophysical techniques, our ability to constrain the rheological behavior during earthquakes and post-seismic creep has improved significantly. Such data are used to investigate the frictional behavior of faults, processes responsible for strain localization, the viscosity of the lower crust, and viscous coupling between the crust and mantle. Seismological data also provide information on the rheology of the lower crust and mantle through analysis of seismic attenuation and anisotropy. Geologists are improving our understanding of rheology by combining novel analyses of microstructures in naturally deformed rocks with petrologic data. This conference will bring together experts and students in these research areas with experimentalists and theoreticians studying the same processes. We will discuss and assess where agreement exists on rheological constraints derived at different length/time scales using different techniques - and where new insight is required. To encompass the elements of these topics, speakers and discussion leaders with backgrounds in geodesy, experimental rock deformation, structural geology, earthquake seismology, geodynamics, glaciology, materials science, and mineral physics will be invited to the conference. Thematic sessions will be organized on the dynamics of earthquake rupture, the rheology of the lower crust and coupling with the upper mantle, the measurement and interpretation of seismic attenuation and anisotropy, the dynamics of ice sheets and the coupling of reactive porous flow and brittle deformation for understanding geothermal and chemical

  2. PIXEL: Japanese InSAR community for crustal deformation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Shimada, M.; Ozawa, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Miyagi, Y.; Kitagawa, S.

    2007-12-01

    In anticipation of the launch of ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) by JAXA (Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), and in order to expand and bolster the InSAR community for crustal deformation research in Japan, a couple of scientists established a consortium, PIXEL, in November 2005 in a completely bottom-up fashion. PIXEL stands for Palsar Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land. Formally, it is a research contract between JAXA and Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo. As ERI is a shared institute of the Japanese universities and research institutes, every scientist at all Japanese universities and institutes can participate in this consortium. The activity of PIXEL includes information exchange by mailing list, tutorial workshop for InSAR software, research workshop, and PALSAR data sharing. After the launch of ALOS, we have already witnessed several earthquakes and volcanic activities using PALSAR interferometry. We will briefly show and digest some of those observation results.

  3. New research shows how social media, crowdsourced data ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    Jun 7, 2016 ... Spanning six months, the research used the 2013 Kenya general elections as a ... the Kenyan election found that "passive crowdsourcing" was indeed a valuable ... and the extent and culture of social media networks usage.

  4. Research Shows Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at EPA and colleagues at NC State University, the University of Sydney and the University of Tasmania are advancing the science of understanding the public health burden associated with wildland fires.

  5. Energy research shows the way to sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatthard, T.

    2000-01-01

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss research programme on energy economics basics that aims to provide advice for policy makers. The programme investigates not only the technological but also the social and economic factors to be taken into consideration. In particular, the article reviews the programme's work on promotion strategies for sustainability in the energy area in connection with a proposed levy on energy. Examples are given of possible implementation strategies concerning new and existing buildings. The responsibilities of the parties to be involved in the implementation of promotional measures such as cantonal authorities, professional associations and agencies are discussed

  6. Research in rock deformation: Report of the Second Rock Deformation Colloquium, 1989 AGU Spring Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harry

    In response to the considerable interest expressed at the first Rock Deformation Colloquium held at the Fall 1988 AGU meeting in San Francisco, a second dinner meeting was held on Monday evening, May 8, 1989, at the Omni Hotel in Baltimore. The principal business items were a report by Steve Kirby (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.) concerning the meeting the previous day of the rock deformation steering committee and an after dinner presentation by Steve Freiman of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Md., entitled “The Environmental Effects on Subcritical Crack Growth.” Kirby reported that a technical committee for rock deformation has been established within the Tectonophysics Section of AGU; the steering committee will attempt to establish constructive working relations with allied societies and disciplines, such as ceramics, metallurgy, materials science, structural geology, and surface science. Brian Evans of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Terry Tullis of Brown University in Providence, R.I., and Harry Green of the University of California at Davis agreed to be a subcommittee to propose a name for the technical committee, for discussion at the next steering committee meeting to be held before the 1989 Fall AGU meeting. Green also agreed to investigate the possibility of convening a special session at the Fall Meeting on the nature and mechanism of deep-focus earthquakes. (The session is Deep Slab Deformation and Faulting, T21B and T22A, organized by Harry and Ken Creager of the University of Washington, Seattle; it will be all day on Tuesday, December 5.)

  7. Black Holes Lead Galaxy Growth, New Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers may have solved a cosmic chicken-and-egg problem -- the question of which formed first in the early Universe -- galaxies or the supermassive black holes seen at their cores. "It looks like the black holes came first. The evidence is piling up," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Carilli outlined the conclusions from recent research done by an international team studying conditions in the first billion years of the Universe's history in a lecture presented to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. Gas in Distant Galaxy VLA image (right) of gas in young galaxy seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, SDSS Full-size JPEG, 323 KB PDF file, 180 KB Galaxy image, no annotation, JPEG 21 KB Earlier studies of galaxies and their central black holes in the nearby Universe revealed an intriguing linkage between the masses of the black holes and of the central "bulges" of stars and gas in the galaxies. The ratio of the black hole and the bulge mass is nearly the same for a wide range of galactic sizes and ages. For central black holes from a few million to many billions of times the mass of our Sun, the black hole's mass is about one one-thousandth of the mass of the surrounding galactic bulge. "This constant ratio indicates that the black hole and the bulge affect each others' growth in some sort of interactive relationship," said Dominik Riechers, of Caltech. "The big question has been whether one grows before the other or if they grow together, maintaining their mass ratio throughout the entire process." In the past few years, scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in France to peer far back in the 13.7 billion-year history of the Universe, to the dawn of the first galaxies. "We finally have been able to measure black-hole and bulge masses in several galaxies seen

  8. Research on Kalman Filtering Algorithm for Deformation Information Series of Similar Single-Difference Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Wei-cai; XU Shao-quan

    2004-01-01

    Using similar single-difference methodology(SSDM) to solve the deformation values of the monitoring points, there is unstability of the deformation information series, at sometimes.In order to overcome this shortcoming, Kalman filtering algorithm for this series is established,and its correctness and validity are verified with the test data obtained on the movable platform in plane. The results show that Kalman filtering can improve the correctness, reliability and stability of the deformation information series.

  9. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  10. FEATURES OF THE RESEARCH WORK ELEMENTS DEFORMABILITY OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper is supposed the determination of basic physical and structural conditions in modeling life cycle of the elements of the railway line for the study of deformation processes as the basis of normative base of the track at the condition of railway safety. Methodology. To achieve the aim principles of the elasticity theory and wave propagation process in the description of the interaction between the track and rolling stock were used. Findings. The basic physical and structural conditions under which it is necessary to carry out the simulation of the life cycle of the elements of the railway line for the study of deformation processes were determined. The basic physical and structural principles of drawing the design schemes of railway track elements for the process assessment of the track deformation work were formulated. The decision correctness and the possibility of the problem solution are proved. Originality. The study of the track reliability questions motivates the development of new models, allow considering it for some developments. There is a need to identify the main physical and structural conditions for assembly design schemes based on assessment and prediction of possible track state changes during its operation. The paper presents the basic principles of physical and structural drafting design schemes of railway line items for which Huygens’ principle is implemented. This principle can be performed only when the four dimensional space: the volume changing over time is considered. Practical value. Analytical models applied in determining the parameters of strength and resistance lines, fully satisfy the task, but can not be used to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main impossibility factors of these models is quasidynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, receive and examine not only dynamic process of a railway track, but also its consequences. Besides, these models are related to

  11. a Research on Monitoring Surface Deformation and Relationships with Surface Parameters in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, S. J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, F.; Li, L.; Ge, Y.; Luo, L.; Zhang, C. L.; Chen, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    The Qinghai Tibetan Plateau permafrost has been the largest permafrost region in middle-low latitude in the world for its high altitude. For the large area permafrost, especially surface deformation brought by it, have serious influence on the road engineering, road maintaining and regional economic development. Consequently, it is essential to monitor the surface deformation and study factors that influent it. We monitored an area named Wudaoliang from July 25, 2015 to June 1, 2016 and 15 Sentinel images were obtained during this time. The area we chose is about 35 kilometers long and 2 kilometers wide, and the national road 109 of China passes through the area. The traditional PS-INSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) method is not suitable because less historical images in the research area and leading to the number of PS (Persistent Scatterer) points is not enough to obtain accurate deformation results. Therefore, in this paper, we used another method which named QUASI-PSInSAR (QUASI Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) to acquire deformation for it has the advantage to weaken or eliminate the effects of spatial and temporal correlation, which has proved by other scholar. After processing 15 images in the SARproz software, we got the conclusions that, 1) the biggest deformation velocity in the whole area was about 127.9mm/year and about 109.3 mm/year in the road; 2) apparent deformation which have surface deformation more than 30mm/year was about 1.7Km in the road. Meanwhile, soil moisture(SM), Land surface temperature (LST) and surface water(SW), which are primary parameters of the land surface over the same time were reversed by using Sentinel data, Landsat data and ZY-3 data, respectively. After analyzing SM, LST , SW and deformation, we obtained that wet areas which had bigger SM, lower LST and more SW, had greater percentage of severe deformation than arid areas; besides, deformation pattern were

  12. [Research progress on real-time deformable models of soft tissues for surgery simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hua; Luo, Jie

    2010-04-01

    Biological tissues generally exhibit nonlinearity, anisotropy, quasi-incompressibility and viscoelasticity about material properties. Simulating the behaviour of elastic objects in real time is one of the current objectives of virtual surgery simulation which is still a challenge for researchers to accurately depict the behaviour of human tissues. In this paper, we present a classification of the different deformable models that have been developed. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, we make a comparison of deformable models and perform an evaluation of the state of the art and the future of deformable models.

  13. Multi-scale analysis of deformation behavior at SCC crack tip (2). (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Hayakawa, Masao; Nagashima, Nobuo

    2007-03-01

    This report describes a result of the research conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the National Institute for Materials Science under contract with Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) that was concerned with a multi-scale analysis of plastic deformation behavior at the crack tip of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The research was carried out to evaluate the validity of the SCC growth data acquired in the intergranular SCC (IGSCC) project based on a mechanistic understanding of SCC. For the purpose, in this research, analyses of the plastic deformation behavior and microstructure around the crack tip were performed in a nano-order scale. The hardness measured in nano, meso and macro scales was employed as a common index of the strength, and the essential data necessary to understand the SCC propagation behavior were acquired and analyzed that are mainly a size of plastic deformation region and a microstructural information in the region, e.g. data of crystallografy, microscopic deformation and dislocations at the inside of grains and grain boundaries. In this year, we analyzed the state of plastic deformation region at the crack tip of IGSCC under various conditions and investigated relationship between crack growth behavior and stress intensity factor. Especially, we investigated in detail about two different hardened specimens used in the SCC growth tests in the IGSCC project. (J.P.N.)

  14. Research on the drawing process with a large total deformation wires of AZ31 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajor, T; Muskalski, Z; Suliga, M

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium and their alloys have been extensively studied in recent years, not only because of their potential applications as light-weight engineering materials, but also owing to their biodegradability. Due to their hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure, cold plastic processing of magnesium alloys is difficult. The preliminary researches carried out by the authors have indicated that the application of the KOBO method, based on the effect of cyclic strain path change, for the deformation of magnesium alloys, provides the possibility of obtaining a fine-grained structure material to be used for further cold plastic processing with large total deformation. The main purpose of this work is to present research findings concerning a detailed analysis of mechanical properties and changes occurring in the structure of AZ31 alloy wire during the multistage cold drawing process. The appropriate selection of drawing parameters and the application of multistep heat treatment operations enable the deformation of the AZ31 alloy in the cold drawing process with a total draft of about 90%.

  15. Multi-scale analysis of deformation behavior at SCC crack tip (3) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Hayakawa, Masao; Nagashima, Nobuo

    2008-08-01

    In recent years, incidents of the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were frequently reported that occurred to the various components of domestic boiling water reactors (BWR), and the cause investigation and measure become the present important issue. By the Japan nuclear energy safety organization (JNES), a research project on the intergranular SCC (IGSCC) in nuclear grade stainless steels (henceforth, IGSCC project) is under enforcement from a point of view to secure safety and reliability of BWR, and SCC growth data of low carbon stainless steels are being accumulated for the weld part or the work-hardened region adjacent to the weld metal. In the project, it has been an important subject to guarantee the validity of accumulated SCC data. At a crack tip of SCC in compact tension (CT) type specimen used for the SCC propagation test, a macroscopic plastic region is formed where heterogeneity of microstructure developed by microscopic sliding and dislocations is observed. However, there is little quantitative information on the plastic region, and therefore, to assess the data of macroscopic SCC growth rate and the validity of propagation test method, it is essentially required to investigate the plastic region at the crack tip in detail from a microscopic viewpoint. This report describes a result of the research conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the National Institute for Materials Science under contract with JNES that was concerned with a multi-scale analysis of plastic deformation behavior at the crack tip of SCC. The research was carried out to evaluate the validity of the SCC growth data acquired in the IGSCC project based on a mechanistic understanding of SCC. For the purpose, in this research, analyses of the plastic deformation behavior and microstructure around the crack tip were performed in a nano-order scale. The hardness measured in nano, meso and macro scales was employed as a common index of the strength, and the essential data necessary

  16. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin

  17. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Rock Deformation - Formal Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2012-08-24

    The Gordon Research Conference on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at Proctor Academy Andover, New Hampshire, August 19-24, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 124 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Of the 124 attendees, 66 voluntarily responded to a general inquiry regarding ethnicity which appears on our registration forms. Of the 66 respondents, 8% were Minorities – 2% Hispanic, 6% Asian and 0% African American. Approximately 27% of the participants at the 2012 meeting were women. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, "free time" was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. Feedback processes are vitally important in controlling the rates and mechanisms of rock deformation. Positive feedbacks lead to accelerating rates, and commonly to spatial focusing. Localization and acceleration of creep is often associated with stress and/or strain rate dependent grain size reduction, frictional heating, or viscous shear heating. The presence of melt may help to localize and accelerate deformation, and in turn deformation may help to localize melt transport. Volume changes during retrograde metamorphic reactions may, under some circumstances, lead

  18. Environmental justice research shows the importance of social feedbacks in ecosystem service trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shine a spotlight on approaches to research ecosystem service trade-offs and critically assess their representation of relevant social dynamics. Although studies linking ecosystem services and human well-being have provided theoretical insights into social and ecological trade-offs, we argue that ecosystem services research has paid insufficient attention to "social feedbacks," people's cognitive and behavioral responses to change. We demonstrate that augmenting ecosystem services research with environmental justice approaches (exploring perceptions of the distribution of costs and benefits, decision making procedures, and recognition of different values and identities can more effectively capture important responses to ecosystem governance. Spatial analysis of land use change, mixed-method assessment of multidimensional well-being, and qualitative environmental justice research were applied in three villages adjacent to Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in northern Laos. Spatial analysis showed that, from 2006 to 2015, forest clearance for cultivation remained stable within the protected area. Well-being assessment revealed the local population benefited from rapidly increasing incomes, asset ownership, and reduced poverty during that time. In combination, spatial and well-being analyses paint a picture of limited trade-offs, despite growing incentives to exploit protected land and resources through cash crops and high-value forest products. In contrast, results from environmental justice research revealed profound trade-offs between conservation and local practices, and highlight governance deficiencies relating to procedure and recognition. Consequently, formal protected area rules were perceived to be illegitimate by many and actively undermined, for example through negotiated access with alternative authorities. We conclude that although well-being research provides an essential foundation to understand diverse

  19. Experimental research on microhardness and wear resistances of pure Cu subjected to surface dynamic plastic deformation by ultrasonic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoxia; He, Yangming

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) has been induced in the surface of pure Cu by ultrasonic impact treating (UIT) with the varied impact current and coverage percentage. The microstructures of the treated surface were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). And the wear resistance of pure Cu was experimentally researched both with the treated and untreated specimens. The effect of DPD on the hardness was also investigated using microhardness tester. The results show that the grains on the top surfaces of pure Cu are highly refined. The maximum depth of the plastic deformation layer is approximately 1400 µm. The larger the current and coverage percentage, the greater of the microhardness and wear resistance the treated surface layer of pure Cu will be. When the impact current is 2 A and coverage percentage is 300%, the microhardness and wear resistance of the treated sample is about 276.1% and 68.8% higher than that of the untreated specimen, respectively. But the properties of the treated sample deteriorate when the UIT current is 3 A and the coverage percentage is 300% because of the formation of a new phase forms in the treated surface.

  20. Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H P; Li, X; Rui, Z Y

    2015-01-01

    Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise. (paper)

  1. Research on the Phase Aberration Correction with a Deformable Mirror Controlled by a Genetic Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P; Hu, S J; Chen, S Q; Yang, W; Xu, B; Jiang, W H

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve laser beam quality, a real number encoding genetic algorithm based on adaptive optics technology was presented. This algorithm was applied to control a 19-channel deformable mirror to correct phase aberration in laser beam. It is known that when traditional adaptive optics system is used to correct laser beam wave-front phase aberration, a precondition is to measure the phase aberration information in the laser beam. However, using genetic algorithms, there is no necessary to know the phase aberration information in the laser beam beforehand. The only parameter need to know is the Light intensity behind the pinhole on the focal plane. This parameter was used as the fitness function for the genetic algorithm. Simulation results show that the optimal shape of the 19-channel deformable mirror applied to correct the phase aberration can be ascertained. The peak light intensity was improved by a factor of 21, and the encircled energy strehl ratio was increased to 0.34 from 0.02 as the phase aberration was corrected with this technique

  2. Videometric research on deformation measurement of large-scale wind turbine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of wind energy is a promising way to generate power,and wind turbine blades play a key role in collecting the wind energy effectively.This paper attempts to measure the deformation parameter of wind turbine blades in mechanics experiments using a videometric method. In view that the blades experience small buckling deformation and large integral deformation simultaneously, we proposed a parallel network measurement(PNM) method including the key techniques such as camera network construction,c...

  3. Technical Note: DIRART- A software suite for deformable image registration and adaptive radiotherapy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Deshan; Brame, Scott; El Naqa, Issam; Aditya, Apte; Wu Yu; Murty Goddu, S.; Mutic, Sasa; Deasy, Joseph O.; Low, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in image guide radiotherapy technology and a growing interest in the possibilities for adapting treatment planning and delivery over the course of treatment. One obstacle faced by the research community has been the lack of a comprehensive open-source software toolkit dedicated for adaptive radiotherapy (ART). To address this need, the authors have developed a software suite called the Deformable Image Registration and Adaptive Radiotherapy Toolkit (DIRART). Methods: DIRART is an open-source toolkit developed in MATLAB. It is designed in an object-oriented style with focus on user-friendliness, features, and flexibility. It contains four classes of DIR algorithms, including the newer inverse consistency algorithms to provide consistent displacement vector field in both directions. It also contains common ART functions, an integrated graphical user interface, a variety of visualization and image-processing features, dose metric analysis functions, and interface routines. These interface routines make DIRART a powerful complement to the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR) and popular image-processing toolkits such as ITK. Results: DIRART provides a set of image processing/registration algorithms and postprocessing functions to facilitate the development and testing of DIR algorithms. It also offers a good amount of options for DIR results visualization, evaluation, and validation. Conclusions: By exchanging data with treatment planning systems via DICOM-RT files and CERR, and by bringing image registration algorithms closer to radiotherapy applications, DIRART is potentially a convenient and flexible platform that may facilitate ART and DIR research.

  4. Research of Tool Durability in Surface Plastic Deformation Processing by Burnishing of Steel Without Metalworking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, N. M.; Melnikov, P. A.; Bobrovskij, I. N.

    2017-05-01

    Modern vector of development of machining technologies aimed at the transition to environmentally safe technologies - “green” technologies. The concept of “green technology” includes a set of signs of knowledge intended for practical use (“technology”). One of the ways to improve the quality of production is the use of surface plastic deformation (SPD) processing methods. The advantage of the SPD is a capability to combine effects of finishing and strengthening treatment. The SPD processing can replace operations: fine turning, grinding or polishing. The SPD is a forceful contact impact of indentor on workpiece’s surface in condition of their relative motion. It is difficult to implement the core technology of the SPD (burnishing, roller burnishing, etc.) while maintaining core technological advantages without the use of lubricating and cooling technology (metalworking fluids, MWF). The “green” SPD technology was developed by the authors for dry processing and has not such shortcomings. When processing with SPD without use of MWF requirements for tool’s durability is most significant, especially in the conditions of mass production. It is important to determine the period of durability of tool at the design stage of the technological process with the purpose of wastage preventing. This paper represents the results of durability research of natural and synthetic diamonds (polycrystalline diamond - ASPK) as well as precision of polycrystalline superabrasive tools made of dense boron nitride (DBN) during SPD processing without application of MWF.

  5. Online Professional Profiles: Health Care and Library Researchers Show Off Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Tara J

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly digital world, online profiles can help health care and library professionals showcase their research and scholarly work. By sharing information about their investigations, studies, and projects, health care and library researchers can elevate their personal brand and connect with like-minded individuals. This column explores different types of online professional profiles and addresses some of the concerns that come with using them. A list of online professional profile and platform examples is also provided.

  6. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA. This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14 for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75–79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  7. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael L; Goffman, Rachel M; May, Jerrold H; Monte, Robert J; Rodriguez, Keri L; Tjader, Youxu C; Vargas, Dominic L

    2016-02-16

    Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14) for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75-79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  8. Research shows 'poppers' use in connected with infection among MSM. Little is done to address problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Researchers and experts on the use of inhaled nitrates among men who have sex with men (MSM) say clinicians, public health officials, and AIDS groups are ignoring the impact of poppers, a popular party inhalant, on HIV risk behaviors and even seroconversion.

  9. More Research on Veteran Employment Would Show What’s Good for Business and for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    approaches to addressing sexual harassment , sexual assault, hazing, and other problematic behaviors in the armed forces. ...indicate that certain cohorts of veterans are excelling in the workplace . For example, post-9/11 veterans’ median earnings are 11 percent higher than those...and programs, the October workshop focused on studies and research needs regarding leveraging skills that veterans bring to the workplace , effective

  10. Ageing research on vertebrates shows knowledge gaps and opportunities for species conservation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    is constant when species reach maturity. The implications of these assumptions have strong consequences not only in the development of evolutionary theories of ageing and population ecology but also in species conservation. By modeling mortality of different species of vertebrates we show that different...... models are needed to explore the diversity of mortality trajectories in animals. However, our state of demographic knowledge even for vertebrates is by far deficient to incorporate the effects on age. Exploring 13 available datasets on vertebrate life histories traits, our results show surprising figures...

  11. Experimental Research on the Elastic Deformation Mode of S235JR Rolled Steel Fastened between the Centers of a Universal Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacaru, LL; Axinte, E.; Musca, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elastic deformations of the technological system occur during the mechanical treatment of a blank, regardless of the manner in which it is fastened. The elastic deformation of the blank is significant especially when machining shaft-like parts. The purpose of our research is to compare the mathematical model of blank deformation to the experimental model when the blank, which is a part belonging to the shaft class, is fastened between centers.

  12. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  13. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  14. Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hooker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal, an organic-mercury (Hg based compound, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful. Of these, 16 were conducted to specifically examine the effects of Thimerosal on human infants or children with reported outcomes of death; acrodynia; poisoning; allergic reaction; malformations; auto-immune reaction; Well’s syndrome; developmental delay; and neurodevelopmental disorders, including tics, speech delay, language delay, attention deficit disorder, and autism. In contrast, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that Thimerosal is safe and there is “no relationship between [T]himerosal[-]containing vaccines and autism rates in children.” This is puzzling because, in a study conducted directly by CDC epidemiologists, a 7.6-fold increased risk of autism from exposure to Thimerosal during infancy was found. The CDC’s current stance that Thimerosal is safe and that there is no relationship between Thimerosal and autism is based on six specific published epidemiological studies coauthored and sponsored by the CDC. The purpose of this review is to examine these six publications and analyze possible reasons why their published outcomes are so different from the results of investigations by multiple independent research groups over the past 75+ years.

  15. The Application Research of Inverse Finite Element Method for Frame Deformation Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A frame deformation estimation algorithm is investigated for the purpose of real-time control and health monitoring of flexible lightweight aerospace structures. The inverse finite element method (iFEM for beam deformation estimation was recently proposed by Gherlone and his collaborators. The methodology uses a least squares principle involving section strains of Timoshenko theory for stretching, torsion, bending, and transverse shearing. The proposed methodology is based on stain-displacement relations only, without invoking force equilibrium. Thus, the displacement fields can be reconstructed without the knowledge of structural mode shapes, material properties, and applied loading. In this paper, the number of the locations where the section strains are evaluated in the iFEM is discussed firstly, and the algorithm is subsequently investigated through a simple supplied beam and an experimental aluminum wing-like frame model in the loading case of end-node force. The estimation results from the iFEM are compared with reference displacements from optical measurement and computational analysis, and the accuracy of the algorithm estimation is quantified by the root-mean-square error and percentage difference error.

  16. Research of state of metal welded joint by deformation and corrosion surface projection parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Maria Vyacheslavovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At industrial enterprises in building structures and equipment one can see corrosion damage, as well as damage accumulated during operation period. The areas of stress concentration are welded joints as their structure is heterogeneous. From the point of view of the scale hierarchy, the welded joint represents the welded and base metal zones at the meso-macrolevel, the weld zone, the thermal zone, the base metal at the micro-mesolevel, the grain constituents at the nano-microlevel. Borders are the stress concentrators at different scale levels, thus they becomes the most dangerous places of metal structure. Modeling by the molecular dynamics method at the atomic level has shown nanocracks initiation in triple junctions of grain boundaries and on the ledges of the grain boundaries. Due to active development of nanotechnology, it became possible to evaluate the state of the weld metal at the nanoscale, where irreversible changes take place from the very beginning. Existing methods of nondestructive testing can detect damage only at the meso- and macrolevel. Modern equipment makes it possible to use other methods of control and approaches. For example, according to GOST R55046-2012 and R57223-2016, the analysis of the parameters of the surface projection deformation performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy should be taken into account when the evaluation of state of metal pipelines is carried out. However, there is a problem to monitore it due to various factors affecting the surface during operation. The paper proposes an additional method to estimate the state of weld metal at any stage of deformation that uses 3D analysis of the parameters of the «artificial» corrosion relief of surface. During the operation period changes in the stress-strain state and structure of the metal take place, as the result the character and depth of etching of the grains of the structural components and their boundaries change too. Evaluation of the

  17. Status of Zircaloy deformation and oxidation research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.H.; Cathcart, J.V.; Hobson, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsors a broad range of research on the response of nuclear fuel assemblies to normal, off-normal, and accident conditions in light-water reactors. The paper reviews the current status of three Zircaloy cladding research programs in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and presents some preliminary results from each

  18. Using Social Media to Generate and Collect Primary Data: The #ShowsWorkplaceCompassion Twitter Research Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, Wendy; Pezaro, Sally; Deeny, Karen; Kneafsey, Rosie

    2018-04-23

    Compassion is a core value embedded in the concept of quality in healthcare. The need for compassion toward healthcare staff in the workplace, for their own health and well-being and also to enable staff to deliver compassionate care for patients, is increasingly understood. However, we do not currently know how healthcare staff understand and characterize compassion toward themselves as opposed to patients. The aim of this study was to use social media for the generation and collection of primary data to gain understanding of the concept of workplace compassion. Tweets that contained the hashtag #ShowsWorkplaceCompassion were collected from Twitter and analyzed. The study took place between April 21 and May 21, 2016. Participants were self-selecting users of the social media service Twitter. The study was promoted by a number of routes: the National Health Service (NHS) England website, the personal Twitter accounts of the research team, internal NHS England communications, and via social media sharing. Participants were asked to contribute their views about what activities, actions, policies, philosophies or approaches demonstrate workplace compassion in healthcare using the hashtag #ShowsWorkplaceCompassion. All tweets including the research hashtag #ShowsWorkplaceCompassion were extracted from Twitter and studied using content analysis. Data concerning the frequency, nature, origin, and location of Web-based engagement with the research campaign were collected using Bitly (Bitly, Inc, USA) and Symplur (Symplur LLC, USA) software. A total of 260 tweets were analyzed. Of the 251 statements within the tweets that were coded, 37.8% (95/251) of the statements concerned Leadership and Management aspects of workplace compassion, 29.5% (74/251) were grouped under the theme related to Values and Culture, 17.5% (44/251) of the statements related to Personalized Policies and Procedures that support workplace compassion, and 15.2% (38/251) of the statements concerned

  19. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  20. Contribution of vertebral deformities to chronic back pain and disability. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, B.; Black, D. M.; Nevitt, M. C.; Rundle, A. C.; Cauley, J. A.; Cummings, S. R.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Among 2992 white women aged 65-70 years recruited from population-based listings, we measured radiographic vertebral dimensions of T5-L4 and calculated ratios of heights: anterior/posterior, mid/posterior, and posterior/posterior of either adjacent vertebra. The degree of deformity for each vertebra was analyzed in terms of the number of standard deviations (SD) that ratio differed from the mean ratio calculated for the same vertebral level in this population. We correlated the severity of each woman's worst vertebral deformity with back pain, back disability in six activities of daily living, and height loss since age 25. Only 39.4% of the cohort had no vertebral deformity; 10.2% had a deformity greater than or equal to 4 SD. Vertebral deformities less than 4 SD below the mean were not associated with increased back pain, disability, or loss of height. In contrast, women whose deformity was greater than or equal to 4 SD had a 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.4) times higher risk of moderate to severe back pain and a 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-3.9) times higher risk of disability involving the back; they were also 2.5 (95% CI, 2.0-3.2) times more likely to have lost greater than or equal to 4 cm in height. All three types of vertebral deformity (wedge, end plate, and crush) were equally associated with these outcomes. Multiple deformities less than 4 SD did not increase the likelihood of these three outcomes, but multiple deformities greater than or equal to 4 SD tended to be associated with increased back pain, disability, and height loss. This large cross-sectional study suggests that vertebral deformities cause substantial pain, disability, or loss of height only if vertebral height ratios fall 4 SD below the normal mean. Much back pain could not be attributed to vertebral deformities, suggesting other causes.

  1. Research and field tests of staged fracturing technology for casing deformation sections in horizontal shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal shale gas well fracturing is mostly carried out by pumping bridge plugs. In the case of casing deformation, the bridge plug can not be pumped down to the designated position, so the hole sections below the deformation could not be stimulated according to the design program. About 30% of horizontal shale gas wells in the Changning and Weiyuan Blocks, Sichuan Basin, suffer various casing deformation after fracturing. Previously, the hole sections which could not be stimulated due to casing deformation were generally abandoned. As a result, the resources controlled by shale gas wells weren't exploited effectively and the fracturing effect was impacted greatly. There are a lot of difficulties in investigating casing deformation, such as complex mechanisms, various influencing factors and unpredictable deformation time. Therefore, it is especially important to seek a staged fracturing technology suitable for the casing deformation sections. In this paper, the staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures and the staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls were tested in casing deformation wells. The staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures was carried out in the mode of single-stage perforation and single-stage fracturing. The staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls was conducted in the mode of single perforation, continuous fracturing and staged ball dropping. Then, two kinds of technologies were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, they were tested on site. According to the pressure response, the pressure monitoring of the adjacent wells and the microseismic monitoring in the process of actual fracturing, both technologies are effective in the stimulation of the casing deformation sections, realizing well control reserves efficiently and guaranteeing fracturing effects. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Casing deformation, Staged

  2. Research on Non-Similarity about Thermal Deformation Error of Mechanical Parts in High-accuracy Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z; Fei, Y T

    2006-01-01

    Expanding with heat and contracting with cold are common physical phenomenon in the nature. The conventional theories and calculations of thermal deformation are approximate and linear, can only be applied in normal or low precision field. The thermal deformation error of mechanical parts doesn't follow the conventional linear formula, it relates to all physical dimension of the mechanical part, and the deformation can be indicated by a nonlinear formula of physical dimensions. A theory on non-similarity about thermal deformation error of mechanical parts is presented. Studies on some common mechanical parts in precision technology have went on and the mathematical models have been set up, hollow piece, gear and cube are included. The experimental results also make it clear that these models are more logical than traditional models

  3. Research on the hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr alloy (800H) at temperatures above 1000 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Di, Hongshuang

    2015-10-01

    Considering the pinning effect of fine carbides on grain boundaries, hot compression tests were performed above the dissolution temperature of Cr23C6 to investigate the hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr alloy (800H). The results show that the single peak stress associated with dynamic recrystalization (DRX) became more distinct at higher temperature and lower strain rate. The process of DRX was thoroughly stimulated when deformed above 1000 °C. Constitutive equations for hot deformation were established by regression analysis of conventional hyperbolic sine equation. The relationships between Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) and the characteristic points of flow curves were established using the power law relation. Furthermore, kernel average misorientation (KAM) and grain orientation spread (GOS) were used to map the distribution of local misorientation and estimate the fraction of DRX, respectively. The critical strain and peak strain were used to predict the kinetics of DRX with the Avrami-type equation.

  4. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  5. Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.

  6. Quantitative research on microscopic deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy based on finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Chen, Guoxing; Sun, Jianliang; Shi, Baodong

    2018-04-01

    The microscopic deformation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy shows great inhomogeneity due to its duplex-microstructure that consists of two phases. In order to study the deformation behaviors of the constituent phases, the 2D FE model based on the realistic microstructure is established by MSC.Marc nonlinear FE software, and the tensile simulation is carried out. The simulated global stress-strain response is confirmed by the tensile testing result. Then the strain and stress distribution in the constituent phases and their evolution with the increase of the global strain are analyzed. The results show that the strain and stress partitioning between the two phases are considerable, most of the strain is concentrated in soft primary α phase, while hard transformed β matrix undertakes most of the stress. Under the global strain of 0.05, the deformation bands in the direction of 45° to the stretch direction and the local stress in primary α phase near to the interface between the two phases are observed, and they become more significant when the global strain increases to 0.1. The strain and stress concentration factors of the two phases are obviously different at different macroscopic deformation stages, but they almost tend to be stable finally.

  7. Nd-Fe-B-Cu hot deformation processing: a comparison of deformation modes, microstructural development and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, M.; Sinka, V.; Assis, O.B.G.; Oliveira, I. de; Freitas, E. de

    1996-01-01

    Due to its relative simplicity and low cost the hot deformation of Nd-Fe-B ingots is rapidly reaching the status of a valid alternative to sintering. Among the possible deformation modes, pressing, rolling and forging are perhaps the most successful. This paper describes the research programme undertaken so far, by discussing the relationship between deformation mode, microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets produced by hot deformation mode, microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets produced by hot deformation of a number of Nd-fe-B-Cu alloys. Microstructural observation showed that both pressed and forged samples are characterized by a heterogeneous microstructure and from magnetic measurements it was concluded that magnetic properties differ when taken in the center or in the periphery of the sample. On the other hand roller magnets were homogeneous both in terms of microstructure and magnetic properties, and interpretations of the mechanisms of texture development and of microstructural development of hot deformed magnets is put forward. (author)

  8. Augmenting a Ballet Dance Show Using the Dancer's Emotion: Conducting Joint Research in Dance and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Alexis; Delord, Elric; Couture, Nadine; Domenger, Gaël

    We describe the joint research that we conduct in gesture-based emotion recognition and virtual augmentation of a stage, bridging together the fields of computer science and dance. After establishing a common ground for dialogue, we could conduct a research process that equally benefits both fields. As computer scientists, dance is a perfect application case. Dancer's artistic creativity orient our research choices. As dancers, computer science provides new tools for creativity, and more importantly a new point of view that forces us to reconsider dance from its fundamentals. In this paper we hence describe our scientific work and its implications on dance. We provide an overview of our system to augment a ballet stage, taking a dancer's emotion into account. To illustrate our work in both fields, we describe three events that mixed dance, emotion recognition and augmented reality.

  9. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  10. A Research-Based Community Theater Performance to Promote Ageing: Is It More than Just a Show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan; Radermacher, Harriet; Lorains, Felicity; Haines, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Research-based community theater can address important life issues in a safe and entertaining environment. This study investigated using a theater performance about widowhood as a medium for facilitating older people's engagement with key life events and countering negative stereotypes. Quantitative questions incorporating semistructured…

  11. A single qualitative study can show same findings as years of quantitative research: Obstructive sleep apnoea as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Tandeter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many years of quantitative research led to our present knowledge of the symptoms and associated features (S&AF of the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome. Aims 1. To prove that a qualitative research approach may identify symptoms and associated features of OSA in less time/effort than that used in a quantitative approach; 2. To describe the experience of patients with OSA and the effects of the syndrome on their quality of life and that of their spouses and families (issues that quantitative methods fail to recognize. Methods We used a narrative inquiry methodology (qualitative research. The sample was selected using the “snowball sampling technique". The sample included 10 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had good adherence to CPAP and significant clinical improvement after treatment, and 3 of the patient’s spouses. Results The following issues were identified: A long pre-diagnosis phase of OSA (20 years in one of the patients; Characteristic S&AF of the syndrome as experienced by patients and their spouses; The need for increased awareness of both the public and the medical establishment in regards to this disorder; Premature ejaculation (not reported previously and nightmares (non-conclusive in the literature were identified and improved with CPAP therapy. Conclusion With the use of quantitative research methods it took decades to discover things that we found in one simple qualitative study. We therefore urge scientists to use more often these qualitative methods when looking for S&AF of diseases and syndromes.

  12. Results of the 2015 Scoliosis Research Society Survey on Single Versus Dual Attending Surgeon Approach for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Sethi, Rajiv K; Hey, Lloyd A; LaGrone, Michael O; Keefe, Malla; Aryan, Henry E; Errico, Thomas J; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert A; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Daubs, Michael D; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-06-15

    An electronic survey administered to Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) membership. To characterize surgeon practices and views regarding the use of two attending surgeons for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. The use of two experienced attending surgeons can decrease the operative time, estimated blood loss, and perioperative complication rates. However, the current practice patterns for the use of two attending surgeons remains unknown. An electronic, 27-question survey regarding single/dual attending surgeons was administered to the SRS membership. Determinants included: surgeon/practice demographics, assistant type/level of training, and questions regarding use of two attending surgeons. Overall reporting and comparisons between groups were made: US versus international, academic versus private practice, and experience 15 years. A total of 199 surgeons responded from 27 different countries. Overall and between the groups, the respondents significantly reported believing that two attending spine surgeons improves safety, decreases complications, and improves outcomes (P < 0.01). Approximately, 67.3% reported using a second attending ≤25% of the time (33.2% do not), and 24.1% use one ≥51% of the time (similar between groups); 51.1% that have a second attending feel it's limited by reimbursement and access concerns and 71.9% have difficulty getting the second attending reimbursed. 72.3% use a second attending for ALL of the following reasons (no difference between groups): "it's safer/reduces complications," "it decreases operative time," "it decreases blood loss," "it results in improved outcomes," "it's less work and stress for me." If reimbursement was equal/assured for a second attending, 67.5% would use one "more often" or "always." The respondents feel that having a second attending surgeon improves patient care, however most do not use one often. Reasons include reimbursement/access concerns and the majority would use one if reimbursement was

  13. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  14. Effect of Cooling Mode on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pipeline Steel for Strain Based Design and Research on its Deformation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesong, Zhang; Yonglin, Kang

    With the rapid development of oil and gas industry long distance pipelines inevitably pass through regions with complex geological activities. In order to avoid large deformation the pipelines must be designed based on strain criteria. In this paper the alloy system of X80 high deformability pipeline steel was designed which was 0.25%Mo-0.05%C-1.75%Mn. The effect of controlled cooling process on microstructure and mechanical properties of X80 high deformability pipeline steel were systematically investigated. Through the two-stage controlled cooling process the microstructure of the X80 high deformability pipeline steel were ferrite, bainite and M/A island. There were two kinds of ferrite which were polygonal ferrite (PF) and quasi-polygonal ferrite (QF). The bainite was granular bainite ferrite (GF). Along with the decrease of the start cooling temperature, the volume fraction of ferrite and M/A both increased, the yield ratio (Y/T) decreased, the uniform elongation (uEl) increased firstly with the content of ferrite increased but then decreased with the content and size of M/A increased. When the finish cooling temperature decreasing, the size of M/A became finer. As the start cooling temperature was 690 °C and the finish cooling temperature was 450 °C the volume fraction of ferrite was 23%, the size of ferrite grain was 5μm, the size of M/A island was below 1μm and the structure uniformity was the best. The deformation mechanism of X80 high deformability pipeline steel was analyzed. The best way to improve the work hardening rate was reducing the size of M/A islands on the premise of a certain volume fraction. The decreasing path of instantaneous strain hardening index (n*-value) showed three stages in the deformation process. The n*-value kept stable in the second stage, the reason was that the retained austenite transformed into martensite and the phase transition improved the strain hardening ability of the microstructure. This phenomenon was called

  15. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  16. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  17. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  18. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, John

    1993-01-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  19. Plastic Deformation of Pressured Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although pressured metallic glass (MG has been reported in the literature; there are few studies focusing on pressure effects on the structure; dynamics and its plastic deformation. In this paper; we report on and characterize; via molecular dynamics simulation, the structure and dynamics heterogeneity of pressured MGs, and explore a causal link between local structures and plastic deformation mechanism of pressured glass. The results exhibit that the dynamical heterogeneity of metallic liquid is more pronounced at high pressure, while the MGs were less fragile after the release of external pressure, reflected by the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP. High pressure glass shows better plastic deformation; and the local strain zone distributed more uniformly than of in normal glass. Further research indicates that although the number of icosahedrons in pressured glass was much larger than that in normal glass, while the interpenetrating connections of icosahedra (ICOI exhibited spatial correlations were rather poor; In addition, the number of ‘fast’ atoms indexed by the atoms’ moving distance is larger than that in normal glass; leading to the sharp decreasing in number of icosahedrons during deformation. An uniform distribution of ‘fast’ atoms also contributed to better plastic deformation ability in the pressured glass. These findings may suggest a link between the deformation and destruction of icosahedra with short-range order.

  20. Investigating thermomechanical parameters of the EhP693VD heat resisting alloys deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, G.S.; Galkin, A.M.; Ermanok, M.Z.; Trepilets, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present publication consists in complex research of the deformation resistance and plastic characteristics of heat-resistant hard-to-form alloy EhP693VD at the temperatures and deformation rates peculiar for the pressing process. The test conditions are: temperature 1000 to 1200 deg C; rate of deformation 0.5, 5.0 and 25 s -1 . The curves of deformation hardening of alloy EhP693VD show that the alloy is characterized by very high values of forming resistance index Ssub(f). With the increase of the rates of deformation, the maximum of curves Ssub(f) /antiepsilon/ is shifted towards greater degrees of deformation. The increase of the temperature results in the lower deformation hardening of the alloy. The intensity of the growth of the deformation resistance with the decrease of temperature becomes higher at lower degrees of deformation. Variation of plasticity at temperatures of up to 1150 deg C correlates with the curves showing variation of the deformation resistance. At a temperature of 1200 deg C, the drop of the deformation resistance is accompanied by the intensive drop of the plastic characteristics. The planning matrices, test results and complete disperse analysis tables are given. The analysis of the obtained equations makes it possible to draw a conclusion that the rise of the test temperature and drop of the rates of deformation entail the increase of the plastic characteristics

  1. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  2. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  3. Coping behavior of women with breast cancer with visible postsurgery deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirota N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to explore coping strategies in cancer patients. In all, 70 women with breast cancer were studied: 35 of them had visible postsurgery deformity, and 35 did not have visible postsurgery deformity. The purpose of the research was to uncover their preferences for using various strategies and resources to cope with their illness. The results showed that both groups of women had a special set of strategies for coping with stress. The women with visible postsurgery deformity made significantly less use of resources for coping with their illness than did the subgroup of women without visible postsurgery deformity.

  4. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  5. Microstructure of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy deformed by indentation-flattening compound deformation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Wang, Zhongtang; Yu, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    Characteristic of indentation-flattening compound deformation technology (IFCDT) is discussed, and the parameters of IFCDT are defined. Performance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet deformed by IFCDT is researched. The effect of IFCDT coefficient, temperature and reduction ratio on the microstructure of magnesium alloy sheet is analyzed. The research results show that the volume fraction of the twin crystal decreases gradually and the average grain size increases with increasing of coefficient of IFCDT. With increase of the reduction ratio, the volume fraction of the twin crystal gradually increases, and the average grain size also increases. With increase of deformation temperature, the volume fraction of the twin crystal decreases gradually, and the twin crystal grain size increases.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMABILITY OF ANISOTROPIC AGRILLITE CLAYSTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.

  7. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  8. Incidence of hallux valgus deformity among Iranian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The dramatically increased incidence of hallux valgus (HV deformity is more related to the cultural rather than genetic parameters. Due to the lack of reliable information about the rate of this disorder in Iraninan societies, the researchers of the current study aimed to find out the incidence of this disorder in Iranian university students as a sample of Iranian youngsters. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out using a self-constructed and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS questionnaires among 290 university students with the mean age of 21±2 years old. The HV angles (HVA was described as normal for up to 20º, mild for angles between 21º and 25º, moderate for angles between 26º and 40º, and severe for angles higher than 40 º. Then, the HVA of the subjects of this study was compared with the data from other societies.Results: The results of this study showed a 34.1% involvement of the participants (30% females and 41% males. 58% of the subjects showed a bilateral hallux valgus involvement. No significant differences were found between the males and females in terms of the severity of the deformity and the right or left side involvement (P>0.05. 71% of the involved subjects showed a mild degree and 29% showed a moderate degree of deformity. No severe deformity (above 40º was found in this study. In terms of the associated deformities, in subjects with mild deformity, 25% showed flat foot and 69% showed bunion disorder; While these were 21% and 82% in subjects with moderate deformity, respectively. In terms of inheritance correlation, while this deformity was shown in only 7% of normal subjects’ first degree relatives (father, mother, brothers or sisters, it increased to 21.1% in mild degree and 46.4% in moderate degree groups. Conclusion: This study revealed a very high incidence of HV deformity in Iranian university students as a sample of Iranian youngsters, which is

  9. Reliability of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires in adult spinal deformity when administered by telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokshan, Steven L; Godzik, Jakub; Dalton, Jonathan; Jaffe, Jennifer; Lenke, Lawrence G; Kelly, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    The non-response rates are as high as 20% to 50% after 5 years of follow-up in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. Minimizing loss to follow-up is essential to protect the quality of data in long-term studies. Phone and internet administration of outcomes instruments has grown in popularity and has been found to not only provide a convenient way of collecting data, but also show improved response rates. The study aimed to examine the reliability of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22r) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires in ASD patients when administered by telephone. This is a single-center, randomized crossover phone validation of ASD patients. The study included ASD patients presenting to a tertiary spine care center. The outcome measures were ODI and SRS-22r. Forty-nine patients (mean age: 55.7 years) with ASD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either phone completion of the SRS-22r and ODI followed by in-office completion, or to in-office completion followed by phone completion. An interval of 2 to 4 weeks was placed between administrations of each version. A paired t test was used to assess the difference between the written and phone versions, and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess homogeneity. Finally, goodness-of-fit testing was used to assess version preference. There was no significant difference between the phone and in-office versions of the SRS-22r (p=.174) or the ODI (p=.320). The intraclass correlation coefficients of the SRS-22r and ODI were 0.91 and 0.86, respectively. Completion over the phone was the most popular option (57% preferred phone, 29% preferred in-office, and 14% had no preference). Phone administration of the SRS-22r and ODI to ASD patients provides a convenient and reliable tool for reducing loss of follow-up data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bunionette deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  11. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  13. Current status and future plan of the research on the rock deformation and disturbed zone within the Hades project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, Bernard; Bruyn, D.de; Volckaert, Geert

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of the high activity disposal experimental site (HADES) project managed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Establishment, an in situ research program was launched in 1980. An underground research facility was built in a deep Tertiary clay formation. The various issues related to the site characterization were investigated, including the performance of engineered barriers. Most of the research has been performed under the contract with the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Belgian Waste Management Authority (ONDRF/NIRAS). Various civil engineering works and underground experiments haave been carried out to assess the technical feasibility of building a high level waste repository in a plastic clay formaiton. Further information has been collected on the extent and the evolution of the disturbance caused in clay mass by underground structures. The study on clay behavior was extended to the near field conditions after disposal when the host rocks underwent the thermal effect of heat-emitting waste. The general background of the Boom clay, the mechanical behavior of the Boom clay, the numerical simulation of excavation progress and backfill materials are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Measurement of shape and deformation of insect wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Duo; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Zeyu; Zhou, Changqiu

    2018-01-01

    To measure the shape and deformation of an insect wing, a scanning setup adopting laser triangulation and image matching was developed. Only one industry camera with two light sources was employed to scan the transparent insect wings. 3D shape and point to point full field deformation of the wings could be obtained even when the wingspan is less than 3 mm. The venation and corrugation could be significantly identified from the results. The deformation of the wing under pin loading could be seen clearly from the results as well. Calibration shows that the shape and deformation measurement accuracies are no lower than 0.01 mm. Laser triangulation and image matching were combined dexterously to adapt wings' complex shape, size, and transparency. It is suitable for insect flight research or flapping wing micro-air vehicle development.

  15. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  16. Cold deformation of ADI castings: Martensitic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navea, Lilian R; Mannheim, Rodolfo M; Garin, Jorge L

    2004-01-01

    Research and applications in austempered ductile iron (ADI castings) have recently undergone noticeable progress in the industrialized world, becoming a highly competitive engineering material. The notable properties of these castings derive from their austenitic matrix stabilized by carbon, a thermally stable austenite during the austenizing process but possibly turning into martensite when undergoing plastic deformation. This work aims to study the changing structure of an ADI casting caused by one directional cold lamination. The samples that were studied were obtained from two nodular castings, one without alloying and the other alloyed with Cu, Ni and Mo. The samples were austenized in the first stage of the austempering process at 910 o C for 80 min. Then in the second stage the unalloyed samples were austempered at 410 o C for 10 min and the alloyed samples for 120 min. After the thermal treatment, the test pieces were deformed 0% to 25% by cold lamination. The quantification of the phases was performed using x-ray diffraction and the metallographic study using optic and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. The results show that the martensitic phase obtained by deformation is a very fine structure that evolves into a thicker one when the deformation of the samples increases (CW)

  17. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. M theory on deformed superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  19. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  20. Computational and experimental analysis of causes for local deformation of research reactor U-Mo fuel pin claddings in case of high burn-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.V.; Khmelevsky, M.Ya.; Lukichev, V.A.; Golosov, O.A.

    2005-01-01

    Post-reactor investigations of (U-Mo) fuel pins irradiated in the IVV-2M reactor have allowed to determine: the change in a fuel pin volume; the dimensions and the kind of the local deformation of fuel pin claddings; the amount of gases released under the cladding from the fuel composition, the thickness and appearance of the interaction layer of between the (U-Mo) particles and aluminium as a matrix material. The computational analysis of the stressed-strained state of fuel pins has shown that the major contribution to the increase of the fuel pin volume is made by the fuel swelling caused by the solid products of fission being formed in the process of operation. The emergence of the (U-Mo) fuel-aluminium matrix interaction layers around the (U-Mo) particles results in formation and evolution of lamination cavities inside the fuel composition under the joint action of the pressure of process gases and gaseous fission products. In case of high burn-up a local bulge of a fuel pin cladding is being formed in the fuel lamination area caused by the pressure of gases in the presence of creep in the fuel pin cladding material. The computational results relating to the local strain in a research reactor (U-Mo) fuel pin are in a good accordance with the results of the post-reactor investigations. (author)

  1. q-deformed Weinberg-Salam model and q-deformed Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.A.; Sarbishaei, M.; Mokhtari, A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the q-deformation of the gauge part of the Weinberg-Salam model and show that the q-deformed theory involves new interactions. We then obtain q-deformed Maxwell equations from which magnetic monopoles appear naturally. (author)

  2. INFLUENCE RESEARCH OF COLD PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON DIFFUSION SATURATION PROCESS BY CARBON AND BORON OF THE LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Filonenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of influence of cold prestrain with degree of deformation within the range 0…40 % on diffusion saturation with boron and carbon for low-carbon and boron steels. It is determined that the plastic prestrain with degree of deformation 20 % at temperature 750 °С for the low-carbon steel promote increasing of boron-cementation layer thickness by 25 % and microhardness of perlite layer by 20 %.

  3. Application of the Periodic Average System Model in Dam Deformation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqian Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dams are among the most important hydraulic engineering facilities used for water supply, flood control, and hydroelectric power. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred. How to obtain the deformation information and then judge the safe conditions is the key and difficult problem in dam deformation monitoring field. This paper proposes the periodic average system model and creates the concept of “settlement activity” based on the dam deformation issue. Long-term deformation monitoring data is carried out in a pumped-storage power station, this model combined with settlement activity is used to make the single point deformation analysis, and then the whole settlement activity profile is drawn by clustering analysis. Considering the cumulative settlement value of every point, the dam deformation trend is analyzed in an intuitive effect way. The analysis mode of combined single point with multipoints is realized. The results show that the key deformation information of the dam can be easily grasped by the application of the periodic average system model combined with the distribution diagram of settlement activity. And, above all, the ideas of this research provide an effective method for dam deformation analysis.

  4. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  5. A study on laser welding deformation of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Akikazu; Maehara, Kenji; Takeda, Shinnosuke; Matsunawa, Akira

    2002-01-01

    In heavy industries, 304 austenitic stainless steel is the most popular material which is used for nuclear equipment, chemical vessels, vacuum vessels and so on. On the fabrication, not only a joint quality but also severe dimensional accuracy is required. To keep dimensional accuracy, considerable cost and efforts are requested, because the welding deformation of austenitic stainless steel is deeply depended on the physical properties of material itself. To decrease welding deformation, big jigs or water cooling method are commonly used which lead to the high cost. In general, the fusion welding by high energy density heat source results in less distortion. Today, laser welding technology has grown up to the stage that enables to weld thick plate with small deformation. The researches of welding deformation have been conducted intensively, but they are mainly concerned for arc welding, and studies for laser welding are very few. In this report, the authors will show the test results of deformation behavior in laser welding of 304 stainless steel. Also, they will discuss the deformation behavior comparing to that in arc welding. The main results of this study are as follows. 1. The angular distortion of laser welding can be unified by heat input parameter (Hp) which is used for arc welding deformation. 2. The angular distortion are same under the condition of Hp 3 in spite of different welding method, however under the condition of Hp>6-9 J/mm 3 the angular distortion is quite different depending on the power density of welding method. 3. Pure angular distortion seemed to complete just after welding, but following longitudinal distortion took place for long period. 4. The critical value of longitudinal distortion can be estimated from heat input parameter. The transverse deformation can be also estimated by heat input parameter. (author)

  6. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  7. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  8. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  9. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  10. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  11. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  12. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  13. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  14. Loading History Effect on Creep Deformation of Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The creep characteristics of rocks are very important for assessing the long-term stability of rock engineering structures. Two loading methods are commonly used in creep tests: single-step loading and multi-step loading. The multi-step loading method avoids the discrete influence of rock specimens on creep deformation and is relatively time-efficient. It has been widely accepted by researchers in the area of creep testing. However, in the process of multi-step loading, later deformation is affected by earlier loading. This is a key problem in considering the effects of loading history. Therefore, we intend to analyze the deformation laws of rock under multi-step loading and propose a method to correct the disturbance of the preceding load. Based on multi-step loading creep tests, the memory effect of creep deformation caused by loading history is discussed in this paper. A time-affected correction method for the creep strains under multi-step loading is proposed. From this correction method, the creep deformation under single-step loading can be estimated by the super-position of creeps obtained by the dissolution of a multistep creep. We compare the time-affected correction method to the coordinate translation method without considering loading history. The results show that the former results are more consistent with the experimental results. The coordinate translation method produces a large error which should be avoided.

  15. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  16. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  17. News and Views: CSR: the devil will be in the detail; MPs invite researchers to show off success; Earthquake movies reveal ground movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The UK Government's Comprehensive Spending Review set out a distinctly tighter budget all round in October, but science funding as a whole was not as badly cut as some had feared. What this means for astronomy, planetary science and geophysics remains to be seen, as individual research council allocations have yet to be agreed. Early-career researchers with results to shout about have the opportunity to display and discuss their work at the House of Commons next year, as part of the SET for Britain event on 14 March. Seismology took a great step forward when international cooperation at the time of International Geophysical Year 1957/8 meant that earth movements resulting from quakes could be compared worldwide.

  18. Assessment of striatal & postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that striatal and postural deformities were common and present in about half of the patients with PD. These deformities we more common in patients with advanced stage of PD.

  19. While it is not deliberate, much of today's biomedical research contains logical and technical flaws, showing a need for corrective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Yuan, Chengfu; Chen, Lichan; Liu, Yanjie; Zhou, Haiyan; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical research has advanced swiftly in recent decades, largely due to progress in biotechnology. However, this rapid spread of new, and not always-fully understood, technology has also created a lot of false or irreproducible data and artifacts, which sometimes have led to erroneous conclusions. When describing various scientific issues, scientists have developed a habit of saying "on one hand… but on the other hand…", because discrepant data and conclusions have become omnipresent. One reason for this problematic situation is that we are not always thoughtful enough in study design, and sometimes lack enough philosophical contemplation. Another major reason is that we are too rushed in introducing new technology into our research without assimilating technical details. In this essay, we provide examples in different research realms to justify our points. To help readers test their own weaknesses, we raise questions on technical details of RNA reverse transcription, polymerase chain reactions, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining, as these methods are basic and are the base for other modern biotechnologies. Hopefully, after contemplation and reflection on these questions, readers will agree that we indeed know too little about these basic techniques, especially about the artifacts they may create, and thus many conclusions drawn from the studies using those ever-more-sophisticated techniques may be even more problematic.

  20. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  1. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  2. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  3. The reliability and concurrent validity of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r patient questionnaire compared with the Child Health Questionnaire-CF87 patient questionnaire for adolescent spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattes, R Christopher; Burton, Douglas C; Lai, Sue Min; Frasier, Elizabeth; Asher, Marc A

    2007-07-15

    This is a clinic-based cross-sectional study involving 2 health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) questionnaires. To compare the score distribution and reliability of the spinal deformity specific Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) questionnaire and the established generic Child Health Questionnaire-CF87 (CHQ-CF87), and to assess the concurrent validity of the SRS-22r using the CHQ-CF87 in an adolescent spine deformity population. Different questionnaires are commonly thought to be necessary to assess the HRQL of adolescent and adult populations. But since spinal deformities usually begin in the second decade of life, longitudinal follow-up with the same HRQL is desirable. The SRS-22r HRQL has recently been validated for score distribution and internal consistency in a spinal deformity population ranging in age from 7 to 78 years. The SRS-22r and CHQ-CF87 HRQLs were completed by 70 orthopedic spinal deformity outpatients 8 to 18 years of age, of whom 54 returned mailed retest questionnaires at an average of 24 days later. The ceiling effect averaged 27% for the SRS-22r and 36% for the CHQ-CF87. Respective values for internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) were 0.81 and 0.82, and for test-retest reproducibility the intraclass correlations (ICC) were 0.73 and 0.61. Concurrent validity was r > or = 0.68 or more for relevant function, pain, and mental health domains. The SRS Self-Image and particularly the Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction with Management domains did not correlate well with any CHQ-CF87 domains (r = 0.50 and 0.30, respectively). In a spinal deformity population 8 to 18 years of age, the score distribution and reliability, internal consistency, and reproducibility of the SRS-22r were at least as good as the CHQ-CF87. The SRS-22r function, pain, and mental health domains were concurrently valid in comparison to relevant CHQ-CF87 domains, but the SRS-22r self-image and satisfaction/dissatisfaction domains were not, thereby providing health-related quality

  4. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  5. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  6. Detecting Milling Deformation in 7075 Aluminum Alloy Aeronautical Monolithic Components Using the Quasi-Symmetric Machining Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The deformation of aeronautical monolithic components due to CNC machining is a bottle-neck issue in the aviation industry. The residual stress releases and redistributes in the process of material removal, and the distortion of the monolithic component is generated. The traditional one-side machining method will produce oversize deformation. Based on the three-stage CNC machining method, the quasi-symmetric machining method is developed in this study to reduce deformation by symmetry material removal using the M-symmetry distribution law of residual stress. The mechanism of milling deformation due to residual stress is investigated. A deformation experiment was conducted using traditional one-side machining method and quasi-symmetric machining method to compare with finite element method (FEM. The deformation parameters are validated by comparative results. Most of the errors are within 10%. The reason for these errors is determined to improve the reliability of the method. Moreover, the maximum deformation value of using quasi-symmetric machining method is within 20% of that of using the traditional one-side machining method. This result shows the quasi-symmetric machining method is effective in reducing deformation caused by residual stress. Thus, this research introduces an effective method for reducing the deformation of monolithic thin-walled components in the CNC milling process.

  7. Deformations of Geometric Structures in Topological Sigma Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsenko, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study a Lie algebra of formal vector fields W n with it application to the perturbative deformed holomorphic symplectic structure in the A-model, and a Calabi-Yau manifold with boundaries in the B-model. We show that equivalent classes of deformations are described by a Hochschild cohomology of the DG-algebra A = (A,Q), Q = ∂-bar+∂ deform, which is defined to be the cohomology of (-1) n Q+d Hoch . Here ∂-bar is the initial non-deformed BRST operator while ∂ deform is the deformed part whose algebra is a Lie algebra of linear vector fields gl n .

  8. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  9. Frequency of Foot Deformity Among Students of Faculty for Sport and Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldijana Muratović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine possible foot deformities students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education. Obesity is one of the main causes of flat feet, which is directly associated with reduced physical activity (Khalid, Rai, Mobeen, & Amjad, 2015. The research was conducted at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Niksic, on a sample of 116 respondents. The sample of variables consisted of a total of two foot deformities: flat feet (pes planus and carved feet (pes cavus divided into three levels according to the severity of the deformity, from the lightest to the heaviest, including foot without deformity. For determining the status of the foot, was applied orthopaedy on the basis of which is considered plantar side of the foot. It was used appliance brand PODOSKOPIO LUX 02990. The results are presented in tables in the percentage and numerical representation of the assessment deformities flat and hollowed foot. According to the results it is evident that out of 116 respondents, 53 students (45.7% were without deformities. Numerical and percentage estimates flatfoot deformity is: 16 students (13.8%-level I; 6 students (5.2%-level II; Numerical and percentage estimates hollowed foot deformity is: 28 students (24.1%-level I; 7 students (6%–level II; 6 students (5.2%-level III. The highest percentage shows deformity "hollowed foot" of the first degree (24.1%, which is often the case with people athletic type. Some studies have shown that people with recessed feet in some sports disciplines, achieve the same results as people with normal feet (Jovovic, 2008. Accordingly, foot deformity may occur not only in the period of growth and development, but also in later years (Zivkovic, 2009.

  10. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  11. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  12. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  13. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  14. Effect of Temperature on the Deformation Behavior of B2 Austenite in a Polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at.Percent) Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A.; Benafan, O.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S. A., II; Clausen, B.; Vogel, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Superelasticity in austenitic B2-NiTi is of great technical interest and has been studied in the past by several researchers [1]. However, investigation of temperature dependent deformation in B2-NiTi is equally important since competing mechanisms of stress-induced martensite (SIM), retained martensite, plastic and deformation twinning can lead to unusual mechanical behaviors. Identification of the role of various mechanisms contributing to the overall deformation response of B2-NiTi is imperative to understanding and maturing SMA-enabled technologies. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the deformation of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at. %) above A(sub f) (105 C) in the B2 state at temperatures between 165-440 C, and generate a B2 deformation map showing active deformation mechanisms in different temperature-stress regimes.

  15. On temperature dependence of deformation mechanism and the brittle - ductile transition in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouz, P.; Samant, A.V.; Hong, M.H.; Moulin, A.; Kubin, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent deformation experiments on semiconductors have shown the occurrence of a break in the variation of the critical resolved shear stress of the crystal as a function of temperature. These and many other examples in the literature evidence a critical temperature at which a transition occurs in the deformation mechanism of the crystal. In this paper, the occurrence of a similar transition in two polytypes of SiC is reported and correlated to the microstructure of the deformed crystals investigated by transmission electron microscopy, which shows evidence for partial dislocations carrying the deformation at high stresses and low temperatures. Based on these results and data in the literature, the explanation is generalized to other semiconductors and a possible relationship to their brittle-ductile transition is proposed. copyright 1999 Materials Research Society

  16. Influences of rolling method on deformation force in cold roll-beating forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongxiang; Cui, Fengkui; Liang, Xiaoming; Li, Yan

    2018-03-01

    In process, the research object, the gear rack was selected to study the influence law of rolling method on the deformation force. By the mean of the cold roll forming finite element simulation, the variation regularity of radial and tangential deformation was analysed under different rolling methods. The variation of deformation force of the complete forming racks and the single roll during the steady state under different rolling modes was analyzed. The results show: when upbeating and down beating, radial single point average force is similar, the tangential single point average force gap is bigger, the gap of tangential single point average force is relatively large. Add itionally, the tangential force at the time of direct beating is large, and the dire ction is opposite with down beating. With directly beating, deformation force loading fast and uninstall slow. Correspondingly, with down beating, deformat ion force loading slow and uninstall fast.

  17. Softening behaviour of concrete : numerical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, J.P.W.; Rutten, H.S.; Fijneman, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental research shows, apart from the influence of multiaxial loading conditions, that softening of concrete loaded in compression is accompanied by localization of deformations. Therefore, numerical modelling of concrete material behaviour has to take this effect into account. This implies

  18. Deformation bands in porous sandstones their microstructure and petrophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Anita

    2007-12-15

    , as a result of microstructural variation, both porosity and permeability vary along the length of individual deformation bands, with permeability variations of up to two orders of magnitude. Such petrophysical variations are found in several types of deformation bands (disaggregation, cataclastic and dissolution bands), but the range depends on the deformation mechanisms, in particular on the degree of (i) cataclasis, (ii) dissolution in cataclastic and dissolution bands, and (iii) on the phyllosilicate content in disaggregation bands. This microscopic anisotropy in the petrophysical properties of deformation bands opens up a new and fruitful area for further research. Our results show that for phyllosilicate bands the band thickness is related to the phyllosilicate content, whereas for cataclastic bands no apparent correlation was found between thickness and intensity of cataclasis. (author). refs., figs

  19. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  20. Compensation of deformations in 3D cone beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbat, L.; Roux, S.; Roux, S.; Grangeat, P.

    2006-01-01

    In dynamic tomography, the measured objects or organs are no-longer supposed to be static in the scanner during the acquisition but are supposed to move or to be deformed. Our approach is the analytic deformation compensation during the reconstruction. Our work concentrates on 3-dimensional cone beam tomography. We introduce a new large class of deformations preserving the 3-dimensional cone beam geometry. We show that deformations from this class can be analytically compensated. We present numerical experiments on phantoms showing the compensation of these deformations in 3-dimensional cone beam tomography. (authors)

  1. Bridge continuous deformation measurement technology based on fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; Tang, Jianguang; Li, Sheng; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deformation is a key index for bridge's safety evaluation. To achieve the long span bridge curve measurement rapidly and timely and accurately locate the bridge maximum deformation, the continuous deformation measurement system (CDMS) based on inertial platform is presented and validated in this paper. Firstly, based on various bridge deformation measurement methods, the method of deformation measurement based on the fiber optic gyro (FOG) is introduced. Secondly, the basic measurement principle based on FOG is presented and the continuous curve trajectory is derived by the formula. Then the measurement accuracy is analyzed in theory and the relevant factors are presented to ensure the measurement accuracy. Finally, the deformation measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge across the Yangtze River. Experimental results show that the presented deformation measurement method is feasible, practical, and reliable; the system can accurately and quickly locate the maximum deformation and has extensive and broad application prospects.

  2. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  3. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  4. Measuring co-seismic deformation of the Sichuan earthquake by satellite differential INSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Gong, Wenyu; Zhang, Jixian

    2008-12-01

    The Sichuan Earthquake, occurred on May 12, 2008, is the strongest earthquake to hit China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. The earthquake had a magnitude of M 8.0, and caused surface deformation greater than 3 meters. This paper presents the research work of measuring the co-seismic deformations of the earthquake with satellite differential interferometric SAR technique. Four L-band SAR images were used to form the interferogram with 2 pre- scenes imaged on Feb 17, 2008 and 2 post- scenes on May 19, 2008. The Digital Elevation Models extracted from 1:50,000-scale national geo-spatial database were used to remove the topographic contribution and form a differential interferogram. The interferogram presents very high coherence in most areas, although the pre- and post- images were acquired with time interval of 92 days. This indicates that the L-band PALSAR sensor is very powerful for interferometry applications. The baseline error is regarded as the main phase error source in the differential interferogram. Due to the difficulties of doing field works immediately after the earthquake, only one deformation measurement recorded by a permanent GPS station is obtained for this research. An approximation method is proposed to eliminate the orbital phase error with one control point. The derived deformation map shows similar spatial pattern and deformation magnitude compared with deformation field generated by seismic inversion method.

  5. A q-deformed Lorentz algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Muenchen Univ.; Zumino, B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1991-01-01

    We derive a q-deformed version of the Lorentz algebra by deformating the algebra SL(2, C). The method is based on linear representations of the algebra on the complex quantum spinor space. We find that the generators usually identified with SL q (2, C) generate SU q (2) only. Four additional generators are added which generate Lorentz boosts. The full algebra of all seven generators and their coproduct is presented. We show that in the limit q→1 the generators are those of the classical Lorentz algebra plus an additional U(1). Thus we have a deformation of SL(2, C)xU(1). (orig.)

  6. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  7. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  8. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  9. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and

  10. SU-E-J-108: Solving the Chinese Postman Problem for Effective Contour Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J; Zhang, L; Balter, P; Court, L [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Y; Dong, L [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical approach for accurate contour deformation when deformable image registration (DIR) is used for atlas-based segmentation or contour propagation in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: A contour deformation approach was developed on the basis of 3D mesh operations. The 2D contours represented by a series of points in each slice were first converted to a 3D triangular mesh, which was deformed by the deformation vectors resulting from DIR. A set of parallel 2D planes then cut through the deformed 3D mesh, generating unordered points and line segments, which should be reorganized into a set of 2D contour points. It was realized that the reorganization problem was equivalent to solving the Chinese Postman Problem (CPP) by traversing a graph built from the unordered points with the least cost. Alternatively, deformation could be applied to a binary mask converted from the original contours. The deformed binary mask was then converted back into contours at the CT slice locations. We performed a qualitative comparison to validate the mesh-based approach against the image-based approach. Results: The DIR could considerably change the 3D mesh, making complicated 2D contour representations after deformation. CPP was able to effectively reorganize the points in 2D planes no matter how complicated the 2D contours were. The mesh-based approach did not require a post-processing of the contour, thus accurately showing the actual deformation in DIR. The mesh-based approach could keep some fine details and resulted in smoother contours than the image-based approach did, especially for the lung structure. Image-based approach appeared to over-process contours and suffered from image resolution limits. The mesh-based approach was integrated into in-house DIR software for use in routine clinic and research. Conclusion: We developed a practical approach for accurate contour deformation. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated in both clinic and

  11. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities...... in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon......, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis....

  12. κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Y.; Dhahbi, A.; Cherif, B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. We demonstrate how the deformation parameter affects the energy eigenvalues of the system and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Our findings suggest that this system could be used to detect experimentally the effect of the deformation. We also show that the hidden supersymmetry of the non-deformed system reduces to a hidden pseudo-supersymmetry having the same algebraic structure as a result of the κ-deformation.

  13. Deformation mechanisms in the San Andreas Fault zone - a comparison between natural and experimentally deformed microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, Esther; Holdsworth, Robert; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California marks the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is located 9 km northwest of the town of Parkfield, CA and provide an extensive set of samples through the SAF. The SAFOD drill hole encountered different lithologies, including arkosic sediments from the Salinian block (Pacific plate) and claystones and siltstones from the Great Valley block (North American plate). Fault deformation in the area is mainly by a combination of micro-earthquakes and fault creep. Deformation of the borehole casing indicated that the SAFOD drill hole cross cuts two actively deforming strands of the SAF. In order to determine the deformation mechanisms in the actively creeping fault segments, we have studied thin sections obtained from SAFOD phase 3 core material using optical and electron microscopy, and we have compared these natural SAFOD microstructures with microstructures developed in simulated fault gouges deformed in laboratory shear experiments. The phase 3 core material is divided in three different core intervals consisting of different lithologies. Core interval 1 consists of mildly deformed Salinian rocks that show evidence of cataclasis, pressure solution and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates, all common processes in upper crustal rocks. Most of Core interval 3 (Great Valley) is also only mildly deformed and very similar to Core interval 1. Bedding and some sedimentary features are still visible, together with limited evidence for cataclasis and pressure solution, and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates. However, in between the relatively undeformed rocks, Core interval 3 encountered a zone of foliated fault gouge, consisting mostly of phyllosilicates. This zone is correlated with one of the zones of localized deformation of the borehole casing, i.e. with an actively deforming strand of the SAF. The fault gouge zone shows a strong, chaotic

  14. Large poroelastic deformation of a soft material

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2014-11-01

    Flow through a porous material will drive mechanical deformation when the fluid pressure becomes comparable to the stiffness of the solid skeleton. This has applications ranging from hydraulic fracture for recovery of shale gas, where fluid is injected at high pressure, to the mechanics of biological cells and tissues, where the solid skeleton is very soft. The traditional linear theory of poroelasticity captures this fluid-solid coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity. However, linear elasticity is only volume-conservative to first order in the strain, which can become problematic when damage, plasticity, or extreme softness lead to large deformations. Here, we compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of a large-deformation framework in the context of two model problems. We show that errors in volume conservation are compounded and amplified by coupling with the fluid flow, and can become important even when the deformation is small. We also illustrate these results with a laboratory experiment.

  15. Wind sock deformity in rectal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed M V; Ghahramani, Farhad; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Razmi, Tannaz; Zarenezhad, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Rectal atresia is a rare anorectal deformity. It usually presents with neonatal obstruction and it is often a complete membrane or severe stenosis. Windsock deformity has not been reported in rectal atresia especially, having been missed for 2 years. A 2-year-old girl reported only a severe constipation despite having a 1.5-cm anal canal in rectal examination with scanty discharge. She underwent loop colostomy and loopogram, which showed a wind sock deformity of rectum with mega colon. The patient underwent abdominoperineal pull-through with good result and follow-up. This is the first case of the wind sock deformity in rectal atresia being reported after 2 years of age. (author)

  16. Integration of breathing in radiotherapy: contribution of the image deformable registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldea, Vlad

    2006-01-01

    As taking organ movements and deformations into account in radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer is a challenge as it allows the delivered dose to be increased while better sparing surrounding sane tissues, this research thesis addresses non-rigid (or deformable) registration iconic methods applied to thorax X ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) 3D acquisitions. The objective is to extract the information regarding lung and tumour movement and deformation. The author thus reports the development of deformable registration framework with several methods of regularisation of vector fields. Three main studies have been performed and are reported. In the first one, deformable registration allowed the breathe blockage reproducibility to be controlled. Experiments performed on ten patients showed that this blockage is efficient (displacement less than 5 mm), except for three of them with functional anomalies. In a second study, 4D X-ray CT acquisitions (3D X-ray CT images acquired at different moments of the normal breathing cycle) have been analysed to extract and follow thorax movements and deformations in order to take them into account in free breathing and to perform 4D dynamic dosimetric studies. A first 4D X-ray CT image model has been developed from 3D X-ray CT images acquired in breathe blockage at the end of expiration and at the end on inhalation [fr

  17. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  18. How deformation enhances mobility in a polymer glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Recent experiments show that deformation of a polymer glass can lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancement in the atomic level dynamics. To determine why this change in dynamics occurs, we carry out molecular dynamics simulations and energy landscape analyses. The simulations address the coarse-grained polystyrene model of Kremer and co-workers, and the dynamics, as quantified by the van Hove function, are examined as the glass undergoes shear deformation. In agreement with experiment, the simulations find that deformation enhances the atomic mobility. The enhanced mobility is shown to arise from two mechanisms: First, active deformation continually reduces barriers for hopping events, and the importance of this mechanism is modulated by the rate of thermally activated transitions between adjacent energy minima. Second, deformation moves the system to higher-energy regions of the energy landscape, characterized by lower barriers. Both mechanisms enhance the dynamics during deformation, and the second mechanism is also relevant after deformation has ceased.

  19. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  20. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  1. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  2. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  3. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  6. Experimental deformation of a mafic rock - interplay between fracturing, reaction and viscous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Deformation experiments were performed on natural Maryland Diabase (˜ 55% Plg, 42% Px, 3% accessories, 0.18 wt.-% H2O added) in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus in order to explore the brittle-viscous transition and the interplay between deformation and mineral reactions. Shear experiments at strain rates of ˜ 2e-5 /s are performed, at T=600, 700 and 800°C and confining pressures Pc=1.0 and 1.5 GPa. Deformation localizes in all experiments. Below 700°C, the microstructure is dominated by brittle deformation with a foliation formed by cataclastic flow and high strain accommodated along 3-5 major ultracataclasite shear bands. At 700°C, the bulk of the material still exhibits abundant microfractures, however, deformation localizes into an anastomosing network of shear bands (SB) formed from a fine-grained (<< 1 μm) mixture of newly formed Plg and Amph. These reaction products occur almost exclusively along syn-kinematic structures such as fractures and SB. Experiments at 800°C show extensive mineral reactions, with the main reaction products Amph+Plg (+Zo). Deformation is localized in broad C' and C SB formed by a fine-grained (0.1 - 0.8 μm) mixture of Plg+Amph (+Zo). The onset of mineral reactions in the 700°C experiments shows that reaction kinetics and diffusional mass transport are fast enough to keep up with the short experimental timescales. While in the 700°C experiments brittle processes kinematically contribute to deformation, fracturing is largely absent at 800°C. Diffusive mass transfer dominates. The very small grain size within SB favours a grain size sensitive deformation mechanism. Due to the presence of water (and relatively high supported stresses), dissolution-precipitation creep is interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating mechanism. From the change of Amph coronas around Px clasts with strain, we can determine that Amph is re-dissolved at high stress sites while growing in low stress sites, showing the ability of Amph to

  7. Plastic Deformation of Metal Tubes Subjected to Lateral Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to the dynamic load, the behavior of the structures is complex and makes it difficult to describe the process of the deformation. In the paper, an analytical model is presented to analyze the plastic deformation of the steel circular tubes. The aim of the research is to calculate the deflection and the deformation angle of the tubes. A series of assumptions are made to achieve the objective. During the research, we build a mathematical model for simply supported thin-walled metal tubes with finite length. At a specified distance above the tube, a TNT charge explodes and generates a plastic shock wave. The wave can be seen as uniformly distributed over the upper semicircle of the cross-section. The simplified Tresca yield domain can be used to describe the plastic flow of the circular tube. The yield domain together with the plastic flow law and other assumptions can finally lead to the solving of the deflection. In the end, tubes with different dimensions subjected to blast wave induced by the TNT charge are observed in experiments. Comparison shows that the numerical results agree well with experiment observations.

  8. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  9. Deformable Organic Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeongjun; Oh, Jin Young; Kim, Taeho Roy; Gu, Xiaodan; Kim, Yeongin; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Wu, Hung-Chin; Pfattner, Raphael; To, John W F; Katsumata, Toru; Son, Donghee; Kang, Jiheong; Matthews, James R; Niu, Weijun; He, Mingqian; Sinclair, Robert; Cui, Yi; Tok, Jeffery B-H; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-02-01

    Deformable electronic devices that are impervious to mechanical influence when mounted on surfaces of dynamically changing soft matters have great potential for next-generation implantable bioelectronic devices. Here, deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of single organic nanowires (NWs) as the semiconductor are presented. The NWs are composed of fused thiophene diketopyrrolopyrrole based polymer semiconductor and high-molecular-weight polyethylene oxide as both the molecular binder and deformability enhancer. The obtained transistors show high field-effect mobility >8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) polymer dielectric and can easily be deformed by applied strains (both 100% tensile and compressive strains). The electrical reliability and mechanical durability of the NWs can be significantly enhanced by forming serpentine-like structures of the NWs. Remarkably, the fully deformable NW FETs withstand 3D volume changes (>1700% and reverting back to original state) of a rubber balloon with constant current output, on the surface of which it is attached. The deformable transistors can robustly operate without noticeable degradation on a mechanically dynamic soft matter surface, e.g., a pulsating balloon (pulse rate: 40 min -1 (0.67 Hz) and 40% volume expansion) that mimics a beating heart, which underscores its potential for future biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  11. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  12. Dislocation Dynamics During Plastic Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmidt, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The book gives an overview of the dynamic behavior of dislocations and its relation to plastic deformation. It introduces the general properties of dislocations and treats the dislocation dynamics in some detail. Finally, examples are described of the processes in different classes of materials, i.e. semiconductors, ceramics, metals, intermetallic materials, and quasicrystals. The processes are illustrated by many electron micrographs of dislocations under stress and by video clips taken during in situ straining experiments in a high-voltage electron microscope showing moving dislocations. Thus, the users of the book also obtain an immediate impression and understanding of dislocation dynamics.

  13. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  14. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  15. Coulomb 3.3 Graphic-rich deformation and stress-change software for earthquake, tectonic, and volcano research and teaching-user guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Shingi; Stein, Ross S.; Sevilgen, Volkan; Lin, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Coulomb is intended both for publication-directed research and for college and graduate school classroom instruction. We believe that one learns best when one can see the most and can explore alternatives quickly. So the principal feature of Coulomb is ease of input, rapid interactive modification, and intuitive visualization of the results. The program has menus and check-items, and dialogue boxes to ease operation. The internal graphics are suitable for publication, and can be easily imported into Illustrator, GMT, Google Earth, or Flash for further enhancements.

  16. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  17. Theory of reversal nonisothermal elastic-plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorr, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is approximated theory of nonisothermal elastic-plastic deformation at arbitrary laws of loading, permitting to describe nonisothermal isotropic and anisotropic strengthening of the material, Bauschinger effect and different tempo of plastic deformation development over different directions of loading depending on the deformation prehistory. The comparison of the theory with the experimental data showed good coincidence and sufficient simplicity permits to use it in technical calcualtions

  18. Deformed Reality: Proof of concept and preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Haouchine , Nazim; Petit , Antoine; Roy , Frederick; Cotin , Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We introduce " Deformed Reality " , a new paradigm to interactively manipulate objects in a scene in a deformable manner. Using the core principle of augmented reality to estimate rigid pose over time, our method enables the user to deform the targeted object while it is being rendered with its natural texture, giving the sense of a real-time object editing in user environment. The presented results show that our method can open new ways of using augmented reality by n...

  19. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Yan, Li; Huang, Guoman; Chen, Chu; Wu, Zhengpeng

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated. PMID:27999403

  20. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated.

  1. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  2. Deformation mechanisms of nanograined metallic polycrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saada, G.; Kruml, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2011), s. 2565-2574 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : nanocrystalline materials * grain boundary defects * plastic deformation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.755, year: 2011

  3. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  4. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  5. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on project for research and development of intelligent infrastructure creation and utilization technologies. Research and development project on high-speed deformation characteristics evaluation methods for metallic materials; 2000 nendo chiteki kiban sose riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kinzoku zairyo no kosoku henkei tokusei hyoka hoho no kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - Gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts were made to develop methods for evaluating the characteristics of metallic materials experiencing high-speed deformation or impact deformation. The research was conducted by the research WG (working group) consisting of some participants of an international conference convened this fiscal year. The research result revealed that studies in Japan lopsidedly dealt with metallic materials at strain velocity of 10{sup 4}/second or less, such as steel, while many studies overseas dealt with materials other than metals at strain velocity over 10{sup 4}/second. The test and evaluation WG conducted high-speed tension tests for T6-treated aluminum alloys using the split Hopkinson bar method, hydraulic servo method, one bar method, and the sensing-plate method for measuring force, and the results were compared. It was then found that the one bar method produced disturbance more remarkably than the others and that the loading block structure and load rise time influenced the emergence of the peak load. The emergence of a peak load in the Hopkinson bar method or the one bar method had been predicted on the basis of the research conducted by the analysis group. (NEDO)

  6. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  7. Deformed supersymmetric mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sidorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a recent interest in curved rigid supersymmetries, we construct a new type of N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetric systems by employing superfields defined on the cosets of the supergroup SU(2|1). The relevant worldline supersymmetry is a deformation of the standard N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry by a mass parameter m. As instructive examples we consider at the classical and quantum levels the models associated with the supermultiplets (1,4,3) and (2,4,2) and find out interesting interrelations with some previous works on nonstandard d = 1 supersymmetry. In particular, the d = 1 systems with 'weak supersymmetry' are naturally reproduced within our SU(2|1) superfield approach as a subclass of the (1,4,3) models. A generalization to the N = 8, d = 1 case implies the supergroup SU(2|2) as a candidate deformed worldline supersymmetry

  8. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  9. Nucleus spectroscopy: extreme masses and deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.

    2009-12-01

    The author proposes a synthesis of research activities performed since 1995 in the field of experimental nuclear physics, and more particularly in the investigation of two nucleus extreme states: deformation on the one hand, heavy and very heavy nuclei on the other hand. After a presentation of the context of investigations on deformation, rotation, and heavy nuclei, he gives an overview of developments regarding instruments (gamma spectrometers, detection of fission fragments, and detection at the focal plane of spectrometers or separators) and analysis techniques. Experiments and results are then reported and discussed, concerning super-deformed states with a high angular moment, spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, very heavy nuclei close to nucleus map borders. He finally draws perspectives for middle and long term studies on the heaviest nuclei

  10. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John [Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Nestec York Ltd., Nestlé Product Technology Centre, Haxby Road, PO Box 204, York YO91 1XY (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.

  11. Modelling ground deformation patterns associated with volcanic processes at the Okataina Volcanic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, L.; Cas, R.; Fournier, N.; Ailleres, L.

    2017-09-01

    The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is one of two large active rhyolite centres in the modern Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located in a complex section of the Taupo rift, a tectonically active section of the TVZ. The most recent volcanic unrest at the OVC includes the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions. Current monitoring activity at the OVC includes the use of continuous GPS receivers (cGPS), lake levelling and seismographs. The ground deformation patterns preceding volcanic activity the OVC are poorly constrained and restricted to predictions from basic modelling and comparison to other volcanoes worldwide. A better understanding of the deformation patterns preceding renewed volcanic activity is essential to determine if observed deformation is related to volcanic, tectonic or hydrothermal processes. Such an understanding also means that the ability of the present day cGPS network to detect these deformation patterns can also be assessed. The research presented here uses the finite element (FE) modelling technique to investigate ground deformation patterns associated with magma accumulation and diking processes at the OVC in greater detail. A number of FE models are produced and tested using Pylith software and incorporate characteristics of the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions, summarised from the existing body of research literature. The influence of a simple ring fault structure at the OVC on the modelled deformation is evaluated. The ability of the present-day continuous GPS (cGPS) GeoNet monitoring network to detect or observe the modelled deformation is also considered. The results show the modelled horizontal and vertical displacement fields have a number of key features, which include prominent lobe based regions extending northwest and southeast of the OVC. The results also show that the ring fault structure increases the magnitude of the displacements inside the caldera, in particular in the

  12. Island of stability for consistent deformations of Einstein's gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhahn, Felix; Dietrich, Dennis D; Hofmann, Stefan; Kühnel, Florian; Moyassari, Parvin

    2012-03-30

    We construct deformations of general relativity that are consistent and phenomenologically viable, since they respect, in particular, cosmological backgrounds. These deformations have unique symmetries in accordance with their Minkowski cousins (Fierz-Pauli theory for massive gravitons) and incorporate a background curvature induced self-stabilizing mechanism. Self-stabilization is essential in order to guarantee hyperbolic evolution in and unitarity of the covariantized theory, as well as the deformation's uniqueness. We show that the deformation's parameter space contains islands of absolute stability that are persistent through the entire cosmic evolution.

  13. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  14. The analysis of the bedrock deformation in Olkiluoto using precise levelling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaranen, V.; Rouhiainen, P.; Suurmaeki, H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to research vertical bedrock deformations in the Olkiluoto area, Posiva Oy and the Finnish Geodetic Institute began monitoring with precise levelling in 2003. At the moment, the measuring plan includes a loop between the monitoring GPS stations around the island, a levelling line from the island to the mainland, levelling loops to ONKALO, the final disposal site, and VLJ, the low and intermediate level waste repository there. The levelling to the mainland has been performed every fourth year and the levelling of the GPS stations every second year. The micro loops (ONKALO and VLJ) have been measured annually. In this report, we use three-step method to research a vertical deformation of the Olkiluoto area. Firstly, the linear deformation rate in the area has been determined by the least squares adjustment of the levelling data. It varies from -0.2 mm/yr to +0.2 mm/yr. Secondly, local deformations have been analysed by comparing the height differences for different years. In this comparison a starting value for the yearly adjustment has been corrected for land uplift. Using this method the elevation changes are relative to the whole network. For a fixed benchmark, we correct its yearly deformation. Thirdly, the fault lines have been analysed by comparing the elevation changes between the successive benchmarks from one observation epoch to another. The results show that ONKALO and Lapijoki are in the subsidence area of the network, and VLJ has small uplift rate. On the island some deformations exist, but elevation difference from 2003 to 2011 is less than one millimetre at every benchmarks. The measurements in the Lapijoki-Olkiluoto line in 2003, 2007 and 2011 show that linear elevation change between the mainland and Olkiluoto island is a little since 2003. The elevation differences, from Olkiluoto to Lapijoki, measured in 2003 and 2011 differ less than one millimetre each other, but the 2007 observation differs three millimetres from the other measurements

  15. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  16. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

    2014-08-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  17. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  18. The impact of patient self assessment of deformity on HRQL in adults with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Nathan D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image and HRQL are significant issues for patients with scoliosis due to cosmetic deformity, physical and psychological symptoms, and treatment factors. A selective review of scoliosis literature revealed that self report measures of body image and HRQL share unreliable correlations with radiographic measures and clinician recommendations for surgery. However, current body image and HRQL measures do not indicate which aspects of scoliosis deformity are the most distressing for patients. The WRVAS is an instrument designed to evaluate patient self assessment of deformity, and may show some promise in identifying aspects of deformity most troubling to patients. Previous research on adolescents with scoliosis supports the use of the WRVAS as a clinical tool, as the instrument shares strong correlations with radiographic measures and quality of life instruments. There has been limited use of this instrument on adult populations. Methods The WRVAS and the SF-36v2, a HRQL measure, were administered to 71 adults with scoliosis, along with a form to report age and gender. Preliminary validation analyses were performed on the WRVAS (floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and collinearity, correlations with the SF-36v2, and multiple regression with the WRVAS total score as the predictor, and SF-36v2 scores as outcomes. Results The psychometric properties of the WRVAS were acceptable. Older participants perceived their deformities as more severe than younger participants. More severe deformities were associated with lower scores on the Physical Component Summary Score of the SF-36v2. Total WRVAS score also predicted Physical Component Summary scores. Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the WRVAS is a reliable tool to use with adult patients, and that patient self assessment of deformity shared a relationship with physical rather than psychological aspects of HRQL. The current and previous studies

  19. Quantum aspects of doubly deformed CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, G., E-mail: georgiou@inp.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Ag. Paraskevi, GR-15310 Athens (Greece); Sagkrioti, E., E-mail: esagkrioti@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 15784 (Greece); Sfetsos, K., E-mail: ksfetsos@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 15784 (Greece); Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Siampos, K., E-mail: siampos@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics/Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-06-15

    We study quantum aspects of the recently constructed doubly λ-deformed σ-models representing the effective action of two WZW models interacting via current bilinears. We show that although the exact beta-functions and current anomalous dimensions are identical to those of the λ-deformed models, this is not true for the anomalous dimensions of generic primary field operators in accordance with the fact that the two models differ drastically. Our proofs involve CFT arguments, as well as effective σ-model action and gravity calculations.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Plastic Deformation in Two-turn Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mitsak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a number of investigations in recent years reporting on the structure and properties of materials deformed to super plastic deformation (SPD. During SPD new textures can be formed and abnormal characteristics are displayed, attracting a growing research interest.¶ Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE is a method often used to obtain large plastic strains. However, according to experimental results, there is a large tensile stress in the sample during deformation, which may lead in some cases, to cracking in metallic alloys and large curvature in polymeric materials. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the ECAE process can be conducted at high temperatures. But this contributes significantly to a decreased level of plastic deformation induced in the sample. Hence, a tool with multi-pass seems to be a very appropriate solution. In this paper, a new geometry die composed of two elbows has been simulated by finite element method aiming to provide an insight into the mechanisms of deformation and to determine the optimum geometry of the tool. The numerical results show that the length and the section of the second channel play a significant role on the homogeneity of the plastic strain distribution. It has been found that good homogeneity was obtained when the second channel has the same section as that of the entrance and the exit channels and with a length equal to three times of its width.

  1. Deformation Analysis of the Main Components in a Single Screw Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feilong; Liao, Xueli; Feng, Quanke; Van Den Broek, Martijn; De Paepe, Michel

    2015-08-01

    The single screw compressor is used in many fields such as air compression, chemical industry and refrigeration. During operation, different gas pressures and temperatures applied on the components can cause different degrees of deformation, which leads to a difference between the thermally induced clearance and the designed clearance. However, limited research about clearance design is reported. In this paper, a temperature measurement instrument and a convective heat transfer model were described and used to establish the temperature of a single screw air compressor's casing, screw rotor and star wheel. 3-D models of these three main components were built. The gas force deformation, thermal- structure deformation and thermal-force coupling deformation were carried out by using a finite element simulation method. Results show that the clearance between the bottom of the groove and the top of star wheel is reduced by 0.066 mm, the clearance between the side of groove and the star wheel is reduced by 0.015 mm, and the clearance between the cylinder and the rotor is reduced by 0.01 mm. It is suggested that these deformations should be taken into account during the design of these clearances.

  2. Deformation Mechanisms of Darreh Sary Metapelites, Sanandaj‒Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, O.; Tabatabaei Manesh, S. M.; Nadimi, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Darreh Sary metapelitic rocks are located in the northeast of Zagros orogenic belt and Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone. The lithological composition of these rocks includes slate, phyllite, muscovitebiotite schist, garnet schist, staurolite-garnet schist and staurolite schist. The shale is the protolith of these metamorphic rocks, which was originated from the continental island arc tectonic setting and has been subjected to processes of Zagros orogeny. The deformation mechanisms in these rocks include bulging recrystallization (BLG), subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR) and grain boundary migration recrystallization (GBM), which are considered as the key to estimate the deformation temperature of the rocks. The estimated ranges of deformation temperature and depth in these rocks show the temperatures of 275-375, 375-500, and >500°C and the depths of 10 to 17 km. The observed structures in these rocks such as faults, fractures and folds, often with the NW-SE direction coordinate with the structural trends of Zagros orogenic belt structures. The S-C mylonite fabrics is observed in these rocks with other microstructures such as mica fish, σ fabric and garnet deformation indicate the dextral shear deformation movements of study area. Based on the obtained results of this research, the stages of tectonic evolution of Darreh Sary area were developed.

  3. Deformed barchans under alternating flows: Flume experiments and comparison with barchan dunes within Proctor Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Endo, Noritaka

    2007-10-01

    It is generally considered that barchans, isolated crescentic-shaped dunes, develop where wind is unidirectional and the available sand is insufficient to cover the entire dune field; however, Bishop [Bishop, M.A., 2001. Seasonal variation of crescentic dune morphology and morphometry, Strzelecki Simpson desert, Australia. Earth Surface Process and Landforms 26, 783 791.] observed barchans that developed in areas where winds blow seasonally in opposite directions and described a peculiar deformation feature, the “rear slipface,” that is not found in ordinary barchans. Barchans under such bidirectional flows are poorly understood, and it is necessary to study barchans that formed under many different flow conditions. We conducted flume experiments to investigate the deformation of barchans under alternating water flow, and observed new deformation features in addition to rear slipfaces. We conclude that the deformation of barchans can be categorized into four types, one of which shows morphologies similar to barchans within Proctor Crater, Mars. The deformation type depends on the strength of the reverse flow relative to the forward flow and the absolute velocity of the forward flow. Comparison of our results with barchan dunes within Proctor Crater enable us to qualitatively estimate the wind strength and direction related to dune formation on Mars. These results are in agreement with those of Fenton et al. [Fenton, L.K., Toigo, A.D., Richardson, M.I., 2005. Aeolian processes in Proctor Crater on Mars: Mesoscale modeling of dune-forming winds. Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (E6), E06005.].

  4. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the

  5. Recrystallization of magnesium deformed at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageau, R.; Pastol, J.L.; Revel, G.

    1978-01-01

    The recrystallization of magnesium was studied after rolling at temperatures ranging between 248 and 373 K. For zone refined magnesium the annealing behaviour as observed by electrical resistivity measurements showed two stages at about 250 K and 400 K due respectively to recrystallization and grain growth. The activation energy associated with the recrystallization stage was 0.75 +- 0.01 eV. In less pure magnesium, with nominal purity 99.99 and 99.9%, the recrystallization stage was decomposed into two substages. Activation energies were determined in relation with deformation temperature and purity. The magnesium of intermediate purity (99.99%) behaved similarly to the lowest purity metal when it was deformed at high temperature and to the purest magnesium when the deformation was made at low temperature. This behaviour was discussed in connection with the theories of Luecke and Cahn. (Auth.)

  6. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  7. Simulating 3D deformation using connected polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    In modern 3D application, interaction between user and the virtual world is one of an important factor to increase the realism. This interaction can be visualized in many forms; one of them is object deformation. There are many ways to simulate object deformation in virtual 3D world; each comes with different level of realism and performance. Our objective is to present a new method to simulate object deformation by using a graph-connected polygon. In this solution, each object contains multiple level of polygons in different level of volume. The proposed solution focusses on performance rather while maintaining the acceptable level of realism. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our solution and show that this solution is usable in performance sensitive 3D application such as games and virtual reality.

  8. Kinetics of the deformation induced memory effect in polyamide-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen, van M.; Stroeks, A.A.M.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nascent polyamide-6 shows a peculiar and irreversible effect; the quiescent crystallization kinetics on cooling are accelerated upon deformation in the melt, even after full relaxation of the melt. This phenomenon, known as the orientation (or better, deformation) induced memory effect of polyamide

  9. Evolution of deformation velocity in narrowing for Zircaloy 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetlin, P R [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica; Okuda, M Y [Goias Univ., Goiania (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Fisica

    1980-09-01

    Some studies on the deformation instability in strain shows that the differences in this instability may lead to localized narrowing or elongated narrowing, for Zircaloy-2. The variation of velocity deformation with the narrowing evolution is expected to be different for these two cases. The mentioned variation is discussed, a great difference in behavior having been observed for the case of localized narrowing.

  10. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-. Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well ...

  11. Deformation bands in porous carbonate grainstones: Field and laboratory observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilona, A.; Baud, P.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Rustichelli, A.; Spiers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent field-based studies documented deformation bands in porous carbonates; these structures accommodate volumetric and/or shear strain by means of pore collapse, grain rotation and/or sliding. Microstructural observations of natural deformation bands in carbonates showed that, at advanced stages

  12. Study of link transitions between superdeformed well and normally deformed well in Hg{sup 192} and research and development for a new concept of {gamma} photons detection: the Agata array; Etude des liens entre puits superdeforme et puits normalement deforme dans {sup 192}Hg et recherche et developpement pour un nouveau concept de detection de photons {gamma}: le multidetecteur AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccaz, J

    2006-07-15

    The atomic nucleus can adopt a very elongated shape with an axis ratio 2:1, this is the superdeformation phenomenon. Nowadays more than 300 superdeformed bands have been identified at high spin, but the determination of excitation energies, spins and parities of the associated states have been established for only one tenth of these bands. The former quantities (E{sup *}, I, {pi}) can only be determined via the linking gamma-transitions between the superdeformed (sd) and the normally deformed (nd) states. Within the framework of this thesis, we have investigated the Hg{sup 192} nucleus in order to establish E{sup *}, I and {pi}. This nucleus is predicted to be doubly magic at superdeformation and hence is taken as a reference in the mass {approx} 190 region. The experiment was carried out at Strasbourg using the Euroball-IV array and the vivitron accelerator. The obtained results are not convincing and seem to be at the limit of the performances of Euroball. Next generation of arrays will abandon the Compton-shields and use tracking concept to reconstruct the trajectories of incident photons, and therefore we expect a huge increase of efficiency. The second part of this work was focused on the research and development work for the AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) project. We have performed simulations with the GEANT-4 code and developed tracking methods to reconstruct pair-creation events. The full AGATA will be operational around 2015 and will enhance by around two orders of magnitude the observational limits. (author)

  13. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  14. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  15. Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.

  16. Flat deformation theorem and symmetries in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    The flat deformation theorem states that given a semi-Riemannian analytic metric g on a manifold, locally there always exists a two-form F, a scalar function c, and an arbitrarily prescribed scalar constraint depending on the point x of the manifold and on F and c, say Ψ(c, F, x) = 0, such that the deformed metric η = cg - εF 2 is semi-Riemannian and flat. In this paper we first show that the above result implies that every (Lorentzian analytic) metric g may be written in the extended Kerr-Schild form, namely η ab := ag ab - 2bk (a l b) where η is flat and k a , l a are two null covectors such that k a l a = -1; next we show how the symmetries of g are connected to those of η, more precisely; we show that if the original metric g admits a conformal Killing vector (including Killing vectors and homotheties), then the deformation may be carried out in a way such that the flat deformed metric η 'inherits' that symmetry.

  17. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  18. Transformation kinetics of selected steel grades after plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawulok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the impact of previous plastic deformation on the kinetics of transformations of four selected steels. The research was conducted with use of the universal plastometer GLEEBLE 3800, when Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT and Deformation Continuous Cooling Transformation (DCCT diagrams of selected steels were constructed on the basis of dilatometric tests. The research confirmed that the strain accelerates the particularly the transformations controlled by diffusion. Bainitic transformation was accelerated in three of the four steels. In the case of martensitic transformation the effect of the previous deformation was relatively small, but with clearly discernible trend.

  19. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  20. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  1. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  2. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  3. Order and chaos in nuclear and metal cluster deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, S.

    1995-08-01

    The vast amount of nuclear and metal cluster data indicates that shell structure and deformation are two simultaneous properties. A conflicting situation is therefore encountered as the shell structure, a firm expression of order, is apparently not compatible with the non-integrable nature of the models incorporating deformation. The main issue covered in this thesis is the intricate connection between deformation and chaotic behaviour in deformation models pertinent to nuclear structure and metal cluster physics. It is shown that, at least in some cases, it is possible to reconcile the occurrence of shell structure with non-integrability. The coupling of an axially deformed harmonic oscillator to an axially symmetric octupole term renders the problem non-integrable. The chaotic character of the motion is strongly dependent on the type of deformation, in that a prolate shape shows virtually no chaos, while in an oblate case the motion exhibits fully developed chaos when the octupole term is switched on. Whereas the problem is non-integrable, the quantum mechanical spectrum nevertheless shows some shell structure in the prolate case for particular, yet fairly large octupole strengths; for spherical or oblate deformation the shell structure disappears. This result is explained in terms of classical periodic orbits which are found by employing the 'removal of resonances method'. Particular emphasis is put on the effect of the hexadecapole deformation which is important in fission processes. The combined effect of octupole and hexadecapole deformation leads to important conclusions for the experimental work as a high degree of ambiguity is signaled for the interpretation of data. The ambiguity results from the discovery of a mutual cancellation of the octupole and hexadecapole deformation in prolate superdeformed systems. The phenomenological Nilsson model is treated in a similar way. It is argued that while in nuclei it produces good results for the low-lying levels

  4. Effect of contact deformation on contact electrification: a first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuanyue; Shao, Tianmin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of contact deformation on contact electrification of metallic materials was studied by the first-principles method. The results of charge population and the densities of states of the deformed contact models demonstrated that the magnitude of the transferred charge increased with deformation. The mechanism of the effect of deformation was investigated by studying the electronic properties of the deformed surface slabs. The results showed that crystal deformation led to a change in the electrostatic potential of the metal, where the number of nearly free electrons and unoccupied orbitals for charge transfer increased, and their energy barrier decreased. (paper)

  5. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  6. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  7. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  8. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T V S

    2013-10-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  9. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  10. Nuclear masses, deformations and shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Jorge G; Barbero, César A; Mariano, Alejandro E

    2011-01-01

    We show that the Liquid Drop Model is best suited to describe the masses of prolate deformed nuclei than of spherical nuclei. To this end three Liquid Drop Mass formulas are employed to describe nuclear masses of eight sets of nuclei with similar quadrupole deformations. It is shown that they are able to fit the measured masses of prolate deformed nuclei with an RMS smaller than 750 keV, while for the spherical nuclei the RMS is, in the three cases, larger than 2000 keV. The RMS of the best fit of the masses of semi-magic nuclei is also larger than 2000 keV. The parameters of the three models are studied, showing that the surface symmetry term is the one which varies the most from one group of nuclei to another. In one model, isospin dependent terms are also found to exhibit strong changes. The inclusion of shell effects allows for better fits, which continue to be better in the prolate deformed nuclei region.

  11. Study of deformability in salt deposits near underground cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvry, J.F.; Massal, P.; Laviguerie, R.; Matifat, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present report relates the in-situ tests carried out in the Varangeville mine (France). This work is part of a larger research programme, on the mechanical behaviour of a salt massif, carried out by BRGM and Ecoles des Mines de Paris. The aim of the in-situ tests was to collect data for the validation of the behaviour law, based on the laboratory tests. Those tests consisted of, on the one hand the short term mechanical characteristics measurement, and on the other hand the long term creep measurement of borehole walls. The deformability tests at short term show a large dispersion of the modulus values, which range from 3000 to 6100 MPa; these are smaller than those obtained in laboratory, that range from 6200 to 7500 MPa. The second part has first required the construction of a prototype designed to measure the creep of borehole walls while applying a constant internal pressure set to a chosen value. The tests were carried out in a pilar of the mine. The first step, with an internal pressure of 2.5 MPa, shows after 300 days a borehole walls divergence ranged from 0.2 per cent in the vertical direction, up to 0.7 per cent in the horizontal direction. The second step, with a pressure of 1.2 MPa, shows a stabilization of the diametral deformation after 200 days except for the horizontal direction. 12 figs., 1 tab., 2 appendices

  12. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  13. Structural developments in un-stabilized ultra low carbon steel during warm deformation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, Rahul, E-mail: rahulunnikrishnannair@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Kumar, Amit, E-mail: chaudhary65amit@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Shekhawat, Satish K., E-mail: satishshekhawat@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: sgsapate@yahoo.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-11-01

    In the present investigation, ultra low carbon steel samples were deformed in plane strain compression mode in a deformation simulator. The deformation was carried out at four different temperatures in the warm rolling region (293, 473, 673 and 873 K) upto 70% strain at two different strain rates (0.1/s and 1/s). Subsequently, all the deformed samples were fully recrystallized at 1073 K. Afterwards, all the deformed and fully recrystallized samples were subjected to detailed microstructural characterization using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction. Bulk texture was measured for all the samples by X-ray diffraction. In-grain misorientation developments (kernel average misorientations) were estimated for the deformed γ-fibre (ND//<111>) and α-fibre (RD//<110>). Deformed γ-fibre showed an increase in in-grain misorientation at intermediate deformation temperatures. This increase was explained by using the plastic instability criterion. After complete recrystallization, the γ-fibre strengthened for deformation at lower temperatures (293 K and 473 K), while Goss texture developed for samples deformed at higher temperatures (673 K and 873 K). - Highlights: • ULC steel samples were deformed in near plane strain condition. • Microstructural developments were characterized using EBSD. • Increase in in-grain misorientation at intermediate deformation temperatures. • γ-fibre strengthened for low temperature deformation. • Goss texture developed for high temperature deformation.

  14. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  15. Pneumatic tyres interacting with deformable terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekakos, C. A.; Papazafeiropoulos, G.; O'Boy, D. J.; Prins, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a deformable tyre interacting with a deformable road has been developed with the use of the finite element code ABAQUS (v. 6.13). Two tyre models with different widths, not necessarily identical to any real industry tyres, have been created purely for research use. The behaviour of these tyres under various vertical loads and different inflation pressures is studied, initially in contact with a rigid surface and then with a deformable terrain. After ensuring that the tyre model gives realistic results in terms of the interaction with a rigid surface, the rolling process of the tyre on a deformable road was studied. The effects of friction coefficient, inflation pressure, rebar orientation and vertical load on the overall performance are reported. Regarding the modelling procedure, a sequence of models were analysed, using the coupling implicit - explicit method. The numerical results reveal that not only there is significant dependence of the final tyre response on the various initial driving parameters, but also special conditions emerge, where the desired response of the tyre results from specific optimum combination of these parameters.

  16. Solution of diffusion equation in deformable spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyoubzadeh, Seyed Mohsen [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: iFluka@gmail.com [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vosoughi, Naser [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Developing an explicit solution for the diffusion equation in spheroidal geometry. > Proving an orthogonality relation for spheroidal eigenfunctions. > Developing a relation for the extrapolation distance in spheroidal geometry. > Considering the sphere and slab as limiting cases for a spheroid. > Cross-validation of the analytical solution with Monte Carlo simulations. - Abstract: The time-dependent diffusion of neutrons in a spheroid as a function of the focal distance has been studied. The solution is based on an orthogonal basis and an extrapolation distanced related boundary condition for the spheroidal geometry. It has been shown that spheres and disks are two limiting cases for the spheroids, for which there is a smooth transition for the systems properties between these two limits. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a slight deformation from a sphere does not affect the fundamental mode properties, to the first order. The calculations for both multiplying and non-multiplying media have been undertaken, showing good agreement with direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  18. Non-proportional deformation paths for sheet metal: experiments and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; van Riel, M.; Hora, P.

    2009-01-01

    For mild steel, after significant plastic deformation in one direction, a subsequent deformation in an orthogonal direction shows a typical stress overshoot compared to monotonic deformation. This phenomenon is investigated experimentally and numerically on a DC06 material. Two models that

  19. Microfluidic assay of the deformability of primitive erythroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sitong; Huang, Yu-Shan; Kingsley, Paul D; Cyr, Kathryn H; Palis, James; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-09-01

    Primitive erythroblasts (precursors of red blood cells) enter vascular circulation during the embryonic period and mature while circulating. As a result, primitive erythroblasts constantly experience significant hemodynamic shear stress. Shear-induced deformation of primitive erythroblasts however, is poorly studied. In this work, we examined the deformability of primitive erythroblasts at physiologically relevant flow conditions in microfluidic channels and identified the regulatory roles of the maturation stage of primitive erythroblasts and cytoskeletal protein 4.1 R in shear-induced cell deformation. The results showed that the maturation stage affected the deformability of primitive erythroblasts significantly and that primitive erythroblasts at later maturational stages exhibited a better deformability due to a matured cytoskeletal structure in the cell membrane.

  20. Linear deformations of discrete groups and constructions of multivalued groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagodovskii, Petr V

    2000-01-01

    We construct deformations of discrete multivalued groups described as special deformations of their group algebras in the class of finite-dimensional associative algebras. We show that the deformations of ordinary groups producing multivalued groups are defined by cocycles with coefficients in the group algebra of the original group and obtain classification theorems on these deformations. We indicate a connection between the linear deformations of discrete groups introduced in this paper and the well-known constructions of multivalued groups. We describe the manifold of three-dimensional associative commutative algebras with identity element, fixed basis, and a constant number of values. The group algebras of n-valued groups of order three (three-dimensional n-group algebras) form a discrete set in this manifold

  1. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Y.T.; Ahn, I.H.; Lee, I.K.; Song, M.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Park, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction

  2. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.

    2015-12-01

    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at

  3. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  4. Localized deformation of zirconium-liner tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Fumihisa; Uchida, Masaaki

    1988-03-01

    Zirconium-liner tube has come to be used in BWR. Zirconium liner mitigates the localized stress produced by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In this study, simulating the ridging, stresses were applied to the inner surfaces of zirconium-liner tubes and Zircaloy-2 tubes, and, to investigate the mechanism and the extent of the effect, the behavior of zirconium liner was examined. As the result of examination, stress was concentrated especially at the edge of the deformed region, where zirconium liner was highly deformed. Even after high stress was applied, the deformation of Zircaloy part was small, since almost the concentrated stress was mitigated by the deformation of zirconium liner. In addition, stress and strain distributions in the cross section of specimen were calculated with a computer code FEMAXI-III. The results also showed that zirconium liner mitigated the localized stress in Zircaloy, although the affected zone was restricted to the region near the boundary between zirconium liner and Zircaloy. (author)

  5. Cyclic deformation behaviour of austenitic steels at ambient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Fatigue; cyclic deformation behaviour; metastable austenitic steel; .... Figure 4 shows a sequence of the basic diagrams which can be used to assess the fatigue .... well as the change of temperature and the development of the magnetic ...

  6. Cyclic inelastic deformation aspects of fatigue-crack-growth analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leis, B.N.; Zahoor, A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a J-integral analysis of fatigue crack growth. Data on cyclic plasticity are analyzed showing that there are limitations to the usefulness of the deformation theory in applications to cyclic plasticity. 56 refs.

  7. Stress analysis and deformation prediction of sheet metal workpieces based on finite element simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Penghao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After aluminum alloy sheet metal parts machining, the residual stress release will cause a large deformation. To solve this problem, this paper takes a aluminum alloy sheet aerospace workpiece as an example, establishes the theoretical model of elastic deformation and the finite element model, and places quantitative initial stress in each element of machining area, analyses stress release simulation and deformation. Through different initial stress release simulative analysis of deformation of the workpiece, a linear relationship between initial stress and deformation is found; Through simulative analysis of coupling direction-stress release, the superposing relationship between the deformation caused by coupling direction-stress and the deformation caused by single direction stress is found. The research results provide important theoretical support for the stress threshold setting and deformation controlling of the workpieces in the production practice.

  8. Analysis on Wetting Deformation Properties of Silty Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water level that cause deformation and stability problems often occur in foundation pit engineering. Water damage is one of the main problems that will lead to disasters in foundation pit engineering. Research findings with regard to properties of wetting deformation due to water damage can be applied not only in foundation pit engineering, slope engineering, hydraulic engineering, and mining engineering but also in related issues in the field of theoretical research and practice. In this study, the characteristics of silty clay deformation after wetting are examined from the perspective of the effect of wetting on the side wall of foundation pit, and wetting experiments on silty clay of a selected area’s stratum located in Chongqing Municipality are conducted under different confining pressures and stress levels through a multi-function triaxial apparatus. Then, laws of silty clay wetting deformation are obtained, and the relationship between wetting stress level and wetting deformation amount is also figured out. The study reveals that the maximum values of wetting deformation under different confining pressures have appear at a particular stress level; therefore, the related measures should be taken to avoid this deformation in the process of construction.

  9. Geological ductile deformation mapping at the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    During 2010-2012 eight larger excavated and cleaned outcrops were investigated to study the polyphase nature of the ductile deformation within the Olkiluoto Island. A detailed structural geological mapping together with a thin section study was performed to get a broader and better understanding of the nature and occurrence of these different ductile deformation phases. These outcrops were selected to represent all different ductile deformation phases recognized earlier during the site investigations. The relicts of primary sedimentary structures and products of the earliest deformations (D{sub 0}-D{sub 1}) are mostly obscured by later deformation events. The D{sub 2}-D{sub 4} is the most significant ductile deformation phases occurring on the Olkiluoto Island and almost all structural features can be labeled within these three phases. The outcrops for this investigation were selected mostly from the eastern part of the Olkiluoto Island because that part of the Island has been less investigated previously. As a reference, one outcrop was selected in the western part of the Island where it was previously known that this location had especially well preserved structures of the second deformation phase (D{sub 2}). The S{sub 2} foliation is E-W orientated with moderate dip towards south. A few folds can be associated with this deformational event, mostly having a tight to isoclinal character. During D{sub 3} the migmatites were re-deformed and migrated leucosomes, were intruded mainly parallel to S{sub 3} axial surfaces having a NE-SW orientation. Generally the dip of the S{sub 3} axial surfaces is slightly more steeper (55- 65 deg C) than that of the S{sub 2} axial surfaces, which shows a more moderate dip (40-65 deg C). F{sub 3} fold structures are quite common in the eastern part of Island showing asymmetrical, overturned, shear folds usually with a dextral sense of shear. Large scale D{sub 3} shear structures contain blastomylonites as characteristic fault rocks

  10. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  11. The mechanism of strength and deformation in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Morris, J.W.; Nagasako, N.; Withey, E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    “Gum Metal” refers to β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with a specific alloy composition, appear to deform via a dislocation-free mechanism involving elastic instability at the limit of strength. This paper describes the current status of research on its strength, deformation mechanism and the possible role of stress-induced martensite. The theoretical basis for deformation at ideal strength is presented. The relevant experimental data is then discussed, including ex situ nanoindentation behavior and in situ pillar compression observed by transmission electron microscopy

  12. Regional Phenomena of Vertical Deformation in Southern Part of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo; Andreas, H.; Pradipta, D.; Gumilar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Distribution of present-day horizontal and vertical deformation across the Southern Part of Indonesia at Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara now days can be determined from continuous and campaign types of GNSS GPS data monitoring. For vertical deformation in this case we use the continuous types since they are give better quality of data consistency compare to campaign type. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are maintaining by Geospatial Information Agency for more than a decade. The vertical displacements or velocity rates are estimated from time series analysis after multi-baseline GPS processing using GAMIT-GLOBK software with respect to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The result shows some interesting phenomena where the northern part of research area majority have negative value that may indicate land subsidence with or without tectonic subsidence combination. In the middle part, the uplift phenomena are clearly shown and in the southern part show combine pattern between uplift and subsidence. The impacts of those phenomena would be discuss also in this paper since many population and infrastructure are located in the areas that will need more protection planning to reduce the negative impact such as earthquake and flooding.

  13. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C

  14. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  15. Quantifying the Erlenmeyer flask deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A; Rajan, P S; Deegan, P; Cox, T M; Bearcroft, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective Erlenmeyer flask deformity is a common radiological finding in patients with Gaucher′s disease; however, no definition of this deformity exists and the reported prevalence of the deformity varies widely. To devise an easily applied definition of this deformity, we investigated a cohort of knee radiographs in which there was consensus between three experienced radiologists as to the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology. Methods Using the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology as a benchmark, we measured the diameter of the femur at the level of the physeal scar and serially at defined intervals along the metadiaphysis. Results A measured ratio in excess of 0.57 between the diameter of the femoral shaft 4 cm from the physis to the diameter of the physeal baseline itself on a frontal radiograph of the knee predicted the Erlenmeyer flask deformity with 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity in our series of 43 independently diagnosed adults with Gaucher′s disease. Application of this method to the distal femur detected the Erlenmeyer flask deformity reproducibly and was simple to carry out. Conclusion Unlike diagnostic assignments based on subjective review, our simple procedure for identifying the modelling deformity is based on robust quantitative measurement: it should facilitate comparative studies between different groups of patients, and may allow more rigorous exploration of the pathogenesis of the complex osseous manifestations of Gaucher′s disease to be undertaken. PMID:22010032

  16. Dynamic skin deformation simulation using musculoskeletal model and soft tissue dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Murai; Q. Youn Hong; Katsu Yamane; Jessica K. Hodgins

    2017-01-01

    Deformation of skin and muscle is essential for bringing an animated character to life. This deformation is difficult to animate in a realistic fashion using traditional techniques because of the subtlety of the skin deformations that must move appropriately for the character design. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates natural, dynamic, and detailed skin deformation (movement and jiggle) from joint angle data sequences. The algorithm has two steps: identification of parameters for a quasi-static muscle deformation model, and simulation of skin deformation. In the identification step, we identify the model parameters using a musculoskeletal model and a short sequence of skin deformation data captured via a dense marker set. The simulation step first uses the quasi-static muscle deformation model to obtain the quasi-static muscle shape at each frame of the given motion sequence (slow jump). Dynamic skin deformation is then computed by simulating the passive muscle and soft tissue dynamics modeled as a mass–spring–damper system. Having obtained the model parameters, we can simulate dynamic skin deformations for subjects with similar body types from new motion data. We demonstrate our method by creating skin deformations for muscle co-contraction and external impacts from four different behaviors captured as skeletal motion capture data. Experimental results show that the simulated skin deformations are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to measured actual skin deformations.

  17. Dynamic skin deformation simulation using musculoskeletal model and soft tissue dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Murai; Q.Youn Hong; Katsu Yamane; Jessica K.Hodgins

    2017-01-01

    Deformation of skin and muscle is essential for bringing an animated character to life. This deformation is difficult to animate in a realistic fashion using traditional techniques because of the subtlety of the skin deformations that must move appropriately for the character design. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates natural, dynamic, and detailed skin deformation(movement and jiggle) from joint angle data sequences. The algorithm has two steps: identification of parameters for a quasi-static muscle deformation model, and simulation of skin deformation. In the identification step, we identify the model parameters using a musculoskeletal model and a short sequence of skin deformation data captured via a dense marker set. The simulation step first uses the quasi-static muscle deformation model to obtain the quasi-static muscle shape at each frame of the given motion sequence(slow jump). Dynamic skin deformation is then computed by simulating the passive muscle and soft tissue dynamics modeled as a mass–spring–damper system. Having obtained the model parameters, we can simulate dynamic skin deformations for subjects with similar body types from new motion data. We demonstrate our method by creating skin deformations for muscle co-contraction and external impacts from four different behaviors captured as skeletal motion capture data. Experimental results show that the simulated skin deformations are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to measured actual skin deformations.

  18. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, Luke L

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti 3 Al-(α 2 ) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α 2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  20. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Luke L.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti3Al-(α2) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  1. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  2. Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignat, C; Plastino, A

    2007-01-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used. (fast track communication)

  3. Plastic deformation of Fortissimo fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, G.; Millet, P.; Blanchard, P.

    1979-01-01

    The study of a great number of standard Fortissimo fuel rods clad in 316 hyper quenched steel shows that the plastic deformation depends linearily on the pressure of the fission gases and on the dose. The irradiation creep module deduced therefrom is between 1 and 2x10 -6 (MPa F atomic displacement) -1 at 450 0 C and increases regularly with the temperature [fr

  4. On an extension of the space of bounded deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2012), s. 75-91 ISSN 0232-2064 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bounded sequences of symmetrised gradients * bounded deformation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-on an extension of the space of bounded deformations.pdf

  5. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.

    2003-09-26

    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  6. Improved image registration by sparse patch-based deformation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-15

    employ thin-plate splines (TPS) to interpolate a dense initial deformation field by considering all key points as the control points. Thus, the conventional image registration problem becomes much easier in the sense that we only need to compute the remaining small deformation for completing the registration of the subject to the template. Experimental results on both simulated and real data show that the registration performance can be significantly improved after integrating our patch-based deformation prediction framework into the existing registration algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and

  8. Channeling of protons through radial deformed carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borka Jovanović, V., E-mail: vborka@vinca.rs [Atomic Physics Laboratory (040), Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Borka, D. [Atomic Physics Laboratory (040), Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Galijaš, S.M.D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • For the first time we presented theoretically obtained distributions of channeled protons with radially deformed SWNT. • Our findings indicate that influence of the radial deformation is very strong and it should not be omitted in simulations. • We show that the spatial and angular distributions depend strongly of level of radial deformation of nanotube. • Our obtained results can be compared with measured distributions to reveal the presence of various types of defects in SWNT. - Abstract: In this paper we have presented a theoretical investigation of the channeling of 1 GeV protons with the radial deformed (10, 0) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We have calculated channeling potential within the deformed nanotubes. For the first time we presented theoretically obtained spatial and angular distributions of channeled protons with radially deformed SWNT. We used a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique. We show that the spatial and angular distributions depend strongly of level of radial deformation of nanotube. These results may be useful for nanotube characterization and production and guiding of nanosized ion beams.

  9. Post-assessment of pre-stressed containment structures by evaluation of monitored long term deformation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, B.

    2015-01-01

    The comparison of monitored long term deformations of containment structures with calculated values achieved by using design material parameters shows occasionally considerable deviations, partly caused by conservative assumptions in the containments design phase. Systematic post-assessment and adaption of the decisive parameters attains better coincidence. In the present investigation measured long-term deformations are first of all compared to pre-calculated values based on the material parameters defined in the design phase. Afterwards, the deformations deviations are minimized by repeating the calculation with assessed material parameters. This method appears to be a suitable method to predict the future containment structure long-term behavior and to achieve a possible life-time extension. The presented investigation was performed as part of NUGENIA ACCEPPT project which researches the ageing of concrete containment structures in nuclear power plants

  10. Plasticity margin recovery during annealing after cold deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatov, A.A.; Smirnov, S.V.; Kolmogorov, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Restoration of the plasticity margin in steel 20 after cold deformation and annealing at 550 - 750 C and soaking for 5 - 300 min was investigated. The conditions of cold deformation under which the metal acquires microdefects unhealed by subsequent annealing were determined. It was established that if the degree of utilization of the plasticity margin is psi < 0.5, the plasticity margin in steel 20 can be completely restored by annealing. A mathematical model of restoration of the plasticity margin by annealing after cold deformation was constructed. A statistical analysis showed good agreement between model and experiment

  11. Size effects on failure behaviour of reactor pressure vessel steel and their dependence on deformation inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Klotz, M.; Schmitt, R.

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of the size dependence of the material behaviour and particularly of the failure strain is the main objective of the European research project LISSAC (Limit Strains for Severe Accident Conditions). Within our activities in LISSAC, tensile test series with specimens of similar geometry and different sizes are performed. The specimens, cut from the wall of a real reactor vessel, are flat with a central hole, flat with a double edge notch as well as round with a circumferential notch in order to obtain inhomogeneous deformation with high strain gradients, which will be higher in the smaller specimens and might be responsible for size effects. An additional variation of the strain gradient is obtained by varying the central hole radius of the flat specimens, with three different hole geometries being considered: round hole, increased round hole and slot. During the tests optical methods are used for measuring local deformations and partly local strain gradients. The results obtained show a size effect neither on the global nor on the local deformation behaviour, whereas the damage and failure behaviour is influenced significantly by the size of the specimen. On the basis of the surface deformation measurements, finite element calculations are performed to estimate the local failure strains as well as the corresponding strain gradients. A clear dependence of local failure strains on strain gradients is obtained. (author)

  12. Experimental Study on Hygrothermal Deformation of External Thermal Insulation Cladding Systems with Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houren Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the thermal and strain behavior of external thermal insulation cladding systems (ETICS with Glazed Hollow Beads (GHB thermal insulation mortar under hygrothermal cycles weather test in order to measure its durability under extreme weather (i.e., sunlight and rain. Thermometers and strain gauges are placed into different wall layers to gather thermal and strain data and another instrument measures the crack dimensions after every 4 cycles. The results showed that the finishing coat shrank at early stage (elastic deformation and then the finishing coat tends to expand and become damaged at later stage (plastic deformation. The deformation of insulation layer is similar to that of the finishing coat but its variation amplitude is smaller. Deformation of substrate expanded with heat and contracted with cold due to the small temperature variation. The length and width of cracks on the finishing coat grew as the experiment progressed but with a decreasing growth rate and the cracks stopped growing around 70 cycles.

  13. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  14. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a

  15. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E.; Huang, J.; Menon, N.; Russell, T. P.; Toga, K. B.; Vella, D.; Davidovitch, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical

  16. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  17. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  18. Deformed two-photon squeezed states in noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianzu

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on nonperturbation aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics explored a new type of boson commutation relations at the deformed level, described by deformed annihilation-creation operators in noncommutative space. This correlated boson commutator correlates different degrees of freedom, and shows an essential influence on dynamics. This Letter devotes to the development of formalism of deformed two-photon squeezed states in noncommutative space. General representations of deformed annihilation-creation operators and the consistency condition for the electromagnetic wave with a single mode of frequency in noncommunicative space are obtained. Two-photon squeezed states are studied. One finds that variances of the dimensionless Hermitian quadratures of the annihilation operator in one degree of freedom include variances in the other degree of freedom. Such correlations show the new feature of spatial noncommutativity and allow a deeper understanding of the correlated boson commutator

  19. On the thermomechanical deformation of silver shape memory nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Harold S.; Ji, Changjiang

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the uniaxial thermomechanical deformation of single-crystal silver shape memory nanowires using atomistic simulations. We first demonstrate that silver nanowires can show both shape memory and pseudoelastic behavior, then perform uniaxial tensile loading of the shape memory nanowires at various deformation temperatures, strain rates and heat transfer conditions. The simulations show that the resulting mechanical response of the shape memory nanowires depends strongly upon the temperature during deformation, and can be fundamentally different from that observed in bulk polycrystalline shape memory alloys. The energy and temperature signatures of uniaxially loaded silver shape memory nanowires are correlated to the observed nanowire deformation, and are further discussed in comparison to bulk polycrystalline shape memory alloy behavior

  20. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, V.G., E-mail: vladislav.kupriyanov@gmail.com [CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  1. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, V.G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  2. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kupriyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  3. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).

  4. Dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)

    2016-01-01

    High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.

  5. Mid-space-independent deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Reuter, Martin; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Fischl, Bruce

    2017-05-15

    Aligning images in a mid-space is a common approach to ensuring that deformable image registration is symmetric - that it does not depend on the arbitrary ordering of the input images. The results are, however, generally dependent on the mathematical definition of the mid-space. In particular, the set of possible solutions is typically restricted by the constraints that are enforced on the transformations to prevent the mid-space from drifting too far from the native image spaces. The use of an implicit atlas has been proposed as an approach to mid-space image registration. In this work, we show that when the atlas is aligned to each image in the native image space, the data term of implicit-atlas-based deformable registration is inherently independent of the mid-space. In addition, we show that the regularization term can be reformulated independently of the mid-space as well. We derive a new symmetric cost function that only depends on the transformation morphing the images to each other, rather than to the atlas. This eliminates the need for anti-drift constraints, thereby expanding the space of allowable deformations. We provide an implementation scheme for the proposed framework, and validate it through diffeomorphic registration experiments on brain magnetic resonance images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  7. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  8. Softening during deformation of Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kral, R.; Trojanova, Z.; Lukac, P.

    1994-01-01

    The strain hardening behaviour is described by the work hardening rate. The work hardening rate depends on the dislocation density changes which result from the competition between the rate of dislocation storage and the rate of annihilation of dislocations. In the present work the deformation behaviour of Zr-based alloys is investigated. From the stress-strain curves the work hardening rate is calculated and its stress dependence is studied at various temperatures between 300 and 1000 K. Experimental investigations show that at first the work hardening rate decreases quasi-linearly with increasing stress. After a certain stress is reached, the work hardening rate decreases more slowly with increasing stress. We discuss the influence of hardening and softening processes on the deformation behaviour. Analytical models are compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  9. Plastic deformation of silicon dendritic web ribbons during the growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L. J.; Dumas, K. A.; Su, B. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of slip dislocations in silicon dendritic web ribbons due to plastic deformation during the cooling phase of the growth was studied. The results show the existence of two distinguishable stress regions across the ribbon formed during the plastic deformation stage, namely, shear stress at the ribbon edges and tensile stress at the middle. In addition, slip dislocations caused by shear stress near the edges appear to originate at the twin plane.

  10. On massless representations of the Q-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.

    1993-01-01

    This talk is devoted to the construction of massless representations of the q-deformed Poincare algebra. In section 2 we give Hilbert space representations of the SL q (2, C)-covariant quantum space. We then show in the next section how the generators of the q-Poincare algebra can be expressed in terms of operators which live in the light cone. The q-deformed massless one-particle states are considered in section 4. (orig.)

  11. Three-dimensional printing and deformation behavior of low-density target structures by two-photon polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Stein, Ori; Campbell, John H.; Jiang, Lijia; Petta, Nicole; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP), a 3D nano to microscale additive manufacturing process, is being used for the first time to fabricate small custom experimental packages ("targets") to support laser-driven high-energy-density (HED) physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print low-density, low atomic-number (CHO) polymer matrices ("foams") at millimeter scale with sub-micrometer resolution. Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial photo-resins; here we compare use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. The mechanical strength of polymeric beam and foam structures is examined particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage in the two resins in quantified by printing sample structures and by use of FEA to simulate the deformation. Capillary drying forces are shown to be small and likely below the elastic limit of the core foam structure. In contrast the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip ( 5-10%) cause large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation particularly near constrained boundaries such as the substrate and locations with sharp density variation. The inherent weakness of stitching boundaries is also evident and in certain cases can lead to delamination. Use of IP-S shows marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of print resolution

  12. Strain-softening behavior of an Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy during warm deformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Huadong; Zhang Zhihao; Yang Qiang; Xie Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy exhibits strain-softening behavior after large deformation. → The decrease of the order degree is responsible for the strain-softening behavior. → The strain-softening behavior of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy can be applied in cold rolling. → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm is fabricated by cold rolling. - Abstract: An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was compressed at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. The Vickers hardness and structure of the alloy before and after deformation were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of deformation, Vickers hardness of the alloy initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, indicating that the alloy had a strain-softening behavior after a large deformation. Meanwhile, the work-hardening exponent of the alloy decreased significantly. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the decrease of the order degree was responsible for the strain-softening behavior of the deformed alloy. Applying its softening behavior, the Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was rolled at 400 deg. C and then at room temperature. An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm was fabricated. The surface of the strip was bright and had no obvious edge cracks.

  13. DEFORMATION WAVES AS A TRIGGER MECHANISM OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation waves as a trigger mechanism of seismic activity and migration of earthquake foci have been under discussion by researchers in seismology and geodynamics for over 50 years. Four sections of this article present available principal data on impacts of wave processes on seismicity and new data. The first section reviews analytical and experimental studies aimed at identification of relationships between wave processes in the lithosphere and seismic activity manifested as space-and-time migration of individual earthquake foci or clusters of earthquakes. It is concluded that with a systematic approach, instead of using a variety of terms to denote waves that trigger seismic process in the lithosphere, it is reasonable to apply the concise definition of ‘deformation waves’, which is most often used in fact.The second section contains a description of deformation waves considered as the trigger mechanism of seismic activity. It is concluded that a variety of methods are applied to identify deformation waves, and such methods are based on various research methods and concepts that naturally differ in sensitivity concerning detection of waves and/or impact of the waves on seismic process. Epicenters of strong earthquakes are grouped into specific linear or arc-shaped systems, which common criterion is the same time interval of the occurrence of events under analysis. On site the systems compose zones with similar time sequences, which correspond to the physical notion of moving waves (Fig. 9. Periods of manifestation of such waves are estimated as millions of years, and a direct consideration of the presence of waves and wave parameters is highly challenging. In the current state-of-the-art, geodynamics and seismology cannot provide any other solution yet.The third section presents a solution considering record of deformation waves in the lithosphere. With account of the fact that all the earthquakes with М≥3.0 are associated with

  14. Autogenous Deformation and Change of the Relative Humidity in Silica Fume-Modified Cement Paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1996-01-01

    Even during sealed curing and at a constant temperature a hardening cement paste will deform and the relative humidity within its pores will lower. This autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change may be so significant that the cement paste cracks if the deformation is restrained....... This article focuses on the influence of silica fume addition on autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change. Continuous measurement of autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change for more than 1 year and 1« years, respectively, was performed. The investigations show...... thatsilica fume addition markedly increases the autogenous shrinkage as well as the autogenous relative humidity change....

  15. Liquid Segregation Phenomenological Behaviors of Ti14 Alloy during Semisolid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The liquid segregation phenomenon and its effect on deformation mechanism of Ti14 alloy in semisolid metal processing were investigated by thermal simulation test. Microstructure of depth profile was determined by cross-section quantitative metallography, and liquid segregation phenomenon was described by Darcy's law. The results show that segregation phenomenon was affected by solid fraction, strain rate, and deformation rate. More liquid segregated from center to edge portion with high strain rate and/or deformation ratio as well as low solid fraction, which caused different distribution of dominating deformation mechanism. The relationship between liquid segregation and main deformation mechanism was also discussed by phenomenological model.

  16. Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.

  17. Deformation analysis with Total Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation analysis is one of the main research fields in geodesy. Deformation analysis process comprises measurement and analysis phases. Measurements can be collected using several techniques. The output of the evaluation of the measurements is mainly point positions. In the deformation analysis phase, the coordinate changes in the point positions are investigated. Several models or approaches can be employed for the analysis. One approach is based on a Helmert or similarity coordinate transformation where the displacements and the respective covariance matrix are transformed into a unique datum. Traditionally a Least Squares (LS technique is used for the transformation procedure. Another approach that could be introduced as an alternative methodology is the Total Least Squares (TLS that is considerably a new approach in geodetic applications. In this study, in order to determine point displacements, 3-D coordinate transformations based on the Helmert transformation model were carried out individually by the Least Squares (LS and the Total Least Squares (TLS, respectively. The data used in this study was collected by GPS technique in a landslide area located nearby Istanbul. The results obtained from these two approaches have been compared.

  18. Fast free-form deformable registration via calculus of variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiguo; Chen Mingli; Olivera, Gustavo H; Ruchala, Kenneth J; Mackie, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic, fast and accurate deformable registration technique. This technique deals with free-form deformation. It minimizes an energy functional that combines both similarity and smoothness measures. By using calculus of variations, the minimization problem was represented as a set of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). A Gauss-Seidel finite difference scheme is used to iteratively solve the PDE. The registration is refined by a multi-resolution approach. The whole process is fully automatic. It takes less than 3 min to register two three-dimensional (3D) image sets of size 256 x 256 x 61 using a single 933 MHz personal computer. Extensive experiments are presented. These experiments include simulations, phantom studies and clinical image studies. Experimental results show that our model and algorithm are suited for registration of temporal images of a deformable body. The registration of inspiration and expiration phases of the lung images shows that the method is able to deal with large deformations. When applied to the daily CT images of a prostate patient, the results show that registration based on iterative refinement of displacement field is appropriate to describe the local deformations in the prostate and the rectum. Similarity measures improved significantly after the registration. The target application of this paper is for radiotherapy treatment planning and evaluation that incorporates internal organ deformation throughout the course of radiation therapy. The registration method could also be equally applied in diagnostic radiology

  19. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  20. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Remm, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  1. Analyses of Deformation and Stress of Oil-free Scroll Compressor Scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Li, Yaohong; Zhao, Shenxian

    2017-12-01

    The solid model of orbiting and fixed scroll is created by the Solidworks The deformation and stress of scrolls under gas force, temperature field, inertia force and the coupling field are analyzed using the Ansys software. The deformation for different thickness and height scroll tooth is investigated. The laws of deformation and stress for scrolls are gotten. The research results indicate that the stress and deformation of orbiting scroll are mainly affected by the temperature field. The maximum deformation occurs in the tooth head of scroll wrap because of the largest gas forces and the highest temperature in the tooth head of scroll wrap. The maximum stress is located in the end of the tooth, and the maximum stress of the coupling field is not the sum of loads. The scroll tooth is higher, and the deformation is bigger. The scroll tooth is thicker, and the deformation is smaller.

  2. Deformation of shape memory alloys associated with twinned domain re-configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Van Humbeeck, J.; Xie Zeliang; Delaey, L.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the applications of shape memory alloys (SMAs) imply deformation of martensite; it is therefore one of the fundamental research topics on the shape memory effect. So far, several classifications of the deformation mechanisms have been made as a function of deformation amplitude. However, the deformation details of martensitic SMAs are still not yet satisfactorily understood and these classifications need to be refined, because several incoherencies have been found lately by mechanical testing and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The present work summarizes some new results on the deformation mechanisms of martensitic NiTi SMAs under tension. As a result, the deformation process of martensite twins as a function of the deformation strain amplitude is refined. (orig.)

  3. SU-F-BRF-10: Deformable MRI to CT Validation Employing Same Day Planning MRI for Surrogate Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padgett, K; Stoyanova, R; Johnson, P; Dogan, N; Pollack, A [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Piper, J; Javorek, A [MIM Software, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare rigid and deformable registrations of the prostate in the multi-modality setting (diagnostic-MRI to planning-CT) by utilizing a planning-MRI as a surrogate. The surrogate allows for the direct quantitative analysis which can be difficult in the multi-modality domain where intensity mapping differs. Methods: For ten subjects, T2 fast-spin-echo images were acquired at two different time points, the first several weeks prior to planning (diagnostic-MRI) and the second on the same day in which the planning CT was collected (planning-MRI). Significant effort in patient positioning and bowel/bladder preparation was undertaken to minimize distortion of the prostate in all datasets. The diagnostic-MRI was deformed to the planning-CT utilizing a commercially available deformable registration algorithm synthesized from local registrations. The deformed MRI was then rigidly aligned to the planning MRI which was used as the surrogate for the planning-CT. Agreement between the two MRI datasets was scored using intensity based metrics including Pearson correlation and normalized mutual information, NMI. A local analysis was performed by looking only within the prostate, proximal seminal vesicles, penile bulb and combined areas. A similar method was used to assess a rigid registration between the diagnostic-MRI and planning-CT. Results: Utilizing the NMI, the deformable registrations were superior to the rigid registrations in 9 of 10 cases demonstrating a 15.94% improvement (p-value < 0.001) within the combined area. The Pearson correlation showed similar results with the deformable registration superior in the same number of cases and demonstrating a 6.97% improvement (p-value <0.011). Conclusion: Validating deformable multi-modality registrations using spatial intensity based metrics is difficult due to the inherent differences in intensity mapping. This population provides an ideal testing ground for MRI to CT deformable registrations by obviating the need

  4. Deformation and failure mechanism of excavation in clay subjected to hydraulic uplift

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest experimental and numerical analysis work in the field of ground deformation and base instability of deep excavations in soft clay subjected to hydraulic uplift. The authors’ latest research findings, based on dimensional analyses, well-instrumented full-scale field tests, systematic coupled-consolidation finite element analyses and centrifuge tests are reported. This book shows how to systematically approach a complex geotechnical problem, from identifying existing problems, reviewing literature, to dimensional and numerical analyses, validation through full-scale testing and centrifuge model testing. The methodologies are also introduced as major tools adopted in geotechnical research.

  5. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  6. The deformation record of olivine in mylonitic peridotites from the Finero Complex, Ivrea Zone: Separate deformation cycles during exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Agnes K.; Trepmann, Claudia A.

    2015-12-01

    Mylonitic peridotites from the Finero complex are investigated to detect characteristic olivine microfabrics that can resolve separate deformation cycles at different metamorphic conditions. The heterogeneous olivine microstructures are characterized by deformed porphyroclasts surrounded by varying amounts of recrystallized grains. A well-developed but only locally preserved foam structure is present in recrystallized grain aggregates. This indicates an early stage of dynamic recrystallization and subsequent recovery and recrystallization at quasi-static stress conditions, where the strain energy was reduced such that a reduction in surface energy controlled grain boundary migration. Ultramylonites record a renewed stage of localized deformation and recrystallization by a second generation of recrystallized grains that do not show a foam structure. This second generation of recrystallized grains as well as sutured grain and kink band boundaries of porphyroclasts indicate that these microstructures developed during a stage of localized deformation after development of the foam structure. The heterogeneity of the microfabrics is interpreted to represent several (at least two) cycles of localized deformation separated by a marked hiatus with quasi-static recrystallization and recovery and eventually grain growth. The second deformation cycle did not only result in reactivation of preexisting shear zones but instead also locally affected the host rock that was not deformed in the first stage. Such stress cycles can result from sudden increases in differential stress imposed by seismic events, i.e., high stress-loading rates, during exhumation of the Finero complex.

  7. INFLUENCE OF TYPE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION ON LEVEL OF PROFESSIONAL DEFORMATION OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna I. Sapeha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented article – identification of interrelation of certain type of organizational culture in institute of education (closed, accidental, open or synchronous and level of development of professional deformation of personality of teachers (authoritativeness, rigidity and noncriticality of self-perception.The basis for methodology of research is sociocultural-interdeterministic dialogical approach of V. A. Yanchuk. In the course of research psychodiagnostic techniques were applied: technique of diagnostics of professional deformation of personality of teacher (V. E. Orel, S. P. Andreyev and questionnaire of «Scale of organizational paradigms» of L. L. Konstantin.Results of research of six institutes of education (schools and gymnasiums showed that elements of deformation have higher level of manifestation in institutes with closed type of organizational culture, revealed in three institutes, and insignificant level in two institutes with open type of culture. In institutes with prevalence of synchronous and accidental types of organizational culture significantexceeding on the level of deformation didn’t find. The greatest development of deformation of teachers is observed on elements of authoritativeness and rigidity, the smallest – on noncriticality of self-perception.Scientific novelty of material is presented for the first time applied sociocultural-interdeterministic dialogical approach to research of professional deformation of personality, that psychological interdeterminant of deformation are allocated, one of structural components of model of ecocultural educational environment – open type of organizational culture in institute of education are described.Practical significance of results consists in detection of opportunities and criteria of formation in institute of formation of ecocultural dialogical environment and its structural component for purpose of timely prevention and overcoming of

  8. Dynamic Landslide Deformation Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. R.; Gischig, V.; Button, E.; Loew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Fiber optic (FO) strain sensors are a promising new technology for in-situ landslide monitoring. General performance advantages include high resolution, fast sampling rate, and insensitivity to electrical disturbances. Here we describe a new FO monitoring system based on long-gage fiber Bragg grating sensors installed at the Randa Rockslide Laboratory in southern Switzerland. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the system, describe relevant first results, and compare FO data to that from traditional instruments already installed on site. The Randa rock slope has been the subject of intensive research since its failure in 1991. Around 5 million cubic meters of rock remains unstable today, moving at rates up to 20 mm / year. Traditional in-situ monitoring techniques have been employed to understand the mechanics and driving forces of the currently unstable rock mass, however these investigations are limited by the resolution and low sampling rate of the sensors. The new FO monitoring system has micro-strain resolution and offers the capability to detect sub-micrometer scale deformations in both triggered-dynamic and continuous measurements. Two types of sensors have been installed: fully-embedded borehole sensors encased in grout at depths of 38, 40, and 68 m, and surface extensometers spanning active tension cracks. Dynamic measurements are triggered by sensor deformation and recorded at 100 Hz, while continuous measurements are logged every 5 minutes. Since installation in August 2008, the FO monitoring system has been operational 90% of the time. Time series deformation data show movement rates consistent with previous borehole extensometer surveys. Accelerated displacements following installation are likely related to long-term curing and dewatering of the grout. A number of interesting transients have been recorded, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new

  9. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  10. Investigation of Magnetic Pulse Deformation of Powder Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, M.; Mironov, V.; Shishkin, A.; Zemchenkov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Current article covers basics of powder compaction by electromagnetic impulse field and research results of sintered Fe powder part deformation process. This work is a joint research carried out by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and the Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany).

  11. Ultracold gas shows 'lopsided' properties

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Duke University researchers have created an ultracold gas that has the startling property of bursting outward in a preferred direction when released. According to the researchers, studying the properties of the "lopsided" gas will yield fundamental insights into how matter holds itself together at the subatomic level" (1 page).

  12. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transform...

  13. Superplastic Deformation of TC6 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superplastic tensile tests of TC6 alloy were conducted in the temperature range of 800-900℃ by using the maximum m value superplasticity deformation (Max m SPD method and the constant strain rate deformation method at the strain rate range of 0.0001-0.1 s-1. The stress-strain curve of the tensile tests was obtained and the microstructure near the fracture were analyzed by metallographic microscope. The result shows that the superplasticity of TC6 alloy is excellent, and the elongation increases first and then decreases with the increase of strain rate or temperature. When the temperature is 850℃ and strain rate is 0.001 s-1 at constant stain rate tensile tests, the elongation reaches up to 993%. However, the elongation using Max m SPD method at 850℃ is 1353%. It is shown that the material can achieve better superplasticity by using Max m SPD tensile compared to constant stain rate tensile under the same temperature. The superplastic deformation of TC6 alloy can enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior significantly, the dynamic recrystallization behavior is promoted when strain rate and temperature are increased.

  14. Dynamic control of knee axial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Malyshev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have evaluated the clinical examination of the patients with axial malalignments in the knee by the original method and device which was named varovalgometer. The measurements were conducted by tension of the cord through the spina iliaca anterior superior and the middle of the lower pole of patella. The deviation of the center of the ankle estimated by metal ruler which was positioned perpendicular to the lower leg axis on the level of the ankle joint line. The results of comparison of our method and computer navigation in 53 patients during the TKA show no statistically significant varieties but they differ by average 5° of valgus in clinical examination in comparison with mechanical axis which was identified by computer navigation. The dynamic control of axial malalignment can be used in clinical practice for estimation of the results of treatment of pathology with axial deformities in the knee; for the control of reduction and secondary displacement of the fractures around the knee; for assessment of instability; in planning of correctional osteotomies and intraoperative control of deformity correction; for estimation of Q angle in subluxation and recurrent dislocation of patella; in planning of TKA; during the growth of child it allows to assess the progression of deformity.

  15. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  16. MR imaging in congenital lower limb deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Jaramillo, D.; Hoffer, F.A.; Kasser, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment for children with cogenital deformities of the lower extremities may vary, depending on the state of the unossified skeletal structures and surrounding soft tissues. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the spectrum of the osteochondral and extrasosseous abnormalities as depicted with MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed MR examinations of 13 limbs of ten children (aged 1 month-9 years, mean 2.1 years) with longitudinal and transverse deformities of the lower extremities. The lesions imaged were fibular hemimelia (n=5), tibial hemimelia (n=5), and congenital constriction bands (n=3). Each examination was assessed for abnormalities in the osteocartilaginous and extraosseous (articular or periarticular components such as ligaments, tendons, and menisci; the muscles and the arteries) structures. Abnormalities were seen in all patients. Osteocartilaginous abnormalities in the patients with longitudinal deformities included abnormal distal femoral epiphyses, abnormal proximal tribial physes, hypertrophied and dislocated proximal fibular epiphyses, unsuspected fibular and tibial remnants, and absence or coalition of the tarsal bones. No osteocartilaginous abnormalities were seen in the patients with congential constriction bands. Articular abormalities in patients with either form of hemimelia included absent cruciate ligaments and menisci, dislocated or absent cartilaginous patellae, absent patellar tendons, and abnormal collateral ligaments. All but one limb imaged had absent or attenuated muscle groups. Of the nine MR arteriograms performed at the level of the knee, eight were abnormal. The normal popliteal trifurcation was absent or in an abnormal location. We conclude that MR imaging of children with congenital lower extremity deformities shows many osteochondral and extraosseous abnormalities that are not depicted by conventional radiogrpahy. This information can help to plan early surgical intervention and prosthetic rehabilitation. (orig.)

  17. Grain orientation, deformation microstructure and flow stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Winther, G.

    2008-01-01

    Dislocation structures in deformed metals have been analyzed quantitatively by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy and Kikuchi line analysis. A general pattern for the microstructural evolution with increasing strain has been established and structural parameters have been defined and quantified. It has been found that two dislocation patterns co-exist in all grains, however, with very different characteristics dependent on grain orientation. This correlation with the grain orientation has been applied in modeling of the tensile flow stress and the flow stress anisotropy of fcc polycrystals. In conclusion some future research areas are briefly outlined

  18. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  19. Phonon operators in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    For the description of the excited states in deformed nuclei new phonon operators are introduced, which depend on the sign of the angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. In the calculations with new phonons the Pauli principle is correctly taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. There is a difference in comparison with the calculation with phonons independent of the sign of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons should be used in deformed nuclei if the Pauli principle is consistently taken into account and in the calculations with the excited state wave functions having the components with more than one phonon operator [ru

  20. Phonon operators for deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator

  1. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  2. Microstructure evolution and deformation mechanism change in 0.98C-8.3Mn-0.04N steel during compressive deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Hou, R.J.; Lv, B.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure evolution and the deformation mechanism change in 0.98C-8.3Mn-0.04N steel during compressive deformation at room temperature have been studied as a function of the reduction in the range of 20-60%. Experimental results show that with the reduction increasing the microstructure of the deformed sample changes from dislocation substructures into the dominant twins plus dislocations. This suggests that the plastic deformation mechanism changes from the dislocation slip to the dominant deformation twinning. The minimum reduction for deformation twins starting is estimated to be at between 30 and 40%. With the reduction further increases to more than 40%, the deformation twinning is operative and the thickness of deformation twins gradually decreases to nanoscale and shear bands occur. These high-density twins can be curved by the formation of shear bands. In addition, both transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction examinations confirm the inexistence of deformation-induced martensites in these deformed samples

  3. Formation of incoherent deformation twin boundaries in a coarse-grained Al-7Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. B.; Zhang, K.; Bjørge, R.; Tao, N. R.; Marthinsen, K.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. J.

    2015-08-01

    Deformation twinning has rarely been observed in coarse grained Al and its alloys except under some extreme conditions such as ultrahigh deformation strain or strain rates. Here, we report that a significant amount of Σ3 deformation twins could be generated in a coarse-grained Al-7 Mg alloy by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). A systematic investigation of the Σ3 boundaries shows that they are Σ3{112} type incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs). These ITBs have formed by gradual evolution from copious low-angle deformation bands through -twist Σ boundaries by lattice rotation. These findings provide an approach to generate deformation twin boundaries in high stacking fault energy metallic alloys. It is suggested that high solution content of Mg in the alloy and the special deformation mode of DPD played an important role in formation of the Σ and ITBs.

  4. Deformation mechanisms of silicon during nanoscratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassilloud, R.; Gasser, P.; Buerki, G.; Michler, J. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [University of Neuchatel, A.-L. Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The deformation mechanisms of silicon {l_brace}001{r_brace} surfaces during nanoscratching were found to depend strongly on the loading conditions. Nanoscratches with increasing load were performed at 2 {mu}m/s (low velocity) and 100 {mu}m/s (high velocity). The load-penetration-distance curves acquired during the scratching process at low velocity suggests that two deformation regimes can be defined, an elasto-plastic regime at low loads and a fully plastic regime at high loads. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of the damaged location shows that the residual scratch morphologies are strongly influenced by the scratch velocity and the applied load. Micro-Raman spectroscopy shows that after pressure release, the deformed volume inside the nanoscratch is mainly composed of amorphous silicon and Si-XII at low scratch speeds and of amorphous silicon at high speeds. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Si nanocrystals are embedded in an amorphous matrix at low speeds, whereas at high speeds the transformed zone is completely amorphous. Furthermore, the extend of the transformed zone is almost independent of the scratching speed and is delimited by a dislocation rich area that extends about as deep as the contact radius into the surface. To explain the observed phase and defect distribution a contact mechanics based decompression model that takes into account the load, the velocity, the materials properties and the contact radius in scratching is proposed. It shows that the decompression rate is higher at low penetration depth, which is consistent with the observation of amorphous silicon in this case. The stress field under the tip is computed using an elastic contact mechanics model based on Hertz's theory. The model explains the observed shape of the transformed zone and suggests that during load increase, phase transformation takes place prior to dislocation nucleation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  6. Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gaoming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.

  7. Deformation of high performance concrete plate under humid tropical weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niken, C.; Elly, T.; Supartono, FX; Laksmi, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the relationship between surrounding relative humidity and temperature on deformation behavior of one sample concrete plate with compressive strength of 60MPa. This research was done in Indonesia that is in humid tropical weather. A specimens measuring 3000 mm × 1600 mm × 150 mm were used. The behavior was obtained by using four embedded vibrating wire strain gauges (VWESG). As a result there is a very strong relationship between humidity and deformation at the age range of 7 until 21 days. The largest deformation occurs in the corner and the fluctuation of deformation in side position is larger than in the corner and in the middle. The peaks of surrounding relative humidity were fully followed by the deepest valley of deformation on time in the corner, while in another position the range delay time was 8 - 11 hours. There is a strong relationship between surrounding temperature and deformation at the range of 7 until 14 days. The influenced of surrounding relative humidity to concrete behavior is faster and longer than surrounding temperature. The influence of surrounding temperature in humid tropical weather was shorter than in non-humid tropical weather.

  8. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  9. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Haight, R.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, C.

    1984-09-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9 Be, C, 181 Ta, 232 Th, 238 U and 239 Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonable good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP

  10. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...... parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness...

  11. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  12. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  13. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  14. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  15. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF 0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180 Pb and 184 Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF 0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF 0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  16. Toward the development of intrafraction tumor deformation tracking using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Yuanyuan; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first

  17. Introduction of a deformable x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, E.; Heath, E.; Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study introduces the first 3D deformable dosimetry system based on x-ray computed tomography (CT) polymer gel dosimetry and establishes the setup reproducibility, deformation characteristics and dose response of the system. A N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based gel formulation optimized for x-ray CT gel dosimetry was used, with a latex balloon serving as the deformable container and low-density polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol providing additional oxygen barrier. Deformable gels were irradiated with a 6 MV calibration pattern to determine dosimetric response and a dosimetrically uniform plan to determine the spatial uniformity of the response. Wax beads were added to each gel as fiducial markers to track the deformation and setup of the gel dosimeters. From positions of the beads on CT images the setup reproducibility and the limits and reproducibility of gel deformation were determined. Comparison of gel measurements with Monte Carlo dose calculations found excellent dosimetric accuracy, comparable to that of an established non-deformable dosimetry system, with a mean dose discrepancy of 1.5% in the low-dose gradient region and a gamma pass rate of 97.9% using a 3%/3 mm criterion. The deformable dosimeter also showed good overall spatial dose uniformity throughout the dosimeter with some discrepancies within 20 mm of the edge of the container. Tracking of the beads within the dosimeter found that sub-millimetre setup accuracy is achievable with this system. The dosimeter was able to deform and relax when externally compressed by up to 30 mm without sustaining any permanent damage. Internal deformations in 3D produced average marker movements of up to 12 mm along the direction of compression. These deformations were also shown to be reproducible over 100 consecutive deformations. This work has established several important characteristics of a new deformable dosimetry system which shows promise for future clinical applications, including the

  18. A method and software for segmentation of anatomic object ensembles by deformable m-reps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, Stephen M.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Joshi, Sarang; Gash, A. Graham; Stough, Joshua; Thall, Andrew; Tracton, Gregg; Chaney, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Deformable shape models (DSMs) comprise a general approach that shows great promise for automatic image segmentation. Published studies by others and our own research results strongly suggest that segmentation of a normal or near-normal object from 3D medical images will be most successful when the DSM approach uses (1) knowledge of the geometry of not only the target anatomic object but also the ensemble of objects providing context for the target object and (2) knowledge of the image intensities to be expected relative to the geometry of the target and contextual objects. The segmentation will be most efficient when the deformation operates at multiple object-related scales and uses deformations that include not just local translations but the biologically important transformations of bending and twisting, i.e., local rotation, and local magnification. In computer vision an important class of DSM methods uses explicit geometric models in a Bayesian statistical framework to provide a priori information used in posterior optimization to match the DSM against a target image. In this approach a DSM of the object to be segmented is placed in the target image data and undergoes a series of rigid and nonrigid transformations that deform the model to closely match the target object. The deformation process is driven by optimizing an objective function that has terms for the geometric typicality and model-to-image match for each instance of the deformed model. The success of this approach depends strongly on the object representation, i.e., the structural details and parameter set for the DSM, which in turn determines the analytic form of the objective function. This paper describes a form of DSM called m-reps that has or allows these properties, and a method of segmentation consisting of large to small scale posterior optimization of m-reps. Segmentation by deformable m-reps, together with the appropriate data representations, visualizations, and user interface, has been

  19. Quantum deformations of conformal algebras with mass-like deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frydryszak, Andrzej; Lukierski, Jerzy; Mozrzymas, Marek; Minnaert, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We recall the mathematical apparatus necessary for the quantum deformation of Lie algebras, namely the notions of coboundary Lie algebras, classical r-matrices, classical Yang-Baxter equations (CYBE), Froebenius algebras and parabolic subalgebras. Then we construct the quantum deformation of D=1, D=2 and D=3 conformal algebras, showing that this quantization introduce fundamental mass parameters. Finally we consider with more details the quantization of D=4 conformal algebra. We build three classes of sl(4,C) classical r-matrices, satisfying CYBE and depending respectively on 8, 10 and 12 generators of parabolic subalgebras. We show that only the 8-dimensional r-matrices allow to impose the D=4 conformal o(4,2)≅su(2,2) reality conditions. Weyl reflections and Dynkin diagram automorphisms for o(4,2) define the class of admissible bases for given classical r-matrices

  20. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-31

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  1. Shear zone nucleation and deformation transient: effect of heterogeneities and loading conditions in experimentally deformed calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.; Kilian, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's middle to lower crust, strain is frequently localized along ductile shear zones, which commonly nucleate at structural and material heterogeneities. To investigate shear zone nucleation and development due to heterogeneities, we performed constant strain-rate (CSR) and constant stress (CS) simple shear (torsion) deformation experiments on Carrara marble samples containing weak (limestone) inclusions. The experiments were conducted in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 °C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure and maximum bulk shear strains of 3. Peak shear stress was about 20 MPa for all the samples, followed by smooth weakening and steady state behavior. The strain is predominantly localized in the host marble within the process zone in front of the inclusion, defined by a zone of intense grain size reduction due to dynamic recrystallization. In CS tests a narrow shear zone developed in front of the inclusion, whereas in CSR experiments the deformation is more heterogeneously distributed, up to g=3.. In the later, secondary foliations oblique to the process zone and alternating thin, high-strain layers are common. In samples deformed at the same shear strain (g=1), the average recrystallized grain size in the process zone is similar for CS and CSR conditions. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements shows that different grain sizes have slightly different CPO patterns. CPO strength varies for different grain sizes, with a CPO strength peak between 40-50 μm, decreasing progressively within smaller grain size, but with secondary peaks for different coarse-grained sizes. Our observations suggest that the initial formation and transient deformation of shear zones is strongly affected by loading conditions.

  2. Analysis of recent surface deformation at Ischia Island Volcano (South Italy) via multi-platform monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; De Martino, Prospero; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Dolce, Mario; Scarpato, Giovanni; Tizzani, Pietro; Zinno, Ivana; Lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Ischia Island is a densely populated volcanic area located in the North-Western sector of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), whose activity is characterized by eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302 A.D.), earthquakes (the most disastrous ones occurred in 1881 and in 1883), fumarolic-hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we carry out the surface deformation time-series analysis occurring at the Island by jointly exploiting data collected via two different monitoring systems. In particular, we take advantage from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the GPS (campaign and permanent) stations deployed on the Island and belonging to the INGV-OV monitoring network. Moreover, we benefit from the large, free and open archive of C-band SAR data acquired over the Island by the Sentinel-1 constellation of the Copernicus Program, and processed via the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm [Berardino et al., 2002]. We focus on the 2014-2017 time period to analyze the recent surface deformation phenomena occurring on the Island, thus extending a previous study, aimed at investigating the temporal evolution of the ground displacements affecting the Island and limited to the 1992-2003 time interval [Manzo et al., 2006]. The performed integrated analysis provides relevant spatial and temporal information on the Island surface deformation pattern. In particular, it reveals a rather complex deformative scenario, where localized phenomena overlap/interact with a spatially extended deformation pattern that involves many Island sectors, with no evidence of significant uplift phenomena. Moreover, it shows a good agreement and consistency between the different kinds of data, thus providing a clear picture of the recent dynamics at Ischia Island that can be profitably exploited to deeply investigate the physical processes behind the observed

  3. Slot deformation of various stainless steel bracket due to the torque force of the beta-titanium wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, M. M.; Siregar, E.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steel bracket slot deformation ffects the force applied to teeth and it can impede tooth movement and prolong orthodontic treatment time. The aim of this study is to determine the slot deformation due to torque of a 0.021 × 0.025 inch Beta Titanium wire with a torsional angle of 30° and 45° for five different bracket brands: y, 3M, Biom, Versadent, Ormco, and Shinye. The research also aims to compare the deformation and amount of torque among all five bracket brands at torsional angles of 30° and 45°. Fifty stainless steel edgewise brackets from the five bracket group brands (n=10) were attached to acrylic plates. The bracket slot measurements were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the, deformation was measured by calculating the average bracket slot height using a stereoscopy microscope before and after application of torque. In the second stage, the torque was measured using a torque measurement apparatus. The statistical analysis shows that slot deformations were found on all five bracket brands with a clinical permanent deformation on the Biom (2.79 μm) and Shinye (2.29 μm) brackets. The most torque was observed on the 3M bracket, followed by the Ormco, Versadent, Shinye, and Biom brackets. When the brands were compared, a correlation between bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque was found, but the correlation was not statistically significant for the 3M and Ormco brackets and the Biom and Shinye brackets. There is a difference in the amount of torque between the five brands with a torsional angle of 30° (except the 3M and Ormco brackets) and those with a torsional angle of 45°. The composition of the metal and the manufacturing process are the factors that influence the occurrence of bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque. A manufacturing process using metal injection molding (MIM) and metal compositions of AISI 303 and 17-4 PH stainless steel reduce the risk of deformation.

  4. Detection of precursory deformation using a TLS. Application to spatial prediction of rockfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Vilaplana, Joan Manuel; Calvet, Jaume; Rodriguez, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Different applications on the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) on rock slopes are undergoing rapid development, mainly in the characterization of 3D discontinuities and the monitoring of rock slopes. The emphasis of this research is on detection of precursory deformation and its application to spatial prediction of rockfalls. The pilot study area corresponds to the main scarp of an old slide located at Puigcercós (Catalonia, Spain). 3D temporal variations of the terrain were analyzed by comparing sequential TLS datasets. Five areas characterized by centimetric precursory deformations were detected in the study area. Of these deformations, (a) growing deformation across three areas culminated in a rockfall occurrence; and (b) another growing deformation across two areas was detected, making a subsequent rockfall likely. The areas with precursory deformations detected in Puigcercós showed the following characteristics: (a) a sub-vertical fracture delimiting the moving part from the rest of the slope; (b) an increase in the horizontal displacement upwards, typical of a toppling failure mechanism (Muller 1968; Goodman and Bray, 1976). In addition, decimetric-scale rockfalls were observed in the upper part of the moving areas, which is consistent with the observations of Rosser et al., (2007). TLS ILRIS 3D technical characteristics are as follows: high accuracy (7.2 mm at a range of 50 meters), high angular resolution (e.g. 1 point every few cm), fast data acquisition: 2,500 points/second; broad coverage; high maximum range on natural slopes: ~600m. The single point distances between the surface of reference and the successive data point clouds were computed using a conventional methodology (data vs. reference comparison). The direction of comparison was defined as the normal vector of the rock face at its central part. We focused in the study of the small scale displacements towards the origin of coordinates, which reflect the pre-failure deformation on part of

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  7. DESY: Technology transfer on show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As well as exploring the unknown, fundamental physics research, with its continual demands for special conditions and precision measurements, makes special demands on frontier technology. One of the most prolific areas of this technology transfer, superconductivity and cryogenics, was highlighted by a recent exhibition at DESY organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee

  8. DESY: Technology transfer on show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-12-15

    As well as exploring the unknown, fundamental physics research, with its continual demands for special conditions and precision measurements, makes special demands on frontier technology. One of the most prolific areas of this technology transfer, superconductivity and cryogenics, was highlighted by a recent exhibition at DESY organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee.

  9. Sequence-dependent DNA deformability studied using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Kono, Hidetoshi; Takenaka, Shigeori; Go, Nobuhiro; Sarai, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences not only through direct contact between amino acids and bases, but also indirectly based on the sequence-dependent conformation and deformability of the DNA (indirect readout). We used molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the sequence-dependent DNA conformations of all 136 possible tetrameric sequences sandwiched between CGCG sequences. The deformability of dimeric steps obtained by the simulations is consistent with that by the crystal structures. The simulation results further showed that the conformation and deformability of the tetramers can highly depend on the flanking base pairs. The conformations of xATx tetramers show the most rigidity and are not affected by the flanking base pairs and the xYRx show by contrast the greatest flexibility and change their conformations depending on the base pairs at both ends, suggesting tetramers with the same central dimer can show different deformabilities. These results suggest that analysis of dimeric steps alone may overlook some conformational features of DNA and provide insight into the mechanism of indirect readout during protein-DNA recognition. Moreover, the sequence dependence of DNA conformation and deformability may be used to estimate the contribution of indirect readout to the specificity of protein-DNA recognition as well as nucleosome positioning and large-scale behavior of nucleic acids.

  10. Localization of deformations within the amygdala in individuals with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Narr, Katherine L; Colletti, Patrick; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-09-01

    Despite the repeated findings of impaired fear conditioning and affective recognition in psychopathic individuals, there has been a paucity of brain imaging research on the amygdala and no evidence suggesting which regions within the amygdala may be structurally compromised in individuals with psychopathy. To detect global and regional anatomical abnormalities in the amygdala in individuals with psychopathy. Cross-sectional design using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were recruited from high-risk communities (temporary employment agencies) in the Los Angeles, California, area and underwent imaging at a hospital research facility at the University of Southern California. Twenty-seven psychopathic individuals as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and 32 normal controls matched on age, sex, and ethnicity. Amygdala volumes were examined using traditional volumetric analyses and surface-based mesh modeling methods were used to localize regional surface deformations. Individuals with psychopathy showed significant bilateral volume reductions in the amygdala compared with controls (left, 17.1%; right, 18.9%). Surface deformations were localized in regions in the approximate vicinity of the basolateral, lateral, cortical, and central nuclei of the amygdala. Significant correlations were found between reduced amygdala volumes and increased total and facet psychopathy scores, with correlations strongest for the affective and interpersonal facets of psychopathy. Results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of focal amygdala abnormalities in psychopathic individuals and corroborate findings from previous lesion studies. Findings support prior hypotheses of amygdala deficits in individuals with psychopathy and indicate that amygdala abnormalities contribute to emotional and behavioral symptoms of psychopathy.

  11. Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Deformation in Vibration by Digital Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian; Liu, Xiaodong; Fan, Li; Hai, Hua

    2018-01-01

    This study adopts digital photography to monitor bridge dynamic deformation in vibration. Digital photography in this study is based on PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method). Firstly, we monitor the bridge in static as a zero image. Then, we continuously monitor the bridge in vibration as the successive images. Based on the reference points on each image, PST-TBPM is used to calculate the images to obtain the dynamic deformation values of these deformation points. Results show that the average measurement accuracies are 0.685 pixels (0.51mm) and 0.635 pixels (0.47mm) in X and Z direction, respectively. The maximal deformations in X and Z direction of the bridge are 4.53 pixels and 5.21 pixels, respectively. PST-TBPM is valid in solving the problem that the photographing direction is not perpendicular to the bridge. Digital photography in this study can be used to assess bridge health through monitoring the dynamic deformation of a bridge in vibration. The deformation trend curves also can warn the possible dangers over time.

  12. Deformation and shell effects in nuclear mass formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, César; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Mariano, Alejandro E.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ability of three different Liquid Drop Mass (LDM) formulas to describe nuclear masses for nuclei in various deformation regions. Separating the 2149 measured nuclear species into eight sets with similar quadrupole deformations, we show that the masses of prolate deformed nuclei are better described than those of spherical ones. In fact, the prolate deformed nuclei are fitted with an RMS smaller than 750 keV, while for spherical and semi-magic species the RMS is always larger than 2000 keV. These results are found to be independent of pairing. It is also shown that the macroscopic sector of the Duflo–Zuker (DZ) mass model reproduces shell effects, while most of the deformation dependence is lost and the RMS is larger than in any LDM. Adding to the LDM the microscopically motivated DZ master terms introduces the shell effects, allowing for a significant reduction in the RMS of the fit but still exhibiting a better description of prolate deformed nuclei. The inclusion of shell effects following the Interacting Boson Model's ideas produces similar results.

  13. Deformation and shell effects in nuclear mass formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Cesar [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Hirsch, Jorge G., E-mail: hirsch@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mariano, Alejandro E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-01-15

    We analyze the ability of three different Liquid Drop Mass (LDM) formulas to describe nuclear masses for nuclei in various deformation regions. Separating the 2149 measured nuclear species into eight sets with similar quadrupole deformations, we show that the masses of prolate deformed nuclei are better described than those of spherical ones. In fact, the prolate deformed nuclei are fitted with an RMS smaller than 750 keV, while for spherical and semi-magic species the RMS is always larger than 2000 keV. These results are found to be independent of pairing. It is also shown that the macroscopic sector of the Duflo-Zuker (DZ) mass model reproduces shell effects, while most of the deformation dependence is lost and the RMS is larger than in any LDM. Adding to the LDM the microscopically motivated DZ master terms introduces the shell effects, allowing for a significant reduction in the RMS of the fit but still exhibiting a better description of prolate deformed nuclei. The inclusion of shell effects following the Interacting Boson Model's ideas produces similar results.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  15. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  16. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  17. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  18. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    process is a repeated deformation and welding or folding of particles or layers that allows for strain levels in excess of 100 as shown in Fig.1. The...complete transformation yielded a duplex product of metastable BCC and FCC solid solutions. Another form of mechanochemical transduction is

  19. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11{sup th} 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulida, Putra, E-mail: putra.maulida@gmail.com [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A. [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geodesy Research Group, geodesy and geomatic Engineering, ITB (Indonesia); Susilo [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  20. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11th 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  2. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.

  3. Permanent deformation and deflection relationship from pavement condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Leiva-Villacorta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of permanent deformation in flexible pavements has been a research topic for several decades. Currently there are models included in the structural design of pavements that can predict this type of failure. However, the variables required for the prediction of this distress are complex or difficult to obtain in the field, making its application in pavement evaluation also difficult. Measurement of the deflection of pavement structures by means of non-destructive testing is a technique used to assess the condition of the pavement. This research study seeks to correlate data from deflections of the pavement surface with probable permanent deformation in time. In addition, prediction of the remaining life of the pavement structure using a specified criterion is also analyzed. In order to accomplish these objectives, data acquired from 4 different full scale accelerated pavement test tracks was used to develop a permanent deformation model as a function of deflection, load repetitions and pavement layer thickness. The developed model considered a time series model that incorporates an Auto-regressive parameter of order 1. The proposed model presents an advantage over currently available models because it reduces the required parameters to predict the permanent deformation and/or remaining life in the structure and because these variables can be easily found and updated in a pavement management system. Keywords: HVS, Permanent deformation, Deflections, APT, Time series, Instrumentation

  4. Contributory Factors Related to Permanent Deformation of Hot Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Husein Abd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent deformation (Rutting of asphalt pavements which appears in many roads in Iraq, have caused a major impact on pavement performance by reducing the useful service life of pavement and creating services hazards for highway users. The main objective of this research is investigating the effect of some contributory factors related to permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixture. To meet the objectives of this research, available local materials are used including asphalt binder, aggregates, mineral filler and modified asphalt binder. The Superpave mix design system was adopted with varying volumetric compositions. The Superpave Gyratory Compactor was used to compact 24 asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens. To collect the required data and investigate the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples; with dimensions of 400×300×50 mm; were tested to simulate . actual pavement. Based on wheel-tracking test results, it has been concluded that increasing the compaction temperature from 110 to 150ºC caused a decreasing in permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures respectively. While the permanent deformation decreased about 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150ºC for coarse gradation asphalt mixtures modified with styrene butadiene styrene SBS with 3 percent by asphalt binder weight.

  5. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  6. Effect of orientation on deformation behavior of Fe nanowires: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, G.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the effect of crystal orientation on tensile deformation behaviour of single crystal BCC Fe nanowires at 10 K. Two nanowires with an initial orientation of /{100} and /{111} have been chosen for this study. The simulation results show that the deformation mechanisms varied with crystal orientation. The nanowire with an initial orientation of /{100} deforms predominantly by twinning mechanism, whereas the nanowire oriented in /{111}, deforms by dislocation plasticity. In addition, the single crystal oriented in /{111} shows higher strength and elastic modulus than /{100} oriented nanowire.

  7. Observations of Quasi-Love Waves in Tibet Indicates Coherent Deformation of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Park, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The high uplift of the Tibet area is caused by the continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The style of deformation along with the collision is still being debated, particularly whether the deformation is vertically coherent or not, i.e., whether the upper mantle deforms coherently with the crust. In this work, we have used quasi-Love (QL) waves to constrain the anisotropy pattern around the Tibet region. The existence of anisotropy gradients has been identified with the observations of QL waves, which is a converted Rayleigh-wave motion that follows the arrival of the Love wave. Further, the locations of the anisotropy gradients have been pinned with the delay time between the Love wave and the QL wave, which is determined from cross-correlation. Our results show that the frequency content of Tibetan QL wave is centered around 10 mHz, indicating the depth range of anisotropy should be in the asthenosphere. Most of the scatterers of QL wave that we can detect lie outside the Tibet Plateau. Their distribution correlates well with the boundary of the Persia-Tibet- Burma orogeny, which has been identified from surface geologic data. This correlation, between surface geology and upper mantle anisotropy inferred from QL observations at the orogenic boundary, suggests that the crust and upper mantle of the orogeny are deforming coherently. Other scatterers that are off the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogenic boundary mostly cluster in two locations, the Tarim Basin, and the Bangong-Nujiang Suture, where there could exist contrasting anisotropy patterns in the upper mantle. The deformation in the Tibet region is complicated, yet our research suggests a vertically coherent deformation style of the upper mantle in Tibet.

  8. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deformations of free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruchuri, Srinivas

    This thesis studies three different problems. First we demonstrate that a flowing liquid jet can be controllably split into two separate subfilaments through the applications of a sufficiently strong tangential stress to the surface of the jet. In contrast, normal stresses can never split a liquid jet. We apply these results to observations of uncontrolled splitting of jets in electric fields. The experimental realization of controllable jet splitting would provide an entirely novel route for producing small polymeric fibers. In the second chapter we present an analytical model for the bending of liquid jets and sheets from temperature gradients, as recently observed by Chwalek et al. [Phys. Fluids, 14, L37 (2002)]. The bending arises from a local couple caused by Marangoni forces. The dependence of the bending angle on experimental parameters is presented, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments. The methodology gives a simple framework for understanding the mechanisms for jet and sheet bending. In chapter 4 we address the discrepancy between hydrodynamic theory of liquid jets, and the snap-off of narrow liquid jets observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [23]. This has been previously attributed to the significant role of thermal fluctuations in nanofluidic systems. We argue that hydrodynamic description of such systems should include corrections to the Laplace pressure which result from the failure of the sharp interface assumption when the jet diameter becomes small enough. We show that this effect can in principle give rise to jet shapes similar to those observed in MD simulations, even when thermal fluctuations are completely neglected. Finally we summarize an algorithm developed to simulate droplet impact on a smooth surface.

  10. On deformations of linear differential systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gontsov, R.R.; Poberezhnyi, V.A.; Helminck, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns deformations of meromorphic linear differential systems. Problems relating to their existence and classification are reviewed, and the global and local behaviour of solutions to deformation equations in a neighbourhood of their singular set is analysed. Certain classical

  11. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Our study gives insight into possible deformed structures at spherical shell closure. ... Considerable experimental and theoretical efforts ... True deformation effects can be seen only by considering configuration mixing.

  12. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  13. Formation of Quenching Structures in the Steel 35 by Deform Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Degtyareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In industry different methods of surface hardening are widely used to increase reliability and durability of friction unit parts. Among these methods are areas of focus based on deformcutting technology (DC i.e. method of chip-free mechanical treatment.It is shown that DC method allows us to produce through- or partial-hardening surface layers of a large thickness (0,4…1.5mm on steel with no additional heat sources. The standard metal-cutting equipment and common tools are used for deform-cutting process.The significant heat generation in the deform-cutting zone and mechanical effect from the tool allow us to heat undercut layers to the phase transformation point to have the hardening structure as a result of heat removal to the cold balk. The hardening structure formation occurs at significant heating and cooling rate (106C/c with large degrees and rates of strain.The deform-cutting modes and working face tool grinding determine the type and properties of the hardening structure. To produce the hardening structure would require the heat transfer and force action augmentation while treatment.These researches deal with through- and partial surface hardening samples produced by turning steel 35 shafts. While through hardening the phase transformation carry among the whole thickness of the undercut layer; while partial hardening the hardening interlayer formed on the side of the cutting tool contact.The depth of hardening zone of samples with through hardening layers is 0,5 mm; the depth of hardening zone of partial hardening samples is 0,8 mm. Micro-hardness of the through hardening layers is 653 HV0,1 and 485 HV0,1 for the partial hardening layers. The metallographic analysis shows that the hardening zone formed while deform cutting has disperse structure; there are ferrite ghosts in it.The tempering at temperatures of 200 – 700C showed that the micro-hardness of the hardening structures formed while deform cutting is larger than the micro

  14. Electromigration-induced plastic deformation in passivated metal lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, B. C.; Bravman, J. C.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    We have used scanning white beam x-ray microdiffraction to study microstructural evolution during an in situ electromigration experiment on a passivated Al(Cu) test line. The data show plastic deformation and grain rotations occurring under the influence of electromigration, seen as broadening, movement, and splitting of reflections diffracted from individual metal grains. We believe this deformation is due to localized shear stresses that arise due to the inhomogeneous transfer of metal along the line. Deviatoric stress measurements show changes in the components of stress within the line, including relaxation of stress when current is removed.

  15. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  16. Non-proportional deformation paths for sheet metal: experiments and models

    OpenAIRE

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; van Riel, M.; Hora, P.

    2009-01-01

    For mild steel, after significant plastic deformation in one direction, a subsequent deformation in an orthogonal direction shows a typical stress overshoot compared to monotonic deformation. This phenomenon is investigated experimentally and numerically on a DC06 material. Two models that incorporate the observed overshoot are compared. In the Teodosiu-Hu model, pre-strain influences the rate of kinematic hardening by a rather complex set of evolution equations. The shape of the elastic doma...

  17. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchata Theinchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM. The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method.

  18. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Theinchai, Ratchata; Chankan, Siriwan; Yukunthorn, Weera

    2016-01-01

    We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM). The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Deformation Failure Characteristics of Crystalline Marble Under Triaxial Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Ranjith, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The deformation failure characteristics of marble subjected to triaxial cyclic loading are significant when evaluating the stability and safety of deep excavation damage zones. To date, however, there have been notably few triaxial experimental studies on marble under triaxial cyclic loading. Therefore, in this research, a series of triaxial cyclic tests was conducted to analyze the mechanical damage characteristics of a marble. The post-peak deformation of the marble changed gradually from strain softening to strain hardening as the confining pressure increased from 0 to 10 MPa. Under uniaxial compression, marble specimens showed brittle failure characteristics with a number axial splitting tensile cracks; in the range of σ 3 = 2.5-7.5 MPa, the marble specimens assumed single shear fracture characteristics with larger fracture angles of about 65°. However, at σ 3 = 10 MPa, the marble specimens showed no obvious shear fracture surfaces. The triaxial cyclic experimental results indicate that in the range of the tested confining pressures, the triaxial strengths of the marble specimens under cyclic loading were approximately equal to those under monotonic loading. With the increase in cycle number, the elastic strains of the marble specimens all increased at first and later decreased, achieving maximum values, but the plastic strains of the marble specimens increased nonlinearly. To evaluate quantitatively the damage extent of the marble under triaxial cyclic loading, a damage variable is defined according to the irreversible deformation for each cycle. The evolutions of the elastic modulus for the marble were characterized by four stages: material strengthening, material degradation, material failure and structure slippage. Based on the experimental results of the marble specimens under complex cyclic loading, the cohesion of the marble decreased linearly, but the internal friction angles did not depend on the damage extent. To describe the peak strength

  20. Deformation analysis and prediction of bank protection structure with river level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Xing, Yixuan

    2017-04-01

    Bank structure is an important barrier to maintain the safety of the embankment. The deformation of bank protection structure is not only affected by soil pressure caused by the excavation of the riverway, but also by the water pressure caused river water level fluctuations. Thus, it is necessary to establish a coupled soil-water model to analyze the deformation of bank structure. Based on Druck-Prager failure criteria and groundwater seepage theory, a numerical model of bank protection structure with consideration of the pore water pressure of soil mass is established. According to the measured river level data with seasonal fluctuating, numerical analysis of the deformation of bank protection structure is implemented. The simulation results show that the river water level fluctuation has clear influence on the maximum lateral displacement of the pile. Meanwhile, the distribution of plastic zone is related to the depth of groundwater level. Finally, according to the river water level data of the recent ten years, we analyze the deformation of the bank structure under extreme river level. The result shows that, compared with the scenario of extreme high river level, the horizontal displacement of bank protection structure is larger (up to 65mm) under extreme low river level, which is a potential risk to the embankment. Reference Schweiger H F. On the use of drucker-prager failure criteria for earth pressure problems[J]. Computers and Geotechnics, 1994, 16(3): 223-246. DING Yong-chun,CHENG Ze-kun. Numerical study on performance of waterfront excavation[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,2013,35(2):515-521. Wu L M, Wang Z Q. Three gorges reservoir water level fluctuation influents on the stability of the slope[J]. Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, 2013, 739: 283-286.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  4. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.

    1973-01-01

    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  5. Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzh, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru

  6. Deformation limits of polymer coated metal sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bosch, M.J.W.J.P.; Schreurs, P.J.G; Geers, M.G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer coated metals are increasingly used by the packaging and automotive industry. During industrial deformation processes (drawing, roll-forming, bending etc.) the polymer-metal laminate is highly deformed at high deformation rates. These forming conditions can affect the mechanical integrity

  7. A note on 2-D lithospheric deformation due to a blind strike-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mic deformation. Several researchers have devel- oped models of coseismic lithospheric deformation. Rybicki (1971) found a closed-form analytical solu- tion for the problem of a long vertical strike-slip fault in a two-layer model of the earth. Chinnery and Jovanovich (1972) extended the solution to a three-layer model.

  8. Surface Impedance of Copper MOB Depending on the Annealing Temperature and Deformation Degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovoj, V.A.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Stoev, P.I.; Vinogradov, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    Results of researches of influence of annealing temperature and deformation degree on mechanical features of copper MOB are presented. It is shown that minimal surface resistance is observed in copper samples that were subject to pre-deformation and were annealed in the range of temperatures 873...923 K

  9. On infinite walls in deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, S.; Walton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the deformation quantization of a single particle moving in one dimension (i) in the presence of an infinite potential wall (ii) confined by an infinite square well, and (iii) bound by a delta function potential energy. In deformation quantization, considered as an autonomous formulation of quantum mechanics, the Wigner function of stationary states must be found by solving the so-called *-genvalue ('stargenvalue') equation for the Hamiltonian. For the cases considered here, this pseudo-differential equation is difficult to solve directly, without an ad hoc modification of the potential. Here we treat the infinite wall as the limit of a solvable exponential potential. Before the limit is taken, the corresponding *-genvalue equation involves the Wigner function at momenta translated by imaginary amounts. We show that it can be converted to a partial differential equation, however, with a well-defined limit. We demonstrate that the Wigner functions calculated from the standard Schroedinger wave functions satisfy the resulting new equation. Finally, we show how our results may be adapted to allow for the presence of another, non-singular part in the potential

  10. Mechanisms of dynamic deformation and dynamic failure in aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guangli; Chen, C.Q.; Ramesh, K.T.; McCauley, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static, uniaxial dynamic and confined dynamic compression experiments have been performed to characterize the failure and deformation mechanisms of a sintered polycrystalline aluminum nitride using a servohydraulic machine and a modified Kolsky bar. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to identify the fracture and deformation mechanisms under high rate and high pressure loading conditions. These results show that the fracture mechanisms are strong functions of confining stress and strain rate, with transgranular fracture becoming more common at high strain rates. Dynamic fracture mechanics and micromechanical models are used to analyze the observed fracture mechanisms. TEM characterization of fragments from the confined dynamic experiments shows that at higher pressures dislocation motion becomes a common dominant deformation mechanism in AlN. Prismatic slip is dominant, and pronounced microcrack–dislocation interactions are observed, suggesting that the dislocation plasticity affects the macroscopic fracture behavior in this material under high confining stresses.

  11. Energy balance and deformation at scission in 240Pu fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caamaño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental determination of the total excitation energy, the total kinetic energy, and the evaporation neutron multiplicity of fully identified fragments produced in transfer-induced fission of 240Pu, combined with reasonable assumptions, permits to extract the intrinsic and collective excitation energy of the fragments as a function of their atomic number, along with their quadrupole deformation and their distance at scission. The results show that the deformation increases with the atomic number, Z, except for a local maximum around Z=44 and a minimum around Z=50, associated with the effect of deformed shells at Z∼44, N∼64, and spherical shells in 132Sn, respectively. The distance between the fragments also shows a minimum around Z1=44, Z2=50, suggesting a mechanism that links the effect of structure with the length of the neck at scission.

  12. Problem of ''deformed'' superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiczewski, A.; Patyk, Z.; Muntian, I.

    2000-08-01

    Problem of experimental confirmation of deformed shapes of superheavy nuclei situated in the neighbourhood of 270 Hs is discussed. Measurement of the energy E 2+ of the lowest 2+ state in even-even species of these nuclei is considered as a method for this confirmation. The energy is calculated in the cranking approximation for heavy and superheavy nuclei. The branching ratio p 2+ /p 0+ between α decay of a nucleus to this lowest 2+ state and to the ground state 0+ of its daughter is also calculated for these nuclei. The results indicate that a measurement of the energy E 2+ for some superheavy nuclei by electron or α spectroscopy is a promising method for the confirmation of their deformed shapes. (orig.)

  13. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E., E-mail: saper43-7@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF{sup 0} Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, {sup 180}Pb and {sup 184}Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF{sup 0} functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron

  14. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  15. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  16. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... criticises figurative as well as abstract painting as passing through the brain and not acting directly upon the senses. Figurative and abstract painting both fail to liberate the Figure, implementing transformation of form, but not attaining deformations of bodies. Bacon, then, is concerned about...... deformation, about painting the sensation, which is essentially rhythm, making Figure-rhythm relations appear as vibrations that flow through the body - making resonance. Deleuze, with Bergson, argues that art extracts ’a little time in a pure state’ from the everyday repetitions, and thereby opens...

  17. Modified french osteotomy for cubitus varus deformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Idrees, M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of Modified French Osteotomy for correction of cubitus varus deformity. All children, aged 3-12 years, with cubitus varus deformity were included in the study. Pre-operative clinical as well as radiological assessment of upper extremities were done in all cases. Modified French osteotomy was done to correct the deformity. All patients were followed for seven months. Physical examination for the range of motion, scar and post-operative complications were assessed. Antero-posterior and lateral radiographs of the elbow were obtained, and the carrying angles and lateral condylar prominence index were measured and recorded. Out of the total 30 patients, 26 were male and four female. Left side was involved in 24 cases and the right side in six. The average age at the time of osteotomy was seven years (range 3.5-12 years). The average pre-operative carrying angle was 25.2 degree (range 18-30 degree) and the post-operative angle 8.7 degree (range 5-13 degree valgus). The average pre- operative range of motion was 122.6 degree (range 105-135 degree) and the post-operative range 123.86 degree (range 90-135 degree). The average pre-operative lateral condylar prominence index (LCPI) was 175.56 (range 128-232) and the post-operative lateral condylar prominence 156 (range 100-240). Based on Bellmore criteria, 25 patients showed excellent, three good and two a poor result. Modified French technique of supracondylar osteotomy has excellent results in the management of cubitus varus in terms of cosmesis, radiological findings and fewer complications. (author)

  18. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... the body, situated in real time and depth, with drawing transforming and deforming time and depth....

  19. Hindfoot Arthrodesis for Neuropathic Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Ju Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired neurologic disorders of the foot lead to arthrosis, deformities, instabilities, and functional disabilities. Hindfoot arthrodesis is the current option available for irreducible or nonbraceable deformities of neuropathic feet. However, the role of ankle arthrodesis in these patients has been questioned because of high nonunion and complication rates. From 1990 to 2001, 17 cases of acquired neuropathic foot deformities were treated by four tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC arthrodeses and 13 ankle arthrodeses. TTC arthrodesis was performed on cases with combined ankle and subtalar arthritis or cases whose deformities or instabilities could not be corrected by ankle fusion alone. There was no nonunion of TTC arthrodesis and seven ununited ankle arthrodeses were salvaged by two TTC-attempted arthrodeses and five revision ankle-attempted arthrodeses. Eventually in these cases, there was one nonunion in TTC arthrodesis and one nonunion in revision ankle arthrodesis. The final fusion rate was 88% (15 of 17 cases with average union time of 6.9 months (range, 2.5–18 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle hind-foot functional scores were evaluated: one was excellent (5.8%, seven were good (41%, eight were fair (53.3%, and one was poor (5.8% in terms of total functional outcome. We conclude that TTC arthrodesis is indicated for cases with ankle and subtalar involvement and ankle arthrodesis is an alternative for cases with intact subtalar joint. We recommend revision ankle arthrodesis if the ankle fails to fuse and the bone stock of the talus is adequate. TTC arthrodesis is reserved for ankles with poor bone stock of the talus with fragmentation.

  20. Deformation at Lava Lake Volcanoes: Lessons from Karthala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Rust, A.; Owens, C.

    2014-12-01

    To remain hot, permanent lava lakes require a continuous connection to a magma reservoir. Depending on the state of the conduit, changes in magma pressure could result in changes in the lake level (hydraulic head) or be accommodated elastically leading to surface deformation. Observing deformation is therefore key to understanding the plumbing system associated with lava lakes. However, the majority of the world's lava lakes lie in difficult socio-economic or remote locations meaning that there are few ground-based observations, and it is often necessary to rely on satellite imagery. Karthala volcano experienced a sequence of eruptions in April 2005, Nov 2005, May 2006 and Jan 2007. The first 3 took place at the Choungou Chahale crater, which typically contains either a water or lava lake; the last formed a new pit crater to the north. Satellite thermal imagery (Hirn et al, 2008) does not show an anomaly during the first eruption, which had a phreatomagmatic component, but large thermal anomalies, associated with an ephemeral lava lake were detected during the Nov 2005 and May 2006 eruptions. The final eruption produced a smaller anomaly attributed to a minor lava flow. Here we present InSAR observations from 2004-2010. We find no significant deformation associated with the first three eruptions, but the January 2007 eruption was associated with ~25 cm of deformation near the volcano's summit, characteristic of a dyke intrusion aligned with the northern rift zone. We also observe an unusual pattern deformation along the coast which may be attributed to rapid settling of soft sediment or recent volcanic deposits triggered by seismic activity. We propose that the first eruption cleared the reservoir-summit connection and interacted with the water in Choungou Chahale. The following eruptions formed a lava lake, but without causing deformation. By the final eruption, the conduit had become blocked and magma intruded along the rift zone causing deformation but no

  1. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  2. Shrinkage deformation of cement foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Steshenko, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of research of dispersion-reinforced cement foam concrete with chrysotile asbestos fibers. The goal was to study the patterns of influence of chrysotile asbestos fibers on drying shrinkage deformation of cement foam concrete of natural hardening. The chrysotile asbestos fiber contains cylindrical fiber shaped particles with a diameter of 0.55 micron to 8 microns, which are composed of nanostructures of the same form with diameters up to 55 nm and length up to 22 microns. Taking into account the wall thickness, effective reinforcement can be achieved only by microtube foam materials, the so- called carbon nanotubes, the dimensions of which are of power less that the wall pore diameter. The presence of not reinforced foam concrete pores with perforated walls causes a decrease in its strength, decreases the mechanical properties of the investigated material and increases its shrinkage. The microstructure investigation results have shown that introduction of chrysotile asbestos fibers in an amount of 2 % by weight of cement provides the finely porous foam concrete structure with more uniform size closed pores, which are uniformly distributed over the volume. This reduces the shrinkage deformation of foam concrete by 50%.

  3. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  4. Auditory characteristics of individuals with temporomandibular dysfunctions and dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Totta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is any relationship between otological as well as vestibular symptoms, audiological findings and type of temporomandibular disorder (articular, muscular and mixed; and to check the distribution of the temporomandibular disorders (TMD dysfunction degree in the research population. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 30 patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 49 years old, diagnosed with TMD and dentofacial deformities, who were subject to clinical evaluation (muscle palpation, auscultation of temporomandibular joint during mandibular motion and measurement of jaw movement, audiological testing (pure tone audiometry and immittance testing and two questionnaires, one on otological and vestibular symptoms and the other on TMD anamnesis. Based on both the anamnesis questionnaire and the clinical assessment, the subjects were divided according to the type and degree of TMD dysfunction (mild, moderate and severe, and compared regarding the occurrence of auditory signs and symptoms, vestibular symptoms and audiological findings according to TMD type. RESULTS: The anamnesis questionnaire demonstrated higher prevalence (83.33% of severe TMD. Subjects with mixed TMD had more complaints about hypoacusis than those with muscular TMD (p < 0.05. The results showed no change in either audiological and immittance testing for all assessed individuals. CONCLUSION: Otological symptoms are present in subjects with TMD and dentofacial deformities, regardless of the classification of TMD (articular, muscular or mixed. Those with mixed TMD may have higher incidence of complaints about hypoacusis than subjects with muscular TMD. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between otological symptoms and the different types of TMD.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  10. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  12. A Survey On Physical Methods For Deformation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Basloom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been dedicated to achieving realism in the simulation of deformable objects such as cloth hair rubber sea water smoke and human soft tissue in surgical simulation. However the deformable object in these simulations will exhibit physically correct behaviors true to the behavior of real objects when any force is applied to it and sometimes this requires real-time simulation. No matter how complex the geometry is real-time simulation is still required in some applications. Surgery simulation is an example of the need for real-time simulation. This situation has attracted the attention of a wide community of researchers such as computer scientists mechanical engineers biomechanics and computational geometers. This paper presents a review of the existing techniques for modeling deformable objects which have been developed within the last three decades for different computer graphics interactive applications.

  13. Distribution of Stress in Deformation Zone of Niobium Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrlić, Ivan; Rešković, Stoja; Brlić, Tin

    2018-07-01

    Microalloyed steels today represent a significant part of total world production and processing of steel. Although widely used, there are scarce data on the stress distribution in the deformation zone of these steels. Research was carried out on two steel grades, both low-carbon structural steels with the same basic chemical composition, with one of them additionally microalloyed with niobium. Differences in the stress distribution in the deformation zone between two tested steels were continuously observed and measured using the methods of digital image correlation and thermography. It has been found out that niobium microalloyed steel has significantly more complex material flow and stress distribution in the deformation zone when compared to the plain low carbon steel.

  14. Distribution of Stress in Deformation Zone of Niobium Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrlić, Ivan; Rešković, Stoja; Brlić, Tin

    2018-03-01

    Microalloyed steels today represent a significant part of total world production and processing of steel. Although widely used, there are scarce data on the stress distribution in the deformation zone of these steels. Research was carried out on two steel grades, both low-carbon structural steels with the same basic chemical composition, with one of them additionally microalloyed with niobium. Differences in the stress distribution in the deformation zone between two tested steels were continuously observed and measured using the methods of digital image correlation and thermography. It has been found out that niobium microalloyed steel has significantly more complex material flow and stress distribution in the deformation zone when compared to the plain low carbon steel.

  15. Observations on deformation systems in zircaloy-2 deformed at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, K.; Bergqvist, H.

    1975-08-01

    Different polycrystalline samples of Zircaloy-2 with textures such that the c-axis of most of the grains are oriented near the sheet normal were subjected to loading conditions such that sheet thinning was accomplished. Metallography showed that no twinning was involved. Electron microscopy showed the presence of dislocations which were usually confined to deformation bands. With the help of stereo micrographs the most likely plane of slip was determined to be (1011). The possibility of slip as a means of breaking the oxide film in iodine induced stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-2 is briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Application of GNSS Methods for Monitoring Offshore Platform Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Cho; Nasir Matori, Abd; Gohari, Adel

    2018-03-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has become a powerful tool for high-precision deformation monitoring application. Monitoring of deformation and subsidence of offshore platform due to factors such as shallow gas phenomena. GNSS is the technical interoperability and compatibility between various satellite navigation systems such as modernized GPS, Galileo, reconstructed GLONASS to be used by civilian users. It has been known that excessive deformation affects platform structurally, causing loss of production and affects the efficiency of the machinery on board the platform. GNSS have been proven to be one of the most precise positioning methods where by users can get accuracy to the nearest centimeter of a given position from carrier phase measurement processing of GPS signals. This research is aimed at using GNSS technique, which is one of the most standard methods to monitor the deformation of offshore platforms. Therefore, station modeling, which accounts for the spatial correlated errors, and hence speeds up the ambiguity resolution process is employed. It was found that GNSS combines the high accuracy of the results monitoring the offshore platforms deformation with the possibility of survey.

  17. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  18. Process Modelling of Curing Process-Induced Internal Stress and Deformation of Composite Laminate Structure with Elastic and Viscoelastic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, two kinds of transient models, the viscoelastic model and the linear elastic model, are established to analyze the curing deformation of the thermosetting resin composites, and are calculated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The two models consider the complicated coupling between physical and chemical changes during curing process of the composites and the time-variant characteristic of material performance parameters. Subsequently, the two proposed models are implemented respectively in a three-dimensional composite laminate structure, and a simple and convenient method of local coordinate system is used to calculate the development of residual stresses, curing shrinkage and curing deformation for the composite laminate. Researches show that the temperature, degree of curing (DOC) and residual stresses during curing process are consistent with the study in literature, so the curing shrinkage and curing deformation obtained on these basis have a certain referential value. Compared the differences between the two numerical results, it indicates that the residual stress and deformation calculated by the viscoelastic model are more close to the reference value than the linear elastic model.

  19. Shepherd's Crook Deformity of Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia Treated with Corrective Osteotomy and Dynamic Hip Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Chen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia, a condition in which the skeleton fails to develop normally, is characterized by fibroblastic stroma and immature bone. Bowing of the long bones occurs frequently in the polyostotic form, and stress fractures often result. Shepherd's crook deformity is a characteristic feature of fibrous dysplasia. The goal of its treatment is to obtain normal walking ability and relieve pain due to pathologic fracture secondary to the deformity; however, correction of the deformity is a surgical challenge. We present 2 cases of shepherd's crook deformity treated with corrective osteotomy and a dynamic hip screw. Both cases showed good bone healing and no recurrent deformity. The gross deformities were corrected, and both patients were pain-free after operation.

  20. Global Education: What the Research Shows. Information Capsule. Volume 0604

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching from a global perspective is important because the lives of people around the world are increasingly interconnected through politics, economics, technology, and the environment. Global education teaches students to understand and appreciate people from different cultural backgrounds; view events from a variety of perspectives; recognize…

  1. Many Teenagers Can't Distinguish Harassment Lines, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A national survey finds that, when it comes to sexual harassment in school, many students do not know where to draw the line. Based on the first nationally representative survey in a decade of students in grades 7-12, the study conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW), found that 48 percent of nearly 2,000 students surveyed…

  2. What Research Shows About Birth Order, Personality, and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahraes, Herbert

    This brief report summarizes the findings and conclusions of studies concerning the relation between birth order and various aspects of personality and intellectual development. Major topics discussed are the relation between birth order of the child and: (1) the effects of sex and spacing between siblings on personality characteristics of the…

  3. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  4. Disordered long-range internal stresses in deformed copper and the mechanisms underlying plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Lyle E.; Geantil, Peter; Larson, Bennett C.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Kassner, Michael E.; Liu, Wenjun; Stoudt, Mark R.; Tavazza, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Axial elastic strains were measured from numerous individual, contiguous dislocation cell walls and cell interiors. → The mean stresses for the cell walls and cell interiors were of opposite sign, in agreement with theoretical predictions. → The separation between the mean cell wall and cell interior stresses was about 20% of the flow stress. → Broad distributions of dipolar stresses were observed that are consistent with a simple size-scaling model. - Abstract: The strength of wavy glide metals increases dramatically during deformation as dislocations multiply and entangle, forming dense dislocation wall structures. Numerous competing models have been proposed for this process but experimental validation and guidance for further model development require new experimental approaches capable of resolving local stresses within the dislocation microstructure. We use three-dimensional X-ray microscopy combining submicrometer spatial resolution with diffracted-beam masking to make direct measurements of axial elastic strain (and thus stress) in individual dislocation cell walls and their adjacent cell interiors in heavily deformed copper. These spatially resolved measurements show broad, asymmetric distributions of dipolar stresses that directly discriminate between long-standing deformation models and demonstrate that the distribution of local stresses is statistically connected to the global behavior through simple rules.

  5. Deformable Registration for Longitudinal Breast MRI Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Richmond, Lara; Lu, Yingli; Martel, Anne L

    2018-04-13

    MRI screening of high-risk patients for breast cancer provides very high sensitivity, but with a high recall rate and negative biopsies. Comparing the current exam to prior exams reduces the number of follow-up procedures requested by radiologists. Such comparison, however, can be challenging due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues. Automated co-registration of multiple scans has the potential to aid diagnosis by providing 3D images for side-by-side comparison and also for use in CAD systems. Although many deformable registration techniques exist, they generally have a large number of parameters that need to be optimized and validated for each new application. Here, we propose a framework for such optimization and also identify the optimal input parameter set for registration of 3D T 1 -weighted MRI of breast using Elastix, a widely used and freely available registration tool. A numerical simulation study was first conducted to model the breast tissue and its deformation through finite element (FE) modeling. This model generated the ground truth for evaluating the registration accuracy by providing the deformation of each voxel in the breast volume. An exhaustive search was performed over various values of 7 registration parameters (4050 different combinations of parameters were assessed) and the optimum parameter set was determined. This study showed that there was a large variation in the registration accuracy of different parameter sets ranging from 0.29 mm to 2.50 mm in median registration error and 3.71 mm to 8.90 mm in 95 percentile of the registration error. Mean registration errors of 0.32 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.30 mm and 95 percentile errors of 3.71 mm, 5.02 mm, and 4.70 mm were obtained by the three best parameter sets. The optimal parameter set was applied to consecutive breast MRI scans of 13 patients. A radiologist identified 113 landmark pairs (~ 11 per patient) which were used to assess registration accuracy. The results demonstrated that

  6. A 150-ka-long record for the volcano-tectonic deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2017-04-01

    The Anatolian Block represents one of the most outstanding examples of intra-plate deformation related to continental collision. Deformation related to the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent toward north gives rise to widespread and intense arc volcanism in the Central Anatolia. All the usual studies on dating the volcano-tectonic deformation of the region are performed entirely on volcanic events of the geological record resulted in eruptions. However, without volcanic eruption, magma migration and related fluid pressurization also generate crustal deformation. In the current study has been funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with the project no. 115Y497, we focused on fracture systems and their carbonate veins around the Ihlara Valley (Cappadocia) surrounded by well-known volcanic centers with latest activities of the southern Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. We dated 37 samples using the Uranium-series technique and analyzed their isotope systematics from fissure veins, which are thought to be controlled by the young volcanism in the region. Our detailed fracture analyses in the field show that there is a regional dilatation as a result of a NW-SE striking extension which is consistent with the results of recent GPS studies. The Uranium-series results indicate that fracture development and associated carbonate vein deposition occurred in the last 150 ka. Carbon and oxygen isotope systematics have almost remained unchanged in the studied time interval. Although veins in the region were precipitated from fluids primarily of meteoric origin, fluids originating from water-rock interaction also contribute for the deposition of carbonate veins. The age distribution indicates that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 different period at about 4.7, 34, 44, 52, 83, 91, 149 ka BP. Four of these periods (4.7, 34, 91, 149 ka BP) correspond to the volcanic activities suggested in the previous studies. The three crustal

  7. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  8. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M. [Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-9005 Tromsoe (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment.

  9. Description of the hexadecapole deformation parameter in the sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Sun Di; Wang Jiajun; Han Qizhi

    1998-01-01

    The hexadecapole deformation parameter β 4 of the rare-earth and actinide nuclei is investigated in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. An explicit relation between the geometric hexadecapole deformation parameter β 4 and the intrinsic deformation parameters ε 4 , ε 2 are obtained. The deformation parameters β 4 of the rare-earths and actinides are determined without any free parameter. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. It also shows that the SU(5) limit of the sdg interacting boson model can describe the β 4 systematics as well as the SU(3) limit

  10. Description of the Hexadecapole Deformation Parameter in the sdg Interacting Boson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-xin; Sun, Di; Wang, Jia-jun; Han, Qi-zhi

    1998-04-01

    The hexadecapole deformation parameter β4 of the rare-earth and actinide nuclei is investigated in the framework of the sdg interacing boson model. An explicit relation between the geometric hexadecapole deformation parameter β4 and the intrinsic deformation parameters epsilon4, epsilon2 are obtained. The deformation parameters β4 of the rare-earths and actinides are determined without any free parameter. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. It also shows that the SU(5) limit of the sdg interacting boson model can describe the β4 systematics as well as the SU(3) limit.

  11. Experimental study on uniaxial ratcheting deformation and failure behavior of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianjie; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun; Liu Yujie

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the tests of cyclic strain ratcheting and low cycle fatigue for 304 stainless steel under uniaxial cyclic straining were carried out to systematically explore the deformation and failure behavior of the material. The experimental study shows that the cyclic strain ratcheting deformation behavior of the material is different from either the uniaxial monotonic tensile one or the cyclic deformation one under the symmetrical cyclic straining with the same strain amplitude, and the strain ratcheting deformation and failure behaviors depend on both the plastic strain amplitude and the strain increment at the cyclic maximum strain. Some significant results were observed

  12. Studying the active deformation of distributed plate boundaries by integration of GNSS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade GNSS networks installed for different purposes have proliferated in Italy and now provide a large amount of data available to geophysical studies. In addition to the existing regional and nation-wide scientific GNSS networks developed by ASI (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it), INGV (http://ring.gm.ingv.it) and OGS (http://crs.inogs.it/frednet), a large number (> 400) of continuously-operating GPS stations have been installed in the framework of regional and national networks, both publicly-operated and commercial, developed to provide real-time positioning capability to surveyors. Although the quality of the data and metadata associated to these stations is generally lower with respect to the "scientific" CGPS stations, the increased density and redundancy in crustal motion information, resulting in more than 500 stations with more than 2.5 years of observations, significantly increase the knowledge of the active deformation of the Italian territory and provides a unique image of the crustal deformation field. The obtained GPS velocity field is analysed and various features ranging from the definition of strain distribution and microplate kinematics within the plate boundary, to the evaluation of tectonic strain accumulation on active faults are presented in this work. Undeforming, aseismic regions (Sardinia, Southern Apulia) provide test sites to evaluate the lower bound on the accuracy achievable to measure tectonic deformation. Integration of GNSS networks significantly improves the resolution of the strain rate field in Central Italy showing that active deformation is concentrated in a narrow belt along the crest of the Apennines, consistently with the distribution of the largest historical and recent earthquakes. Products derived from dense GPS velocity and strain rate fields include map of earthquake potential developed under the assumption that the rate of seismic moment accumulation measured from geodesy distributes into earthquake sizes that

  13. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

  14. Deformation inside and outside the nuclear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, J.; Algora, A.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Hess, P.O.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Clusterization is an important phenomenon both in light and in heavy nuclei. The two basic natural laws governing the clusterization (just like the composition of nuclei from nucleons) are the energy-minimum principle, and the Pauli-exclusion principle. In a fully microscopic description of clusterization both aspects are taken into account. This kind of description, however, is limited to the territory of light nuclei. Many interesting aspects of the clusterization, like e.g. the appearance of exotic cluster configurations, show up only in heavy nuclei. Phenomenologic approaches are applied both to light and to heavy nuclei, on an equal footing, but these models do not really contain the effects of the antisymmetrization, or it is not under control, what aspects of the exclusion principle is incorporated. Recently we have developed an approach, which involves both the energetic preference and the exclusion principle [?]. The antisymmetrization is not carried out explicitly, it is treated in an approximate way, but it is done microscopically in a well-controlled manner, and consistency-check measures, how effective it is. We calculate the energetic preference of different clusterizations both on the basis of simple binding-energy-arguments [?], and from the Dinuclear System Model (DNS) [?], including Coulomb as well as nuclear interactions. The potential energy is calculated both for the usual pole-to-pole configuration, and for those more compact configurations, which turn out to be allowed from the microscopic viewpoint. The exclusion principle is treated by the application of a selection rule, related to the microscopic structure. For light nuclei it is based on the real U(3) symmetry [?], and it is exact to the extent to which the leading term representation is valid. In heavy nuclei it is based on the quasidynamical, or effective U(3) symmetry [?]. Its validity is shown by the consistency of the quadrupole deformation of

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... Routine tests represented 43,6% of changes causes. Conclusion: Our study showed that in a developing country, routine preoperative tests showed abnormal results up to 35% of cases, and represented 43,6% of delayed surgery causes. The rate of tests leading to management changes varied widely, ...

  16. Integrable deformations of Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, Angel; Blasco, Alfonso; Musso, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of a class of three-dimensional (3D) Lotka-Volterra (LV) equations is revisited from a novel point of view by showing that the quadratic Poisson structure underlying its integrability structure is just a real three-dimensional Poisson-Lie group. As a consequence, the Poisson coalgebra map Δ (2) that is given by the group multiplication provides the keystone for the explicit construction of a new family of 3N-dimensional integrable systems that, under certain constraints, contain N sets of deformed versions of the 3D LV equations. Moreover, by considering the most generic Poisson-Lie structure on this group, a new two-parametric integrable perturbation of the 3D LV system through polynomial and rational perturbation terms is explicitly found. -- Highlights: → A new Poisson-Lie approach to the integrability of Lotka-Volterra system is given. → New integrable deformations of the 3D Lotka-Volterra system are obtained. → Integrable Lotka-Volterra-type equations in 3N dimensions are deduced.

  17. The relationship between red blood cell deformability metrics and perfusion of an artificial microvascular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Jose M; Nielsen, Nathan D; Vignes, Seth M; Chen, Tanya G; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2014-01-01

    The ability of red blood cells (RBC) to undergo a wide range of deformations while traversing the microvasculature is crucial for adequate perfusion. Interpretation of RBC deformability measurements performed in vitro in the context of microvascular perfusion has been notoriously difficult. This study compares the measurements of RBC deformability performed using micropore filtration and ektacytometry with the RBC ability to perfuse an artificial microvascular network (AMVN). Human RBCs were collected from healthy consenting volunteers, leukoreduced, washed and exposed to graded concentrations (0-0.08%) of glutaraldehyde (a non-specific protein cross-linker) and diamide (a spectrin-specific protein cross-linker) to impair the deformability of RBCs. Samples comprising cells with two different levels of deformability were created by adding non-deformable RBCs (hardened by exposure to 0.08% glutaraldehyde) to the sample of normal healthy RBCs. Ektacytometry indicated a nearly linear decline in RBC deformability with increasing glutaraldehyde concentration. Micropore filtration showed a significant reduction only for concentrations of glutaraldehyde higher than 0.04%. Neither micropore filtration nor ektacytometry measurements could accurately predict the AMVN perfusion. Treatment with diamide reduced RBC deformability as indicated by ektacytometry, but had no significant effect on either micropore filtration or the AMVN perfusion. Both micropore filtration and ektacytometry showed a linear decline in effective RBC deformability with increasing fraction of non-deformable RBCs in the sample. The corresponding decline in the AMVN perfusion plateaued above 50%, reflecting the innate ability of blood flow in the microvasculature to bypass occluded capillaries. Our results suggest that in vitro measurements of RBC deformability performed using either micropore filtration or ektacytometry may not represent the ability of same RBCs to perfuse microvascular networks. Further

  18. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  19. Discrete kinematic modeling of the 3-D deformation of sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinematique discrete de la deformation 3D des bassins sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, T.

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the

  20. Collisions of deformed nuclei and superheavy-element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Moeller, P.; Univ. of Aizu, Fukushima; P. Moller Scientific Computing and Graphics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Nix, J.R.; Sagawa, Hiroyuki, Sagawa

    1995-01-01

    A detailed understanding of complete fusion cross sections in heavy-ion collisions requires a consideration of the effects of the deformation of the projectile and target. The aim here is to show that deformation and orientation of the colliding nuclei have a very significant effect on the fusion-barrier height and on the compactness of the touching configuration. To facilitate discussions of fusion configurations of deformed nuclei, the authors develop a classification scheme and introduce a notation convention for these configurations. They discuss particular deformations and orientations that lead to compact touching configurations and to fusion-barrier heights that correspond to fairly low excitation energies of the compound systems. Such configurations should be the most favorable for producing superheavy elements. They analyze a few projectile-target combinations whose deformations allow favorable entrance-channel configurations and whose proton and neutron numbers lead to compound systems in a part of the superheavy region where a half-lives are calculated to be observable, that is, longer than 1 micros

  1. Direct aperture deformation: An interfraction image guidance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuanming; Castro-Pareja, Carlos; Shekhar, Raj; Yu, Cedric

    2006-01-01

    A new scheme, called direct aperture deformation (DAD), for online correction of interfraction geometric uncertainties under volumetric imaging guidance is presented. Using deformable image registration, the three-dimensional geometric transformation matrix can be derived that associates the planning image set and the images acquired on the day of treatment. Rather than replanning or moving the patient, we use the deformation matrix to morph the treatment apertures as a potential online correction method. A proof-of-principle study using an intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan for a prostate cancer patient was conducted. The method, procedure, and algorithm of DAD are described. The dose-volume histograms from the original plan, reoptimized plan, and rigid-body translation plan are compared with the ones from the DAD plan. The study showed the feasibility of the DAD as a general method for both target dislocation and deformation. As compared with using couch translation to move the patient, DAD is capable of correcting both target dislocation and deformations. As compared with reoptimization, online correction using the DAD scheme could be completed within a few minutes rather than tens of minutes and the speed gain would be at a very small cost of plan quality

  2. Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. Amin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2018-04-01

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  3. Storage duration effect on deformation recovery of repacked alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers supply alginate impression materials as a powder that is packaged in bulk and in individual container. Some Indonesian dental suppliers often repackage the bulk alginate into individual plastic packages which are not tied tightly and stored in the display room without air conditioner. It is known that critical factors to the shelf life of alginate includer avoidance of moisture contamination which may lead to premature setting of the alginate and avoidance of high temperature which may cause depolymerization of the alginate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine storage duration effect of repacked alginates on deformation recovery. Methods: Two brands of alginates (Tulip®TU, and Aroma Fine DF III®AF were repacked into 120 plastic containers. The samples were stored in room condition (temperature 29° C ± 1° C, relative humidity 60% ± 10% for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. The alginates setting time and recovery from deformation were measured according to the ANSI/ADA specification number 18 (ISO 1563. result: The results revealed that there was decreased setting time during 5 weeks but there was slight decreased in deformation recovery after 3 weeks storage. The ANOVA showed there was no significant difference of alginates deformation recovery among the storage times (p > 0.05. Conclusion: Storage duration of repacked alginates in plastic containers during 5 weeks in room condition do not influence the alginate deformation recovery.

  4. Comparison of Small Baseline Interferometric SAR Processors for Estimating Ground Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The small Baseline Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Interferometry (SBI technique has been widely and successfully applied in various ground deformation monitoring applications. Over the last decade, a variety of SBI algorithms have been developed based on the same fundamental concepts. Recently developed SBI toolboxes provide an open environment for researchers to apply different SBI methods for various purposes. However, there has been no thorough discussion that compares the particular characteristics of different SBI methods and their corresponding performance in ground deformation reconstruction. Thus, two SBI toolboxes that implement a total of four SBI algorithms were selected for comparison. This study discusses and summarizes the main differences, pros and cons of these four SBI implementations, which could help users to choose a suitable SBI method for their specific application. The study focuses on exploring the suitability of each SBI module under various data set conditions, including small/large number of interferograms, the presence or absence of larger time gaps, urban/vegetation ground coverage, and temporally regular/irregular ground displacement with multiple spatial scales. Within this paper we discuss the corresponding theoretical background of each SBI method. We present a performance analysis of these SBI modules based on two real data sets characterized by different environmental and surface deformation conditions. The study shows that all four SBI processors are capable of generating similar ground deformation results when the data set has sufficient temporal sampling and a stable ground backscatter mechanism like urban area. Strengths and limitations of different SBI processors were analyzed based on data set configuration and environmental conditions and are summarized in this paper to guide future users of SBI techniques.

  5. Microstructures in the 6060 aluminium alloy after various severe plastic deformation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk-Cieslak, Boguslawa; Mizera, Jaroslaw; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results concerning the microstructural refinement of the industrial 6060 aluminium alloy processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD). The high level of plastic deformation was achieved using the three methods: hydrostatic extrusion (HE), equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) and extrusion torsion (ET), which differed in the dynamics of the loading, intensity and homogeneity of the plastic strain field. Microstructure analyses were performed before and after SPD deformation using a transmission (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The refined microstructures were examined qualitatively and quantitatively by the stereological methods and computer image analyses. The microstructure of the industrial 6060 aluminium alloy after deformation was characterized by an average grain size of about 0.4 μm. The results show that the precipitates strongly affect the degree of refinement and the mechanism of microstructural transformations. During the SPD, the second phase particles break apart and homogenize. The HE method generates the largest increase of the volume fraction of the small primary particles. Moreover, the HE process is most effective in reducing the primary particle size. During HE and ECAE processes the second phase precipitates dissolve partially and change their shape. - Research Highlights: → SPD results in a significant increase in the density of the small primary particles. → SPD homogenizes the particle size distribution. → HE and ECAE processes bring nano-grains in the vicinity of the primary particles. → HE and ECAE processing results in the β' precipitates partial dissolutions. → During HE and ECAE processes the β' particles change their shape.

  6. Measurement of Strain in the Left Ventricle during Diastole withcine-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2005-07-20

    The assessment of regional heart wall motion (local strain) can localize ischemic myocardial disease, evaluate myocardial viability and identify impaired cardiac function due to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies. The objectives of this research were to develop and validate a technique known as Hyperelastic Warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle from clinical cine-MRI image datasets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image datasets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target image. To validate the technique, MRI image datasets representing two deformation states of a left ventricle were created such that the deformation map between the states represented in the images was known. A beginning diastoliccine-MRI image dataset from a normal human subject was defined as the template. A second image dataset (target) was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a forward FE model of diastolic filling. Fiber stretch and strain predictions from Hyperelastic Warping showed good agreement with those of the forward solution. The technique had low sensitivity to changes in material parameters, with the exception of changes in bulk modulus of the material. The use of an isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model in the Warping analyses degraded the predictions of fiber stretch. Results were unaffected by simulated noise down to an SNR of 4.0. This study demonstrates that Warping in conjunction with cine-MRI imaging can be used to determine local ventricular strains during diastole.

  7. Multi-object segmentation framework using deformable models for medical imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, Rafael; D'Amato, Juan Pablo; Del Fresno, Mariana; Vénere, Marcelo; Pirró, Nicola; Bellemare, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Segmenting structures of interest in medical images is an important step in different tasks such as visualization, quantitative analysis, simulation, and image-guided surgery, among several other clinical applications. Numerous segmentation methods have been developed in the past three decades for extraction of anatomical or functional structures on medical imaging. Deformable models, which include the active contour models or snakes, are among the most popular methods for image segmentation combining several desirable features such as inherent connectivity and smoothness. Even though different approaches have been proposed and significant work has been dedicated to the improvement of such algorithms, there are still challenging research directions as the simultaneous extraction of multiple objects and the integration of individual techniques. This paper presents a novel open-source framework called deformable model array (DMA) for the segmentation of multiple and complex structures of interest in different imaging modalities. While most active contour algorithms can extract one region at a time, DMA allows integrating several deformable models to deal with multiple segmentation scenarios. Moreover, it is possible to consider any existing explicit deformable model formulation and even to incorporate new active contour methods, allowing to select a suitable combination in different conditions. The framework also introduces a control module that coordinates the cooperative evolution of the snakes and is able to solve interaction issues toward the segmentation goal. Thus, DMA can implement complex object and multi-object segmentations in both 2D and 3D using the contextual information derived from the model interaction. These are important features for several medical image analysis tasks in which different but related objects need to be simultaneously extracted. Experimental results on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging show that the proposed

  8. Decoherence and discrete symmetries in deformed relativistic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Models of deformed Poincaré symmetries based on group valued momenta have long been studied as effective modifications of relativistic kinematics possibly capturing quantum gravity effects. In this contribution we show how they naturally lead to a generalized quantum time evolution of the type proposed to model fundamental decoherence for quantum systems in the presence of an evaporating black hole. The same structures which determine such generalized evolution also lead to a modification of the action of discrete symmetries and of the CPT operator. These features can in principle be used to put phenomenological constraints on models of deformed relativistic symmetries using precision measurements of neutral kaons.

  9. High performance deformable image registration algorithms for manycore processors

    CERN Document Server

    Shackleford, James; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Deformable Image Registration Algorithms for Manycore Processors develops highly data-parallel image registration algorithms suitable for use on modern multi-core architectures, including graphics processing units (GPUs). Focusing on deformable registration, we show how to develop data-parallel versions of the registration algorithm suitable for execution on the GPU. Image registration is the process of aligning two or more images into a common coordinate frame and is a fundamental step to be able to compare or fuse data obtained from different sensor measurements. E

  10. Topology-preserving quantum deformation with non-numerical parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukhadiev, Marat; Grigoryan, Suren; Lipacheva, Ekaterina

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a class of compact quantum semigroups, that we call semigroup deformations of compact Abelian qroups. These objects arise from reduced semigroup -algebras, the generalization of the Toeplitz algebra. We study quantum subgroups, quantum projective spaces and quantum quotient groups for such objects, and show that the group is contained as a compact quantum subgroup in the deformation of itself. The connection with the weak Hopf algebra notion is described. We give a grading on the -algebra of the compact quantum semigroups constructed.

  11. Scattering of particles by deformed non-rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Guancheng; Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    We study the excitation of axial quasi-normal modes of deformed non-rotating black holes by test particles and we compare the associated gravitational wave signal with that expected in general relativity from a Schwarzschild black hole. Deviations from standard predictions are quantified by an effective deformation parameter, which takes into account deviations from both the Schwarzschild metric and the Einstein equations. We show that, at least in the case of non-rotating black holes, it is possible to test the metric around the compact object, in the sense that the measurement of the gravitational wave spectrum can constrain possible deviations from the Schwarzschild solution. (orig.)

  12. Slope Deformation Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper principally studies the prediction of slope deformation based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. In the prediction process,explore how to reconstruct the phase space. The geological body’s displacement data obtained from chaotic time series are used as SVM’s training samples. Slope displacement caused by multivariable coupling is predicted by means of single variable. Results show that this model is of high fitting accuracy and generalization, and provides reference for deformation prediction in slope engineering.

  13. Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non- Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.

  14. Magnetic Non-destructive Testing of Plastically Deformed Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Pala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Barkhausen noise analysis and coercive field measurement have been used as magnetic non-destructive testing methods for plastically deformed high quality carbon steel specimens. The strain dependence of root mean square value and power spectrum of the Barkhausen noise and the coercive field are explained in terms of the dislocation density. The specimens have been subjected to different magnetizing frequencies to show the overlapping nature of the Barkhausen noise. The results are discussed in the context of usage of magnetic non-destructive testing to evaluate the plastic deformation of high quality carbon steel products.

  15. Rotational states in deformed nuclei: An analytic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, W.; Arima, A.; Enders, J.; Wambach, J.; Richter, A.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of the spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry are investigated in a field theory model for deformed nuclei, based on simple separable interactions. The crucial role of the Ward-Takahashi identities in describing the rotational states is emphasized. We show explicitly how the rotor picture emerges from the isoscalar Goldstone modes and how the two-rotor model emerges from the isovector scissors modes. As an application of the formalism, we discuss the M1 sum rules in deformed nuclei and make the connection to empirical information.

  16. Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non-Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.

  17. Quantum Mechanics on the h-deformed Quantum Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sunggoo

    1998-01-01

    We find the covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra and the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the extended $h$-deformed quantum plane and solve the Schr\\"odinger equations explicitly for some physical systems on the quantum plane. In the commutative limit the behaviour of a quantum particle on the quantum plane becomes that of the quantum particle on the Poincar\\'e half-plane, a surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature. We show the bound state energy spectra for particles under specific poten...

  18. Towards classical spectrum generating algebras for f-deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullock, Ricardo; Latini, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we revise the classical analog of f-oscillators, a generalization of q-oscillators given in Man'ko et al. (1997) [8], in the framework of classical spectrum generating algebras (SGA) introduced in Kuru and Negro (2008) [9]. We write down the deformed Poisson algebra characterizing the entire family of non-linear oscillators and construct its general solution algebraically. The latter, covering the full range of f-deformations, shows an energy dependence both in the amplitude and the frequency of the motion.

  19. Post- and interseismic deformation due to both localized and distributed creep at depth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hines, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are two end-member representations of the ductile lithosphere (i.e., the lower crust and uppermost mantle) commonly used in models of post- and interseismic deformation around strike-slip faults: either (1) laterally homogeneous ductile layers, with sharp contrasts in rheological properties between the layers, in which creep is distributed; or (2) discrete extensions of the fault at depth in which creep is fully localized. The most realistic representation of the ductile lithosphere on earthquake cycle time scales likely falls between these two end-members. Researchers have considered both distributed and localized creep when interpreting post- and interseismic deformation, although the two mechanisms are most commonly treated separately, with the localized creep often approximated by kinematic slip on planar faults. There are a few noteworthy models that considered the feedback between both distributed and localized creep, although those models were largely constrained to 2D geometries of infinite length faults. The thickness of shear zones in the ductile lithosphere may be comparable to the locking depth of the fault, and the existence of a deep shear zone does not preclude the possibility that some distributed creep occurs in the surrounding lithosphere. Furthermore, variations in rheology, including both rheological models and their parameters, may be more subtle than the discrete contrasts typically assumed. In this presentation, we consider models of postseismic deformation following a finite length, strike-slip fault, as well as models of interseismic deformation around an infinite length strike-slip fault. Both sets of models are capable of localized and distributed creep at depth, and use Maxwell viscoelasticity. We show that the horizontal surface velocities during the early postseismic period are most sensitive to the viscosity of the shear zone; however during much of the interseismic period the shear zone is not apparent from the surface

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    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

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    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

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    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

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    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

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    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

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    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

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    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

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    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

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    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

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    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

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    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

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    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

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    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

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    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  14. Electron backscatter and X-ray diffraction studies on the deformation and annealing textures of austenitic stainless steel 310S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezakat, Majid, E-mail: majid.nezakat@usask.ca [Canadian Light Source Inc., 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 2V3 (Canada); Akhiani, Hamed [Westpower Equipment Ltd., 4451 54 Avenue South East, Calgary, AB T2C 2A2 (Canada); Sabet, Seyed Morteza [Department of Ocean and Mechanical Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Szpunar, Jerzy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    We studied the texture evolution of thermo-mechanically processed austenitic stainless steel 310S. This alloy was cold rolled up to 90% reduction in thickness and subsequently annealed at 1050 °C. At the early stages of deformation, strain-induced martensite was formed from deformed austenite. By increasing the deformation level, slip mechanism was found to be insufficient to accommodate higher deformation strains. Our results demonstrated that twinning is the dominant deformation mechanism at higher deformation levels. Results also showed that cold rolling in unidirectional and cross rolling modes results in Goss/Brass and Brass dominant textures in deformed samples, respectively. Similar texture components are observed after annealing. Thus, the annealing texture was greatly affected by texture of the deformed parent phase and martensite did not contribute as it showed an athermal reversion during annealing. Results also showed that when the fraction of martensite exceeds a critical point, its grain boundaries impeded the movement of austenite grain boundaries during annealing. As a result, recrystallization incubation time would increase. This caused an incomplete recrystallization of highly deformed samples, which led to a rational drop in the intensity of the texture components. - Highlights: •Thermo-mechanical processing through different cold rolling modes can induce different textures. •Martensite reversion is athermal during annealing. •Higher fraction of deformation-induced martensite can increase the annealing time required for complete recrystallization. •Annealing texture is mainly influenced by the deformation texture of austenite.

  15. Deformed special relativity with an invariant minimum speed and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, according to special relativity (SR), the momentum cannot ... Deformed special relativity with an invariant minimum speed ..... However, we need to show that there is an anti-gravitational interaction between the ordinary proof mass m and the big sphere with a 'dark mass' of vacuum (MΛ), but let us first ...

  16. Mechanism for microstructural evolution induced by high temperature deformation in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Sirui; Wang, Chunju; Ma, Mingzhen; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In the Zr_4_1_._2Ti_1_3_._8Cu_1_2_._5Ni_1_0Be_2_2_._5 (Vit1) alloy undergoing high temperature deformation, its thermal properties and microstructure are quite different from those in the annealing alloy. In order to research the coupled effect of temperature and plastic strain on microstructural evolution of Zr-based amorphous, uniaxial compression test of Vit1 alloy with good amorphous nature has been performed, and then the structural state and thermal properties of Vit1 alloy after thermal deformation and isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region were investigated. It is revealed that the deformed specimens possess higher characteristic temperature and lower enthalpy change of microstructural relaxation. In addition, the smaller inter-atomic distance and higher order degree of atomic arrangement can be observed in those deformed Vit1 alloy. That can be deduced that thermal deformation is in favor of the microstructural evolution from a metastable amorphous state to stable crystallization state, because plastic strain promotes the annihilation of free volume and provide excess driving force of atomic diffusion. However, upon increasing the ambient temperature, the influence of plastic deformation on microstructure gradually decreased owing to the decreasing proportion of the plastic deformation-induced annihilation of free volume during the whole thermal deformation process. - Highlights: • The deformed specimens possess closer microstructure and higher characteristic temperatures. • The order degree of microstructures in deformed specimens is higher than that in annealed specimens. • Thermal deformation accelerates the microstructural evolution of Zr-based BMGs. • The influence of thermal deformation on microstructure decreases with the temperature increasing.

  17. Mechanism for microstructural evolution induced by high temperature deformation in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Sirui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Chunju [Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Mingzhen [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shan, Debin, E-mail: shandebin@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Bin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In the Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} (Vit1) alloy undergoing high temperature deformation, its thermal properties and microstructure are quite different from those in the annealing alloy. In order to research the coupled effect of temperature and plastic strain on microstructural evolution of Zr-based amorphous, uniaxial compression test of Vit1 alloy with good amorphous nature has been performed, and then the structural state and thermal properties of Vit1 alloy after thermal deformation and isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region were investigated. It is revealed that the deformed specimens possess higher characteristic temperature and lower enthalpy change of microstructural relaxation. In addition, the smaller inter-atomic distance and higher order degree of atomic arrangement can be observed in those deformed Vit1 alloy. That can be deduced that thermal deformation is in favor of the microstructural evolution from a metastable amorphous state to stable crystallization state, because plastic strain promotes the annihilation of free volume and provide excess driving force of atomic diffusion. However, upon increasing the ambient temperature, the influence of plastic deformation on microstructure gradually decreased owing to the decreasing proportion of the plastic deformation-induced annihilation of free volume during the whole thermal deformation process. - Highlights: • The deformed specimens possess closer microstructure and higher characteristic temperatures. • The order degree of microstructures in deformed specimens is higher than that in annealed specimens. • Thermal deformation accelerates the microstructural evolution of Zr-based BMGs. • The influence of thermal deformation on microstructure decreases with the temperature increasing.

  18. Deformation behavior of carbon-fiber reinforced shape-memory-polymer composites used for deployable structures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xin; Liu, Liwu; Li, Fengfeng; Pan, Chengtong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a new type of smart material, they perform large reversible deformation with a certain external stimulus (e.g., heat and electricity). The properties (e.g., stiffness, strength and other mechanically static or quasi-static load-bearing capacity) are primarily considered for conventional resin-based composite materials which are mainly used for structural materials. By contrast, the mechanical actuating performance with finite deformation is considered for the shape memory polymers and their composites which can be used for both structural materials and functional materials. For shape memory polymers and their composites, the performance of active deformation is expected to further promote the development in smart active deformation structures, such as deployable space structures and morphing wing aircraft. The shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) are also one type of High Strain Composite (HSC). The space deployable structures based on carbon fiber reinforced shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) show great prospects. Considering the problems that SMPCs are difficult to meet the practical applications in space deployable structures in the recent ten years, this paper aims to research the mechanics of deformation, actuation and failure of SMPCs. In the overall view of the shape memory polymer material's nonlinearity (nonlinearity and stress softening in the process of pre-deformation and recovery, relaxation in storage process, irreversible deformation), by the multiple verifications among theory, finite element and experiments, one obtains the deformation and actuation mechanism for the process of "pre-deformation, energy storage and actuation" and its non-fracture constraint domain. Then, the parameters of SMPCs will be optimized. Theoretical analysis is realized by the strain energy function, additionally considering the interaction strain energy between the fiber and the matrix. For the common resin-based or soft

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    2012-06-24

    Jun 24, 2012 ... Conclusion: Our result showed increased plasma tHcy, triglyceride and waist ... A standard structured questionnaire was administered to .... acids to the liver which can lead to increase synthesis of TG and in turn gives rise to.

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    Oct 24, 2017 ... Health Insurance Programme (TISHIP) in Nigeria: a case study of ... University Medical Centre staff responses showed a satisfactory scheme implementation. ... benefits. Previous studies revealed that students barely visit.

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    Jan 31, 2014 ... Hypercholesterolemia correlated significantly with age and sex. Conclusion: Our study showed a ... work is properly cited. Pan African Medical .... to sex. References. 1. Facing the facts: the impact of chronic disease in Africa.

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    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... Knowledge of postnatal mothers on essential newborn care ... essential newborn care: breastfeeding, cord care, immunisation, eye care .... child from polio. ... showed a direct correlation between maternal attitude and optimal.

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    Sep 22, 2017 ... Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of .... cows, not showing clinical mastitis, into 20ml sterile milk sample bottles. Tests and .... and ultimately treatment [39]. This implies that ...

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    Aug 5, 2013 ... 1District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, PO Box 358, Iganga, Uganda, 2Division of Global Health, .... countries shows that culture, religion, pain, adverse effects and loss ..... the food we can even get from home.

  5. Relative scale and the strength and deformability of rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.

    1996-09-01

    The strength and deformation of rocks depend strongly on the degree of fracturing, which can be assessed in the field and related systematically to these properties. Appropriate Mohr envelopes obtained from the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system and the Hoek-Brown criterion for outcrops and other large-scale exposures of fractured rocks show that rock-mass cohesive strength, tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength can be reduced by as much as a factor often relative to values for the unfractured material. The rock-mass deformation modulus is also reduced relative to Young's modulus. A "cook-book" example illustrates the use of RMR in field applications. The smaller values of rock-mass strength and deformability imply that there is a particular scale of observation whose identification is critical to applying laboratory measurements and associated failure criteria to geologic structures.

  6. Deformation texture and microtexture development in zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanitha, C.; Kiran Kumar, M.; Samajdar, I.; Vishvanathan, N.N.; Dey, G.K.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, two starting materials used were as-cast Zircaloy-2 with random texture and the finished tube with relatively stronger starting texture. Specimens of the alloys were hot rolled to various strains at different temperature. The texture measurement was carried out and was represented in the form of Orientation Distribution Function which showed a sluggish texture development on high temperature deformation. In the case of as cast alloy with increase in strain at a constant deformation temperature, development in the texture was significant. Upon increasing the working temperature, rate of the overall texture development has been found to reduce. This could be due to reduced slip-twin activities, recovery or due to recrystallization. Microstructural and relative hardening studies were carried out for understanding the mechanisms of deformation texture developments at warm and hot working stages. In the case of finished tube having initially strong texture exhibited slower development in texture on warm and hot rolling. (author)

  7. Dynamic Sensing of Cornea Deformation during an Air Puff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Yamasaki, Naoyuki; Gosho, Takumi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Takenaka, Jouji; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Makoto

    In early diagnosis of glancoma, intraocular pressure measurement is one of an important method. Non-contact method has measured eye pressure through the deformation of cornea during the increase of the force due to air puff. The deformation is influenced by the cornea stiffness as well as the eye internal pressure. Since the cornea stiffness is unknown in general, it is difficult to evaluate the ture eye pressure. The dynamic behavior of cornea under air puff may provide us with a good hint for evaluating the cornea stiffness appropriately. For this purpose, we develop the sensing system composed of a high speed camera, a mirror for producing a virtual camera, a non-contact tonometer and a slit light source. This system enables us to measure the cornea deformation under concave shape. We show the experimental data for human eyes as well as an artificial eye made by transparent material.

  8. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  9. DEFORMATION DEPENDENT TUL MULTI-STEP DIRECT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIENKE, H.; CAPOTE, R.; HERMAN, M.; SIN, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended in order to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the 232 Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, ''deformed'' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the ''spherical'' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations

  10. Deformation dependent TUL multi-step direct model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, H.; Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Sin, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the 232 Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, 'deformed' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the 'spherical' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations. (authors)

  11. Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.

  12. Electric anisotropy in high density polyethylene + carbon black composites induced by mechanical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras-Santiago, E; Hernandez-Lopez, S; Camacho-Lopez, M A; Lara-Sanjuan, O, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, UAEM. Paseo Colon esq. con Paseo Tollocan, s/n. C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High density polyethylene + carbon black composites with electrical anisotropy was studied. Electrical anisotropy was induced by uniaxial mechanical deformation and injection moulding. We show that anisotropy depends on the carbon black concentration and percentage deformation. Resistivity had the highest anisotropy resistivity around the percolation threshold. Perpendicular resistivity showed two magnitude orders higher than parallel resistivity for injected samples, whereas resistivity showed an inverse behaviour for 100% tensile samples. Both directions were set respect to the deformation axe. Anisotropy could be explained in terms of the molecular deformation (alignment) of the polymer chains as a response of the deformation process originating a redistribution of the carbon black particles in both directions. Alignment of the polymer chains was evidenced by polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Modelling of the deformation of shot peened cylindrical specimens of 42 CrMo4 in uniaxial tension and deformation and of the resulting macro residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, V.; Voehringer, O.; Macherauch, E.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and compressive stress-strain-curves of shot peened and unpeened specimens of quenched and tempered 42 CrMo 4 (AISI 4140) with a diameter of 5 mm only differ in the yield strengths and in the Lueders-deformation. In comparison to the core the regions close to the surface of shot peened cylindrical specimens bear relatively large axial and tangential residual stresses and show different deformation properties. A multi-layer-model was developed to describe both the tensile as well as the compressive deformation behaviour of shot peened cylindrical specimens quantitatively. The calculated transitions from the elastic to the elastic-plastic deformation state during tensile and compressive loading agree quite well with the experimental observations. Also the changes of axial and tangential macro residual stresses after distinct tensile or compressive deformations are in best agreement with the measurements. (orig.)

  14. q-deformation of ''W3'', Virasoro and U(1)-Kac-Moody algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Tahri, E.H.; Zakkari, M.

    1995-07-01

    A deformation of the algebra of infinite matrices gl(∞, C) is given. We show that this operation leads to the realization of a deformed ''W 3 '' like algebra. The central extension of the q-U(1) Kac-Moody and the q-Virasoro algebra is performed. (author). 10 refs

  15. Hamiltonian structure of isospectral deformation equation and semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    We consider semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices. We show that this new class of matrices, called s-matrices, defines Hamiltonian structures for isospectral deformation equations. Concrete examples of factorized s-matrices are constructed and they are used to define Hamiltonian structure for general two-dimensional isospectral deformation systems. (orig.)

  16. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Contacts et des Structures (LaMCoS), INSA Lyon, 20 Avenue des Sciences, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Li, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, M.Q., E-mail: zc9997242256@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different bonding pressures. Results showed that an undamaged hollow structural component has been obtained with full interfacial contact and the same shear strength to that of base material. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail.

  17. Acoustic phonon limited mobility in two-dimensional semiconductors: Deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering in monolayer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    model, analytic expressions and the coupling strengths for the deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are established. We furthermore show that the deformation potential interaction has contributions from both normal and umklapp processes and that the latter contribution is only weakly...

  18. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  19. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  20. q-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Muenchen Univ.; Zumino, B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    The q-differential calculus for the q-Minkowski space is developed. The algebra of the q-derivatives with the q-Lorentz generators is found giving the q-deformation of the Poincare algebra. The reality structure of the q-Poincare algebra is given. The reality structure of the q-differentials is also found. The real Laplaacian is constructed. Finally the comultiplication, counit and antipode for the q-Poincare algebra are obtained making it a Hopf algebra. (orig.)

  1. Deformation retracts of Stein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, H.; Mihalache, N.

    1995-01-01

    If X is an n-dimensional Stein space, it was proved that X has the homotopy type of a CW-complex of dimension≤n and in the algebraic case this was proved with the additional conclusion that the CW-complex is finite. In this paper the authors give an answer to the question if there exists a subset Q of X with the same topological properties as X, for instance Q is a strong deformation retract of X, and Q is a CW-complex of dimension≤n. 15 refs

  2. Effect of deformation ratios on grain alignment and magnetic properties of hot pressing/hot deformation Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaohui; Li, Mengyu; Wang, Junming; Jing, Zheng; Yue, Ming; Zhu, Minggang; Li, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic properties, microstructure and orientation degrees of hot pressing magnet and hot deformation Nd-Fe-B magnets with different deformation ratios have been investigated in this paper. The remanence (Br) and maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max) were enhanced gradually with the deformation ratio increasing from 0% to 70%, whereas the coercivity (HCj) decreased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fractured surfaces parallel to the pressure direction during hot deformation show that the grains tend to extend perpendicularly to the c-axes of Nd2Fe14B grains under the pressure, and the aspect ratios of the grains increase with the increase of deformation ratio. Besides, the compression stress induces the long axis of grains to rotate and the angle (θ) between c-axis and pressure direction decreases. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that orientation degree improves with the increase of deformation ratio, agreeing well with the SEM results. The hot deformation magnet with a deformation ratio of 70% has the best Br and (BH)max, and the magnetic properties are as followed: Br=1.40 T, HCj=10.73 kOe, (BH)max=42.30 MGOe.

  3. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  4. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  5. Realistic deformable 3D numeric phantom for transcutaneous ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando Mitsuyama; Moraes, Matheus Cardoso; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: fernando.okara@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2017-01-15

    Introduction: Numerical phantoms are important tools to design, calibrate and evaluate several methods in various image-processing applications, such as echocardiography and mammography. We present a framework for creating ultrasound numerical deformable phantoms based on Finite Element Method (FEM), Linear Isomorphism and Field II. The proposed method considers that the scatterers map is a property of the tissue; therefore, the scatterers should move according to the tissue strain. Methods: First, a volume representing the target tissue is loaded. Second, parameter values, such as Young's Modulus, scatterers density, attenuation and scattering amplitudes are inserted for each different regions of the phantom. Then, other parameters related to the ultrasound equipment, such as ultrasound frequency and number of transducer elements, are also defined in order to perform the ultrasound acquisition using Field II. Third, the size and position of the transducer and the pressures that are applied against the tissue are defined. Subsequently, FEM is executed and deformation is computed. Next, 3D linear isomorphism is performed to displace the scatterers according to the deformation. Finally, Field II is carried out to generate the non-deformed and deformed ultrasound data. Results: The framework is evaluated by comparing strain values obtained the numerical simulation and from the physical phantom from CIRS. The mean difference between both phantoms is lesser than 10%. Conclusion: The acoustic and deformation outcomes are similar to those obtained using a physical phantom. This framework led to a tool, which is available online and free of charges for educational and research purposes. (author)

  6. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... Results: The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were ... Studies from Asia [12-17] and few studies from African countries ..... Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-11

    Aug 11, 2015 ... Key words: Erygmophonic speech, perturbation analysis method, ... However, erygmophonic voice shows also higher and extremely variable Error ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ... work is properly cited. .... do not display the perceptual stability characteristic of human.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-23

    Jan 23, 2015 ... neonatal period (1-59 months), every region of the world is experiencing an increase in ... Rights of the Child, new- borns have the basic right to enjoy the ... management of complications during pregnancy and delivery, poor hygiene .... done by UNICEF shows that lower household wealth, an uneducated.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... laboratory data places the medical laboratory scientist in a prime position ... healthcare centres in a local government area showed that none of them had received in-service training during the 2 years before the study.[10] The .... procedures for safe use of recombinant DNA technology and transport of.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study ... terms of pathophysiology and management of asthma, studies show that this ... increases the use of health care services [12, 13], and therefore ..... 25. de Vries MP, van den Bemt L, Lince S, Muris JW, Thoonen BP,.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... The most effective antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeroginosa were ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Meropenem shows excellent activity against Gram negative bacteria. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was susceptible to Vancomycin and Rifampicin in 97% and 85% cases. Conclusion: ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... 2. Introduction. Recent estimates show that the overall ante-natal care (ANC) ... important milestones required to achieve optimum maternal and child health. ... 15-49 years. The survey was conducted by the National Population .... means univariate analyses to determine the odds of utilization of focused ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-05

    Sep 5, 2017 ... A lot of people in our city lack the knowledge of first aid. Therefore, ... thus prone to explosive disasters occurring in oil-producing countries like Nigeria. [8]. ... ago showed that the head was the commonest body region affected.

  15. Exploring of PST-TBPM in Monitoring Dynamic Deformation of Steel Structure in Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingzhi; Zhao, Yongqian; Hai, Hua; Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian

    2018-01-01

    In order to monitor the dynamic deformation of steel structure in the real-time, digital photography is used in this paper. Firstly, the grid method is used correct the distortion of digital camera. Then the digital cameras are used to capture the initial and experimental images of steel structure to obtain its relative deformation. PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method) is used to eliminate the parallax error and convert the pixel change value of deformation points into the actual displacement value. In order to visualize the deformation trend of steel structure, the deformation curves are drawn based on the deformation value of deformation points. Results show that the average absolute accuracy and relative accuracy of PST-TBPM are 0.28mm and 1.1‰, respectively. Digital photography used in this study can meet accuracy requirements of steel structure deformation monitoring. It also can warn the safety of steel structure and provide data support for managers’ safety decisions based on the deformation curves on site.

  16. Large inelastic deformation analysis of steel pressure vessels at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the calculation methodology developed for a large inelastic deformation analysis of pressure vessels at high temperature. Continuum mechanical formulation related to a large deformation analysis is presented. Application of the constitutive equations is simplified when the evolution of stress and deformation state of an infinitesimal material element is considered in the directions of principal strains determined by the deformation during a finite time increment. A quantitative modelling of time dependent inelastic deformation is applied for reactor pressure vessel steels. Experimental data of uniaxial tensile, relaxation and creep tests performed at different laboratories for reactor pressure vessel steels are investigated and processed. An inelastic deformation rate model of strain hardening type is adopted. The model simulates well the axial tensile, relaxation and creep tests from room temperature to high temperature with only a few fitting parameters. The measurement data refined for the inelastic deformation rate model show useful information about inelastic deformation phenomena of reactor pressure vessel steels over a wide temperature range. The methodology and calculation process are validated by comparing the calculated results with measurements from experiments on small scale pressure vessels. A reasonably good agreement, when taking several uncertainties into account, is obtained between the measured and calculated results concerning deformation rate and failure location. (orig.)

  17. Different Rols of Modified Organoclay in Deformation Mechanism Control of Polymeric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organically modified clay on the structure and deformation mechanism of polymeric matrices was investigated. For this purpose, the role of organoclay in deformation control of polymeric matrices, with different deformation mechanisms, has been studied methodically in order to determine a relationship between the structure and deformation mechanisms. In this respect polypropylene and polystyrene composites systems were designed using montmorillonite through melt intercalation technique using a twin, co-rotating extruder with starve feeding system. Also an epoxy was employed to design a nanocomposite system prepared by in-situ polymerization technique. The structure and deformation mechanism of nanocomposites were investigated using appropriate techniques. X-Ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to explore the structure of various systems while, the reflection and transmission optical microscopy were used in order to study their corresponding deformation mechanisms. The bulk polymer was also studied for its deformation mechanism by reflection optical microscopy and the notch tip of the samples were examined by transmission optical microscopy. The results of experiments showed that organoclays acted as initiator sites for shear yielding mechanism as the dominant deformation mechanism in epoxies. It may be noted that, these particles may act as initiator sites for crazing, the dominant deformation mechanism of polystyrene, and alter the mechanism from local to massive. In polypropylene systems, which may exhibit both shear yielding and crazing organoclays can facilitate or postpone both mechanisms in different conditions, related to PP morphology and other conditions.

  18. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  19. Characterizing Cracking and Permanent Deformation; An Attempt for Predicting the End of the Structural Pavement Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Durable, therefore sustainable, road needs to attain specific characteristics, among others, resistance to permanent deformation and cracking. Determining the development of both characteristics are important to be able to predict pavement life and performance. In this research, permanent

  20. Control Demonstration of a Thin Deformable In-Plane Actuated Mirror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, Gina A

    2006-01-01

    .... The primary goal of this research is to demonstrate that an in-plane actuated membrane-like deformable optical mirror can be controlled to optical wavelength tolerances in a closed-loop system...