WorldWideScience

Sample records for research sample comprised

  1. Canadian safeguards research and development in support of the IAEA program document outlining the various tasks which comprise the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Canada has established a safeguards research and development program, the purpose of which is to supplement the resources of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The program of support is a coordinated effort for the development and application of safeguards techniques and instruments to facilities safeguarded by the IAEA. This document sets forth those tasks which comprise the program

  2. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this mathematical...Kurt.A.Hansen@uscg.mil. 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  3. Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-07-01

    Quota sampling has been suggested as a potentially good method for Internet-based research and has been used by several researchers working with Internet samples. However, very little is known about the issues or concerns in using a quota sampling method in Internet research. The purpose of this article was to present the practical issues using quota sampling in an Internet-based study. During the Internet study, the research team recorded all recruitment issues that arose and made written notes indicating the possible reasons for the problems. In addition, biweekly team discussions were conducted for which written records were kept. Overall, quota sampling was effective in ensuring that an adequate number of midlife women were recruited from the targeted ethnic groups. However, during the study process, we encountered the following practical issues using quota sampling: (1) difficulty reaching out to women in lower socioeconomic classes, (2) difficulty ensuring authenticity of participants' identities, (3) participants giving inconsistent answers for the screening questions versus the Internet survey questions, (4) potential problems with a question on socioeconomic status, (5) resentment toward the research project and/or researchers because of rejection, and (6) a longer time and more expense than anticipated.

  4. Conducting Clinical Research Using Crowdsourced Convenience Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jesse; Shapiro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing has had a dramatic impact on the speed and scale at which scientific research can be conducted. Clinical scientists have particularly benefited from readily available research study participants and streamlined recruiting and payment systems afforded by Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a popular labor market for crowdsourcing workers. MTurk has been used in this capacity for more than five years. The popularity and novelty of the platform have spurred numerous methodological investigations, making it the most studied nonprobability sample available to researchers. This article summarizes what is known about MTurk sample composition and data quality with an emphasis on findings relevant to clinical psychological research. It then addresses methodological issues with using MTurk--many of which are common to other nonprobability samples but unfamiliar to clinical science researchers--and suggests concrete steps to avoid these issues or minimize their impact.

  5. Research results: preserving newborn blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Scheurer, Michael E; Green, Robert C; McGuire, Amy L

    2012-11-07

    Retention and use, without explicit parental permission, of residual dried blood samples from newborn screening has generated public controversy over concerns about violations of family privacy rights and loss of parental autonomy. The public debate about this issue has included little discussion about the destruction of a potentially valuable public resource that can be used for research that may yield improvements in public health. The research community must advocate for policies and infrastructure that promote retention of residual dried blood samples and their use in biomedical research.

  6. Phase-coexistence and thermal hysteresis in samples comprising adventitiously doped MnAs nanocrystals: programming of aggregate properties in magnetostructural nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Regmi, Rajesh; Liu, Yi; Lawes, Gavin; Brock, Stephanie L

    2014-07-22

    Small changes in the synthesis of MnAs nanoparticles lead to materials with distinct behavior. Samples prepared by slow heating to 523 K (type-A) exhibit the characteristic magnetostructural transition from the ferromagnetic hexagonal (α) to the paramagnetic orthorhombic (β) phase of bulk MnAs at Tp = 312 K, whereas those prepared by rapid nucleation at 603 K (type-B) adopt the β structure at room temperature and exhibit anomalous magnetic properties. The behavior of type-B nanoparticles is due to P-incorporation (up to 3%), attributed to reaction of the solvent (trioctylphosphine oxide). P-incorporation results in a decrease in the unit cell volume (∼1%) and shifts Tp below room temperature. Temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction reveals a large region of phase-coexistence, up to 90 K, which may reflect small differences in Tp from particle-to-particle within the nearly monodisperse sample. The large coexistence range coupled to the thermal hysteresis results in process-dependent phase mixtures. As-prepared type-B samples exhibiting the β structure at room temperature convert to a mixture of α and β after the sample has been cooled to 77 K and rewarmed to room temperature. This change is reflected in the magnetic response, which shows an increased moment and a shift in the temperature hysteresis loop after cooling. The proportion of α present at room temperature can also be augmented by application of an external magnetic field. Both doped (type-B) and undoped (type-A) MnAs nanoparticles show significant thermal hysteresis narrowing relative to their bulk phases, suggesting that formation of nanoparticles may be an effective method to reduce thermal losses in magnetic refrigeration applications.

  7. Environmental sample banking-research and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in cooperation with the Environment Protection Agency and the National Science Foundation, is engaged in a research program establishing methodology for environmental sample banking. This program is aimed toward evaluating the feasibility of a National Environment Specimen Bank (NESB). The capability for retrospective chemical analyses to evaluate changes in our environment would provide useful information. Much of this information could not be obtained using data from previously analyzed samples. However, to assure validity for these stored samples, they must be sampled, processed and stored under rigorously evaluated, controlled and documented conditions. The program currently under way in the NBS Analytical Chemistry Division has 3 main components. The first is an extension survey of available literature concerning problems of contamination, losses and storage. The components of interest include trace elements, pesticides, other trace organics (PCBs, plasticizers, etc.), radionuclides and microbiological species. The second component is an experimental evaluation of contamination and losses during sampling and sample handling. Of particular interest here is research into container cleaning methodology for trace elements, with respect to adsorption, desorption, leaching and partial dissolution by various sample matrices. The third component of this program is an evaluation of existing methodology for long-term sample storage

  8. Sampling bias in climate-conflict research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Courtland; Ide, Tobias; Barnett, Jon; Detges, Adrien

    2018-03-01

    Critics have argued that the evidence of an association between climate change and conflict is flawed because the research relies on a dependent variable sampling strategy1-4. Similarly, it has been hypothesized that convenience of access biases the sample of cases studied (the `streetlight effect'5). This also gives rise to claims that the climate-conflict literature stigmatizes some places as being more `naturally' violent6-8. Yet there has been no proof of such sampling patterns. Here we test whether climate-conflict research is based on such a biased sample through a systematic review of the literature. We demonstrate that research on climate change and violent conflict suffers from a streetlight effect. Further, studies which focus on a small number of cases in particular are strongly informed by cases where there has been conflict, do not sample on the independent variables (climate impact or risk), and hence tend to find some association between these two variables. These biases mean that research on climate change and conflict primarily focuses on a few accessible regions, overstates the links between both phenomena and cannot explain peaceful outcomes from climate change. This could result in maladaptive responses in those places that are stigmatized as being inherently more prone to climate-induced violence.

  9. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  10. The Sampling Issues in Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delice, Ali

    2010-01-01

    A concern for generalization dominates quantitative research. For generalizability and repeatability, identification of sample size is essential. The present study investigates 90 qualitative master's theses submitted for the Primary and Secondary School Science and Mathematics Education Departments, Mathematic Education Discipline in 10…

  11. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  12. Sampling knowledge: the hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Noy, Chaim

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades we have witnessed a rather impressive growth of theoretical innovations and conceptual revisions of epistemological and methodological approaches within constructivist-qualitative quarters of the social sciences. Methodological discussions have commonly addressed a variety of methods for collecting and analyzing empirical material, yet the critical grounds upon which these were reformulated have rarely been extended to embrace sampling concepts and procedures. The ...

  13. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  14. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  15. Turbidity Threshold sampling in watershed research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand Eads; Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - When monitoring suspended sediment for watershed research, reliable and accurate results may be a higher priority than in other settings. Timing and frequency of data collection are the most important factors influencing the accuracy of suspended sediment load estimates, and, in most watersheds, suspended sediment transport is dominated by a few, large...

  16. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  17. Ionic liquids comprising heteraromatic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William F.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Maginn, Edward J.; Mindrup, Elaine; Gurkan, Burcu; Price, Erica; Goodrich, Brett

    2018-04-24

    Some embodiments described herein relate to ionic liquids comprising an anion of a heteraromatic compound such as optionally substituted pyrrolide, optionally substituted pyrazolide, optionally substituted indolide, optionally substituted phospholide, or optionally substituted imidazolide. Methods and devices for gas separation or gas absorption related to these ionic liquids are also described herein.

  18. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Rationale, Issues, and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    1995-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampli...

  19. THE USE OF RANKING SAMPLING METHOD WITHIN MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing and statistical literature available to practitioners provides a wide range of sampling methods that can be implemented in the context of marketing research. Ranking sampling method is based on taking apart the general population into several strata, namely into several subdivisions which are relatively homogenous regarding a certain characteristic. In fact, the sample will be composed by selecting, from each stratum, a certain number of components (which can be proportional or non-proportional to the size of the stratum until the pre-established volume of the sample is reached. Using ranking sampling within marketing research requires the determination of some relevant statistical indicators - average, dispersion, sampling error etc. To that end, the paper contains a case study which illustrates the actual approach used in order to apply the ranking sample method within a marketing research made by a company which provides Internet connection services, on a particular category of customers – small and medium enterprises.

  20. [Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salgado, Carolina

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  1. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Improving the Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sampling consideration in qualitative research is very important, yet in practice this appears not to be given the prominence and the rigour it deserves among Higher Education researchers. Accordingly, the quality of research outcomes in Higher Education has suffered from low utilisation. This has motivated the production ...

  2. Approaches to sampling and case selection in qualitative research: examples in the geography of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S; Gesler, W; Smith, G; Washburn, S

    2000-04-01

    This paper focuses on the question of sampling (or selection of cases) in qualitative research. Although the literature includes some very useful discussions of qualitative sampling strategies, the question of sampling often seems to receive less attention in methodological discussion than questions of how data is collected or is analysed. Decisions about sampling are likely to be important in many qualitative studies (although it may not be an issue in some research). There are varying accounts of the principles applicable to sampling or case selection. Those who espouse 'theoretical sampling', based on a 'grounded theory' approach, are in some ways opposed to those who promote forms of 'purposive sampling' suitable for research informed by an existing body of social theory. Diversity also results from the many different methods for drawing purposive samples which are applicable to qualitative research. We explore the value of a framework suggested by Miles and Huberman [Miles, M., Huberman,, A., 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis, Sage, London.], to evaluate the sampling strategies employed in three examples of research by the authors. Our examples comprise three studies which respectively involve selection of: 'healing places'; rural places which incorporated national anti-malarial policies; young male interviewees, identified as either chronically ill or disabled. The examples are used to show how in these three studies the (sometimes conflicting) requirements of the different criteria were resolved, as well as the potential and constraints placed on the research by the selection decisions which were made. We also consider how far the criteria Miles and Huberman suggest seem helpful for planning 'sample' selection in qualitative research.

  3. Sampling in epidemiological research: issues, hazards and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Stephen; Heyman, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of people's opinions are fraught with difficulties. It is easier to obtain information from those who respond to text messages or to emails than to attempt to obtain a representative sample. Samples of the population that are selected non-randomly in this way are termed convenience samples as they are easy to recruit. This introduces a sampling bias. Such non-probability samples have merit in many situations, but an epidemiological enquiry is of little value unless a random sample is obtained. If a sufficient number of those selected actually complete a survey, the results are likely to be representative of the population. This editorial describes probability and non-probability sampling methods and illustrates the difficulties and suggested solutions in performing accurate epidemiological research. PMID:27087985

  4. Convenience samples and caregiving research: how generalizable are the findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Brill, Jonathan E; Shands, Yvonne; Gordon, Judith R; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2008-12-01

    We contrast characteristics of respondents recruited using convenience strategies with those of respondents recruited by random digit dial (RDD) methods. We compare sample variances, means, and interrelationships among variables generated from the convenience and RDD samples. Women aged 50 to 64 who work full time and provide care to a community-dwelling older person were recruited using either RDD (N = 55) or convenience methods (N = 87). Telephone interviews were conducted using reliable, valid measures of demographics, characteristics of the care recipient, help provided to the care recipient, evaluations of caregiver-care recipient relationship, and outcomes common to caregiving research. Convenience and RDD samples had similar variances on 68.4% of the examined variables. We found significant mean differences for 63% of the variables examined. Bivariate correlations suggest that one would reach different conclusions using the convenience and RDD sample data sets. Researchers should use convenience samples cautiously, as they may have limited generalizability.

  5. Accounting for Diversity in Suicide Research: Sampling and Sample Reporting Practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; Tezanos, Katherine M; Peros, Olivia M; Ng, Mei Yi; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Nock, Matthew K; Franklin, Joseph C

    2018-04-01

    Research on suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) has identified many risk factors, but whether these findings generalize to diverse populations remains unclear. We review longitudinal studies on STB risk factors over the past 50 years in the United States and evaluate the methodological practices of sampling and reporting sample characteristics. We found that articles frequently reported participant age and sex, less frequently reported participant race and ethnicity, and rarely reported participant veteran status or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender status. Sample reporting practices modestly and inconsistently improved over time. Finally, articles predominantly featured White, non-Hispanic, young adult samples. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Sample size in psychological research over the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, Jacob M; Barber, Carolyn; Kohlhart, Julie; Holmes, Cooper B

    2011-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference was formed in 1996 in response to a growing body of research demonstrating methodological issues that threatened the credibility of psychological research, and made recommendations to address them. One issue was the small, even dramatically inadequate, size of samples used in studies published by leading journals. The present study assessed the progress made since the Task Force's final report in 1999. Sample sizes reported in four leading APA journals in 1955, 1977, 1995, and 2006 were compared using nonparametric statistics, while data from the last two waves were fit to a hierarchical generalized linear growth model for more in-depth analysis. Overall, results indicate that the recommendations for increasing sample sizes have not been integrated in core psychological research, although results slightly vary by field. This and other implications are discussed in the context of current methodological critique and practice.

  7. Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargelski, C. J.; Berrett, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the system architecture of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the course of the document observations are made concerning the objectives, constraints and limitations, technical approaches, and the technical deliverables

  8. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  9. Sample Identification at Scale - Implementing IGSN in a Research Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Golodoniuc, P.; Wyborn, L. A.; Devaraju, A.; Fraser, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earth sciences are largely observational and rely on natural samples, types of which vary significantly between science disciplines. Sharing and referencing of samples in scientific literature and across the Web requires the use of globally unique identifiers essential for disambiguation. This practice is very common in other fields, e.g. ISBN in publishing, doi in scientific literature, etc. In Earth sciences however, this is still often done in an ad-hoc manner without the use of unique identifiers. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) system provides a persistent, globally unique label for identifying environmental samples. As an IGSN allocating agency, CSIRO implements the IGSN registration service at the organisational scale with contributions from multiple research groups. Capricorn Distal Footprints project is one of the first pioneers and early adopters of the technology in Australia. For this project, IGSN provides a mechanism for identification of new and legacy samples, as well as derived sub-samples. It will ensure transparency and reproducibility in various geochemical sampling campaigns that will involve a diversity of sampling methods. Hence, diverse geochemical and isotopic results can be linked back to the parent sample, particularly where multiple children of that sample have also been analysed. The IGSN integration for this project is still in early stages and requires further consultations on the governance mechanisms that we need to put in place to allow efficient collaboration within CSIRO and collaborating partners on the project including naming conventions, service interfaces, etc. In this work, we present the results of the initial implementation of IGSN in the context of the Capricorn Distal Footprints project. This study has so far demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach, while maintaining the flexibility to adapt to various media types, which is critical in the context of a multi-disciplinary project.

  10. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  11. The ethical use of existing samples for genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathe, Oliver F; McGuire, Amy L

    2009-10-01

    Modern biobanking efforts consist of prospective collections of tissues linked to clinical data for patients who have given informed consent for the research use of their specimens and data, including their DNA. In such efforts, patient autonomy and privacy are well respected because of the prospective nature of the informed consent process. However, one of the richest sources of tissue for research continues to be the millions of archived samples collected by pathology departments during normal clinical care or for research purposes without specific consent for future research or genetic analysis. Because specific consent was not obtained a priori, issues related to individual privacy and autonomy are much more complicated. A framework for accessing these existing samples and related clinical data for research is presented. Archival tissues may be accessed only when there is a reasonable likelihood of generating beneficial and scientifically valid information. To minimize risks, databases containing information related to the tissue and to clinical data should be coded, no personally identifying phenotypic information should be included, and access should be restricted to bona fide researchers for legitimate research purposes. These precautions, if implemented appropriately, should ensure that the research use of archival tissue and data are no more than minimal risk. A waiver of the requirement for informed consent would then be justified if reconsent is shown to be impracticable. A waiver of consent should not be granted, however, if there is a significant risk to privacy, if the proposed research use is inconsistent with the original consent (where there is one), or if the potential harm from a privacy breach is considerable.

  12. Solar System Samples for Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Kascak, A.; Tobola, K.; Galindo, C.; Allen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the next two years, during the NASA Year of the Solar System, spacecraft from NASA and our international partners will; encounter a comet, orbit asteroid 4 Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable "ground truth" to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, are available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach.

  13. Research-Grade 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples: Novel Visualization of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Benefit Curation, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K. R.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's vast and growing collections of astromaterials are both scientifically and culturally significant, requiring unique preservation strategies that need to be recurrently updated to contemporary technological capabilities and increasing accessibility demands. New technologies have made it possible to advance documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. Our interdisciplinary team has developed a method to create 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples (VAS) of the existing collections of Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorites. Research-grade 3D VAS will virtually put these samples in the hands of researchers and educators worldwide, increasing accessibility and visibility of these significant collections. With new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop advanced curation standards for documentation and visualization methodologies.

  14. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  15. GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES COMPRISING PERMEABILITY ENHANCING ADDITIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer compositions comprising a (co)polymer comprising (a) an arylene oxide moiety and (b) a dendritic (co)polymer, a hyperbranched (co)polymer or a mixture thereof, and the use of these polymer compositions as membrane materials for the separation of gases. The

  16. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  17. Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor

  18. Types of non-probabilistic sampling used in marketing research. „Snowball” sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Rozalia Gabor

    2007-01-01

    A significant way of investigating a firm’s market is the statistical sampling. The sampling typology provides a non / probabilistic models of gathering information and this paper describes thorough information related to network sampling, named “snowball” sampling. This type of sampling enables the survey of occurrence forms concerning the decision power within an organisation and of the interpersonal relation network governing a certain collectivity, a certain consumer panel. The snowball s...

  19. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  20. [Practical aspects regarding sample size in clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Ramos, B; Peraza Yanes, O; Herrera Correa, G; Saldívar Toraya, S

    1996-01-01

    The knowledge of the right sample size let us to be sure if the published results in medical papers had a suitable design and a proper conclusion according to the statistics analysis. To estimate the sample size we must consider the type I error, type II error, variance, the size of the effect, significance and power of the test. To decide what kind of mathematics formula will be used, we must define what kind of study we have, it means if its a prevalence study, a means values one or a comparative one. In this paper we explain some basic topics of statistics and we describe four simple samples of estimation of sample size.

  1. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  2. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  3. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhongxiong; Zhang Haibing; Rong Ru; Zhang Tao

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

  4. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  5. Research Note Pilot survey to assess sample size for herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine sub-sample size (number of point observations per plot) for herbaceous species composition assessments, using a wheel-point apparatus applying the nearest-plant method, was conducted. Three plots differing in species composition on the Zululand coastal plain were selected, and on each plot ...

  6. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Pixton, David S [Lehi, UT; Johnson, Monte L [Orem, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael [Springville, UT

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  7. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  8. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Green, Carla A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  9. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  10. Sample geometry as critical factor for stability research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Boers, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    Stability research on gun propellants has been widely performed by microcalorimetry since the 1980s. TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory has already a broad experience since the early 1970s. In the past many studies were performed, to investigate the influence of oxygen, humidity etc. Less attention was

  11. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  12. Research Paper Prevalence of enuresis in a community sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research suggests a higher prevalence of coexisting behavioural disorders, particularly Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), among children with enuresis in comparison to the general population. Studies generally have consisted of participants attending general paediatric medical clinics as opposed to ...

  13. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  14. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  15. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  16. Method of forming a nanocluster comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer (330) on a further layer (114, 320) of a semiconductor device (300) is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer (114, 320), the dielectric precursor compound comprising a

  17. Views of female breast cancer patients who donated biologic samples regarding storage and use of samples for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, K A; Janoff, J M; Harris, L N; Emmons, K M

    2006-05-01

    Although social and ethical issues related to the storage and use of biologic specimens for genetic research have been discussed extensively in the medical literature, few empiric data exist describing patients' views. This qualitative study explored the views of 26 female breast cancer patients who had consented to donate blood or tissue samples for breast cancer research. Participants generally did not expect personal benefits from research and had few unprompted concerns. Few participants had concerns about use of samples for studies not planned at the time of consent. Some participants did express concerns about insurance or employment discrimination, while others believed that current privacy protections might actually slow breast cancer research. Participants were generally more interested in receiving individual genetic test results from research studies than aggregate results. Most participants did not want individual results of uncertain clinical significance, although others believed that they should be able to receive such information. These data examined the range of participants' views regarding the storage and use of biologic samples. Further research with different and diverse patient populations is critical to establishing an appropriate balance between protecting the rights of human subjects in genetic research and allowing research to progress.

  18. Descriptions of sampling practices within five approaches to qualitative research in education and the health sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Guetterman, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Although recommendations exist for determining qualitative sample sizes, the literature appears to contain few instances of research on the topic. Practical guidance is needed for determining sample sizes to conduct rigorous qualitative research, to develop proposals, and to budget resources. The purpose of this article is to describe qualitative sample size and sampling practices within published studies in education and the health sciences by research design: case study, ethnography, ground...

  19. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  20. Delineating sampling procedures: Pedagogical significance of analysing sampling descriptions and their justifications in TESL experimental research reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching second language learners how to write research reports constitutes a crucial component in programmes on English for Specific Purposes (ESP in institutions of higher learning. One of the rhetorical segments in research reports that merit attention has to do with the descriptions and justifications of sampling procedures. This genre-based study looks into sampling delineations in the Method-related sections of research articles on the teaching of English as a second language (TESL written by expert writers and published in eight reputed international refereed journals. Using Swales’s (1990 & 2004 framework, I conducted a quantitative analysis of the rhetorical steps and a qualitative investigation into the language resources employed in delineating sampling procedures. This investigation has considerable relevance to ESP students and instructors as it has yielded pertinent findings on how samples can be appropriately described to meet the expectations of dissertation examiners, reviewers, and supervisors. The findings of this study have furnished insights into how supervisors and instructors can possibly teach novice writers ways of using specific linguistic mechanisms to lucidly describe and convincingly justify the sampling procedures in the Method sections of experimental research reports.

  1. Descriptions of Sampling Practices Within Five Approaches to Qualitative Research in Education and the Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Guetterman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although recommendations exist for determining qualitative sample sizes, the literature appears to contain few instances of research on the topic. Practical guidance is needed for determining sample sizes to conduct rigorous qualitative research, to develop proposals, and to budget resources. The purpose of this article is to describe qualitative sample size and sampling practices within published studies in education and the health sciences by research design: case study, ethnography, grounded theory methodology, narrative inquiry, and phenomenology. I analyzed the 51 most highly cited studies using predetermined content categories and noteworthy sampling characteristics that emerged. In brief, the findings revealed a mean sample size of 87. Less than half of the studies identified a sampling strategy. I include a description of findings by approach and recommendations for sampling to assist methodologists, reviewers, program officers, graduate students, and other qualitative researchers in understanding qualitative sampling practices in recent studies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502256

  2. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  3. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  5. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile

  6. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L'Engle

    Full Text Available Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample.The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census.The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample.The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit

  7. Connecting Research to Teaching: Using Data to Motivate the Use of Empirical Sampling Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hollylynne S.; Starling, Tina T.; Gonzalez, Marggie D.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that students often struggle with understanding empirical sampling distributions. Using hands-on and technology models and simulations of problems generated by real data help students begin to make connections between repeated sampling, sample size, distribution, variation, and center. A task to assist teachers in implementing…

  8. Attitude of A Sample of Iranian Researchers toward The Future of Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipanah, Mahdi; Azadeh, Fereydoon; Totonchi, Mehdi; Omani-Samani, Reza

    2018-10-01

    Stem cells that have unlimited proliferation potential as well as differentiation potency are considered to be a promising future treatment method for incurable diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the future trend of stem cell researches from researchers' viewpoints. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study on researchers involved in stem cell research at Royan Institute. We designed a questionnaire using a qualitative study based on expert opinion and a literature review. Content validity was performed using three rounds of the Delphi method with experts. Face validity was undertaken by a Persian literature expert and a graphics designer. The questionnaire was distributed among 150 researchers involved in stem cell studies in Royan Institute biology laboratories. We collected 138 completed questionnaires. The mean age of participants was 31.13 ± 5.8 years; most (60.9%) were females. Participants (76.1%) considered the budget to be the most important issue in stem cell research, 79.7% needed financial support from the government, and 77.5% felt that charities could contribute substantially to stem cell research. A total of 90.6% of participants stated that stem cells should lead to commercial usage which could support future researches (86.2%). The aim of stem cell research was stipulated as increasing health status of the society according to 92.8% of the participants. At present, among cell types, importance was attached to cord blood and adult stem cells. Researchers emphasized the importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) rather than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, 57.73%). The prime priorities were given to cancer so that stem cell research could be directed to sphere stem cell research whereas the least preference was given to skin research. Regenerative medicine is considered the future of stem cell research with emphasis on application of these cells, especially in cancer treatment. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights

  9. Research recruitment: A marketing framework to improve sample representativeness in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcutt, Sarah J; Barnett, Anna L; Barbosa-Boucas, Sofia; Smith, Lesley A

    2018-04-01

    This discussion paper proposes a five-part theoretical framework to inform recruitment strategies. The framework is based on a marketing model of consumer decision-making. Respondents in surveys are typically healthier than non-respondents, which has an impact on the availability of information about those most in need. Previous research has identified response patterns, provided theories about why people participate in research and evaluated different recruitment strategies. Social marketing has been applied successfully to recruitment and promotes focus on the needs of the participant, but little attention has been paid to the periods before and after participant-researcher contact (during advertising and following completion of studies). We propose a new model which conceptualises participation as a decision involving motivation, perception of information, attitude formation, integration of intention and action and finally evaluation and sharing of experience. Discussion paper. This discussion paper presents a critical review. No literature was excluded on date and the included citations span the years 1981-2017. The proposed framework suggests that researchers could engage a broader demographic if they shape research design and advertising to perform functions that participants are seeking to achieve. The framework provides a novel and useful conceptualisation of recruitment which could help to inform public engagement in research design, researcher training and research policy. This framework challenges researchers to investigate the goals of the potential participants when designing a study's advertising and procedures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sampling in interview-based qualitative research: A theoretical and practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Sampling is central to the practice of qualitative methods, but compared with data collection and analysis, its processes are discussed relatively little. A four-point approach to sampling in qualitative interview-based research is presented and critically discussed in this article, which integrates theory and process for the following: (1) Defining a sample universe, by way of specifying inclusion and exclusion criteria for potential participation; (2) Deciding upon a sample size, through th...

  11. Samples in applied psychology: over a decade of research in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Winny; Kiger, Thomas B; Davies, Stacy E; Rasch, Rena L; Simon, Kara M; Ones, Deniz S

    2011-09-01

    This study examines sample characteristics of articles published in Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) from 1995 to 2008. At the individual level, the overall median sample size over the period examined was approximately 173, which is generally adequate for detecting the average magnitude of effects of primary interest to researchers who publish in JAP. Samples using higher units of analyses (e.g., teams, departments/work units, and organizations) had lower median sample sizes (Mdn ≈ 65), yet were arguably robust given typical multilevel design choices of JAP authors despite the practical constraints of collecting data at higher units of analysis. A substantial proportion of studies used student samples (~40%); surprisingly, median sample sizes for student samples were smaller than working adult samples. Samples were more commonly occupationally homogeneous (~70%) than occupationally heterogeneous. U.S. and English-speaking participants made up the vast majority of samples, whereas Middle Eastern, African, and Latin American samples were largely unrepresented. On the basis of study results, recommendations are provided for authors, editors, and readers, which converge on 3 themes: (a) appropriateness and match between sample characteristics and research questions, (b) careful consideration of statistical power, and (c) the increased popularity of quantitative synthesis. Implications are discussed in terms of theory building, generalizability of research findings, and statistical power to detect effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.

  13. STATISTICAL LANDMARKS AND PRACTICAL ISSUES REGARDING THE USE OF SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING IN MARKET RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample represents a particular segment of the statistical populationchosen to represent it as a whole. The representativeness of the sample determines the accuracyfor estimations made on the basis of calculating the research indicators and the inferentialstatistics. The method of random sampling is part of probabilistic methods which can be usedwithin marketing research and it is characterized by the fact that it imposes the requirementthat each unit belonging to the statistical population should have an equal chance of beingselected for the sampling process. When the simple random sampling is meant to be rigorouslyput into practice, it is recommended to use the technique of random number tables in order toconfigure the sample which will provide information that the marketer needs. The paper alsodetails the practical procedure implemented in order to create a sample for a marketingresearch by generating random numbers using the facilities offered by Microsoft Excel.

  14. Breaking Free of Sample Size Dogma to Perform Innovative Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative clinical and translational research is often delayed or prevented by reviewers’ expectations that any study performed in humans must be shown in advance to have high statistical power. This supposed requirement is not justifiable and is contradicted by the reality that increasing sample size produces diminishing marginal returns. Studies of new ideas often must start small (sometimes even with an N of 1) because of cost and feasibility concerns, and recent statistical work shows that small sample sizes for such research can produce more projected scientific value per dollar spent than larger sample sizes. Renouncing false dogma about sample size would remove a serious barrier to innovation and translation. PMID:21677197

  15. [Formal sample size calculation and its limited validity in animal studies of medical basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B; Muche, R

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies are highly relevant for basic medical research, although their usage is discussed controversially in public. Thus, an optimal sample size for these projects should be aimed at from a biometrical point of view. Statistical sample size calculation is usually the appropriate methodology in planning medical research projects. However, required information is often not valid or only available during the course of an animal experiment. This article critically discusses the validity of formal sample size calculation for animal studies. Within the discussion, some requirements are formulated to fundamentally regulate the process of sample size determination for animal experiments.

  16. Experience-Sampling Research Methods and Their Potential for Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Sabrina; Garcia, Julie A.; Murphy, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Experience-sampling methods (ESM) enable us to learn about individuals' lives in context by measuring participants' feelings, thoughts, actions, context, and/or activities as they go about their daily lives. By capturing experience, affect, and action "in the moment" and with repeated measures, ESM approaches allow researchers…

  17. Methodological integrative review of the work sampling technique used in nursing workload research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Nicole; Duffield, Christine M; Gallagher, Robyn; Roche, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To critically review the work sampling technique used in nursing workload research. Work sampling is a technique frequently used by researchers and managers to explore and measure nursing activities. However, work sampling methods used are diverse making comparisons of results between studies difficult. Methodological integrative review. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 2002-2012. Manual scanning of reference lists and Rich Site Summary feeds from contemporary nursing journals were other sources of data. Articles published in the English language between 2002-2012 reporting on research which used work sampling to examine nursing workload. Eighteen articles were reviewed. The review identified that the work sampling technique lacks a standardized approach, which may have an impact on the sharing or comparison of results. Specific areas needing a shared understanding included the training of observers and subjects who self-report, standardization of the techniques used to assess observer inter-rater reliability, sampling methods and reporting of outcomes. Work sampling is a technique that can be used to explore the many facets of nursing work. Standardized reporting measures would enable greater comparison between studies and contribute to knowledge more effectively. Author suggestions for the reporting of results may act as guidelines for researchers considering work sampling as a research method. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Feasibility studies on large sample neutron activation analysis using a low power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyampo, O.

    2008-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) can be directly applied to samples with masses in grams. Samples weights were in the range of 0.5g to 5g. Therefore, the representativity of the sample is improved as well as sensitivity. Irradiation of samples was done using a low power research reactor. The correction for the neutron self-shielding within the sample is determined from measurement of the neutron flux depression just outside the sample. Correction for gamma ray self-attenuation in the sample was performed via linear attenuation coefficients derived from transmission measurements. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data were done using gamma ray spectrometry (HPGe detector). The results of this study on the possibilities of large sample NAA using a miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) show clearly that the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) at the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) can be used for sample analyses up to 5 grams (5g) using the pneumatic transfer systems.

  19. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  20. Research on stored biological samples: views of African American and White American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Rebecca D; Billot, Laurent; Wendler, David

    2006-04-01

    Proposals on consent for research with biological samples should be informed by empirical studies of individuals' views. Studies to date queried mostly white research subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the views of two groups of patients: cancer patients at a university clinic (Winship Cancer Institute at Emory Healthcare) and cancer patients at an inner city county hospital (Grady) who were given the option of tissue banking. Overall, 315/452 (70%) patients completed the survey. The Grady cohort was 86% African American; the Winship cohort was 82% White. The vast majority (95%) of individuals in both cohorts agreed to provide a biological sample for future research. Both cohorts were willing for their samples to be used to study cancer and other diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Few participants preferred to control the disease to be studied (10%) or wished to be contacted again for consent for each future research project (11%). In our sample, almost all clinical patients, regardless of site of care, ethnicity or socioeconomic status, were willing to provide a biological sample for research purposes and allow investigators to determine the research to be done without contacting the patients again. These findings support the recommendation to offer individuals a simplified consent with a one-time binary choice whether to provide biological samples for future research. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples: Improving Sample Accessibility and Enabling Current and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples is a community designed and maintained resource enabling researchers to locate and request sea floor and lakebed geologic samples archived by partner institutions. Conceived in the dawn of the digital age by representatives from U.S. academic and government marine core repositories and the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) at a 1977 meeting convened by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Index is based on core concepts of community oversight, common vocabularies, consistent metadata and a shared interface. Form and content of underlying vocabularies and metadata continue to evolve according to the needs of the community, as do supporting technologies and access methodologies. The Curators Consortium, now international in scope, meets at partner institutions biennially to share ideas and discuss best practices. NGDC serves the group by providing database access and maintenance, a list server, digitizing support and long-term archival of sample metadata, data and imagery. Over three decades, participating curators have performed the herculean task of creating and contributing metadata for over 195,000 sea floor and lakebed cores, grabs, and dredges archived in their collections. Some partners use the Index for primary web access to their collections while others use it to increase exposure of more in-depth institutional systems. The Index is currently a geospatially-enabled relational database, publicly accessible via Web Feature and Web Map Services, and text- and ArcGIS map-based web interfaces. To provide as much knowledge as possible about each sample, the Index includes curatorial contact information and links to related data, information and images; 1) at participating institutions, 2) in the NGDC archive, and 3) at sites such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR). Over 34,000 International GeoSample Numbers (IGSNs) linking to SESAR are

  2. Compositions comprising free-standing two-dimensional nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury; Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Mashtalir, Olha

    2017-12-05

    The present invention is directed to methods of transferring urea from an aqueous solution comprising urea to a MXene composition, the method comprising contacting the aqueous solution comprising urea with the MXene composition for a time sufficient to form an intercalated MXene composition comprising urea.

  3. Life Science Research Sample Transfer Technology for On Orbit Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With retirement of the space shuttle program, microgravity researchers can no longer count on bringing experiment samples back to earth for post-flight analysis....

  4. A Systematic Review of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Research Samples in Couple and Family Therapy Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Erica E; Serovich, Julianne M; Reed, Sandra J; Boisvert, Danielle; Falbo, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to review samples from research on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues and to evaluate the suitability of this body of research to support affirmative and evidence-based practice with GLB clients. The authors systematically reviewed the sampling methodology and sample composition of GLB-related research. All original, quantitative articles focusing on GLB issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals since 1975 were coded (n = 153). Results suggest that within the GLB literature base there is some evidence of heterocentrism as well as neglect of issues of class, race, and gender. Suggestions to improve the diversity and representativeness of samples-and, thus, clinical implications-of GLB-related research in CFT literature are provided. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. Misrepresenting random sampling? A systematic review of research papers in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R

    2003-11-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical limitations of the use of random sampling and probability theory in the production of a significance level (or P-value) in nursing research. Potential alternatives, in the form of randomization tests, are proposed. Research papers in nursing, medicine and psychology frequently misrepresent their statistical findings, as the P-values reported assume random sampling. In this systematic review of studies published between January 1995 and June 2002 in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, 89 (68%) studies broke this assumption because they used convenience samples or entire populations. As a result, some of the findings may be questionable. The key ideas of random sampling and probability theory for statistical testing (for generating a P-value) are outlined. The result of a systematic review of research papers published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing is then presented, showing how frequently random sampling appears to have been misrepresented. Useful alternative techniques that might overcome these limitations are then discussed. REVIEW LIMITATIONS: This review is limited in scope because it is applied to one journal, and so the findings cannot be generalized to other nursing journals or to nursing research in general. However, it is possible that other nursing journals are also publishing research articles based on the misrepresentation of random sampling. The review is also limited because in several of the articles the sampling method was not completely clearly stated, and in this circumstance a judgment has been made as to the sampling method employed, based on the indications given by author(s). Quantitative researchers in nursing should be very careful that the statistical techniques they use are appropriate for the design and sampling methods of their studies. If the techniques they employ are not appropriate, they run the risk of misinterpreting findings by using inappropriate, unrepresentative and biased samples.

  6. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  7. Research and application of sampling and analysis method of sodium aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaochen; Guo Qingzhou; Wen Ximeng

    1998-01-01

    Method of sampling-analysis for sodium aerosol is researched. The vacuum sampling technology is used in the sampling process, and the analysis method adopted is volumetric analysis and atomic absorption. When the absolute content of sodium is in the rang of 0.1 mg to 1.0 mg, the deviation of results between volumetric analysis and atomic absorption is less than 2%. The method has been applied in a sodium aerosol removal device successfully. The analysis range, accuracy and precision can meet the requirements for researching sodium aerosol

  8. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2018-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs, and referred to publications for further reading. This third article addresses FAQs about sampling, data collection and analysis. The data collection plan needs to be broadly defined and open at first, and become flexible during data collection. Sampling strategies should be chosen in such a way that they yield rich information and are consistent with the methodological approach used. Data saturation determines sample size and will be different for each study. The most commonly used data collection methods are participant observation, face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses in ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and content analysis studies yield different narrative findings: a detailed description of a culture, the essence of the lived experience, a theory, and a descriptive summary, respectively. The fourth and final article will focus on trustworthiness and publishing qualitative research.

  9. Utilization of the National Inpatient Sample for abdominal aortic aneurysm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Ali, Fadwa; Traudt, Elizabeth; Desai, Sapan S

    2017-10-01

    Large administrative databases, including the Medicare database by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database sponsored by the American College of Surgeons, and the National Inpatient Sample, have been used by major public health agencies for years. More recently, medical researchers have turned to database research to power studies on diseases that are noted to be relatively scarce. This study aimed to review and discuss the utilization of the National Inpatient Sample for abdominal aortic aneurysm research, inclusive of its advantages, disadvantages, and best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Publications and geothermal sample library facilities of the Earth Science Laboratory, University of Utah Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Phillip M.; Ruth, Kathryn A.; Langton, David R.; Bullett, Michael J.

    1990-03-30

    The Earth Science Laboratory of the University of Utah Research Institute has been involved in research in geothermal exploration and development for the past eleven years. Our work has resulted in the publication of nearly 500 reports, which are listed in this document. Over the years, we have collected drill chip and core samples from more than 180 drill holes in geothermal areas, and most of these samples are available to others for research, exploration and similar purposes. We hope that scientists and engineers involved in industrial geothermal development will find our technology transfer and service efforts helpful.

  11. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Natalia; Winkler, Paula; Lopez, Jaime; Dennison, Meagen; Liang, Yuanyuan; Turner, Barbara J

    2016-10-28

    Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1) snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2) purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community). Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities' stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 %) consented, 52 (95 %) attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 %) attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 %) consented, 36 (58 %) attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 %) attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045) which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements/transportation services (P = 0.004) which was higher for the snowball sampling group. In each of the two similar hard-to-reach communities, a community advisory board partnered with researchers

  12. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Valerio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. Methods In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1 snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2 purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community. Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities’ stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Results Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 % consented, 52 (95 % attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 % attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 % consented, 36 (58 % attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 % attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P < 0.05. Despite differing recruitment strategies, stakeholders from the two communities identified largely similar ideas for research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045 which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements

  13. Illite K-Ar dating of fault breccia samples from ONKALO underground research facility, Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenttaeri, I.; Mattila, J.; Zwingmann, H.; Todd, A.J.

    2007-08-01

    Illite K-Ar age determinations were done on five fault breccia samples from the ONKALO underground research facility, Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, S-W Finland. The XRD, SEM, and TEM studies and K-Ar analyses were done in John deLaeter Center in Mass Spectrometry at Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. The <2 micron grain size fractions contain illite, chlorite, dickite, and quartz. All fractions had minor contamination phases comprising mainly of quartz but traces of K-feldspar contamination could be identified in all samples. The authigenic illite shows variable K concentrations. The illite contents of the ONK-PL68 and ONK-PL87 samples are the smallest. The K-Ar ages for the <2 micron fractions vary from ∼0.55 Ga to 1.38 Ga. The sample ONKPL68 yields a K-Ar age of 912 ± 18 Ma corresponding to a Neoproterozoic-Tonian age. This age can be roughly temporally linked with late events related to Sveconorwegian orogeny. Sample ONK-PL87 has a K-Ar age of 550 ± 11 Ma corresponding to a Neoproterozoic - Lower Cambrian age. The samples ONK-PL522 and ONK-PL901 sampled from the storage hall fault show identical K-Ar ages of 1385 ± 27 Ma and 1373 ± 27 Ma, respectively. These correspond to a Mesoproterozoic-Ectasian age related to Subjotnian or Postjotnian events. ONK-PL960 yields a K-Ar age of 1225 ± 24 Ma corresponding to a Mesoproterozoic-Ectasian age. This age agrees well with the ages from Postjotnian diabase dykes in W Finland. The 2-3 % detrital K-feldspar contamination in clay fractions increases the age. Especially for the youngest sample ONK-PL87, the effect may be geologically meaningful as after the correction the age clearly indicates Caledonian events. Moreover, the age for the low K sample ONKPL901 shifts to indicate Postjotnian diabase age. (orig.)

  14. Improving the quality of biomarker discovery research: the right samples and enough of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Margaret S; Li, Christopher I; Feng, Ziding

    2015-06-01

    Biomarker discovery research has yielded few biomarkers that validate for clinical use. A contributing factor may be poor study designs. The goal in discovery research is to identify a subset of potentially useful markers from a large set of candidates assayed on case and control samples. We recommend the PRoBE design for selecting samples. We propose sample size calculations that require specifying: (i) a definition for biomarker performance; (ii) the proportion of useful markers the study should identify (Discovery Power); and (iii) the tolerable number of useless markers amongst those identified (False Leads Expected, FLE). We apply the methodology to a study of 9,000 candidate biomarkers for risk of colon cancer recurrence where a useful biomarker has positive predictive value ≥ 30%. We find that 40 patients with recurrence and 160 without recurrence suffice to filter out 98% of useless markers (2% FLE) while identifying 95% of useful biomarkers (95% Discovery Power). Alternative methods for sample size calculation required more assumptions. Biomarker discovery research should utilize quality biospecimen repositories and include sample sizes that enable markers meeting prespecified performance characteristics for well-defined clinical applications to be identified. The scientific rigor of discovery research should be improved. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  16. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  17. Causality in Statistical Power: Isomorphic Properties of Measurement, Research Design, Effect Size, and Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eric Heidel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is the ability to detect a significant effect, given that the effect actually exists in a population. Like most statistical concepts, statistical power tends to induce cognitive dissonance in hepatology researchers. However, planning for statistical power by an a priori sample size calculation is of paramount importance when designing a research study. There are five specific empirical components that make up an a priori sample size calculation: the scale of measurement of the outcome, the research design, the magnitude of the effect size, the variance of the effect size, and the sample size. A framework grounded in the phenomenon of isomorphism, or interdependencies amongst different constructs with similar forms, will be presented to understand the isomorphic effects of decisions made on each of the five aforementioned components of statistical power.

  18. Informatics-guided procurement of patient samples for biomarker discovery projects in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, K Stephen; Remache, Yvonne K; Patel, Jalpa S; Chen, Steve H; Haystrand, Russell; Ford, Peggy; Shaikh, Anadil M; Wang, Jian; Goy, Andre H

    2009-02-01

    Modern cancer research for biomarker discovery program requires solving several tasks that are directly involved with patient sample procurement. One requirement is to construct a highly efficient workflow on the clinical side for the procurement to generate a consistent supply of high quality samples for research. This undertaking needs a network of interdepartmental collaborations and participations at various levels, including physical human interactions, information technology implementations and a bioinformatics tool that is highly effective and user-friendly to busy clinicians and researchers associated with the sample procurement. Collegial participation that is sequential but continual from one department to another demands dedicated bioinformatics software coordinating between the institutional clinic and the tissue repository facility. Participants in the process include admissions, consenting process, phlebotomy, surgery center and pathology. During this multiple step procedures, clinical data are collected for detailed analytical endpoints to supplement logistics of defining and validating the discovery of biomarkers.

  19. Reproducibility of preclinical animal research improves with heterogeneity of study samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lucile; Sena, Emily S.; Würbel, Hanno

    2018-01-01

    Single-laboratory studies conducted under highly standardized conditions are the gold standard in preclinical animal research. Using simulations based on 440 preclinical studies across 13 different interventions in animal models of stroke, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer, we compared the accuracy of effect size estimates between single-laboratory and multi-laboratory study designs. Single-laboratory studies generally failed to predict effect size accurately, and larger sample sizes rendered effect size estimates even less accurate. By contrast, multi-laboratory designs including as few as 2 to 4 laboratories increased coverage probability by up to 42 percentage points without a need for larger sample sizes. These findings demonstrate that within-study standardization is a major cause of poor reproducibility. More representative study samples are required to improve the external validity and reproducibility of preclinical animal research and to prevent wasting animals and resources for inconclusive research. PMID:29470495

  20. Polythiophenes Comprising Conjugated Pendants for Polymer Solar Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ju Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polythiophene (PT is one of the widely used donor materials for solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs. Much progress in PT-based PSCs can be attributed to the design of novel PTs exhibiting intense and broad visible absorption with high charge carrier mobility to increase short-circuit current density (Jsc, along with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO levels to achieve large open circuit voltage (Voc values. A promising strategy to tailor the photophysical properties and energy levels via covalently attaching electron donor and acceptor pendants on PTs backbone has attracted much attention recently. The geometry, electron-donating capacity, and composition of conjugated pendants are supposed to be the crucial factors in adjusting the conformation, energy levels, and photovoltaic performance of PTs. This review will go over the most recent approaches that enable researchers to obtain in-depth information in the development of PTs comprising conjugated pendants for PSCs.

  1. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  2. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  3. Twenty-year trends of authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2012-02-01

    This study documented the trends in authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research published in the Journal of Applied Biomechanics and ISBS Proceedings. Original research articles of the 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009 volumes of these serials were reviewed, excluding reviews, modeling papers, technical notes, and editorials. Compared to 1989 volumes, the mean number of authors per paper significantly increased (35 and 100%, respectively) in the 2009 volumes, along with increased rates of hyperauthorship, and a decline in rates of single authorship. Sample sizes varied widely across papers and did not appear to change since 1989.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  5. Are samples drawn from Mechanical Turk valid for research on political ideology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Clifford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk is an increasingly popular tool for the recruitment of research subjects. While there has been much focus on the demographic differences between MTurk samples and the national public, we know little about whether liberals and conservatives recruited from MTurk share the same psychological dispositions as their counterparts in the mass public. In the absence of such evidence, some have argued that the selection process involved in joining MTurk invalidates the subject pool for studying questions central to political science. In this paper, we evaluate this claim by comparing a large MTurk sample to two benchmark national samples – one conducted online and one conducted face-to-face. We examine the personality and value-based motivations of political ideology across the three samples. All three samples produce substantively identical results with only minor variation in effect sizes. In short, liberals and conservatives in our MTurk sample closely mirror the psychological divisions of liberals and conservatives in the mass public, though MTurk liberals hold more characteristically liberal values and attitudes than liberals from representative samples. Overall, our results suggest that MTurk is a valid recruitment tool for psychological research on political ideology.

  6. Recruiting a representative sample in adherence research-The MALT multisite prospective cohort study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Eyal; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Neighbors, Katie; Feist, Susan; Hawkins, Andre; Brown, Amanda; Wanrong, Yin; Anand, Ravinder; Stuber, Margaret L; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2017-12-01

    Medication adherence is an important determinant of transplant outcomes. Attempts to investigate adherence are frequently undermined by selection bias: It is very hard to recruit and retain non-adherent patients in research efforts. This manuscript presents recruitment strategies and results from the MALT (Medication Adherence in children who had a Liver Transplant) multisite prospective cohort study. MALT sites recruited 400 pediatric liver transplant patients who agreed to be followed for 2 years. The primary purpose was to determine whether a marker of adherence, the Medication Level Variability Index (MLVI), predicts rejection outcomes. The present manuscript describes methods used in MALT to ensure that a representative sample was recruited, and presents detailed recruitment results. MALT sites were able to recruit a nationally representative sample, as determined by a comparison between the MALT cohort and a national sample of transplant recipients. Strategies that helped ensure that the sample was representative included monitoring of the outcome measure in comparison with a national sample, drastically limiting patient burden, and specific recruitment methods. We discuss the importance of a representative sample in adherence research and recommend that future efforts to study adherence pay special attention to sample characteristics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Peripheral biomarkers revisited: integrative profiling of peripheral samples for psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Vawter, Marquis P; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2014-06-15

    Peripheral samples, such as blood and skin, have been used for decades in psychiatric research as surrogates for central nervous system samples. Although the validity of the data obtained from peripheral samples has been questioned and other state-of-the-art techniques, such as human brain imaging, genomics, and induced pluripotent stem cells, seem to reduce the value of peripheral cells, accumulating evidence has suggested that revisiting peripheral samples is worthwhile. Here, we re-evaluate the utility of peripheral samples and argue that establishing an understanding of the common signaling and biological processes in the brain and peripheral samples is required for the validity of such models. First, we present an overview of the available types of peripheral cells and describe their advantages and disadvantages. We then briefly summarize the main achievements of omics studies, including epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses, as well as the main findings of functional cellular assays, the results of which imply that alterations in neurotransmission, metabolism, the cell cycle, and the immune system may be partially responsible for the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Finally, we discuss the future utility of peripheral samples for the development of biomarkers and tailor-made therapies, such as multimodal assays that are used as a battery of disease and trait pathways and that might be potent and complimentary tools for use in psychiatric research. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  8. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs, and referred to publications for further reading. This third article addresses FAQs about sampling, data collection and analysis. The data collection plan needs to be broadly defined and open at first, and become flexible during data collection. Sampling strategies should be chosen in such a way that they yield rich information and are consistent with the methodological approach used. Data saturation determines sample size and will be different for each study. The most commonly used data collection methods are participant observation, face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses in ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and content analysis studies yield different narrative findings: a detailed description of a culture, the essence of the lived experience, a theory, and a descriptive summary, respectively. The fourth and final article will focus on trustworthiness and publishing qualitative research. PMID:29199486

  9. Race and Research Methods Anxiety in an Undergraduate Sample: The Potential Effects of Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores race as a potential predictor of research methods anxiety among a sample of undergraduates. While differences in academic achievement based on race and ethnicity have been well documented, few studies have examined racial differences in anxiety with regard to specific subject matter in undergraduate curricula. This exploratory…

  10. Differences between Internet samples and conventional samples of men who have sex with men: implications for research and HIV interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Tikkanen, R; Månsson, S A

    2000-09-01

    The Internet is becoming a new erotic oasis for obtaining sex online or in person. We reviewed the literature on cybersex and compared differences in data from samples of homosexually active men obtained on identical questionnaires from a conventional written questionnaire, distributed through the mailing and contact lists of a large national gay organization in Sweden, and through the same organization's website and chat room. A total of 716 written questionnaires and 678 Internet questionnaires were obtained. The Internet sample was younger, more likely to live in small towns or cities, live with parents or a girlfriend, and have lower formal education. They are less likely to have previous sexual experience solely with other men (one in three of the Internet sample vs. 1 in 14 of the written sample defined themselves as bisexual) and more likely to visit erotic oases such as bathhouses, video clubs and erotic movie houses. They also visited Internet chat rooms more frequently (86% of the Internet sample vs. 50% of the written sample). One third of the Internet sample wanted the opportunity to talk with an expert about HIV compared with a quarter of the written sample. Sexual practices between the two samples were generally similar, although the Internet sample reported significantly less body contact, kissing, hugging, mutual masturbation, and more condom use for anal intercourse with steady partners. Over four times as many of the Internet samples reported sex with women in the past year as the written sample. These data indicate that Internet data collection is feasible and that this mode of data collection, despite the nonrandom and self-selected nature of both types of samples, is likely to be more significantly oriented toward the young, geographically more isolated, and more behaviorally and self-identified bisexual respondent than conventionally distributed written questionnaires.

  11. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  12. Asteroseismology of KIC 7107778: a binary comprising almost identical subgiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaguang; Bedding, Timothy R.; Li, Tanda; Bi, Shaolan; Murphy, Simon J.; Corsaro, Enrico; Chen, Li; Tian, Zhijia

    2018-05-01

    We analyse an asteroseismic binary system: KIC 7107778, a non-eclipsing, unresolved target, with solar-like oscillations in both components. We used Kepler short cadence time series spanning nearly 2 yr to obtain the power spectrum. Oscillation mode parameters were determined using Bayesian inference and a nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm with the DIAMONDS package. The power profiles of the two components fully overlap, indicating their close similarity. We modelled the two stars with MESA and calculated oscillation frequencies with GYRE. Stellar fundamental parameters (mass, radius, and age) were estimated by grid modelling with atmospheric parameters and the oscillation frequencies of l = 0, 2 modes as constraints. Most l = 1 mixed modes were identified with models searched using a bisection method. Stellar parameters for the two sub-giant stars are MA = 1.42 ± 0.06 M⊙, MB = 1.39 ± 0.03 M⊙, RA = 2.93 ± 0.05 R⊙, RB = 2.76 ± 0.04 R⊙, tA = 3.32 ± 0.54 Gyr and tB = 3.51 ± 0.33 Gyr. The mass difference of the system is ˜1 per cent. The results confirm their simultaneous birth and evolution, as is expected from binary formation. KIC 7107778 comprises almost identical twins, and is the first asteroseismic sub-giant binary to be detected.

  13. Ethics and law in research with human biological samples: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    During the last century a large number of documents (regulations, ethical codes, treatises, declarations, conventions) were published on the subject of ethics and clinical trials, many of them focusing on the protection of research participants. More recently various proposals have been put forward to relax some of the constraints imposed on research by these documents and regulations. It is important to distinguish between risks deriving from direct interventions on human subjects and other types of risk. In Italy the Data Protection Authority has acted in the question of research using previously collected health data and biological samples to simplify the procedures regarding informed consent. The new approach may be of help to other researchers working outside Italy.

  14. Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle Mansilla, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering

  15. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  16. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  17. Printhead and inkjet printer comprising such a printhead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a printhead comprising multiple substantially closed ink chambers (13), the ink chambers being mutually separated by at least one wall (12), wherein each of the chambers comprises an electro-mechanical converter (15), where actuation of the converter leads to a volume change

  18. Gel dosimetry - a laser based 3D scanner for gel samples - research in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmer, Johannes [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Photonics Division, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dhiviyaraj Kalaiselven, Senthil Kumar [Photonics Division, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States); James, Jebaseelan Samuel [Photonics Division, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    A laser based 3D scanner is developed to take tomography images of partly transparent samples. The scanner is optimized to characterize gel samples from spatially resolved dosimetry measurements. The resulting device should be suitably designed to be constructed in India. This gave me valuable insight into the scientific and technological environment of the country and made me find my way through a quite different culture of research and commerce, within and beyond the scientific context of the university. The project was implemented during a nine months stay at the Vellore Institute of Technology University in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, in co-operation with the Christian Medical College, Vellore, in 2006/07. It was conducted within the framework of existing research activities of the host university.

  19. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2011-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender peop...

  20. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992

  1. Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Mas Milian, Felix; Deppman, Airton; Pinto Coelho, Paulo Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    For the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up a device for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing with another type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international project between Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types of ionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, which demonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device for biological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole No3(BH3) for more than five years at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor according to the solicited requirements the device. The designed device increases considerably the type of studies can be conducted in this reactor. Its practical application in research taking place in that facility, in the field of radiobiology and dosimetry, and so on is immediate

  2. Validating internet research: a test of the psychometric equivalence of internet and in-person samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Paul; Tryon, Warren W

    2003-11-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric equivalency of Web-based research. The Sexual Boredom Scale was presented via the World-Wide Web along with five additional scales used to validate it. A subset of 533 participants that matched a previously published sample (Watt & Ewing, 1996) on age, gender, and race was identified. An 8 x 8 correlation matrix from the matched Internet sample was compared via structural equation modeling with a similar 8 x 8 correlation matrix from the previously published study. The Internet and previously published samples were psychometrically equivalent. Coefficient alpha values calculated on the matched Internet sample yielded reliability coefficients almost identical to those for the previously published sample. Factors such as computer administration and uncontrollable administration settings did not appear to affect the results. Demographic data indicated an overrepresentation of males by about 6% and Caucasians by about 13% relative to the U.S. Census (2000). A total of 2,230 participants were obtained in about 8 months without remuneration. These results suggest that data collection on the Web is (1) reliable, (2) valid, (3) reasonably representative, (4) cost effective, and (5) efficient.

  3. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING, BY MODE, CONQUEST, AND MARKER. (R825173)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Medical preparation container comprising microwave powered sensor assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave ...... oven. The microwave powered sensor assembly is configured for harvesting energy from microwave radiation emitted by the microwave oven and energize the sensor by the harvested microwave energy.......The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave...

  5. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  6. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  7. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  8. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research ... This study determined the extent of bacterial contamination of cow meat ... Sample Size/ Sample Collection: A total of 120 samples comprising of 40 samples ...

  10. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online.

  11. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2013-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  12. Evaluation applications of instrument calibration research findings in psychology for very small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many published research studies document item calibration invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-calibrated self-report instruments measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one instrument were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.

  13. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  14. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  15. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  16. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  17. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  18. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  19. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  20. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  1. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  2. Determination of 7BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmogenic 7 Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The 7 Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. 7 Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to 228 Ac (E γ = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the 7 Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of 228 Ac in the 7 Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  3. A Quantitative Proteomics Approach to Clinical Research with Non-Traditional Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rígel Licier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The proper handling of samples to be analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS can guarantee excellent results and a greater depth of analysis when working in quantitative proteomics. This is critical when trying to assess non-traditional sources such as ear wax, saliva, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, tears, nipple aspirate fluid, breast milk/colostrum, cervical-vaginal fluid, nasal secretions, bronco-alveolar lavage fluid, and stools. We intend to provide the investigator with relevant aspects of quantitative proteomics and to recognize the most recent clinical research work conducted with atypical samples and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Having as reference the most recent and different approaches used with non-traditional sources allows us to compare new strategies in the development of novel experimental models. On the other hand, these references help us to contribute significantly to the understanding of the proportions of proteins in different proteomes of clinical interest and may lead to potential advances in the emerging field of precision medicine.

  4. A Quantitative Proteomics Approach to Clinical Research with Non-Traditional Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licier, Rígel; Miranda, Eric; Serrano, Horacio

    2016-10-17

    The proper handling of samples to be analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) can guarantee excellent results and a greater depth of analysis when working in quantitative proteomics. This is critical when trying to assess non-traditional sources such as ear wax, saliva, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, tears, nipple aspirate fluid, breast milk/colostrum, cervical-vaginal fluid, nasal secretions, bronco-alveolar lavage fluid, and stools. We intend to provide the investigator with relevant aspects of quantitative proteomics and to recognize the most recent clinical research work conducted with atypical samples and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Having as reference the most recent and different approaches used with non-traditional sources allows us to compare new strategies in the development of novel experimental models. On the other hand, these references help us to contribute significantly to the understanding of the proportions of proteins in different proteomes of clinical interest and may lead to potential advances in the emerging field of precision medicine.

  5. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  6. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  7. Thermal emitter comprising near-zero permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ting S.; Campione, Salvatore; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2017-10-25

    A novel thermal source comprising a semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial provides control of the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern. These properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. In particular, the thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  8. Experience sampling methodology in mental health research: new insights and technical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kasanova, Zuzana; Vaessen, Thomas; Vachon, Hugo; Kirtley, Olivia; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2018-06-01

    In the mental health field, there is a growing awareness that the study of psychiatric symptoms in the context of everyday life, using experience sampling methodology (ESM), may provide a powerful and necessary addition to more conventional research approaches. ESM, a structured self-report diary technique, allows the investigation of experiences within, and in interaction with, the real-world context. This paper provides an overview of how zooming in on the micro-level of experience and behaviour using ESM adds new insights and additional perspectives to standard approaches. More specifically, it discusses how ESM: a) contributes to a deeper understanding of psychopathological phenomena, b) allows to capture variability over time, c) aids in identifying internal and situational determinants of variability in symptomatology, and d) enables a thorough investigation of the interaction between the person and his/her environment and of real-life social interactions. Next to improving assessment of psychopathology and its underlying mechanisms, ESM contributes to advancing and changing clinical practice by allowing a more fine-grained evaluation of treatment effects as well as by providing the opportunity for extending treatment beyond the clinical setting into real life with the development of ecological momentary interventions. Furthermore, this paper provides an overview of the technical details of setting up an ESM study in terms of design, questionnaire development and statistical approaches. Overall, although a number of considerations and challenges remain, ESM offers one of the best opportunities for personalized medicine in psychiatry, from both a research and a clinical perspective. © 2018 World Psychiatric Association.

  9. Double sampling with multiple imputation to answer large sample meta-research questions: Introduction and illustration by evaluating adherence to two simple CONSORT guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice L. Capers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meta-research can involve manual retrieval and evaluation of research, which is resource intensive. Creation of high throughput methods (e.g., search heuristics, crowdsourcing has improved feasibility of large meta-research questions, but possibly at the cost of accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of double sampling combined with multiple imputation (DS+MI to address meta-research questions, using as an example adherence of PubMed entries to two simple Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT guidelines for titles and abstracts. METHODS: For the DS large sample, we retrieved all PubMed entries satisfying the filters: RCT; human; abstract available; and English language (n=322,107. For the DS subsample, we randomly sampled 500 entries from the large sample. The large sample was evaluated with a lower rigor, higher throughput (RLOTHI method using search heuristics, while the subsample was evaluated using a higher rigor, lower throughput (RHITLO human rating method. Multiple imputation of the missing-completely-at-random RHITLO data for the large sample was informed by: RHITLO data from the subsample; RLOTHI data from the large sample; whether a study was an RCT; and country and year of publication. RESULTS: The RHITLO and RLOTHI methods in the subsample largely agreed (phi coefficients: title=1.00, abstract=0.92. Compliance with abstract and title criteria has increased over time, with non-US countries improving more rapidly. DS+MI logistic regression estimates were more precise than subsample estimates (e.g., 95% CI for change in title and abstract compliance by Year: subsample RHITLO 1.050-1.174 vs. DS+MI 1.082-1.151. As evidence of improved accuracy, DS+MI coefficient estimates were closer to RHITLO than the large sample RLOTHI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis that DS+MI would result in improved precision and accuracy. This method is flexible and may provide a practical way to examine large corpora of

  10. Consumption of new psychoactive substances in a Spanish sample of research chemical users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Débora; Ventura, Mireia; Caudevilla, Fernando; Torrens, Marta; Farre, Magi

    2013-07-01

    To know the pattern of use of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in a Spanish sample of research chemical (RC) users and to deepen the RC user profile and risk reduction strategies employed. This study is a cross-sectional survey by means of a specific questionnaire. Recruitment was carried out at music festivals, at non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and through announcements on an online forum. Two RC user profiles were defined, according to whether they search information through online forums. A total of 230 users participated. The most frequent RCs were hallucinogenic phenethylamines (2C-B 80.0%, 2C-I 39.6%) and cathinones (methylone 40.1%, mephedrone 35.2%). The most frequent combination of RC with other illegal drugs was with cannabis (68.6%) and 2C-B with MDMA (28.3%). Subjects who are consulting drug forums (group 1) use more RC, obtain RC by Internet, and use more frequently risk prevention strategies. Regarding the risk-reduction strategies in this group, users sought information concerning RC before consuming them (100%), used precision scales to calculate dosage (72.3%), and analyzed the contents before consumption (68.8%). There is a specific RC user profile with extensive knowledge and consumption of substances, using different strategies to reduce risks associated to its consumption. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Final report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples was established by the Agency following a Consultants' Meeting on the same topic, which was held 5-9 September 1988 in Vienna. It was completed in 1992. At various times during its course it encompassed 15 participants from 14 countries. The scope of work and objectives of the CRP were established at the Consultants' Meeting. It was agreed that the CRP should focus on the development of rapid methods for the determination of radionuclides in food and environmental samples during the intermediate and late post-accident phases. The rapid methods developed during the course of the CRP were intended to permit a timely and accurate determination of radionuclides at concentrations at least one order of magnitude below those specified for Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for food by the WHO/FAO and the IAEA. Research Co-ordination meetings were held in Warsaw, Poland in September 1989 and in Vienna, Austria in 1991. Reports of the meetings are available from the Agency on Request. This document comprises copies of final reports from the participants and selected contributions presented by the participants at the meetings. The contributions were selected on the basis of being able to stand alone, without further explanation. Where there was an overlap in the information presented by a participant at both meetings, the most complete contribution was selected

  12. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Final report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples was established by the Agency following a Consultants' Meeting on the same topic, which was held 5-9 September 1988 in Vienna. It was completed in 1992. At various times during its course it encompassed 15 participants from 14 countries. The scope of work and objectives of the CRP were established at the Consultants' Meeting. It was agreed that the CRP should focus on the development of rapid methods for the determination of radionuclides in food and environmental samples during the intermediate and late post-accident phases. The rapid methods developed during the course of the CRP were intended to permit a timely and accurate determination of radionuclides at concentrations at least one order of magnitude below those specified for Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for food by the WHO/FAO and the IAEA. Research Co-ordination meetings were held in Warsaw, Poland in September 1989 and in Vienna, Austria in 1991. Reports of the meetings are available from the Agency on Request. This document comprises copies of final reports from the participants and selected contributions presented by the participants at the meetings. The contributions were selected on the basis of being able to stand alone, without further explanation. Where there was an overlap in the information presented by a participant at both meetings, the most complete contribution was selected.

  13. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Zhu; Wentao Hao; Jianming Zhen; Tongxiu Zhen; Glascock, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  15. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  16. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. Who Are We Studying? Sample Diversity in Teaching of Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Broussard, Kristin A.; Sterns, Jillian L.; Sanders, Kristina K.; Shardy, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the sample diversity of empirical articles published in four premier teaching of psychology journals from 2008 to 2013. We investigated which demographic information was commonly reported and if samples were ethnically representative and whether gender was representative compared to National…

  19. Original methods of quantitative analysis developed for diverse samples in various research fields. Quantitative analysis at NMCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC) has been opened for nationwide-common utilization of positron nuclear medicine (PET) and PIXE since April 1993. At the present time, nearly 40 subjects of PIXE in various research fields are pursued here, and more than 50,000 samples have been analyzed up to the present. In order to perform quantitative analyses of diverse samples, technical developments in sample preparation, measurement and data analysis have been continuously carried out. Especially, a standard-free method for quantitative analysis'' made it possible to perform analysis of infinitesimal samples, powdered samples and untreated bio samples, which could not be well analyzed quantitatively in the past. The standard-free method'' and a ''powdered internal standard method'' made the process for target preparation quite easier. It has been confirmed that results obtained by these methods show satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility preventing any ambiguity coming from complicated target preparation processes. (author)

  20. The PowerAtlas: a power and sample size atlas for microarray experimental design and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jelai

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays permit biologists to simultaneously measure the mRNA abundance of thousands of genes. An important issue facing investigators planning microarray experiments is how to estimate the sample size required for good statistical power. What is the projected sample size or number of replicate chips needed to address the multiple hypotheses with acceptable accuracy? Statistical methods exist for calculating power based upon a single hypothesis, using estimates of the variability in data from pilot studies. There is, however, a need for methods to estimate power and/or required sample sizes in situations where multiple hypotheses are being tested, such as in microarray experiments. In addition, investigators frequently do not have pilot data to estimate the sample sizes required for microarray studies. Results To address this challenge, we have developed a Microrarray PowerAtlas 1. The atlas enables estimation of statistical power by allowing investigators to appropriately plan studies by building upon previous studies that have similar experimental characteristics. Currently, there are sample sizes and power estimates based on 632 experiments from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. The PowerAtlas also permits investigators to upload their own pilot data and derive power and sample size estimates from these data. This resource will be updated regularly with new datasets from GEO and other databases such as The Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Center (NASC. Conclusion This resource provides a valuable tool for investigators who are planning efficient microarray studies and estimating required sample sizes.

  1. Sample size calculations for cluster randomised crossover trials in Australian and New Zealand intensive care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnup, Sarah J; McKenzie, Joanne E; Pilcher, David; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Forbes, Andrew B

    2018-06-01

    The cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design provides an opportunity to conduct randomised controlled trials to evaluate low risk interventions in the intensive care setting. Our aim is to provide a tutorial on how to perform a sample size calculation for a CRXO trial, focusing on the meaning of the elements required for the calculations, with application to intensive care trials. We use all-cause in-hospital mortality from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database clinical registry to illustrate the sample size calculations. We show sample size calculations for a two-intervention, two 12-month period, cross-sectional CRXO trial. We provide the formulae, and examples of their use, to determine the number of intensive care units required to detect a risk ratio (RR) with a designated level of power between two interventions for trials in which the elements required for sample size calculations remain constant across all ICUs (unstratified design); and in which there are distinct groups (strata) of ICUs that differ importantly in the elements required for sample size calculations (stratified design). The CRXO design markedly reduces the sample size requirement compared with the parallel-group, cluster randomised design for the example cases. The stratified design further reduces the sample size requirement compared with the unstratified design. The CRXO design enables the evaluation of routinely used interventions that can bring about small, but important, improvements in patient care in the intensive care setting.

  2. Research on self-absorption corrections for laboratory γ spectral analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zining; Jia Mingyan; Li Huibin; Cheng Ziwei; Ju Lingjun; Shen Maoquan; Yang Xiaoyan; Yan Ling; Fen Tiancheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the calibration results of the point sources,dimensions of HPGe crystal were characterized.Linear attenuation coefficients and detection efficiencies of all kinds of samples were calculated,and the function F(μ) of φ75 mm x 25 mm sample was established. Standard surface source was used to simulate the source of different heights in the soil sample. And the function ε(h) which reflect the relationship between detection efficiencies and heights of the surface sources was determined. The detection efficiency of calibration source can be obtained by integration, F(μ) functions of soil samples established is consistent with the result of MCNP calculation code. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples were measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. F(μ) functions of soil samples of various dimensions can be calculated by MCNP calculation code established, and self absorption correction can be done. To verify the efficiency of calculation results, φ75 mm x 75 mm soil samples were measured. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples from aerosphere nuclear testing field was measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. The function F(m) was established, and the technical method which is used to correct the soil samples of unknown area is also given. The correction method of surface source greatly improves the gamma spectrum's metrical accuracy, and it will be widely applied to environmental radioactive investigation. (authors)

  3. Recent developments in sample preparation and data pre-treatment in metabonomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Song, Yi peng; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-01

    Metabonomics is a powerful approach for biomarker discovery and an effective tool for pinpointing endpoint metabolic effects of external stimuli, such as pathogens and disease development. Due to its wide applications, metabonomics is required to deal with various biological samples of different properties. Hence sample preparation and corresponding data pre-treatment become important factors in ensuring validity of an investigation. In this review, we summarize some recent developments in metabonomics sample preparation and data-pretreatment procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Community understanding of Respondent-Driven Sampling in a medical research setting in Uganda: importance for the use of RDS for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Tarsh, Matilda Nadagire; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; White, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely-used variant of snowball sampling. Respondents are selected not from a sampling frame, but from a social network of existing members of the sample. Incentives are provided for participation and for the recruitment of others. Ethical and methodological criticisms have been raised about RDS. Our purpose was to evaluate whether these criticisms were justified. In this study RDS was used to recruit male household heads in rural Uganda. We investigated community members' understanding and experience of the method, and explored how these may have affected the quality of the RDS survey data. Our findings suggest that because participants recruit participants, the use of RDS in medical research may result in increased difficulties in gaining informed consent, and data collected using RDS may be particularly susceptible to bias due to differences in the understanding of key concepts between researchers and members of the community.

  5. Will Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Provide Biological Samples for Research Purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley A Harris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the response rates for biological sample donation and attitudes towards control recruitment, especially in younger women. The goals of this pilot study were to determine in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of cases willing to provide biological samples and for purposes of control recruitment, contact information for friends or colleagues.A population-based sample of breast cancer cases (n = 417, 25-74 years was recruited from the Ontario Cancer Registry in 2010 and self-administered questionnaires were completed to determine willingness to provide samples (spot or 24-hr urine, saliva, blood and contact information for friends/colleagues for control recruitment. Using Χ2 analyses of contingency tables we evaluated if these proportions varied by age group (<45 and 45+ and other factors such as ethnicity, education, income, body mass index (BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption.Cases were willing to provide blood samples, by visiting a clinic (62% or by having a nurse visit the home (61%. Moreover, they would provide saliva (73%, and morning or 24-hr urine samples (66% and 52%. Younger cases (≤45 were 3 times (OR more likely more than older cases to agree to collect morning urine (95% CI: 1.15-8.35. Only 26% of cases indicated they would provide contact information of friends or work colleagues to act as controls. Educated cases were more likely to agree to provide samples, and cases who consumed alcohol were more willing to provide contact information. Ethnicity, income, BMI and smoking had little effect on response rates.Reasonable response rates for biological sample collection should be expected in future case controls studies in younger women, but other methods of control selection must be devised.

  6. (I Can’t Get No) Saturation: A simulation and guidelines for sample sizes in qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    I explore the sample size in qualitative research that is required to reach theoretical saturation. I conceptualize a population as consisting of sub-populations that contain different types of information sources that hold a number of codes. Theoretical saturation is reached after all the codes in the population have been observed once in the sample. I delineate three different scenarios to sample information sources: “random chance,” which is based on probability sampling, “minimal information,” which yields at least one new code per sampling step, and “maximum information,” which yields the largest number of new codes per sampling step. Next, I use simulations to assess the minimum sample size for each scenario for systematically varying hypothetical populations. I show that theoretical saturation is more dependent on the mean probability of observing codes than on the number of codes in a population. Moreover, the minimal and maximal information scenarios are significantly more efficient than random chance, but yield fewer repetitions per code to validate the findings. I formulate guidelines for purposive sampling and recommend that researchers follow a minimum information scenario. PMID:28746358

  7. (I Can't Get No) Saturation: A simulation and guidelines for sample sizes in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijnsoever, Frank J

    2017-01-01

    I explore the sample size in qualitative research that is required to reach theoretical saturation. I conceptualize a population as consisting of sub-populations that contain different types of information sources that hold a number of codes. Theoretical saturation is reached after all the codes in the population have been observed once in the sample. I delineate three different scenarios to sample information sources: "random chance," which is based on probability sampling, "minimal information," which yields at least one new code per sampling step, and "maximum information," which yields the largest number of new codes per sampling step. Next, I use simulations to assess the minimum sample size for each scenario for systematically varying hypothetical populations. I show that theoretical saturation is more dependent on the mean probability of observing codes than on the number of codes in a population. Moreover, the minimal and maximal information scenarios are significantly more efficient than random chance, but yield fewer repetitions per code to validate the findings. I formulate guidelines for purposive sampling and recommend that researchers follow a minimum information scenario.

  8. Utilization of AHWR critical facility for research and development work on large sample NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Verma, S.K.; De, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The graphite reflector position of AHWR critical facility (CF) was utilized for analysis of large size (g-kg scale) samples using internal mono standard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). The reactor position was characterized by cadmium ratio method using In monitor for total flux and sub cadmium to epithermal flux ratio (f). Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries and dross. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so homogeneous three large size samples of dross. An X-Z rotary scanning unit has been installed for counting large and not so homogeneous samples. (author)

  9. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of the Donation and Use of Human Biological Samples for Research: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Patterson

    Full Text Available Human biological samples (biosamples are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted

  10. The use of human samples obtained during medicolegal autopsies in research: An introduction to current conditions and initiatives in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Muto, Kaori; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    Background Leftover samples obtained during autopsies are extremely important basic materials for forensic research. However, there are no established practices for research-related use of obtained samples. Objective This study discusses good practice for the secondary use of samples collected during medicolegal autopsies. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medicolegal autopsies in Japan, and 48 responses were received (response rate: 63.2%). As a secondary analysis, we surveyed information provided on department websites. Results Ethical reviews conducted when samples were to be used for research varied greatly among departments, with 21 (43.8%) departments reporting 'fundamentally, all cases are subject to review', eight (16.7%) reporting 'only some are subject to review' and 17 (39.6%) reporting 'none are subject to review'. Information made available on websites indicated that 11 departments had a statement of some type to bereaved families about the potential research use of human samples obtained during autopsies. Nine of these included a notice stating that bereaved families may revoke their consent for use. Several departments used an opt-out system. Conclusion There is no common practice in the field of legal medicine on the ethical use for medical research of leftover samples from medicolegal autopsies. The trust of not only bereaved families but also society in general is required for the scientific validity and social benefits of medical studies using leftover samples from medicolegal autopsies through the use of opt-out consenting and offline and online dissemination and public-relations activities.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  12. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research : part 3: sampling, data collection and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albine Moser; Irene Korstjens

    2017-01-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for

  13. RESEARCH ON THE DEGREE OF SATURATION INVESTIGATION BY THE SAMPLING OF THE SAND FOR LIQUEFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nao; Ohuchi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Katsuo; Nishigaki, Makoto

    The liquefaction countermeasure technical method, whereby the liquefaction strength is enhanced by making sand deposit in the state of unsaturation, is currently under study. The author et al have suggested a simple method of verifying the persistence of residual air using the undisturbed sample under ordinary temperature and sampling underground water; and have actually implemented the method in the adjacent ground with the foundation of viaduct pneumatic caisson where the leaked air during the construction was considered to have been trapped. We demonstrated the method of correcting the influence of the pressure of sampling specimen as well as of the dissolved air, and studied the precision of required degree of saturation. As the result, it has been shown that the residual air entrapped in the sand deposit is sustainable for as long time as about 28 years.

  14. The feasible research with measuring radon for taking the soils sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing, Ge Liangquan; Liu Hefan; Li Yeqiang; Zhang Jinzhao; Song Xiao'an

    2010-01-01

    It explains the mechanism of the separation of soil's radon. Through the designed experiment, it confirms the feasibility of measuring radon for taking the soil's sample. It determines the content of the radon and its sub field with indoor and outside through ways of the activated charcoal adsorption, the initiative suction and the diameter mark etching, also the 226 Ra. The paper indicates: it is feasible with measuring radon for taking the soil's sample, and the stability of data is that indoor data are better than outside's. The temperature, the humidity, the rainfall amount, the intensity and so on are the serious influence of the data. If you want to take a soil's sample, you must avoid the rain as far as possible, and avoid the fault zone, the belt of folded strata and complex geologic structure region, and so on. (authors)

  15. Multifunctional Nanofibers Comprised of Conducting and Ferroelectric Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    max scale): Number of graduating undergraduates funded by a DoD funded Center of Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering: The...compared to the undergraduate research facilities that we provide at UPRH. We hope that this will further motivate them to seek graduate studies in STEM...and Extrinsic Parameter and their Role in Optical Sensors Calibration, Stephanie Rodriguez 20 2. Effects of Aggressive Environment in the

  16. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lobo

    Full Text Available Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1. We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures. Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%. Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl(-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine. Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  17. Recent Research Status on the Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal and Identification of Aerobic Microbes in a Groundwater Sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel(KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Cho, Won Jin

    2006-11-01

    In this report, a comprehensive review on the research results and status for the various effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal including definition and classification of microbes, and researches related with the waste containers, engineered barriers, natural barriers, natural analogue studies, and radionuclide migration and retardation. Cultivation, isolation, and classification of aerobic microbes found in a groundwater sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the KAERI site have carried out and over 20 microbes were found to be present in the groundwater. Microbial identification by a 16S rDNA genetic analysis of the selected major 10 aerobic microbes was performed and the identified microbes were characterized

  18. A call to improve sampling methodology and reporting in young novice driver research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Senserrick, T

    2017-02-01

    Young drivers continue to be over-represented in road crash fatalities despite a multitude of research, communication and intervention. Evidence-based improvement depends to a great extent upon research methodology quality and its reporting, with known limitations in the peer-review process. The aim of the current research was to review the scope of research methodologies applied in 'young driver' and 'teen driver' research and their reporting in four peer-review journals in the field between January 2006 and December 2013. In total, 806 articles were identified and assessed. Reporting omissions included participant gender (11% of papers), response rates (49%), retention rates (39%) and information regarding incentives (44%). Greater breadth and specific improvements in study designs and reporting are thereby identified as a means to further advance the field. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Sample Selectivity and the Validity of International Student Achievement Tests in Economic Research. NBER Working Paper No. 15867

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    Critics of international student comparisons argue that results may be influenced by differences in the extent to which countries adequately sample their entire student populations. In this research note, we show that larger exclusion and non-response rates are related to better country average scores on international tests, as are larger…

  20. (I Can’t Get No) Saturation: A Simulation and Guidelines for Minimum Sample Sizes in Qualitative Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijnsoever, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the sample size in qualitative research that is required to reach theoretical saturation. I conceptualize a population as consisting of sub-populations that contain different types of information sources that hold a number of codes. Theoretical saturation is reached after all the

  1. (I Can’t Get No) Saturation: A simulation and guidelines for sample sizes in qualitative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijnsoever, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    I explore the sample size in qualitative research that is required to reach theoretical saturation. I conceptualize a population as consisting of sub-populations that contain different types of information sources that hold a number of codes. Theoretical saturation is reached after all the codes in

  2. Research And Establishment Of The Analytical Procedure For/Of Sr-90 In Milk Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Tuyet Mai; Duong Duc Thang; Nguyen Thi Linh; Bui Thi Anh Duong

    2014-01-01

    Sr-90 is an indicator for the transfer radionuclides from environment to human. This work was setup to build a procedure for Sr-90 determination in main popular foodstuff and focus to fresh milk. The deal of this work was establish procedure for Sr-90 , assessment for chemical yield and test sample of Vietnam fresh milk, also in this work, the QA, QC for the procedure was carried out using standard sample of IAEA. The work has been completed for the procedure of determination Sr-90 in milk. The chemical yield of recovery for Y-90 and Sr-90 were at 46.76 % ±1.25% and 0.78 ± 0.086, respectively. The QA & QC program was carried out using reference material IAEA-373. The result parse is appropriate equally and well agreement with the certificate value. Three reference samples were analyses with 15 measurements. The results of Sr-90 concentration after processing statistics given a value at 3.69 Bq/kg with uncertainty of 0.23 Bq/kg. The certificate of IAEA-154 for Sr-90 (half live 28.8 year) is the 6.9 Bq/kg, with the range 95% Confidence Interval as (6.0 -8.0 ) Bq/kg at 31st August 1987. After adjusting decay, the radioactivity at this time is 3.67 Bq/kg. It means that such the result of this work was perfect matching the value of stock index IAEA. Five Vietnam fresh milk samples were analyzed for Sr-90, the specific radioactivity of Sr-90 in milk were in a range from 0.032 to 0.041 Bq/l. (author)

  3. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O 2 and H 2 analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O 2 and H 2 was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O 2 and H 2 analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required

  4. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required.

  5. Understanding active sampling strategies: Empirical approaches and implications for attention and decision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies. In this paper I review recent studies that address questions of attentional learning, cue validity and information seeking in humans and non-human primates. These studies suggest that learning a sampling policy involves large scale interactions between networks of attention and valuation, which implement these policies based on reward maximization, uncertainty reduction and the intrinsic utility of cognitive states. I discuss the importance of using such paradigms for formalizing the role of attention, as well as devising more realistic theories of decision making that capture a broader range of empirical observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of implementing ISO 9001:2008 standard on the Spanish Renal Research Network biobank sample transfer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, M Alicia; Irrazábal, Emanuel; García-Jerez, Andrea; Bohórquez-Magro, Lourdes; Luengo, Alicia; Ortiz-Arduán, Alberto; Calleros, Laura; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Biobank certification ISO 9001:2008 aims to improve the management of processes performed. This has two objectives: customer satisfaction and continuous improvement. This paper presents the impact of certification ISO 9001:2008 on the sample transfer process in a Spanish biobank specialising in kidney patient samples. The biobank experienced a large increase in the number of samples between 2009 (12,582 vials) and 2010 (37,042 vials). The biobank of the Spanish Renal Research Network (REDinREN), located at the University of Alcalá, has implemented ISO standard 9001:2008 for the effective management of human material given to research centres. Using surveys, we analysed two periods in the “sample transfer” process. During the first period between 1-10-12 and 26-11-12 (8 weeks), minimal changes were made to correct isolated errors. In the second period, between 7-01-13 and 18-02-13 (6 weeks), we carried out general corrective actions. The identification of problems and implementation of corrective actions for certification allowed: a 70% reduction in the process execution time, a significant increase (200%) in the number of samples processed and a 25% improvement in the process. The increase in the number of samples processed was directly related to process improvement. The certification of ISO standard 9001:2008, obtained in July 2013, allowed an improvement of the REDinREN biobank processes to be achieved, which increased quality and customer satisfaction.

  7. Brief Report: Comparability of DSM-IV and DSM-5 ASD Research Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, C. A.; McPartland, J. C.; Gastgeb, H. Z.; Minshew, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) criteria for ASD have been criticized for being too restrictive, especially for more cognitively-able individuals. It is unclear, however, if high-functioning individuals deemed eligible for research via standardized diagnostic assessments would meet DSM-5 criteria. This study investigated the impact of…

  8. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  9. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Stockton, A. M.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Rader, E.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Extraterrestrial studies are typically conducted on mg samples from cm-scale features, while landing sites are selected based on m to km-scale features. It is therefore critical to understand spatial distribution of organic molecules over scales from cm to the km, particularly in geological features that appear homogenous at m to km scales. This is addressed by FELDSPAR, a NASA-funded project that conducts field operations analogous to Mars sample return in its science, operations, and technology [1]. Here, we present recent findings from a 2016 and a 2017 campaign to multiple Martian analogue sites in Iceland. Icelandic volcanic regions are Mars analogues due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, temperature extremes [2], and are relatively young and isolated from anthropogenic contamination [3]. Operationally, many Icelandic analogue sites are remote enough to require that field expeditions address several sampling constraints that are also faced by robotic exploration [1, 2]. Four field sites were evaluated in this study. The Fimmvörðuháls lava field was formed by a basaltic effusive eruption associated with the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Mælifellssandur is a recently deglaciated plain to the north of the Myrdalsjökull glacier. Holuhraun is a basaltic spatter and cinder cone formed by 2014 fissure eruptions just north of the Vatnajökull glacier. Dyngjusandur is a plain kept barren by repeated aeolian mechanical weathering. Samples were collected in nested triangular grids from 10 cm to the 1 km scale. We obtained overhead imagery at 1 m to 200 m elevation to create digital elevation models. In-field reflectance spectroscopy was obtained with an ASD spectrometer and chemical composition was measured by a Bruker handheld XRF. All sites chosen were homogeneous in apparent color, morphology, moisture, grain size, and reflectance spectra at all scales greater than 10 cm. Field lab ATP assays were conducted to monitor microbial habitation, and home

  10. Research on pathogens at Great Lakes beaches: sampling, influential factors, and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the USGS Beach Health Initiative Mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for the pathogens and source tracking topic is described in this fact sheet.

  11. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Witwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA and extracellular vesicles (EV has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments.

  12. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  13. Dental Injuries in a Sample of Portuguese Militaries - A Preliminary Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Luís; Martins, David; Veiga, Nélio; Fine, Peter; Correia, André

    2018-05-23

    Traumatic dental and maxillofacial injuries are very common and appear to affect approximately 20-30% of permanent dentition, with often serious psychological, economic, functional, and esthetic consequences. Militaries are a highest risk group for orofacial trauma, not only because they are constantly engaged in physical activity (which increase the risk of traumatic injuries) but also because they are exposed to many risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of orofacial injuries, militaries knowledge about first-aid procedures following a dental avulsion and the use of mouthguards in a sample of Portuguese militaries. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted for forces of the Infantry Regiment n°14 of Viseu, Portugal. The study involved 122 members of the armed forces who were asked to complete a questionnaire, which enquired about: the occurrence of dental trauma, the use of mouthguards and militaries knowledge with regard to first-aid management of dental avulsions. In our sample, 5.7% reported having experienced a dental trauma. This was further broken down to reveal that 2.5% had experienced an avulsion and 3.3% had a dental fracture. All respondents who reported having suffered dental trauma, reported that this was the only time that they had experienced dental trauma. Within this group, 71.4% visited a dentist, however only one (20%) visited the dentist during the same day that the trauma occurred. In addition, 21.3% mentioned that they had seen a dental trauma in at least one colleague during military trainings/operations. In the case of dental avulsion, the majority (54.9%) did not know how to act. The rate of mouthguard's use among militaries was very low (6.4%). The main reason reported for not using a mouthguard was thinking that it is not necessary (53.3%). Besides that, 31.1% did not know what a mouthguard was for. Prevention programs and promoting actions with this population are important reflections and

  14. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro- XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  15. Creating a sampling frame for population-based veteran research: Representativeness and overlap of VA and Department of Defense databases

    OpenAIRE

    Donna L. Washington, MD, MPH; Su Sun, MPH; Mark Canning, BA

    2010-01-01

    Most veteran research is conducted in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare settings, although most veterans obtain healthcare outside the VA. Our objective was to determine the adequacy and relative contributions of Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), and Department of Defense (DOD) administrative databases for representing the U.S. veteran population, using as an example the creation of a sampling frame for the National Survey of Women Vete...

  16. Comparative research of effectiveness of cellulose and fiberglass porous membrane carriers for bio sampling in veterinary and food industry monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander; Vasyukova, Inna; Zakharova, Olga; Altabaeva, Yuliya; Saushkin, Nikolai; Samsonova, Jeanne; Kondakov, Sergey; Osipov, Alexander; Snegin, Eduard

    2017-11-01

    The aim of proposed research is to study the applicability of fiberglass porous membrane materials in a new strip format for dried blood storage in food industry monitoring. A comparative analysis of cellulosic and fiberglass porous membrane materials was carried out to obtain dried samples of serum or blood and the possibility of further species-specific analysis. Blood samples of Sus scrofa were used to study the comparative effectiveness of cellulose and fiberglass porous membrane carriers for long-term biomaterial storage allowing for further DNA detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Scanning electron microscopy of various membranes - native and with blood samples - indicate a fundamental difference in the form of dried samples. Membranes based on cellulosic materials sorb the components of the biological fluid on the surface of the fibers of their structure, partially penetrating the cellulose fibers, while in the case of glass fiber membranes the components of the biological fluid dry out as films in the pores of the membrane between the structural filaments. This fundamental difference in the retention mechanisms affects the rate of dissolution of the components of dry samples and contributes to an increase in the efficiency of the desorption process of the sample before subsequent analysis. Detecting of pig DNA in every analyzed sample under the performed Real-time PCR as well as good state of the biomaterial preservation on the glass fiber membranes was clearly demonstrated. Good biomaterials preservation has been revealed on the test cards for 4 days as well as for 1 hour.

  17. Small Body GN and C Research Report: G-SAMPLE - An In-Flight Dynamical Method for Identifying Sample Mass [External Release Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Bayard, David S.

    2006-01-01

    G-SAMPLE is an in-flight dynamical method for use by sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of collected sample material. The G-SAMPLE method implements a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample mass, based on onboard force sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. With G-SAMPLE, sample mass identification becomes a computation rather than an extra hardware requirement; the added cost of cameras or other sensors for sample mass detection is avoided. Realistic simulation examples are provided for a spacecraft configuration with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In one representative example, a 1000 gram sample mass is estimated to within 110 grams (95% confidence) under realistic assumptions of thruster profile error, spacecraft parameter uncertainty, and sensor noise. For convenience to future mission design, an overall sample-mass estimation error budget is developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  18. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on public attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Satoh, Nobunori

    2009-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of the Japanese general public towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a national survey for 1,103 Japanese adults from the general public, not a patient population. The response rate was 36.8%. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (81.0%) and a DNA bank (70.4%). Considering fictitious clinical situations such as taking medications and experiencing ADRs, the willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing ADRs (61.7%) was higher than when taking medications (45.3%). Older generations were significantly associated with a decreased willingness to donate (OR = 0.45, CI 0.28-0.72 in 50s. OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.77 in 60s). Positive attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research, a DNA bank, blood/bone marrow/organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness. However, the respondents had the following concerns regarding a DNA bank: the confidentiality of their personal information, the manner by which research results were utilized and simply the use of their own DNA for research. In order to attain public understanding to overcome these concerns, a process of public awareness should be put into place to emphasize the beneficial aspects of identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and to address these concerns raised in our study. Further study is needed to assess the willingness of actual patients taking medications in real situations, since the respondents in our study were from the general public, not a patient population, and their willingness was assessed on the condition of assuming that they were patients taking medications.

  19. Community‐Based Participatory Research Skills and Training Needs in a Sample of Academic Researchers from a Clinical and Translational Science Center in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Ann; Geller, Alan C.; Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Patil, Pratima; Hacker, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To determine the community‐based participatory research (CBPR) training interests and needs of researchers interested in CBPR to inform efforts to build infrastructure for conducting community‐engaged research. Method: A 20‐item survey was completed by 127 academic health researchers at Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, and Harvard affiliated hospitals. Results: Slightly more than half of the participants reported current or prior experience with CBPR (58 %). Across all levels of academic involvement, approximately half of the participants with CBPR experience reported lacking skills in research methods and dissemination, with even fewer reporting skills in training of community partners. Regardless of prior CBPR experience, about half of the respondents reported having training needs in funding, partnership development, evaluation, and dissemination of CBPR projects. Among those with CBPR experience, more than one‐third of the participants wanted a mentor in CBPR; however only 19 % were willing to act as a mentor. Conclusions: Despite having experience with CBPR, many respondents did not have the comprehensive package of CBPR skills, reporting a need for training in a variety of CBPR skill sets. Further, the apparent mismatch between the need for mentors and availability in this sample suggests an important area for development. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume #: 1–5 PMID:22686211

  20. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  1. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-08-31

    To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a 'direct approach' method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra 'stress' in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother-baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the key to the success of a clinical and epidemiological study involving

  2. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: tiagorusin@ime.eb.b, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.b, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.b, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  3. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2011-01-01

    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  4. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on patients' attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Sakurada, Tomoya; Ueda, Shiro; Satoh, Nobunori

    2011-05-01

    To assess the attitude of Japanese patients towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a survey of 550 male and female patients. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (87.6%) and a DNA bank (75.1%). The willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing severe ADRs (55.8%) was higher than when taking medications (40.4%). Positive attitudes towards a DNA bank and organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness to donate. Though the level of positive attitude in the patient population was higher than that in the general public in our former study (81.0 and 70.4%, respectively), the level of the willingness of patients to donate was 40.4% when taking medications and 55.8% when experiencing severe ADRs which was lower than that of the general public in our former study (45.3 and 61.7%). The results suggested that the level of true willingness in the patient population was lower than that of the general public considering the fictitious situation presented to the public (to suppose that they were patients receiving medication). It is important to assess the willingness of patients who are true potential donors, not the general public.

  5. Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rebecca M; Soames, Jamie; Wright, Mark; Sultana, Kirin; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Dixon, William G

    2018-02-01

    To describe a novel observational study that supplemented primary care electronic health record (EHR) data with sample collection and patient diaries. The study was set in primary care in England. A list of 3974 potentially eligible patients was compiled using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Interested general practices opted into the study then confirmed patient suitability and sent out postal invitations. Participants completed a drug-use diary and provided saliva samples to the research team to combine with EHR data. Of 252 practices contacted to participate, 66 (26%) mailed invitations to patients. Of the 3974 potentially eligible patients, 859 (22%) were at participating practices, and 526 (13%) were sent invitations. Of those invited, 117 (22%) consented to participate of whom 86 (74%) completed the study. We have confirmed the feasibility of supplementing EHR with data collected directly from patients. Although the present study successfully collected essential data from patients, it also underlined the requirement for improved engagement with both patients and general practitioners to support similar studies. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Quality assurance program for determining the radioactivity in environmental samples at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gone, J.K.; Wang, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in determining radioactivity in environmental samples has increased considerably in recent years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Environmental monitoring programs have been set up in different countries to measure the trace amount of radionuclides in the environment, and quality of the analytical results on these samples is important because the regulation and safety concerns. A good quality assurance program is essential to provide accurate information for the regulatory body and environmentalists to set proper reactions to protect the environment, and a good analytical result is also important for scientists to determine the transfer of radionuclides between environmental matrices. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (lNER) in Taiwan has been working on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples for years, and it's environmental media radioanalytical laboratory (EMRAL) has recently upgraded its quality assurance program for the international standard ISO/lEC guide 25 requirements. The general requirements of lSO/lEC guide 25 has been adapted by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) of Taiwan, and CNLA is also a member of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC). This paper summarizes the quality assurance program of lNER's EMRAL. It covers both management and technical sections. These sections have ensured the quality of INER's EMRAL, and they can be applied to different laboratories in the future. (author)

  7. Quality assurance program for determining the radioactivity in environmental samples at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gone, J.K. [TRR-II Project Team, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.W. [Division of Health Physics, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    Interest in determining radioactivity in environmental samples has increased considerably in recent years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Environmental monitoring programs have been set up in different countries to measure the trace amount of radionuclides in the environment, and quality of the analytical results on these samples is important because the regulation and safety concerns. A good quality assurance program is essential to provide accurate information for the regulatory body and environmentalists to set proper reactions to protect the environment, and a good analytical result is also important for scientists to determine the transfer of radionuclides between environmental matrices. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (lNER) in Taiwan has been working on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples for years, and it's environmental media radioanalytical laboratory (EMRAL) has recently upgraded its quality assurance program for the international standard ISO/lEC guide 25 requirements. The general requirements of lSO/lEC guide 25 has been adapted by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) of Taiwan, and CNLA is also a member of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC). This paper summarizes the quality assurance program of lNER's EMRAL. It covers both management and technical sections. These sections have ensured the quality of INER's EMRAL, and they can be applied to different laboratories in the future. (author)

  8. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  9. Classroom Research: Assessment of Student Understanding of Sampling Distributions of Means and the Central Limit Theorem in Post-Calculus Probability and Statistics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, M. Leigh; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Goodson-Espy, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    We applied a classroom research model to investigate student understanding of sampling distributions of sample means and the Central Limit Theorem in post-calculus introductory probability and statistics courses. Using a quantitative assessment tool developed by previous researchers and a qualitative assessment tool developed by the authors, we…

  10. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  11. Pneumatic stepper motor and device comprising at least one such pneumatic stepper motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to a pneumatic stepper motor, comprising: - a housing, said housing accommodating at least part of: - a rack or geared axle comprising a plurality of gear elements; and - two pistons, each comprising at least two teeth, said pistons being arranged to cooperate with said rack or

  12. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  13. Development of the methodology of sample preparation to X-ray diffractometry of clay minerals at Petrobras Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Various procedures can be used in the analysis of the clay mineral content of rocks by X-ray diffraction. This article describes the principal ones and discusses those adopted in the X-ray clay mineral laboratory of the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) in Rio de Janeiro. This article presents the methodology used and provides users with information about its application and limitations. The methodology has been developed to study polymineral samples. The aim to identify clay mineral groups and to estimate their relative proportions. Of the four main steps of this analysis - separation and concentration of clay minerals, preparation of oriented specimens, X-ray irradiation under standard conditions and interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns - only the first three are discussed here. Clay minerals occur mainly in the [pt

  14. Comparison of culture based methods for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples in a research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Michelle; Stevenson, Emma; Heeg, Daniela; Minton, Nigel P; Kuehne, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Effective isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples is important in the research setting, especially where low numbers of spores/vegetative cells may be present within a sample. In this study, three protocols for stool culture were investigated to find a sensitive, cost effective and timely method of C. difficile isolation. For the initial enrichment step, the effectiveness of two different rich media, cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth (CCFB) and cycloserine-cefoxitin mannitol broth with taurocholate and lysozyme (CCMB-TAL) were compared. For the comparison of four different, selective solid media; Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), Cycloserine-cefoxitin egg yolk agar (CCEY), ChromID C. difficile and tryptone soy agar (TSA) with 5% sheep's blood with and without preceding broth enrichment were used. As a means to enable differentiation between C. difficile and other fecal flora, the effectiveness of the inclusion of a pH indictor (1% Neutral Red), was also evaluated. The data derived indicated that CCFB is more sensitive than CCMB-TAL, however, the latter had an improved recovery rate. A broth enrichment step had a reduced sensitivity over direct plating. ChromID C. difficile showed the best recovery rate whereas CCEY egg yolk agar was the most sensitive of the four. The addition of 1% Neutral Red did not show sufficient colour change when added to CCEY egg yolk agar to be used as a differential medium. For a low cost, timely and sensitive method of isolating C. difficile from stool samples we recommend direct plating onto CCEY egg yolk agar after heat shock. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Angolan human hair samples by the k0-NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, P.C.D; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    There is personal difference in concentrations of trace elements in the human hair according to human life or history such as occupation, sex, age, food, habit, social condition and so on. It is also found that the individual's deviation of elemental concentrations reflecting the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to the human body, intakes of food and metabolism. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on research reactor has been recommended by WHO and IAEA as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multi-element and routine. This report presents the results of determination of about 20 elements in 23 human hair samples, which have been collected from different places in Angola by using k 0 -NAA technique on Dalat nuclear research reactor. Accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of two human hair certified reference materials (CRMs), i.e. NIES-5 and GBW-09101 and assessed by the deviation of experiment to certified values generally within 10% and U-score values mostly lower 2. (author)

  16. Ethical issues in the export, storage and reuse of human biological samples in biomedical research: perspectives of key stakeholders in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindana, Paulina; Molyneux, Catherine S; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael

    2014-10-18

    For many decades, access to human biological samples, such as cells, tissues, organs, blood, and sub-cellular materials such as DNA, for use in biomedical research, has been central in understanding the nature and transmission of diseases across the globe. However, the limitations of current ethical and regulatory frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa to govern the collection, export, storage and reuse of these samples have resulted in inconsistencies in practice and a number of ethical concerns for sample donors, researchers and research ethics committees. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives of and responses to the ethical issues arising from these research practices. We employed a qualitative strategy of inquiry for this research including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key research stakeholders in Kenya (Nairobi and Kilifi), and Ghana (Accra and Navrongo). The stakeholders interviewed emphasised the compelling scientific importance of sample export, storage and reuse, and acknowledged the existence of some structures governing these research practices, but they also highlighted the pressing need for a number of practical ethical concerns to be addressed in order to ensure high standards of practice and to maintain public confidence in international research collaborations. These concerns relate to obtaining culturally appropriate consent for sample export and reuse, understanding cultural sensitivities around the use of blood samples, facilitating a degree of local control of samples and sustainable scientific capacity building. Drawing on these findings and existing literature, we argue that the ethical issues arising in practice need to be understood in the context of the interactions between host research institutions and local communities and between collaborating institutions. We propose a set of 'key points-to-consider' for research institutions, ethics committees and funding agencies to address these issues.

  17. Theoretical basis, application, reliability, and sample size estimates of a Meridian Energy Analysis Device for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is currently a popular tool in the scientific research of meridian electrophysiology. In this field, it is generally believed that measuring the electrical conductivity of meridians provides information about the balance of bioenergy or Qi-blood in the body. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed database based on some original articles from 1956 to 2014 and the authoŕs clinical experience. In this short communication, we provide clinical examples of Meridian Energy Analysis Device application, especially in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, discuss the reliability of the measurements, and put the values obtained into context by considering items of considerable variability and by estimating sample size. CONCLUSION: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is making a valuable contribution to the diagnosis of Qi-blood dysfunction. It can be assessed from short-term and long-term meridian bioenergy recordings. It is one of the few methods that allow outpatient traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis, monitoring the progress, therapeutic effect and evaluation of patient prognosis. The holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and new trends in modern medicine toward the use of objective instruments require in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of meridian energy, and the Meridian Energy Analysis Device can feasibly be used for understanding and interpreting traditional Chinese medicine theory, especially in view of its expansion in Western countries.

  18. Creating a sampling frame for population-based veteran research: representativeness and overlap of VA and Department of Defense databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Sun, Su; Canning, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Most veteran research is conducted in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare settings, although most veterans obtain healthcare outside the VA. Our objective was to determine the adequacy and relative contributions of Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), and Department of Defense (DOD) administrative databases for representing the U.S. veteran population, using as an example the creation of a sampling frame for the National Survey of Women Veterans. In 2008, we merged the VHA, VBA, and DOD databases. We identified the number of unique records both overall and from each database. The combined databases yielded 925,946 unique records, representing 51% of the 1,802,000 U.S. women veteran population. The DOD database included 30% of the population (with 8% overlap with other databases). The VHA enrollment database contributed an additional 20% unique women veterans (with 6% overlap with VBA databases). VBA databases contributed an additional 2% unique women veterans (beyond 10% overlap with other databases). Use of VBA and DOD databases substantially expands access to the population of veterans beyond those in VHA databases, regardless of VA use. Adoption of these additional databases would enhance the value and generalizability of a wide range of studies of both male and female veterans.

  19. Combining censored and uncensored data in a U-statistic: design and sample size implications for cell therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyé, Lemuel A; Lai, Dejian; Jing, Kaiyan; Baraniuk, Mary Sarah; Kwak, Minjung; Penn, Marc S; Wu, Colon O

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions that anchor large clinical trials are rooted in smaller, Phase II studies. In addition to specifying the target population, intervention delivery, and patient follow-up duration, physician-scientists who design these Phase II studies must select the appropriate response variables (endpoints). However, endpoint measures can be problematic. If the endpoint assesses the change in a continuous measure over time, then the occurrence of an intervening significant clinical event (SCE), such as death, can preclude the follow-up measurement. Finally, the ideal continuous endpoint measurement may be contraindicated in a fraction of the study patients, a change that requires a less precise substitution in this subset of participants.A score function that is based on the U-statistic can address these issues of 1) intercurrent SCE's and 2) response variable ascertainments that use different measurements of different precision. The scoring statistic is easy to apply, clinically relevant, and provides flexibility for the investigators' prospective design decisions. Sample size and power formulations for this statistic are provided as functions of clinical event rates and effect size estimates that are easy for investigators to identify and discuss. Examples are provided from current cardiovascular cell therapy research.

  20. The prevalence of dementia in a Portuguese community sample: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Cardoso, Ana; Verdelho, Ana; Alves da Silva, Joaquim; Caldas de Almeida, Manuel; Fernandes, Alexandra; Raminhos, Cátia; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prina, A Matthew; Prince, Martin; Xavier, Miguel

    2017-11-07

    Dementia imposes a high burden of disease worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies in European community samples are scarce. In Portugal, community prevalence data is very limited. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) population-based research programmes are focused in low and middle income countries, where the assessments proved to be culture and education fair. We applied the 10/66 DRG prevalence survey methodology in Portugal, where levels of illiteracy in older populations are still high. A cross-sectional comprehensive one-phase survey was conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of two geographically defined catchment areas in Southern Portugal (one urban and one rural site). Nursing home residents were not included in the present study. Standardized 10/66 DRG assessments include a cognitive module, an informant interview and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT, providing data on dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders including depression, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, disability/functioning, health service utilization, care arrangements and caregiver strain. We interviewed 1405 old age participants (mean age 74.9, SD = 6.7 years; 55.5% women) after 313 (18.2%) refusals to participate. The prevalence rate for dementia in community-dwellers was 9.23% (95% CI 7.80-10.90) using the 10/66 DRG algorithm and 3.65% (95% CI 2.97-4.97) using DSM-IV criteria. Pure Alzheimer's disease was the most prevalent dementia subtype (41.9%). The prevalence of dementia was strongly age-dependent for both criteria, but there was no association with sex. Dementia prevalence was higher than previously reported in Portugal. The discrepancy between prevalence according to the 10/66 DRG algorithm and the DSM-IV criteria is consistent with that observed in less developed countries; this suggests potential underestimation using the latter approach, although relative validity of these two approaches remains to be confirmed in the European context. We

  1. The prevalence of dementia in a Portuguese community sample: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia imposes a high burden of disease worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies in European community samples are scarce. In Portugal, community prevalence data is very limited. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG population-based research programmes are focused in low and middle income countries, where the assessments proved to be culture and education fair. We applied the 10/66 DRG prevalence survey methodology in Portugal, where levels of illiteracy in older populations are still high. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive one-phase survey was conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of two geographically defined catchment areas in Southern Portugal (one urban and one rural site. Nursing home residents were not included in the present study. Standardized 10/66 DRG assessments include a cognitive module, an informant interview and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT, providing data on dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders including depression, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, disability/functioning, health service utilization, care arrangements and caregiver strain. Results We interviewed 1405 old age participants (mean age 74.9, SD = 6.7 years; 55.5% women after 313 (18.2% refusals to participate. The prevalence rate for dementia in community-dwellers was 9.23% (95% CI 7.80–10.90 using the 10/66 DRG algorithm and 3.65% (95% CI 2.97–4.97 using DSM-IV criteria. Pure Alzheimer’s disease was the most prevalent dementia subtype (41.9%. The prevalence of dementia was strongly age-dependent for both criteria, but there was no association with sex. Conclusions Dementia prevalence was higher than previously reported in Portugal. The discrepancy between prevalence according to the 10/66 DRG algorithm and the DSM-IV criteria is consistent with that observed in less developed countries; this suggests potential underestimation using the latter approach, although relative validity of these two

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary healthcare, advocating a strategy of multidisciplinary teamwork in the community. ... the interprofessional module; it fragmented the process from inception to ... process. The planning phase comprised three steps: (i) problem identi-.

  3. Variability of carotid artery measurements on 3-Tesla MRI and its impact on sample size calculation for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mushabbar A; Oshinski, John N; Kitchen, Charles; Ali, Arshad; Charnigo, Richard J; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2009-08-01

    Carotid MRI measurements are increasingly being employed in research studies for atherosclerosis imaging. The majority of carotid imaging studies use 1.5 T MRI. Our objective was to investigate intra-observer and inter-observer variability in carotid measurements using high resolution 3 T MRI. We performed 3 T carotid MRI on 10 patients (age 56 +/- 8 years, 7 male) with atherosclerosis risk factors and ultrasound intima-media thickness > or =0.6 mm. A total of 20 transverse images of both right and left carotid arteries were acquired using T2 weighted black-blood sequence. The lumen and outer wall of the common carotid and internal carotid arteries were manually traced; vessel wall area, vessel wall volume, and average wall thickness measurements were then assessed for intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Pearson and intraclass correlations were used in these assessments, along with Bland-Altman plots. For inter-observer variability, Pearson correlations ranged from 0.936 to 0.996 and intraclass correlations from 0.927 to 0.991. For intra-observer variability, Pearson correlations ranged from 0.934 to 0.954 and intraclass correlations from 0.831 to 0.948. Calculations showed that inter-observer variability and other sources of error would inflate sample size requirements for a clinical trial by no more than 7.9%, indicating that 3 T MRI is nearly optimal in this respect. In patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, 3 T carotid MRI measurements are highly reproducible and have important implications for clinical trial design.

  4. Does self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-07-07

    The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted.

  5. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  6. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP...

  7. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  8. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  9. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  10. Solvent exchange-induced in situ forming gel comprising ethyl cellulose-antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Mahadlek, Jongjan

    2015-10-15

    Solvent-exchanged in situ forming gel is a drug delivery system which is in sol form before administration. When it contacts with the body fluid, then the water miscible organic solvent dissipates and water penetrates into the system, leading the polymer precipitation as in situ gel at the site of injection. The aim of this research was to study the parameters affecting the gel properties, drug release and antimicrobial activities of the in situ forming gels prepared from ethyl cellulose (EC) dissolved in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) to deliver the antimicrobial agents (doxycycline hyclate, metronidazole and benzyl peroxide) for periodontitis treatment. The gel appearance, pH, viscosity, rheology, syringeability, gel formation, rate of water diffusion into the gels, in vitro degradation, drug release behavior and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyrommonas gingivalis were determined. Increasing the amount of EC increased the viscosity of system while still exhibiting Newtonian flow and increased the work of syringeability whereas decreased the releasing of drug. The system transformed into the rigid gel formation after being injected into the simulated gingival crevicular fluid. The developed systems containing 5% w/w antimicrobial agent showed the antimicrobial activities against all test bacteria. Thus the developed solvent exchange-induced in situ forming gels comprising EC-antimicrobial drugs exhibited potential use for periodontitis treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  12. A review of empirical research related to the use of small quantitative samples in clinical outcome scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Carrie R; Edwards, Michael C; Wirth, R J; Deal, Linda S

    2016-11-01

    There has been a notable increase in the advocacy of using small-sample designs as an initial quantitative assessment of item and scale performance during the scale development process. This is particularly true in the development of clinical outcome assessments (COAs), where Rasch analysis has been advanced as an appropriate statistical tool for evaluating the developing COAs using a small sample. We review the benefits such methods are purported to offer from both a practical and statistical standpoint and detail several problematic areas, including both practical and statistical theory concerns, with respect to the use of quantitative methods, including Rasch-consistent methods, with small samples. The feasibility of obtaining accurate information and the potential negative impacts of misusing large-sample statistical methods with small samples during COA development are discussed.

  13. Collaboration in research and the influential factors in Golestan University of Medical Sciences research projects (2005-2007): an academic sample from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Afsaneh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rezapour, Aziz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansourian, Morteza; Noroozi, Mahdi; Jahahgir, Fereydoon

    2013-08-01

    Number of Iranian articles published in ISI journals has increased significantly in recent years.Despite the quantitative progress, studies performed in Iran represent low collaboration in research; therefore,we decided to evaluate collaboration in Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GOUMS) research projects. In this cross-sectional study, all GOUMS research projects that had got grants from the universitybetween 2005-2007 were studied. Among 107 research projects included in our study, 102 projects were evaluatedand checklists were completed. The researcher's questionnaire was sent to the principle investigators (n=46) of the projects and eventually 40 questionnaires were collected. The review of 102 research proposals shows that 10 projects (9.8%) have been performed in collaborationwith other organizations. Scientific outputs in these projects have been more than projects which wereconfined to the university (98% compare to 68%; p= 0.04). The total cost of the projects under study was a littlemore than 300,000 US$. In just 12 projects (11.8%) a part of the cost had been provided by organizations outsidethe university. About 50% of researchers declared that they had chosen their research topic based on their"personal interest". Only 1 project was performed by the demand of nongovernmental organizations and 12 researchersreported no collaboration in their activities. This study shows that collaboration in GOUMS research projects is low. Moreover, collaborationswith governmental and nongovernmental organizations are trivial. The scientific outputs in collaborativeresearch projects are much more than other projects.

  14. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  15. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. " Bud" (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  16. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Essack, Magbubah

    2015-01-01

    The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent

  17. Photodetection, photon event localization and position tomography device comprising a gammagraphy camera equipped wit such devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatteau, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This device of photodetection and photon event (and noticeably scintillations) localization comprises at least a photomultiplier tube with unique photomultiplying structure and in front of this tube, a net of juxtaposed conduction metal wires excited by voltage pulses. This net comprises only 2n metallic wires to assure the localization of 2sup(2n) possible positions, and that is one of its characteristics [fr

  18. Ethical considerations in forensic genetics research on tissue samples collected post-mortem in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathfield, Laura J; Maistry, Sairita; Martin, Lorna J; Ramesar, Raj; de Vries, Jantina

    2017-11-29

    The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects. Among these challenges was the adaptation of research workflows to fit in with an exceptionally busy service delivery that is operating with limited resources. Whilst seeking guidance from the literature regarding research on deceased populations, it was noted that next of kin of decedents are not formally recognised as a vulnerable group in the existing ethical and legal frameworks in South Africa. The authors recommend that research in the forensic mortuary setting is approached using guidance for vulnerable groups, and the benefit to risk standard needs to be strongly justified. Lastly, when planning forensic genetics research, consideration must be given to the potential of uncovering incidental findings, funding to validate these findings and the feedback of results to family members; the latter of which is recommended to occur through a genetic counsellor. It is hoped that these experiences will contribute towards a formal framework for conducting forensic genetic research in medico-legal mortuaries in South Africa.

  19. Archive of information about geological samples available for research from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Polar Rock Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Rock Repository (PRR) operated by the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) at the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  20. Report of the First Community Consultation on the Responsible Collection and Use of Samples for Genetic Research, September 25-26, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Judith H.

    2002-05-22

    The First Community Consultation on the Responsible Collection and Use of Samples for Genetic Research was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 25-26, 2000. The consultation was convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Approximately 120 individuals participated in the consultation, half from a broad range of communities and populations, and half from government. The participants shared their views and concerns about population- and community-based genetic research, expanding the focus of the meeting from the collection and use of blood or other tissue samples for genetic research to broader issues and concerns about the conduct of genetic research in general with populations and communities.

  1. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U), plutonium ( 238 Pu, 239/249 Pu), and americium ( 241 Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements

  2. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duracinsky, Martin; Lalanne, Christophe; Rous, Laurence; Dara, Aichata Fofana; Baudoin, Lesya; Pellet, Claire; Descamps, Alexandre; Péretz, Fabienne; Chassany, Olivier

    2017-07-10

    As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d'Articles Médicaux) survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France), the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers' satisfaction and perceived needs. A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d'Interrogation, de Gestion et d'Analyse des Publications Scientifiques) bibliometric database. Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (write (79%) or submit (27%), limited skills in English (40%) or in writing (32%), and difficulty in starting writing (35%). 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%), critical reediting (63%), formatting (52%), and/or writing (41%), to save time (92%) and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%). 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%), medical writing (21%), or publication (38%) fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73%) and/or by the added financial value obtained by their department from previous publications (56%). The DIAzePAM survey highlights difficulties experienced by researchers preparing articles for biomedical journals, and details room for improvement.

  3. The Japanese Society of Pathology Guidelines on the handling of pathological tissue samples for genomic research: Standard operating procedures based on empirical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yae; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Tsuruyama, Tatsuhiro; Taguchi, Kenichi; Katoh, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoyo; Gotoh, Masahiro; Kuramoto, Junko; Arai, Eri; Ojima, Hidenori; Shibuya, Ayako; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Akahane, Toshiaki; Kasajima, Rika; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Inazawa, Johji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2018-02-01

    Genome research using appropriately collected pathological tissue samples is expected to yield breakthroughs in the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancers. In this connection, the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) has developed "The JSP Guidelines on the Handling of Pathological Tissue Samples for Genomic Research" based on an abundance of data from empirical analyses of tissue samples collected and stored under various conditions. Tissue samples should be collected from appropriate sites within surgically resected specimens, without disturbing the features on which pathological diagnosis is based, while avoiding bleeding or necrotic foci. They should be collected as soon as possible after resection: at the latest within about 3 h of storage at 4°C. Preferably, snap-frozen samples should be stored in liquid nitrogen (about -180°C) until use. When intending to use genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, 10% neutral buffered formalin should be used. Insufficient fixation and overfixation must both be avoided. We hope that pathologists, clinicians, clinical laboratory technicians and biobank operators will come to master the handling of pathological tissue samples based on the standard operating procedures in these Guidelines to yield results that will assist in the realization of genomic medicine. © 2018 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  5. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  6. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  7. Assessment of the National Research Universal Reactor Proposed New Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the National Research Universal reactor (NRU) complex exhaust stack, located in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Due to the age of the equipment in the existing monitoring system, and the increasing difficulty in acquiring replacement parts to maintain this equipment, a more up-to-date system is planned to replace the current effluent monitoring system, and a new monitoring location has been proposed. The new sampling probe should be located within the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task was 65167, Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Chalk River Effluent Duct Flow Qualification. The testing described in this document was guided by the Test Plan: Testing of the NRU Stack Air Sampling Position (TP-STMON-032).

  8. Employee Satisfaction in Hospitals with Afilasyo; Sample of Training and Research Hospital of University of Mugla Sitki Kocman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Ülger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the factors of which affect the employee satisfaction and has a an important role in giving qualified and efficient servise in Mugla Sitki Koçman University Training and Research Hospital where affiliation is applied. Material and Method: Questionnaire form was made to Mugla Sitki Koçman University Training and Research Hospital employees. The data in the research taken from the questionnaires were transferred to SPSS for analysis. As statistical analysis; reliability analysis and comparative analysis of the average one way analysis of variance (ANOVA analysis was performed. Results: According to results, verbal, mobbing and physical every kind of effect on burn out dimensions and unsatisfied, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Additionally, these conditions, has directly effect on job satisfaction and working cooperation. Discussion: There is burn out syndrome between health employees’ different dimensions and levels. As a result, contribute directly to beter patient services will be, it is suggested pay attenion to improve working conditions and welfare of health employees, highlight the importance the employees in terms of institutions and community and development of social status of employees.

  9. Process for the separation of contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a Ch4-comprising gaseous feed streem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the separation of a contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem, comprising the subsequent steps of: a) passing a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem comprising the contaminant or the mixture of contaminants in to and through a

  10. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Duracinsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d’Articles Médicaux survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France, the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers’ satisfaction and perceived needs. Methods A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d’Interrogation, de Gestion et d’Analyse des Publications Scientifiques bibliometric database. Results Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (<45 years of age: 63%; women: 55%; physician: 81%; with PhD or Habilitation à Diriger des recherches––accreditation to direct research––: 45%. 94% of respondents had published at least one article in the previous 2 years. 76% of respondents felt they were not publishing enough, mainly because of lack of time to write (79% or submit (27%, limited skills in English (40% or in writing (32%, and difficulty in starting writing (35%. 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%, critical reediting (63%, formatting (52%, and/or writing (41%, to save time (92% and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%. 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%, medical writing (21%, or publication (38% fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73% and/or by the added financial value obtained by their

  11. Amostragem domiciliar contínua em estudos epidemiológicos e no ensino Continuous household sampling for epidemiological research and for teaching purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Rocha Carvalheiro

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um sistema contínuo de levantamento de condições de saúde, por entrevistas domiciliárias, operando em Ribeirão Preto (SP desde 1974. Comentam-se as vantagens quanto à sua utilização na investigação de problemas específicos surgidos nesse período, bem como a sua utilização no ensino.The use of adequate populational-base survey is frequently impossible in epidemiological studies. Special studies are made among particular groups of individuals to investigate simultaneously the presence of both the factor and the disease. In these studies it is obviously important to use adequate sampling techniques. A system of continuous household sampling is described, designed to perform, simultaneously, epidemiological research, health system monitoring and to serve as a basis for courses on sampling techniques and epidemiological methods. In the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, S. Paulo, Brazil a household sampling system has been in operation since 1974, using a master sample of 8500 households. Every two weeks, 380 households are visited and information is gathered about diseases, accidents, and the use of health services. Special epidemiological research is introduced when necessary. Future development includes the use of standardized questionnaires and physical and laboratory examinations of the people interviewed.

  12. Instrument comprising a cable or tube provided provided with a propulsion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to an instrument (1) comprising a cable or tube (3), at a distal end of which a propulsion device (4) is provided for moving the cable or tube in a hollow space, the propulsion device being shaped like a donut lying in a plane at right angles to the longitudinal direction of

  13. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  14. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  15. Photomlxer for terahertz electromagnetic wave emission comprising quantum dots in a laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photomixer for generating terahertz electromagnetic radiation in response to illumination by a time-modulated optical signal. The photomixer (300) comprises a carrier substrate (310) with a plurality of quantum dots arranged in an emission region (308) thereof...

  16. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  17. Hydroformylation catalyst comprising a complex with ligands having a structure derived from bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2002-01-01

    Ethylenically unsaturated compounds are hydroformylated in the presence of a hydroformylation catalyst comprising at least one complex of a metal of transition group VIII with at least one phosphorus-containing compound as ligand, where this compound contains two groups which contain P atoms and are

  18. Structural and biophysical characterization of an antimicrobial peptide chimera comprised of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haney, E.F.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Vogel, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are two antimicrobial peptides found in the N-terminal lobe of bovine lactoferrin with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as Candida albicans. A heterodimer comprised of lactoferrampin joined to a

  19. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Liu, Amy D.

    2017-07-04

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  20. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D.

    2012-08-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  1. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D

    2015-04-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  2. Semiconductor sensor device, diagnostic instrument comprising such a device and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor sensor device (10) for sensing a substance comprising at least one mesa- shaped semiconductor region (11) which is formed on a surface of a semiconductor body (12) and which is connected at a first end to a first electrically conducting connection region (13)

  3. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, Qingxiao; Melnikov, Vasily; Mohammed, Omar F.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2

  4. X-ray diffraction device comprising cooling medium connections provided on the x-ray tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction device comprises a water-cooled X-ray tube which exhibits a line focus as well as, after rotation through 90 DEG , a point focus. Contrary to customary X-ray tubes, the cooling water is not supplied via the housing (12) in which the X-ray tube is mounted, but the cooling water

  5. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  6. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, Gyula J.; Duvigneau, Joost; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  7. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-18

    The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer\\'s Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent, including an inhibitor of TLR4/MD-2/CD14, nAChR agonist, Resatorvid, Curcumin, Tilorone or a Tilorone analog, or a combination thereof.

  8. [Current modalities and concepts on access and use of biospecimen samples and associated data for research from human biobanks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Roman; Semler, Sebastian Claudius

    2016-03-01

    It is accepted worldwide that biospecimen and data sharing (BDS) play an essential role for the future of medical research to improve diagnostics and prognostics, e.g. by validated biomarkers. BDS is also pivotal to the development of new therapeutic treatments and for the improvement of population health. Human biobanks can generate an added value to this need by providing biospecimens and/or associated data to researchers. An inspection of several examples of epidemiological as well as clinical/disease-oriented biobanks in Germany shows that best practice procedures (BPP) that are internationally agreed on are being installed for biospecimen and/or data access. In general, fair access is aimed at requiring a written application by the requesting scientist, which is then peer-reviewed for scientific and ethical validity by the Biobank. Applied BPP take into account (i) patient education/agreement according to the informed consent model, (ii) privacy protection, (iii) intellectual property rights, the (iv) notification obligation of health-related findings (including incidental findings), the (v) use of material (MTA) and data transfer agreements (DTA) for mutual legal security, the avoidance of conflicts of interests, as well as for cost recovery/fee for service as a basis for sustainability of the biobank. BPP are rooted in the self-regulation efforts of life sciences and are supported by parent ethics committees in Germany. Central biobank registries displaying aggregated information on biospecimens stored and the research foci constitute an important tool to make biobanks that are scattered across the country visible to each other, and, can thus promote access to hitherto unknown biospecimen and data resources.

  9. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex III: Neutron Devices and Computational and Sample Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakasai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

  10. On the Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Güleda Doğan

    2017-01-01

    This editorial is on statistical sampling, which is one of the most two important reasons for editorial rejection from our journal Turkish Librarianship. The stages of quantitative research, the stage in which we are sampling, the importance of sampling for a research, deciding on sample size and sampling methods are summarised briefly.

  11. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju; Jeong, Eui Sik; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Sang Hun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kwon, Young Sik; Chung, Sang Wuk; Lee, Kyu Sung; Chun, Ki Hong; Kim, Nak Bae; Lee, Kil Yong; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki.

    1997-09-01

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  12. Strain Analysis in the Assessment of a Mouse Model of Cardiotoxicity due to Chemotherapy: Sample for Preclinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Domenica; Coppola, Carmela; Barbieri, Antonio; Monti, Maria Gaia; Misso, Gabriella; Palma, Giuseppe; Bimonte, Sabrina; Zarone, Mayra Rachele; Luciano, Antonio; Liccardo, Davide; Maiolino, Piera; Cittadini, Antonio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Arra, Claudio; Maurea, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the development of more effective anticancer drugs has provided great benefits in patients' quality of life by improving both prognosis and disease-free survival. Nevertheless, the frequency and severity of side-effects, with particular reference to cardiac toxicity, have gained particular attention. The purpose of this study was to create a precise and sensitive preclinical model, able to identify early contractile dysfunction in mice treated with chemotherapy, through use of speckle-tracking echocardiography. We generated a mouse model of cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin. C57BL 6 mice were divided into two groups, treated for 7 days by intraperitoneal injections of placebo (vehicle) or doxorubicin (2.17 mg/kg), in order to characterize the cardiac phenotype in vivo. We demonstrated that doxorubicin caused ealy remodeling of the left ventricle: after two days of therapy, the radial, circumferential and strain rates were reduced respectively by 35%, 34%, and 39% (p-value ≤0.001). Moreover, histological analysis revealed that doxorubicin treatment increased fibrosis, cardiomyocyte diameter and apoptosis. In a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury, we detected left ventricular dysfunction followed by alterations in conventional echocardiographic indices. Our study suggests that a change in strain could be an effective early marker of myocardial dysfunction for new anticancer treatments and, in preclinical studies, it might also be a valuable indicator for the assessment of activity of cardioprotective agents. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10 vs. moderate correlations (r=.50 with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3.

  14. A Research on the Responsibility of Accounting Professionals to Determine and Prevent Accounting Errors and Frauds: Edirne Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanur Adalı

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ethical dimensions of accounting professionals related to accounting errors and frauds were examined. Firstly, general and technical information about accounting were provided. Then, some terminology on error, fraud and ethics in accounting were discussed. Study also included recent statistics about accounting errors and fraud as well as presenting a literature review. As the methodology of research, a questionnaire was distributed to 36 accounting professionals residing in Edirne city of Turkey. The collected data were then entered to the SPSS package program for analysis. The study revealed very important results. Accounting professionals think that, accounting chambers do not organize enough seminars/conferences on errors and fraud. They also believe that supervision and disciplinary boards of professional accounting chambers fulfill their responsibilities partially. Attitude of professional accounting chambers in terms of errors, fraud and ethics is considered neither strict nor lenient. But, most accounting professionals are aware of colleagues who had disciplinary penalties. Most important and effective tool to prevent errors and fraud is indicated as external audit, but internal audit and internal control are valued as well. According to accounting professionals, most errors occur due to incorrect data received from clients and as a result of recording. Fraud is generally made in order to get credit from banks and for providing benefits to the organization by not showing the real situation of the firm. Finally, accounting professionals state that being honest, trustworthy and impartial is the basis of accounting profession and accountants must adhere to ethical rules.

  15. Synchrotron radiation. 4. Analyses of biological samples using synchrotron radiation. 3. Research on radiation damage to DNA using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    This review described how the synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to solve problems unknown hitherto in radiation biology. Historically, the target substance of UV light in bacterial death was suggested to be nucleic acid in 1930. Researches on the radiation damage to DNA were begun at around 1960 and have mainly used UV light, X-ray and γray. Soft X-ray and vacuum UV whose energy covering from several eV to scores of keV have not been used since UV and X-ray lack the energy of this range. This is one of reasons why detailed process leading to radiation-induced death, carcinogenicity and mutation has not been known hitherto. RS possesses wide range of energy, i.e., from UV to hard X-ray, of high intensity, which is helpful for studying the unknown problems. The RS studies were begun in nineteen-seventies. Those include the action spectrum studies and atomic target studies. In the former, the course of the effect, e.g., the mechanism of DNA double strand breakage, can be elucidated. In the latter, photon of known energy can be irradiated to the specified atom like phosphorus in DNA which elucidating the precise physicochemical process of the breakage. Use of RS in these studies is thought still meaningful in future. (K.H.) 62 refs

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  17. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  18. Energy storage systems having an electrode comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2016-08-02

    Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes Li.sub.xS.sub.y as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.

  19. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  20. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones of Viruses Comprising the Towne Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  1. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of viruses comprising the towne cytomegalovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohong; Adler, Stuart P; Davison, Andrew J; Smith, Larry; Habib, El-Sayed E; McVoy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  2. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  3. Article comprising a garment or other textile structure for use in controlling body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    There is disclosed an article for use in cooling body temperature which comprises a garment having a coat and pant, with each having a body section adapted to receive a portion of the torso of the wearer and extensions from the body section to receive the wearer's limbs. The garment includes a system for circulating temperature controlling fluid from a suitable source through patches removably received in pockets in each of body section and extensions.

  4. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  5. Neurosensory and vascular function after 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet. Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers. The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling. Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.

  6. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  7. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Bach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent bibliome yielded three systematic reviews, which were examined for quality of research synthesis protocol and clinical relevance. Results: The sample size of three, rendered the statistical analyses and cumulative meta-analysis problematic. Conclusion: The systematic review outlined here should aid in increasing clinical awareness, improving patient health literacy, and promoting consensus of the best evidence base (BEB to mitigate the threat of sepsis and potential death caused by cellulitis infections.

  8. Simple and rapid determination methods for low-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear research facilities. Guidelines for determination of radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameo, Yutaka; Shimada, Asako; Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Haraga, Tomoko; Katayama, Atsushi; Nakashima, Mikio; Hoshi, Akiko

    2009-10-01

    Analytical methods were developed for simple and rapid determination of U, Th, and several nuclides, which are selected as important nuclides for safety assessment of disposal of wastes generated from research facilities at Nuclear Science Research Institute and Oarai Research and Development Center. The present analytical methods were assumed to apply to solidified products made from miscellaneous wastes by plasma melting in the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities. In order to establish a system to analyze the important nuclides in the solidified products at low cost and routinely, we have advanced the development of a high-efficiency non-destructive measurement technique for γ-ray emitting nuclides, simple and rapid methods for pretreatment of solidified product samples and subsequent radiochemical separations, and rapid determination methods for long-lived nuclides. In the present paper, we summarized the methods developed as guidelines for determination of radionuclides in the low-level solidified products. (author)

  9. Context matters: volunteer bias, small sample size, and the value of comparison groups in the assessment of research-based undergraduate introductory biology lab courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Kloser, Matthew J; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  10. Context Matters: Volunteer Bias, Small Sample Size, and the Value of Comparison Groups in the Assessment of Research-Based Undergraduate Introductory Biology Lab Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Brownell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  13. Collection, pre-treatment and analyses of Cs-137 and Tc-99 in marine samples at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) is an important contributor to the Norwegian marine monitoring programme RAME (Radioactivity in the Marine Environment). RAME is funded by the Ministry of the Environment and coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Sample collection is performed from IMRs research vessels in the open sea areas of the North-, Norwegian- and Barents Seas and in Norwegian fjords. The samples consist of biota (fish and other marine organisms), sediments and seawater. Biota samples are frozen onboard the ship and transported to IMR where the samples are subsequently ground up, freeze dried, homogenized and aliquoted into polyethylene counting boxes of appropriate size prior to analysis. Attempts are made to collect filets from 25 fish for each sample of large fish such as cod, haddock, saithe, red-fish and Greenland halibut. For smaller fish (e.g. blue whiting, polar cod, capelin and Atlantic herring) and other organisms such as amphipods, krill, and deep-sea shrimps, a sample of 2-3 kg of each species is taken. These samples are ground up whole. Sediment samples are collected using a Smoegen boxcorer, from where both surface samples and cores are taken. The samples are frozen onboard the ship. While half-frozen, the cores are cut into slices of 1 or 2 cm thickness on board the ship, then frozen again and transported to IMR where they are treated as described above for the biota samples. Large volumes (typically 50-200 L) of seawater are needed in order to get enough material for analysis. Pre-treatment of the samples in the field is therefore an advantage. Surface samples (5 m) of seawater are collected from a shipboard pump, while a CTD-rosette multi-bottle sampler with 12 10 L samplers is used to collect seawater from depths below 5 meters. For the analysis of Cs-137, Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ]-impregnated cotton filters are used for the pre-concentration. One pre-filter without impregnation, two Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6

  14. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  15. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  16. AutoGNI, the Robot Under the Aircraft Floor: An Automated System for Sampling Giant Aerosol Particles by Impaction in the Free Airstream Outside a Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. B.; Schwenz, K.; Aquino, J.; Carnes, J.; Webster, C.; Munnerlyn, J.; Wissman, T.; Lugger, T.

    2017-12-01

    Giant sea-salt aerosol particles, also called Giant Cloud Condensation Nuclei (GCCN), have been proposed as a means of rapidly forming precipitation sized drizzle drops in warm marine clouds (e.g., Jensen and Nugent, 2017). Such rare particles are best sampled from aircraft in air below cloud base, where normal laser optical instruments have too low sample volume to give statistically significant samples of the large particle tail. An automated sampling system (the AutoGNI) has been built to operate from inside a pressurized aircraft. Under the aircraft floor, a pressurized vessel contains 32 custom-built polycarbonate microscope slides. Using robotics with 5 motor drives and 18 positioning switches, the AutoGNI can take slides from their holding cassettes, pass them onto a caddy in an airfoil that extends 200 mm outside the aircraft, where they are exposed in the free airstream, thus avoiding the usual problems with large particle losses in air intakes. Slides are typically exposed for 10-30 s in the marine boundary layer, giving sample volumes of about 100-300 L or more. Subsequently the slides are retracted into the pressure vessel, stored and transported for laboratory microscope image analysis, in order to derive size-distribution histograms. While the aircraft is flying, the AutoGNI system is remotely controlled from a laptop on the ground, using an encrypted commercial satellite connection to the NSF/NCAR GV research aircraft's main server, and onto the AutoGNI microprocessor. The sampling of such GCCN is becoming increasingly important in order to provide complete input data for model calculations of aerosol-cloud interactions and their feedbacks in climate prediction. The AutoGNI has so far been sampling sea-salt GCCN in the Magellan Straight during the 2016 ORCAS project and over the NW Pacific during the 2017 ARISTO project, both from the NSF/NCAR GV research aircraft. Sea-salt particle sizes of 1.4 - 32 μm dry diameter have been observed.

  17. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. El muestreo en investigación cualitativa: principios básicos y algunas controversias Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Salgado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos de la elección de los participantes en una investigación cualitativa, en contraste con los que rigen al muestreo probabilístico en la investigación epidemiológica. Se proponen los conceptos de generalizabilidad nomotética e ideográfica, y los de transferibilidad y reflexividad, para una mejor comprensión de las diferencias. Se mencionan los fundamentos de los principales tipos de muestreo que suelen utilizarse en investigación cualitativa, el significado del concepto de saturación y algunos de sus cuestionamientos. Por último, se plantean algunas reflexiones en torno a las controversias suscitadas en los últimos años sobre las diversas perspectivas paradigmáticas desde las cuales se puede efectuar hoy día la investigación cualitativa, sus posibilidades de combinación con la investigación epidemiológica, y algunas implicaciones para el estudio de los problemas de salud.This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  19. Composites comprising novel RTIL-based polymers, and methods of making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Douglas; Carlisle, Trevor; Noble, Richard; Nicodemus, Garret; McDanel, William; Cowan, Matthew

    2017-06-27

    The invention includes compositions comprising curable imidazolium-functionalized poly(room-temperature ionic liquid) copolymers and homopolymers. The invention further includes methods of preparing and using the compositions of the invention. The invention further includes novel methods of preparing thin, supported, room-temperature ionic liquid-containing polymeric films on a porous support. In certain embodiments, the methods of the invention avoid the use of a gutter layer, which greatly reduces the overall gas permeance and selectivity of the composite membrane. In other embodiments, the films of the invention have increased gas selectivity and permeance over films prepared using methods described in the prior art.

  20. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  1. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  2. HVDC Solution for Offshore Wind Park Comprising Turbines Equipped with Full-Range Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    a voltage drop is created at the collection grid, the wind turbines go into fault-ride-through mode. The power output from each of the wind turbines is thus reduced to balance the system power. The detailed explanation of the strategy is presented in the paper. Matlab simulation model was prepared and some...... of a HVDC transmission system. The power system under study includes an offshore wind farm comprising turbines equipped with full range converters. The collection network is a local AC grid. Power transmission is done through HVDC system. The grid side VSC (voltage source converter) controls the DC voltage...

  3. IDIOMS THAT COMPRISE THE PRESENCE OF TURKISH WORDS IN GREEK CYPRIOT LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Şevket ÖZNUR; Mahmut İSLÂMOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    In this communiqué again we preferred to present some examples from the effects of Turkish Cypriot Culture. For a few years, we have concentrated on our culture’s effect on other cultures in Cyprus. Bearing in mind that we have lived together for hundreds of years with other societies, we have seen fit to give examples of the cultural interaction between other cultures and Turkish Cypriot culture. Our communiqué mostly comprises the effects of Turkish Culture. We have found it convenient to p...

  4. Electrical characterization of MIM capacitor comprises an adamantane film at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N., E-mail: rajanisht@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomical Sciences, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharmshala 176206 Kangra, H.P. India (India); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1Hisakata, Tempaku-Ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Yoshimura, Masamichi [Department of Physics and Astronomical Sciences, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharmshala 176206 Kangra, H.P. India (India)

    2016-06-15

    We fabricated a new metal-insulator-metal capacitor at room temperature, comprising a ∼90 nm thin low–k adamantane film on a Si substrate. The surface morphology of deposited organic film was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which is confirmed that the adamantane thin film was uniformly distributed on the Si surface. The adamantane film exhibits a low leakage current density of 7.4 x 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at 13.5 V, better capacitance density of 2.14 fF/μm{sup 2} at 100 KHz.

  5. Anticonvection device for a narrow space comprised between two parallel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, Didier.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to an anticonvection device providing strong limitations against the convection currents inside a space submitted to a vertical thermal gradient and more especially the space enclosed between the inner wall of a vessel generally cyclindrical in shape and of vertical axis, intended for a nuclear reactor, and the outer wall of a plug fitted together with said vessel. To this effect, said device is characterized in that it comprises a packing of a material of open porosity and thickness-wise elasticity, in the form of threads, fibers, knitted-cloths or sheets separated by distances shorter than the thickness of stagnancy under the temperature conditions inside said space [fr

  6. Detection matrix of an electromagnetic radiation and radiological image intensifier comprising such a matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraleux, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a detection matrix comprising, in an electrode lattice of lines and columns, addressing means constituted of thin film technology MOS transistors and photoconductances which enable the number of unit module crossings to be halved and to bring about an increase in the effective detection area. This detection matrix is employed in radiological image intensifiers where it ensures the conversion of incident X photons into reading electric signals or only the detection of a visible radiation in the case where the incident X photons are converted into lesser energy photons by a scintillator. The scintillator is then formed of a panel brought into contact with the detector mosaic [fr

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... trachoma by nurse data collectors supervised by ophthalmic supervisors using the WHO simplified clinical .... determining the sample size, we estimated the prevalence of ..... Their argument was that flies may breed on animal.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-05

    Feb 5, 2013 ... experimental study (a pre and post-test interventional, one group), aimed at assessing the impact of health education on .... The study was quasi experimental using the ... using simple random sampling using a toss of coin.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of .... cows, not showing clinical mastitis, into 20ml sterile milk sample bottles. Tests and .... and ultimately treatment [39]. This implies that ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  13. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Hughes, C.E.; Harrison, J.J.; Hankin, S.; Crawford, J.; Johansen, M.; Dyer, L. [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of {sup 3}H that were significantly higher (up to {approx}700 Bq L{sup -1}) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L{sup -1}). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p < 0.01) local fallout {sup 3}H but its influence did not reach as far as the disposal trenches. The elevated {sup 3}H levels in transpirate were, however, substantially lower than groundwater concentrations measured across the site (ranging from 0 to 91% with a median of 2%). Temporal patterns of tree transpirate {sup 3}H, together with local meteorological observations, indicate that soil water within the active root zones comprised a mixture of seepage and rainfall infiltration. The degree of mixing was variable given that the soil water activity concentrations were heterogeneous at a scale equivalent to the effective rooting volume of the trees. In addition, water taken up by roots was not well mixed within the trees. Based on correlation modelling, net rainfall less evaporation (a surrogate for infiltration) over a period of from 2 to 3 weeks prior to sampling seems to be the optimum predictor of transpirate {sup 3}H variability for any sampled tree at this site. The results demonstrate successful use of {sup 3}H in transpirate from trees to indicate the presence and general extent of sub-surface contamination at a low-level nuclear waste site. - Highlights: > Data on environmental tritium behaviour over 21 months related to a legacy waste site are presented. > The relative contributions of atmospheric and

  14. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  20. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  2. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  3. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-02-23

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2) architecture with self-compliance effect is demonstrated. By using two layers of SnO film, a good memory performance is obtained as compared to the individual oxide films. The memory devices show resistance ratio of 103 between the high resistance and low resistance states, and this difference can be maintained for up to 180 cycles. The devices also show good retention characteristics, where no significant degradation is observed for more than 103 s. Different charge transport mechanisms are found in both resistance states, depending on the applied voltage range and its polarity. The resistive switching is shown to originate from the oxygen ion migration and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments.

  4. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Liu, Qingyun; Trauner, Andrej; Fenner, Lukas; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Borrell, Sonia; Luo, Tao; Gao, Qian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Macedo, Rita; Mardassi, Helmi; Moreno, Milagros; Tudo Vilanova, Griselda; Fyfe, Janet; Globan, Maria; Thomas, Jackson; Jamieson, Frances; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Wampande, Eddie; Ssengooba, Willy; Joloba, Moses; Henry Boom, W.; Basu, Indira; Bower, James; Saraiva, Margarida; Vaconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Suffys, Philip; Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert; Gail-Bekker, Linda; Malla, Bijaya; Ley, Serej D.; Beck, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Bouke C.; Toit, Kadri; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Maryline; Gil-Brusola, Ana; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Veronique N.; Eisenach, Kathleen; Alani, Issam; Wangui Ndung’u, Perpetual; Revathi, Gunturu; Gehre, Florian; Akter, Suriya; Ntoumi, Francine; Stewart-Isherwood, Lynsey; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Rachow, Andrea; Hoelscher, Michael; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Skenders, Girts; Hoffner, Sven; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Diel, Roland; Crudu, Valeriu; Moldovan, Olga; Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Otero, Larissa; Barletta, Francesca; Jane Carter, E.; Diero, Lameck; Supply, Philip; Comas, Iñaki; Niemann, Stefan; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niche. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that while the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists. Our data further support a European origin for the most common generalist sublineage. Hence, the global success of Lineage 4 reflects distinct strategies adopted by different sublineages and the influence of human migration. PMID:27798628

  6. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  7. Functional Analysis of Genes Comprising the Locus of Heat Resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan; Nguyen, Oanh; Ou, Qixing; McMullen, Lynn; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-10-15

    The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a 15- to 19-kb genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae , including pathogenic strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli The complement of LHR-comprising genes that is necessary for heat resistance and the stress-induced or growth-phase-induced expression of LHR-comprising genes are unknown. This study determined the contribution of the seven LHR-comprising genes yfdX1 GI , yfdX2 , hdeD GI , orf11 , trx GI , kefB , and psiE GI by comparing the heat resistances of E. coli strains harboring plasmid-encoded derivatives of the different LHRs in these genes. (Genes carry a subscript "GI" [genomic island] if an ortholog of the same gene is present in genomes of E. coli ) LHR-encoded heat shock proteins sHSP20, ClpK GI , and sHSP GI are not sufficient for the heat resistance phenotype; YfdX1, YfdX2, and HdeD are necessary to complement the LHR heat shock proteins and to impart a high level of resistance. Deletion of trx GI , kefB , and psiE GI from plasmid-encoded copies of the LHR did not significantly affect heat resistance. The effect of the growth phase and the NaCl concentration on expression from the putative LHR promoter p2 was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and by a plasmid-encoded p2:GFP promoter fusion. The expression levels of exponential- and stationary-phase E. coli cells were not significantly different, but the addition of 1% NaCl significantly increased LHR expression. Remarkably, LHR expression in E. coli was dependent on a chromosomal copy of evgA In conclusion, this study improved our understanding of the genes required for exceptional heat resistance in E. coli and factors that increase their expression in food. IMPORTANCE The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to several foodborne pathogens. The exceptional level of heat resistance provided by the LHR questions the

  8. Ion source using a hollow cathode discharge system and especially, particle accelerator comprising said source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourier, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source provided with a hollow cathode discharge system is presented. The ion extraction system is designed in view of generating a beam directed towards a point of use located far from the point of ion production. Said source essentially comprises two cathodes facing each other, an anode at a continuous voltage with respect to the cathodes, a heated filament beyond the cathode on the path of the extracted beam, and a grid between said filament and cathode. The ion extraction is limited to a certain portion of the ions present inside the plasma, so as the discharge to continue to be sustained by itself. For that purpose pierced cathodes are used, with a transparency (the ratio of the hole area to the whole cathode area) not much higher than 50% [fr

  9. Position sensitive detector with semiconductor and image electron tube comprising such a detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roziere, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a position sensitive detector comprising a semiconducting substrate. It also concerns the electron tubes in which the detector may be incorporated in order to obtain an image formed at the tube input by an incident flux of particles or radiation. When a charged particle or group of such particles, electrons in particular, enter the space charge region of an inversely biased semiconductor diode, the energy supplied by these particles releases in the diode a certain number of electron-hole pairs which move in the field existing in the area towards the diode contacts. A corresponding current arises in the connections of this diode which constitutes the signal corresponding to the incident energy. Such a tube or chain of tubes is employed in nuclear medicine for observing parts of the human body, particularly by gamma radiation [fr

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... South Africa). Seropositivity for syphilis in turn uses a completely screening by a Rapid-Plasma-Réagin test (syphilis RPR test, Human. Gesellschaft für Biochemicaund Diagnostic amb H, Germany) then the positive samples were passed to the TPHA (Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination Assay) and the ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-20

    Jan 20, 2015 ... ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ... unsafe human waste disposal systems, inadequacy and lack of safe ... hence received an interview after providing the stool sample. This makes the response rate to be 100%. .... that prohibits the transmission of intestinal helminths.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... stage systematic sampling design from the three provinces. Instrument ... It was based on a question-and-answer information brochure derived from the ... grade 12 education and 11.9% had a post-secondary school education ... to enable South African citizens to receive good quality healthcare at any time ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... patients was recognized as an independent risk factor of the acquisition of A. baumannii infection [5]. Many authors have reported the predominance of Acinetobacter strains in broncho- pulmonary samples [7, 20, 27]. In this study, the main isolation site of these clinical isolates was also broncho-pulmonary ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore ... The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design consisting of 37 clusters, 18 in the .... deficiency in malaria endemic regions has multiple causes of which p.falciparum being one of the ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... through air by droplet nuclei and the micro-organisms enter the ... infected people (80-90%) will never become ill with TB unless with .... and a systematic sampling method of 1 in 3 names on the list was .... Variable (N=241).

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Pre dialysis serum samples collected from the patients were used for albumin analysis. The serum from the patients was analysed for serum albumin levels using the Mindray BS120 chemistry analyser using the bromocresol green method. Results: A total of 60 patients were recruited from the two hospitals.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sciences regarding telehealth, as well as their views on suitable content areas for a telehealth module. A descriptive survey .... The mean square contingency coefficient, the ..... participate, and the small sample size, representing less than 50% of medical staff ... and demonstrations by companies selling telehealth systems.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-24

    May 24, 2014 ... A sample was considered positive if it was reactive to both tests kits and negative if ... WHO Clinical and Immunological Stages of the HIV infected. Subjects .... The lack of determination of dietary intake and food security in the ...

  19. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  20. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5–C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sieg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L−1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L−1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L−1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  1. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location...). However, once the manufacturer ships any test engine, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests...

  2. 40 CFR 90.507 - Sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 90.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location... manufacturer ships any test engine, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests as provided in § 90.508...

  3. A workforce survey of Australian osteopathy: analysis of a nationally-representative sample of osteopaths from the Osteopathy Research and Innovation Network (ORION) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Steel, Amie; Peng, Wenbo

    2018-05-10

    Limited information is available regarding the profile and clinical practice characteristics of the osteopathy workforce in Australia. This paper reports such information by analysing data from a nationally-representative sample of Australian osteopaths. Data was obtained from a workforce survey of Australian osteopathy, investigating the characteristics of the practitioner, their practice, clinical management features and perceptions regarding research. The survey questionnaire was distributed to all registered osteopaths across Australia in 2016 as part of the Osteopathy Research and Innovation Network (ORION) project. A total of 992 Australian osteopaths participated in this study representing a response rate of 49.1%. The average age of the participants was 38.0 years with 58.1% being female and the majority holding a Bachelor or higher degree qualification related to the osteopathy professional. Approximately 80.0% of the osteopaths were practicing in an urban area, with most osteopaths working in multi-practitioner locations, having referral relationships with a range of health care practitioners, managing patients a number of musculoskeletal disorders, and providing multi-model treatment options. A total of 3.9 million patients were estimated to consult with osteopaths every year and an average of approximate 3.0 million hours were spent delivering osteopathy services per year. Further research is required to provide rich, in-depth examination regarding a range of osteopathy workforce issues which will help ensure safe, effective patient care to all receiving and providing treatments as part of the broader Australian health system.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  18. A Delphi Study to Develop a Standard List of Activities that Comprise Routine Clinical Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Denzin and Lincoln propose that “Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of......Publications, 2003. Davies, Martin Brett. Doing a Successful Research Project. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Denzin , Norman K., and Yvonna S

  19. Magnetoresistance in single-electron transistors comprising a superconducting island with ferromagnetic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Takiguchi, Masashi; Tamura, Nobuyuki; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We report electric and magnetic field responses of single-electron transistors (SETs) comprising a superconducting island with ferromagnetic (FM) leads. We fabricated two SETs, one of which had relatively high resistance and the other had relatively low resistance. The SETs had two states for the gate charge: SET-ON or SET-OFF. They also had two states for the FM lead magnetization: parallel (P) or anti-parallel (AP) configuration. Current-voltage characteristics of four SET states (“P & SET-ON,” “P & SET-OFF,” “AP & SET-ON,” and “AP & SET-OFF”) were measured at approximately 0.1 K in a compact dilution refrigerator. Magnetoresistance ratio (MRR) values were obtained for the SET-ON and SET-OFF states, respectively. The higher-resistance SET1 exhibited positive MRR values for all measured bias voltages. The MRR enhancement was confirmed for the SET-OFF state, which agreed well with the co-tunneling model. The lower-resistance SET2, on the other hand, exhibited negative and positive MRR values for higher and lower bias voltage conditions, respectively. The bias voltage for the MRR polarity reversal was changed by the gate voltage. It was also confirmed that the co-tunneling model was partially valid for negative MRR values.

  20. Guided wave propagation and scattering in pipeworks comprising elbows: Theoretical and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkali, M El; Lhémery, A; Baronian, V; Chapuis, B

    2015-01-01

    Elastic guided waves (GW) are used to inspect pipeworks in various industries. Modelling tools for simulating GW inspection are necessary to understand complex scattering phenomena occurring at specific features (welds, elbows, junctions...). In pipeworks, straight pipes coexist with elbows. GW propagation in the former cases is well-known, but is less documented in the latter. Their scattering at junction of straight and curved pipes constitutes a complex phenomenon. When a curved part is joined to two straight parts, these phenomena couple and give rise to even more complex wave structures. In a previous work, the SemiAnalytic Finite Element method extended to curvilinear coordinates was used to handle GW propagation in elbows, combined with a mode matching method to predict their scattering at the junction with a straight pipe. Here, a pipework comprising an arbitrary number of elbows of finite length and of different curvature linking straight pipes is considered. A modal scattering matrix is built by cascading local scattering and propagation matrices. The overall formulation only requires meshing the pipe section to compute both the modal solutions and the integrals resulting from the mode-matching method for computing local scattering matrices. Numerical predictions using this approach are studied and compared to experiments

  1. Stability Assessment of a System Comprising a Single Machine and Inverter with Scalable Ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Purba, Victor [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota

    2017-09-28

    From the inception of power systems, synchronous machines have acted as the foundation of large-scale electrical infrastructures and their physical properties have formed the cornerstone of system operations. However, power electronics interfaces are playing a growing role as they are the primary interface for several types of renewable energy sources and storage technologies. As the role of power electronics in systems continues to grow, it is crucial to investigate the properties of bulk power systems in low inertia settings. In this paper, we assess the properties of coupled machine-inverter systems by studying an elementary system comprised of a synchronous generator, three-phase inverter, and a load. Furthermore, the inverter model is formulated such that its power rating can be scaled continuously across power levels while preserving its closed-loop response. Accordingly, the properties of the machine-inverter system can be assessed for varying ratios of machine-to-inverter power ratings and, hence, differing levels of inertia. After linearizing the model and assessing its eigenvalues, we show that system stability is highly dependent on the interaction between the inverter current controller and machine exciter, thus uncovering a key concern with mixed machine-inverter systems and motivating the need for next-generation grid-stabilizing inverter controls.

  2. Composite materials comprising two jonal functions and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ali Syed; Garnier, John Edward; Schiroky, Gerhard Hans; Kennedy, Christopher Robin; Sonuparlak, Birol

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to mechanisms for preventing undesirable oxidation (i.e., oxidation protection mechanisms) in composite bodies. The oxidation protection mechanisms include getterer materials which are added to the composite body which gather or scavenge undesirable oxidants which may enter the composite body. The getterer materials may be placed into at least a portion of the composite body such that any undesirable oxidant approaching, for example, a fiber reinforcement, would be scavenged by (e.g., reacted with) the getterer. The getterer materials) may form at least one compound which acts as a passivation layer, and/or is able to move by bulk transport (e.g., by viscous flow as a glassy material) to a crack, and sealing the crack, thereby further enhancing the oxidation protection of the composite body. One or more ceramic filler materials which serve as reinforcements may have a plurality of super-imposed coatings thereon, at least one of which coatings may function as or contain an oxidation protection mechanism. Specifically, a coating comprising boron nitride which has been engineered or modified to contain some silicon exhibits improved corrosion resistance, specifically to oxygen and moisture. The coated materials may be useful as reinforcing materials in high performance composites to provide improved mechanical properties such as fracture toughness. The present invention also relates to improved composites which incorporate these materials, and to their methods of manufacture.

  3. Strain gauge sensors comprised of carbon nanotube yarn: parametric numerical analysis of their piezoresistive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abot, Jandro L; Kiyono, César Y; Thomas, Gilles P; Silva, Emílio C N

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are micron-size fibers that contain thousands of intertwined CNTs in their cross sections and exhibit piezoresistance characteristics that can be tapped for sensing purposes. Sensor yarns can be integrated into polymeric and composite materials to measure strain through resistance measurements without adding weight or altering the integrity of the host material. This paper includes the details of novel strain gauge sensor configurations comprised of CNT yarn, the numerical modeling of their piezoresistive response, and the parametric analysis schemes that determines the highest sensor sensitivity to mechanical loading. The effect of several sensor configuration parameters are discussed including the inclination and separation of the CNT yarns within the sensor, the mechanical properties of the CNT yarn, the direction and magnitude of the applied mechanical load, and the dimensions and shape of the sensor. The sensor configurations that yield the highest sensitivity are presented and discussed in terms of the mechanical and electrical properties of the CNT yarn. It is shown that strain gauge sensors consisting of CNT yarn are sensitive enough to measure strain, and could exhibit even higher gauge factors than those of metallic foil strain gauges. (paper)

  4. Implementation of a documentation model comprising nursing terminologies--theoretical and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krogh, Gunn; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2008-04-01

    To describe and discuss theoretical and methodological issues of implementation of a nursing services documentation model comprising NANDA nursing diagnoses, Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Outcome Classification terminologies. The model is developed for electronic patient record and was implemented in a psychiatric hospital on an organizational level and on five test wards in 2001-2005. The theory of Rogers guided the process of innovation, whereas the implementation procedure of McCloskey and Bulecheck combined with adult learning principals guided the test site implementation. The test wards managed in different degrees to adopt the model. Two wards succeeded fully, including a ward with high percentage of staff with interdisciplinary background. Better planning regarding the impact of the organization's innovative aptitude, the innovation strategies and the use of differentiated methods regarding the clinician's individual premises for learning nursing terminologies might have enhanced the adoption to the model. To better understand the nature of barriers and the importance of careful planning regarding the implementation of electronic patient record elements in nursing care services, focusing on nursing terminologies. Further to indicate how a theory and specific procedure can be used to guide the process of implementation throughout the different levels of management.

  5. Structural analysis and taste evaluation of γ-glutamyl peptides comprising sulfur-containing amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Akashi, Satoko; Ishiwatari, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    The structures, flavor-modifying effects, and CaSR activities of γ-glutamyl peptides comprising sulfur-containing amino acids were investigated. The chemical structures, including the linkage mode of the N-terminal glutamic acid, of γ-L-glutamyl-S-(2-propenyl)-L-cysteine (γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine) and its sulfoxide isolated from garlic were established by comparing their NMR spectra with those of authentic peptides prepared using chemical methods. Mass spectrometric analysis also enabled determination of the linkage modes in the glutamyl dipeptides by their characteristic fragmentation. In sensory evaluation, these peptides exhibited flavor-modifying effects (continuity) in umami solutions less pronounced but similar to that of glutathione. Furthermore, the peptides exhibited intrinsic flavor due to the sulfur-containing structure, which may be partially responsible for their flavor-modifying effects. In CaSR assays, γ-L-glutamyl-S-methyl-L-cysteinylglycine was most active, which indicates that the presence of a medium-sized aliphatic substituent at the second amino acid residue in γ-glutamyl peptides enhances CaSR activity.

  6. High-performance organic light-emitting diodes comprising ultrastable glass layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are one of the key solid-state light sources for various applications including small and large displays, automotive lighting, solid-state lighting, and signage. For any given commercial application, OLEDs need to perform at their best, which is judged by their device efficiency and operational stability. We present OLEDs that comprise functional layers fabricated as ultrastable glasses, which represent the thermodynamically most favorable and, thus, stable molecular conformation achievable nowadays in disordered solids. For both external quantum efficiencies and LT70 lifetimes, OLEDs with four different phosphorescent emitters show >15% enhancements over their respective reference devices. The only difference to the latter is the growth condition used for ultrastable glass layers that is optimal at about 85% of the materials’ glass transition temperature. These improvements are achieved through neither material refinements nor device architecture optimization, suggesting a general applicability of this concept to maximize the OLED performance, no matter which specific materials are used. PMID:29806029

  7. Novel Metabolic Attributes of the Genus Cyanothece, Comprising a Group of Unicellular Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric; Stöckel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle; Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Cyanothece comprises unicellular cyanobacteria that are morphologically diverse and ecologically versatile. Studies over the last decade have established members of this genus to be important components of the marine ecosystem, contributing significantly to the nitrogen and carbon cycle. System-level studies of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a prototypic member of this group, revealed many interesting metabolic attributes. To identify the metabolic traits that define this class of cyanobacteria, five additional Cyanothece strains were sequenced to completion. The presence of a large, contiguous nitrogenase gene cluster and the ability to carry out aerobic nitrogen fixation distinguish Cyanothece as a genus of unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Cyanothece cells can create an anoxic intracellular environment at night, allowing oxygen-sensitive processes to take place in these oxygenic organisms. Large carbohydrate reserves accumulate in the cells during the day, ensuring sufficient energy for the processes that require the anoxic phase of the cells. Our study indicates that this genus maintains a plastic genome, incorporating new metabolic capabilities while simultaneously retaining archaic metabolic traits, a unique combination which provides the flexibility to adapt to various ecological and environmental conditions. Rearrangement of the nitrogenase cluster in Cyanothece sp. strain 7425 and the concomitant loss of its aerobic nitrogen-fixing ability suggest that a similar mechanism might have been at play in cyanobacterial strains that eventually lost their nitrogen-fixing ability. PMID:21972240

  8. Characterization of the proteins comprising the integral matrix of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryonic spicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, C. E.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we enumerate and characterize the proteins that comprise the integral spicule matrix of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins reveals that there are 12 strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins and approximately three dozen less strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins. The majority of the proteins have acidic isoelectric points; however, there are several spicule matrix proteins that have more alkaline isoelectric points. Western blotting analysis indicates that SM50 is the spicule matrix protein with the most alkaline isoelectric point. In addition, two distinct SM30 proteins are identified in embryonic spicules, and they have apparent molecular masses of approximately 43 and 46 kDa. Comparisons between embryonic spicule matrix proteins and adult spine integral matrix proteins suggest that the embryonic 43-kDa SM30 protein is an embryonic isoform of SM30. An adult 49-kDa spine matrix protein is also identified as a possible adult isoform of SM30. Analysis of the SM30 amino acid sequences indicates that a portion of SM30 proteins is very similar to the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectin proteins.

  9. Saccharification of sunflower stalks using lignocellulases from a fungal consortium comprising Pholiota adiposa and Armillaria gemina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Kim, Tae-Su; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Li, Jinglin; Park, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Joon-Ho; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-09-01

    Lignocellulases from Armillaria gemina and Pholiota adiposa are efficient in hydrolyzing aspen and poplar biomass, respectively. In the present study, lignocellulosic enzymes obtained from a fungal consortium comprising P. adiposa and A. gemina were used for the saccharification of sunflower stalks. Sunflower stalks were thermochemically pretreated using 2 % NaOH at 50 °C for 24 h. The saccharification process parameters including substrate concentration, enzyme loading, pH, and temperature were optimized using response surface methodology to improve the saccharification yield. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis (84.3 %) was obtained using the following conditions: enzyme loading 10 FPU/g-substrate, substrate 5.5 %, temperature 50 °C, and pH 4.5. The hydrolysis yield obtained using the enzymes from the fungal consortium was equivalent to that obtained using a mixture of commercial enzymes Celluclast and Novozyme β-glucosidase. Addition of up to 500 ppm of heavy metal ions (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) during saccharification did not significantly affect the saccharification yield. Thus, the biomass grown for phytoremediation of heavy metals can be used for the production of reducing sugars followed by ethanol fermentation.

  10. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - The study on human health and environment by neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Yeon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Sun; Jeon, Ki Hong; Na, Kyung Won; Kang, Sang Hun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With the development of the precise quantitative analytical method for the analysis of trace elements in the various biological samples such as hair and food, evaluation in view of health and environment to the trace elements in various sources which can be introduced inside human body was done. The trace elemental distribution in Korean total diet and representative food stuff was identified first. With the project the elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were also estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and important areas of biological area can be initiated with the results. The output of the project can support public heath, environment, and medical research area. The results can be applied for the process of micronutrients enhanced health food production and for the health safety and health status enhancement with the additional necessary data expansion and the development of various evaluation technique. 19 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  11. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  12. Peroral endoscopic myotomy can improve esophageal motility in patients with achalasia from a large sample self-control research (66 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangzhe Yao

    Full Text Available Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM as a new approach to achalasia attracts broad attention. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the results with esophageal motility after POEM through the first large sample clinical research.We have a self-control research with all patients (205 in total who underwent POEM from 2010 to 2014 at our Digestive Endoscopic Center, 66 patients of which underwent high resolution manometry (HRM before and after POEM in our motility laboratory. Follow-ups last for 5.6 months on average. Outcome variables analyzed included upper esophageal sphincter pressure (UESP, upper esophageal sphincter residual pressure (UESRP, lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP, lower esophageal sphincter residual pressure (LESRP and esophageal body peristalsis. We have a statistical analysis to illustrate how POEM impacts on the change of esophageal motility.The symptoms related to dysphagia were relieved in 95% of patients in recent term after POEM. While HRM showed a statistically significant reduction of URSRP, LESP and LESRP (P0.05 did not occur for these two groups on LESP and LESRP reduction.POEM clearly relieved the symptoms related to dysphagia by lowering the pressure of upper esophageal sphincter (UES and lower esophageal sphincter (LES,and other endoscopic treatment before POEM did not affect the improvement of LES pressure. These results are concluded from our short-term follow-up study, while the long-term efficacy remains to be further illustrated.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-12002204.

  13. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  14. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  15. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this Second Research Co-ordinated Meeting (12-16 August 1991) on Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples is to discuss the progress of the programmes since the First Research Co-ordination Meeting, discuss how to validate the methodologies developed (e.g. reference samples, intercomparisons), and outline a schedule for CRP completion by the end of 1992. Radioactive contamination of the environment after a nuclear accident, such as had occurred at Chernobyl, is of serious concern to government officials and members of the general public. In 1990/1991 the Agency was asked to organize the International Chernobyl Project to assess the situation in the USSR. A network of laboratories was organized to carry out the environmental assessment needed for this project. The following recommendations are based on the experience gained by many of the laboratories involved in this project. 1. Maintain a network of analytical laboratories with special skills and experience to provide assessments of radionuclide contamination in the environment in case of a radiological emergency. 2. Methodologies for assessment of contamination in the environment should take into consideration potential trajectories, radioecology, and food chain parameters. 3. Focus on areas of representative sample collection, is situ instrumental and chemical analysis, as well as advanced streamlined laboratory analyses which will facilitate the timeline of an assessment. 4. Conduct intercomparison and testing of technologies, employing standard reference materials and procedures, and field measurements at significantly contaminated area. 5. Conduct training of Member State laboratory personnel through fellowships, special courses, and workshops. 5 refs

  16. Structural and biophysical characterization of an antimicrobial peptide chimera comprised of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Vogel, Hans J

    2012-03-01

    Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are two antimicrobial peptides found in the N-terminal lobe of bovine lactoferrin with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as Candida albicans. A heterodimer comprised of lactoferrampin joined to a fragment of lactoferricin was recently reported in which these two peptides were joined at their C-termini through the two amino groups of a single Lys residue (Bolscher et al., 2009, Biochimie 91(1):123-132). This hybrid peptide, termed LFchimera, has significantly higher antimicrobial activity compared to the individual peptides or an equimolar mixture of the two. In this work, the underlying mechanism behind the increased antibacterial activity of LFchimera was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry studies demonstrated that all the peptides influenced the thermotropic phase behaviour of anionic phospholipid suspensions. Calcein leakage and vesicle fusion experiments with anionic liposomes revealed that LFchimera had enhanced membrane perturbing properties compared to the individual peptides. Peptide structures were evaluated using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy to gain insight into the structural features of LFchimera that contribute to the increased antimicrobial activity. The NMR solution structure, determined in a miscible co-solvent mixture of chloroform, methanol and water, revealed that the Lys linkage increased the helical content in LFchimera compared to the individual peptides, but it did not fix the relative orientations of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin with respect to each other. The structure of LFchimera provides insight into the conformation of this peptide in a membranous environment and improves our understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inadequate vitamin D status: does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome 'X'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, B J

    1998-04-01

    Environmental factors are important in the aetiology of glucose intolerance, type II diabetes and IHD. The lack of vitamin D, which is necessary for adequate insulin secretion, relates demographically to increased risk of myocardial infarction. These disorders are connected, degenerative vascular disease increasing with glucose intolerance and diabetes and, with its risk factors, comprising syndrome 'X'. Evidence is presented suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may be an avoidable risk factor for syndrome 'X', adding another preventative measure to current recommendations which are aimed at reducing the worldwide epidemic of these disorders. Experimentally, vitamin D deficiency progressively reduces insulin secretion; glucose intolerance follows and becomes irreversible. Relationships between vitamin D status, glucose tolerance and 30 min insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests are reported in British Asians; insulin secretion, but not glycaemia, improving with short-term supplementation. Studies showing reduction in blood pressure and in risk of heart attack and diabetes with exercise (usually outdoor), rarely consider the role of vitamin D status. Glycaemia and insulin secretion in elderly European men, however, relate to vitamin D status, independent of season or physical activity. Prolonged supplementation can improve glycaemia. Hypertension improves with vitamin D treatment with or without initial deficiency. Vitamin D status and climate are reviewed as risk factors for myocardial infarction; the risk reducing with altitude despite increasing cold. Glycaemia and fibrinogenaemia improve with insulin secretion increases in summer. Variation in vitamin D requirements could arise from genetic differences in vitamin D processing since bone density can vary with vitamin D-receptor genotype. Vitamin D receptors are present in islet beta cells and we report insulin secretion in healthy Asians differing profoundly with the Apa I genotype, being

  18. Modeling drag reduction and meniscus stability of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Mohamed A.; Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies dedicated to modeling drag reduction and stability of the air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces were conducted for microfabricated coatings produced by placing hydrophobic microposts/microridges arranged on a flat surface in aligned or staggered configurations. In this paper, we model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness (e.g., particles or microposts) that resembles natural superhydrophobic surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such fabrication method is far less expensive than microfabrication, making the technology more practical for large submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridges configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with theoretical and experimental studies reported in the literature. In particular, our simulation results are compared with work of Sbragaglia and Prosperetti, and good agreement has been observed for gas fractions up to about 0.9. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. This effect peaks at about 30% as the gas fraction increases to 0.98. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. It was found that at a given maximum allowable pressure, surfaces with random post distribution produce less drag reduction than those made up of

  19. Dutch Lung Surgery Audit: A National Audit Comprising Lung and Thoracic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Martijn Ten; Beck, Naomi; Heineman, David Jonathan; Damhuis, Ronald; Steup, Willem Hans; van Huijstee, Pieter Jan; Eerenberg, Jan Peter; Veen, Eelco; Maat, Alexander; Versteegh, Michel; van Brakel, Thomas; Schreurs, Wilhemina Hendrika; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus

    2018-04-21

    The nationwide Dutch Lung Surgery Audit (DLSA) started in 2012 to monitor and evaluate the quality of lung surgery in the Netherlands as an improvement tool. This outline describes the establishment, structure and organization of the audit by the Dutch Society of Lung Surgeons (NVvL) and the Dutch Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons (NVT), in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). In addition, first four-year results are presented. The NVvL and NVT initiated a web-based registration including weekly updated online feedback for participating hospitals. Data verification by external data managers is performed on regular basis. The audit is incorporated in national quality improvement programs and participation in the DLSA is mandatory by health insurance organizations and the National Healthcare Inspectorate. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015, all hospitals performing lung surgery participated and a total of 19,557 patients were registered from which almost half comprised lung cancer patients. Nationwide the guideline adherence increased over the years and 96.5% of lung cancer patients were discussed in preoperative multidisciplinary teams. Overall postoperative complications and mortality after non-small cell lung cancer surgery were 15.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The audit provides reliable benchmarked information for caregivers and hospital management with potential to start local, regional or national improvement initiatives. Currently, the audit is further completed with data from non-surgical lung cancer patients including treatment data from pulmonary oncologists and radiation oncologists. This will ultimately provide a comprehensive overview of lung cancer treatment in The Netherlands. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Clinical instructors' perceptions of behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance in physical therapist students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Diane U; Bertoni, Alicia; Coots, Renee; Johnson, Heidi; McLaughlin, Catherine; Weisbach, Cody

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore clinical instructors' (CIs) perceptions of students' behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance, as well as how those perceptions were integrated into their decision making. The participants were 21 physical therapists who were CIs for physical therapist students. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted interviews, asking the question, "What is it about students' performance that makes you see them as entry-level therapists?" We determined common themes among the interviews and developed a schema to explain the decision-making process. Participants identified 7 attributes that, when demonstrated to a sufficient degree, illustrated to them students' ability to practice at the entry level. Those attributes were knowledge, clinical skills, safety, clinical decision making, self-directed learning, interpersonal communication, and professional demeanor. Participants viewed these attributes in concert to form a subjective "gut feeling" that a student demonstrated entry-level performance. A final theme emerged suggesting a definition of entry-level performance as "mentored independence." Participants reported evaluating students' performance based on attributes similar to those suggested by the American Physical Therapy Association's Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument and previous research. However, subjectivity also was involved in their decision about whether students were able to practice at the entry level. Participants also concluded that entry-level students need not be independent in all clinical situations.

  1. Investigation of the History Education Researches in Turkey in Terms of Some Variables (Master's Theses and Dissertations Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elban, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the master's theses and dissertations carried out about history education research in Turkey in terms of certain variables. The study is a qualitative research and it used documentary research design as a research method. The population of the research study is the master's theses and dissertations…

  2. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  3. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  4. Novel metabolic attributes of the genus cyanothece, comprising a group of unicellular nitrogen-fixing Cyanothece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric; Stöckel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle; Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Cyanothece comprises unicellular cyanobacteria that are morphologically diverse and ecologically versatile. Studies over the last decade have established members of this genus to be important components of the marine ecosystem, contributing significantly to the nitrogen and carbon cycle. System-level studies of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a prototypic member of this group, revealed many interesting metabolic attributes. To identify the metabolic traits that define this class of cyanobacteria, five additional Cyanothece strains were sequenced to completion. The presence of a large, contiguous nitrogenase gene cluster and the ability to carry out aerobic nitrogen fixation distinguish Cyanothece as a genus of unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Cyanothece cells can create an anoxic intracellular environment at night, allowing oxygen-sensitive processes to take place in these oxygenic organisms. Large carbohydrate reserves accumulate in the cells during the day, ensuring sufficient energy for the processes that require the anoxic phase of the cells. Our study indicates that this genus maintains a plastic genome, incorporating new metabolic capabilities while simultaneously retaining archaic metabolic traits, a unique combination which provides the flexibility to adapt to various ecological and environmental conditions. Rearrangement of the nitrogenase cluster in Cyanothece sp. strain 7425 and the concomitant loss of its aerobic nitrogen-fixing ability suggest that a similar mechanism might have been at play in cyanobacterial strains that eventually lost their nitrogen-fixing ability. The unicellular cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece has significant roles in the nitrogen cycle in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 was extensively studied over the last decade and has emerged as an important model photosynthetic microbe for bioenergy production. To expand our understanding of the distinctive metabolic capabilities of

  5. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. k{sub 0}-INAA method at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Application to geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Davi B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: davimariano@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    There is a significant number of analytically important elements, when geological samples are concerned, whose activation products are short-lived (seconds to minutes) or medium-lived radioisotopes (minutes to hours). As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in geological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Dy, Eu, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr, V and Ti were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the -bare triple-monitor- method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0,1% Au alloy, high purity zirconium, Ni and Lu comparators were irradiated. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials basalt BE-N (IWG-GIT), basalt JB- 1 (GSJ), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (IWG-GIT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST-BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors less than 10% for most elements. (author)

  7. Investigating the secretome : Lessons about the cells that comprise the heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), o8-o18 ISSN 1942-325X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : secretomes * proteomics * cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.728, year: 2012

  8. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome comprises some but not all cases of hypospadias and impaired spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Main, K M

    2010-01-01

    , but in the majority of men with impaired semen quality as the only symptom, an association with TDS is less clear. Such cases have a very heterogeneous aetiology and may be caused by a host of other - often post-natal-factors. In conclusion, the TDS as a holistic concept has inspired new research activities and led...

  9. Termo de consentimento e análise de material biológico armazenado Consent procedures and research on stored biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Guedes Duque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar uma experiência envolvendo a obtenção de termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (TCLE para estudo retrospectivo realizado no Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA. O mesmo envolvia a revisão de prontuários e a análise de blocos de parafina de pacientes com câncer de cólon operados entre 2000 e 2004. Respeitando a resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde e a determinação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (CEP do INCA, buscou-se obter o consentimento informado. MÉTODOS: Nas consultas agendadas, conseguiu-se aplicar o termo a apenas quatro pacientes, durante três meses. Foram enviadas então pelo correio duas cópias do TCLE, juntamente com um sumário e um envelope selado para o re-envio aos pesquisadores. Antes da postagem, tentou-se contato telefônico. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se retorno de 115 dos 155 TCLE enviados (74%. Dentre as respostas recebidas, 111 consentiram participar do estudo, houve uma recusa e foi informado que três pacientes haviam falecido. O tempo entre o envio da correspondência e o recebimento da resposta variou entre 2 e 89 dias (mediana: 10 dias. Houve sucesso no contato telefônico com 60 dos 160 pacientes (37,5%. Para os que já haviam falecido e para os que não retornaram o TCLE, o CEP aprovou a dispensa do mesmo. O custo final do envio dos envelopes foi de R$1.004,40. CONCLUSÃO: A busca de comunicação telefônica e postal com pacientes para a obtenção de TCLE de estudo clínico retrospectivo é factível. A maioria respondeu ao contato e consentiu participar. Há, porém, custos e riscos agregados que não podem ser desprezados.OBJECTIVE: To present practical experience in obtaining consent form (CF for a study performed at the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" involving research on stored biologic samples from patients operated for colon cancer from 2000 to 2004. According to the Brazilian National Health Council resolution nº196/96, researchers must make every effort to obtain

  10. Sample processing device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A sample processing device is disclosed, which sample processing device comprises a first substrate and a second substrate, where the first substrate has a first surface comprising two area types, a first area type with a first contact angle with water and a second area type with a second contact...... angle with water, the first contact angle being smaller than the second contact angle. The first substrate defines an inlet system and a preparation system in areas of the first type which two areas are separated by a barrier system in an area of the second type. The inlet system is adapted to receive...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1991-06-26 to 1991-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115598)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115598 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1991-06-26 to...

  12. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1990-10-11 to 1990-10-15 (NODC Accession 0115600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115600 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1990-10-11 to...

  13. Identification and Development of Items Comprising Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Among Pharmacy Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Semsick, Gretchen R

    2016-12-25

    Objective. Identify behaviors that can compose a measure of organizational citizenship by pharmacy faculty. Methods. A four-round, modified Delphi procedure using open-ended questions (Round 1) was conducted with 13 panelists from pharmacy academia. The items generated were evaluated and refined for inclusion in subsequent rounds. A consensus was reached after completing four rounds. Results. The panel produced a set of 26 items indicative of extra-role behaviors by faculty colleagues considered to compose a measure of citizenship, which is an expressed manifestation of collegiality. Conclusions. The items generated require testing for validation and reliability in a large sample to create a measure of organizational citizenship. Even prior to doing so, the list of items can serve as a resource for mentorship of junior and senior faculty alike.

  14. Identification and Development of Items Comprising Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Among Pharmacy Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsick, Gretchen R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Identify behaviors that can compose a measure of organizational citizenship by pharmacy faculty. Methods. A four-round, modified Delphi procedure using open-ended questions (Round 1) was conducted with 13 panelists from pharmacy academia. The items generated were evaluated and refined for inclusion in subsequent rounds. A consensus was reached after completing four rounds. Results. The panel produced a set of 26 items indicative of extra-role behaviors by faculty colleagues considered to compose a measure of citizenship, which is an expressed manifestation of collegiality. Conclusions. The items generated require testing for validation and reliability in a large sample to create a measure of organizational citizenship. Even prior to doing so, the list of items can serve as a resource for mentorship of junior and senior faculty alike. PMID:28179717

  15. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  16. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  17. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome comprises some but not all cases of hypospadias and impaired spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Main, K M

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, when the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) concept was proposed, it suggested that impaired development of foetal testes could lead to increased risks of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, decreased spermatogenesis or testis cancer. The TDS concept links the pathogenesis of the four disorders...... with cryptorchidism or TGCC. By contrast, recent studies demonstrated that among men with isolated hypospadias, only a fraction of cases are linked to TDS. There is no doubt that TDS contributes to impaired semen quality. This is most obvious for cases with visible dysgenetic features in testis histology......, but in the majority of men with impaired semen quality as the only symptom, an association with TDS is less clear. Such cases have a very heterogeneous aetiology and may be caused by a host of other - often post-natal-factors. In conclusion, the TDS as a holistic concept has inspired new research activities and led...

  18. RAID-6Plus: A Comprised Methodology for Extending RAID-6 Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing RAID-6 code extensions assume that failures are independent and instantaneous, overlooking the underlying mechanism of multifailure occurrences. Also, the effect of reconstruction window is ignored. Additionally, these coding extensions have not been adapted to occurrence patterns of failure in real-world applications. As a result, the third parity drive is set to handle the triple-failure scenario; however, the lower level failure situations have been left unattended. Therefore, a new methodology of extending RAID-6 codes named RAID-6Plus with better compromise has been studied in this paper. RAID-6Plus (Deng et al., 2015 employs short combinations which can greatly reuse overlapped elements during reconstruction to remake the third parity drive. A sample extension code called RDP+ is given based on RDP. Moreover, we extended the study to present another extension example called X-code+ which has better update penalty and load balance. The analysis shows that RAID-6Plus is a balanced tradeoff of reliability, performance, and practicality. For instance, RDP+ could achieve speedups as high as 33.4% in comparison to the RTP with conventional rebuild, 11.9% in comparison to RTP with the optimal rebuild, 47.7% in comparison to STAR with conventional rebuild, and 26.2% for a single failure rebuild.

  19. Application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: dcpuerta@hotmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, LJU (Slovenia). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2013-07-01

    As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E{sub n}-number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  20. Sampling method of water sources at study site Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Penang for research on pollutant movement in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2005-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling being used to take the water samples from the study sites in Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Pulau Pinang. The sampling involve collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond, and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemical used. The main purpose of this sampling are to obtain the important water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), heavy metals, anions, cations, and environmental isotopes delta values (d) for 18O, Deuterium dan Tritium. A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise results. With this, the data from the laboratory tests result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  1. Determinants of Competitiveness in Companies that Comprise the Aerospace Cluster in the State of Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika OLIVAS-VALDEZ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the leading countries in the world production of the aerospace sector, over time, have triangulated their production, by installing plants in other countries, to reduce costs. The United States concentrates most of the world production of aircraft. Consequently, Mexico has joined this dynamic production process through the operation of almost four hundred companies in this industrial sector. The states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Querétaro and Sonora, lead the production of this sector in Mexico. The objective of this work is to determine if the companies in the aerospace sector of the state of Sonora are competitive in a regional context with respect to the growth of the entire sector in the country. The degree of competitiveness was calculated using the Competitive Advantage Index in two levels –the aerospace sector at the national level and at the state level-. The results of this research confirm that the competitiveness of companies in the aerospace sector in Sonora is high and that their competitiveness is determined mainly by the technological development of their products, quality of service, guarantees offered, price, and the operation and production costs.

  2. Learning Dispatching Rules for Scheduling: A Synergistic View Comprising Decision Trees, Tabu Search and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Shahzad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for an effective shop scheduling that synergizes the benefits of the combinatorial optimization, supervised learning and discrete-event simulation is presented. Though dispatching rules are in widely used by shop scheduling practitioners, only ordinary performance rules are known; hence, dynamic generation of dispatching rules is desired to make them more effective in changing shop conditions. Meta-heuristics are able to perform quite well and carry more knowledge of the problem domain, however at the cost of prohibitive computational effort in real-time. The primary purpose of this research lies in an offline extraction of this domain knowledge using decision trees to generate simple if-then rules that subsequently act as dispatching rules for scheduling in an online manner. We used similarity index to identify parametric and structural similarity in problem instances in order to implicitly support the learning algorithm for effective rule generation and quality index for relative ranking of the dispatching decisions. Maximum lateness is used as the scheduling objective in a job shop scheduling environment.

  3. Equipment for collecting samples of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raggenbass, A.; Fradin, J.; Joubert, G.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present an equipment aimed at collecting samples of fission products to perform radio-chemical analysis. As the sample must have a total activity between 1 and 50 micro-Curie, this installation comprises a sampling system and a dilution device which aims at bringing the sample to the suitable activity. Samples are collected by means of needles. The sample reproducibility is discussed. The dilution device is described

  4. An integrated and accessible sample data library for Mars sample return science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Williford, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the course of the next decade or more, many thousands of geological samples will be collected and analyzed in a variety of ways by researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) in order to facilitate discovery and contextualize observations made of Mars rocks both in situ and here on Earth if samples are eventually returned. Integration of data from multiple analyses of samples including petrography, thin section and SEM imaging, isotope and organic geochemistry, XRF, XRD, and Raman spectrometry is a challenge and a potential obstacle to discoveries that require supporting lines of evidence. We report the development of a web-accessible repository, the Sample Data Library (SDL) for the sample-based data that are generated by the laboratories and instruments that comprise JPL's Center for Analysis of Returned Samples (CARS) in order to facilitate collaborative interpretation of potential biosignatures in Mars-analog geological samples. The SDL is constructed using low-cost, open-standards-based Amazon Web Services (AWS), including web-accessible storage, relational data base services, and a virtual web server. The data structure is sample-centered with a shared registry for assigning unique identifiers to all samples including International Geo-Sample Numbers. Both raw and derived data produced by instruments and post-processing workflows are automatically uploaded to online storage and linked via the unique identifiers. Through the web interface, users are able to find all the analyses associated with a single sample or search across features shared by multiple samples, sample localities, and analysis types. Planned features include more sophisticated search and analytical interfaces as well as data discoverability through NSF's EarthCube program.

  5. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.

  6. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  7. A Multidimensional Examination of the Acculturation and Psychological Functioning of a Sample of Immigrant Chinese Mothers in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahseen, Madiha; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used the cluster analysis method to examine the acculturation of immigrant Chinese mothers (ICMs), and the demographic characteristics and psychological functioning associated with each acculturation style. The sample was comprised of 83 first-generation ICMs of preschool children residing in Maryland, United States (US).…

  8. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  9. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  10. The Potential of Online Respondent Data for Choice Modeling in Transportation Research: Evidence from Stated Preference Experiments using Web-based Samples: Evidence from Stated Preference Experiments using Web-based Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffer, Brice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the potential of online survey services for conducting stated preference experiments in the field of transportation planning. Several web-products for hosting questionnaires are evaluated considering important features required when conducting a stated preference survey. Based on this evaluation, the open-source platform LimeSurvey is the most appropriated for this kind of research. A stated preference questionnaire about pedestrians’ route choice in a Sin...

  11. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  12. The RECONS 10 Parsec Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, C.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W.-C.; Riedel, Adric; Subasavage, John; Winters, J.; RECONS Team

    2018-01-01

    The sample of stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets known within 10 parsecs of our Solar System as of January 1, 2017 is presented. The current census is comprised of 416 objects made up of 371 stars (including the Sun and white dwarfs) and 45 brown dwarfs. The stars are known to be orbited by 43 planets (eight in our Solar System and 35 exoplanets). There are 309 systems within 10 pc, including 275 with stellar primaries and 34 systems containing only brown dwarfs.Via a long-term astrometric effort at CTIO, the RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) team has added 44 stellar systems to the sample, accounting for one of every seven systems known within 10 pc. Overall, the 278 red dwarfs clearly dominate the sample, accounting for 75% of all stars known within 10 pc. The completeness of the sample is assessed, indicating that a few red, brown, and white dwarfs within 10 pc may be discovered, both as primaries and secondaries, although we estimate that 90% of the stellar systems have been identified. The evolution of the 10 pc sample over the past century is outlined to illustrate our growing knowledge of the solar neighborhood.The luminosity and mass functions for stars within 10 pc are described. In contrast to many studies, once all known close multiples are resolved into individual components, the true mass function rises to the end of the stellar main sequence, followed by a precipitous drop in the number of brown dwarfs, which are outnumbered 8.2 to 1 by stars. Of the 275 stellar primaries in the sample, 182 (66%) are single, 75 (27%) have at least one stellar companion, only 8 (3%) have a brown dwarf companion, and 19 (7%) systems are known to harbor planets. Searches for brown dwarf companions to stars in this sample have been quite rigorous, so the brown dwarf companion rate is unlikely to rise significantly. In contrast, searches for exoplanets, particularly terrestrial planets, have been limited. Thus, overall the solar neighborhood is

  13. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perception of the Principles of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…

  14. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  15. Formulation comprising silicon microparticles, as a pigment that can absorb visible UV radiation and reflect ir radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Marie-Isabelle; Fenollosa Esteve, Roberto; Meseguer, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a formulation characterised in that it comprises silicon microparticles having a size between 0.010 um and 50 um in diameter, and to the use thereof as a pigment that can absorb visible UV radiation and reflect IR radiation.

  16. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  17. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  18. "I didn't have anything to decide, I wanted to help my kids" - An interview-based study of consent procedures for sampling human biological material for genetic research in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsholm, Nana Cecilie Halmsted; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2018-05-03

    Individual, comprehensive, and written informed consent is broadly considered an ethical obligation in research involving the sampling of human material. In developing countries, however, local conditions, such as widespread illiteracy, low levels of education, and hierarchical social structures complicate compliance with these standards. As a result, researchers may modify the consent process to secure participation. To evaluate the ethical status of such modified consent strategies it is necessary to assess the extent to which local practices accord with the values underlying informed consent. Over a two-week period in April 2014 we conducted semi-structured interviews with researchers from a genetic research institute in rural Pakistan and families who had given blood samples for their research. Interviews with researchers focused on the institute's requirements for consent, and the researchers' strategies for and experiences with obtaining consent in the field. Interviews with donors focused on their motivation for donating samples, their experience of consent and donation, and what factors were central in their decisions to give consent. Researchers often reported modifications to consent procedures suited to the local context, standardly employing oral and elder consent, and tailoring information to the social education level of donor families. Central themes in donors' accounts of their decision to consent were the hope of getting something out of their participation and their remarkably high levels of trust in the researchers. Several donor accounts indicated a degree of confusion about participation and diagnosis, resulting in misconceived expectations of therapeutic benefits. We argue that while building and maintaining trusting relationships in research is important - not least in developing countries - strategies that serve this endeavor should be supplemented with efforts to ensure proper provision and understanding of relevant information

  19. [Quantity research on epidermal growth factor in saliva and epidermal growth factor receptor in biopsy samples of recurrent aphthous ulcer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Zhang, Gang; Lin, Mei

    2008-02-01

    To examine the change of epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration in saliva of recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) patients during the ulcerous and interval period and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ulcer biopsy samples. ECF data of the samples, which were 27 saliva samples from RAU gained not only in the ulcerous period but also in interval period and 33 ones from normal persons, were acquired through enzyme linked immunosorhent assay (ELISA) and EGF standard curve. ECFR-RNA date of RAU biopsies, which were 31 biopsy samples from RAU got during the ulcerous period and 35 ones from normal persons, were surveyed by QF-RT-PCR. All RAU samples were obtained under the same level, which were the whole patients were minor aphthous ulcers and their ulcers occurred not over the first four days. All patients and normal persons were selected seriously under the rule of physical situations without any other diseases and histories of using medicines. The EGF concentration of saliva in RAU group at ulcer occurrence was higher than that in the interval period and the normal control with a significant test (F = 3.24, P ulcer occurrence was higher than the normal control with a significant test (t = 3.15, P ulcer occasion of RAU patients could be related with the decreasing of EGF in saliva during interval period, and that the ulcer sell-cure of RAU patients would be contributed to

  20. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR): Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogy Measurements from Icelandic Mars Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    In situ exploration of planetary environments allows biochemical analysis of sub-centimeter-scale samples; however, landing sites are selected a priori based on measurable meter- to kilometer-scale geological features. Optimizing life detection mission science return requires both understanding the expected biomarker distributions across sample sites at different scales and efficiently using first-stage in situ geochemical instruments to justify later-stage biological or chemical analysis. Icelandic volcanic regions have an extensive history as Mars analogue sites due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes, in addition to the advantages of geological youth and isolation from anthropogenic contamination. Many Icelandic analogue sites are also rugged and remote enough to create the same type of instrumentation and sampling constraints typically faced by robotic exploration.

  1. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  2. CTD and Water Sample Data from Research Vessel Robert Gordon Sproul in the NE Pacific, 24 October 2013 (NCEI Accession 0157082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The expedition by research vessel Robert Gordon Sproul from 23 to 25 October 2013 had the objective to recover a broken mooring from the CORC project (Consortium on...

  3. CTD and Water Sample Data from Research Vessel New Horizon in the NE Pacific, 19-22 September 2008 (NCEI Accession 0156931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The expedition by research vessel New Horizon from 19 to 22 September 2008 had the objective to deploy a number of moored platforms for the CORC project (Consortium...

  4. Processed CTD and Water Sample Data from Research Vessel Ocean Starr in the NE Pacific, Aug. 31 and Sept. 01, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0156932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The expedition by research vessel Ocean Starr on Aug. 31 and Sept. 01, 2012 had the objective to recover and re-deploy a number of moored platforms from the CORC...

  5. Processed CTD and Water Sample Data from Research Vessel Roger Revelle, Expedition RR1214, in the NE Pacific in November 2012 (NCEI Accession 0156228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Expedition RR1214 by research vessel Roger Revelle was primarily a transit from French Polynesia to the US mainland. However, a small scientific program was...

  6. Size-fractioned zooplankton biomass data sampled during the Institute of Marine Research Norwegian Sea survey from 1995 to 2005 (NODC Accession 0049894)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were downloaded from the COPEPOD data base website. The dataset contains zooplankton data from the Institute of Marine Research (Bergen Norway) Norwegian...

  7. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Quyen Bach; Vandan Kasar; Francesco Chiappelli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP) was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent b...

  8. Wetlands Research Program. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling Vegetation and Delineating Wetlands Transition Zones in Coastal West-Central Florida, January 1979-May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    method ( Catana 1963) compensates for some of the limitations of the point-centered quarter method. A quarter is established at a sampling point and...Principal Soil Areas of Florida--A Supplement to the General Soils Map. University of Florida, in cooperation with USDA, Bulletin 717. Catana , H. J. 1963

  9. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples of Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College Hospital and Research Centre (TMMCH & RC, Moradabad (UP, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Pani Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the emerging and prevalent pathogen causing serious infections in community and hospital associated diseases. S. aureus resistant to methicillin is nowadays a big and expanding problem of concern in India. Amongst the different pathogens, S. aureus is being studied for prevalence of infections and drug resistance behavior. The present study describes the dominance of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in the clinical samples of TMU, Moradabad, India. The study showed the isolation of 450 cultures of S. aureus from different samples. Amongst which, 234 isolates of S. aureus were from pus, 164 isolates were from blood, 15 isolates were from respiratory fluid samples, 33 isolates were from urine samples and 04 isolates were from ear swabs and nasal swabs. These strains of S. aureus were screened for characteristic coagulase assay. The strains were found to be coagulase positive and coagulases negative both. It was observed that, amongst, 450 isolates of Staphylococci, 185 (41.11% strains were coagulase positive and 265 (58.88% were coagulase negative. A total of 142 (76.75% of the coagulase positive staphylococci strains shows resistance to methicillin and 202 (76.22% coagulase negative strains showed methicillin resistance. Methicillin resistance was consistent when tested with other antibiotics in coagulase positive strains but when studied about coagulase negative strains, about 12.5% strains showed sensitivity with other antibiotics although they were found resistant when checked with methicillin. It was determined that, on an average, 85 (18.88% Staphylococci strains were resistant.

  10. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  11. Concept for the generation of the model designated for the simulation of interaction between enterprises comprising one major construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovkina Alla Viktorovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author offers an original concept designated for the generation of the model designated to simulate interaction between the enterprises comprising one major construction company within the framework of the production and logistics chain, comprising production facilities, transport enterprises, construction and assembly companies. The author has identified the factors that may produce an adverse effect on construction operations or cause untimely commissioning of a construction facility. The author employed methods of mathematics to describe the operations performed by each constituent enterprise. A graphic model describing each operation was compiled through the integration of mathematical functions. The model binds specific operations, performed by constituent companies, to deadlines, drives attention to interaction bottlenecks, and makes adjustments to assure reliable attainment of the main goal, that is, the timely commissioning of a construction facility.

  12. Sensor devices comprising a metal-organic framework material and methods of making and using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alan X.; Chang, Chih-hung; Kim, Ki-Joong; Chong, Xinyuan; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2018-05-29

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of sensor devices comprising a sensing component able to determine the presence of, detect, and/or quantify detectable species in a variety of environments and applications. The sensing components disclosed herein can comprise MOF materials, plasmonic nanomaterials, or combinations thereof. In an exemplary embodiment, light guides can be coupled with the sensing components described herein to provide sensor devices capable of increased NIR detection sensitivity in determining the presence of detectable species, such as gases and volatile organic compounds. In another exemplary embodiment, optical properties of the plasmonic nanomaterials combined with MOF materials can be monitored directly to detect analyte species through their impact on external conditions surrounding the particle or as a result of charge transfer to and from the plasmonic material as a result of interactions with the plasmonic material and/or the MOF material.

  13. Fast radiochemical procedure to measure neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in environmental samples for application in environmental monitoring and in radioecology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpel, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1984-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described by which Np, Pu, Am and Cm in environmental samples can be determined. The transuranium elements are dissolved with acids out of the ashed material. Np/Pu is separated from Am/Cm by sequential extraction using TOPO/cyclohexane. The two fractions are radiochemically purified. Np-237, Pu-239+240, Pu-238 and Pu-236 as well as Am-243, Am-241, Cm-244 and Cm-242 are measured by alpha spectrometery. Pu-236, Am-243 and Np-239 are used to determine the respective yields. A fast method of Np-239 preparation is described. The chemical yields range from 60 to 90%. The detection limit attained per nuclide is 10 fCi/sample. 20 reference, 1 table

  14. A Re-configurable On-line Learning Spiking Neuromorphic Processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm 2 , and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  15. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  16. Comparing three cohorts of MSM sampled via sex parties, bars/clubs, and Craigslist.org: implications for researchers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-08-01

    With limited exceptions, few studies have systematically reported on psychosocial and demographic characteristic differences in samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) based on where they were recruited. This study compared three sexually active cohorts of MSM recruited via Craigslist.org (recruited via modified time-space sampling), gay bars and clubs (recruited via time-space sampling), and private sex parties (identified via passive recruitment and listserves), finding mixed results with regard to differences in demographic characteristics, STI history, and psychosocial measures. Men recruited from sex parties were significantly older, reported more symptoms of sexual compulsivity, more likely to be HIV-positive, more likely to report a history of STIs, and more likely to self-identify as a barebacker, than men recruited from the other two venues. In contrast, men from Craigslist.org reported the lowest levels of attachment to the gay and bisexual community and were the least likely to self-identify as gay. Men from bars and clubs were significantly younger, and were more likely to report use of hallucinogens and crack or cocaine. Our findings highlight that the venues in which MSM are recruited have meaningful consequences in terms of the types of individuals who are reached.

  17. Experimental research of the influence of the strength of ore samples on the parameters of an electromagnetic signal during acoustic excitation in the process of uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovich, L. V.; Bespal`ko, A. A.; Fedotov, P. I.

    2018-01-01

    Parameters of electromagnetic responses (EMRe) generated during uniaxial compression of rock samples under excitation by deterministic acoustic pulses are presented and discussed. Such physical modeling in the laboratory allows to reveal the main regularities of electromagnetic signals (EMS) generation in rock massive. The influence of the samples mechanical properties on the parameters of the EMRe excited by an acoustic signal in the process of uniaxial compression is considered. It has been established that sulfides and quartz in the rocks of the Tashtagol iron ore deposit (Western Siberia, Russia) contribute to the conversion of mechanical energy into the energy of the electromagnetic field, which is expressed in an increase in the EMS amplitude. The decrease in the EMS amplitude when the stress-strain state of the sample changes during the uniaxial compression is observed when the amount of conductive magnetite contained in the rock is increased. The obtained results are important for the physical substantiation of testing methods and monitoring of changes in the stress-strain state of the rock massive by the parameters of electromagnetic signals and the characteristics of electromagnetic emission.

  18. Research on alternative measures in the F1000 system with Google Scholar citation index

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Ebrahimy; Fatemeh Setareh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altmetrics measures of F1000 website and citation Indexes of Google scholar. Applied research and survey methods, citation analysis, and webometrics with descriptive analytical approach are used. The study population comprised 218 biomedical research papers have been indexed in F1000 system in the period 2012-2014. A sample of 100 research articles were purposely selected from F1000 system based on the purpose of the research. V...

  19. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  20. A Linguistic Analysis of the Sample Numeracy Skills Test Items for Pre-Service Teachers Issued by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Lisa; O'Halloran, Kay L.; Wignell, Peter; Tan, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) was tasked with developing literacy and numeracy skills testing for pre-service teachers. All undergraduate and postgraduate trainee teachers are now required to pass these literacy and numeracy tests at some stage on their journey to becoming a teacher; for commencing students from…

  1. Innovative Basis of Research of Technologic Features of Some Craftsmanship Traditions of Ganja (On the Sample of Carpets of XIX Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, Elnur L.

    2016-01-01

    The carpet production in Ganja took one of the leading handicraft activities since ancient times and still impresses with its high skill and the variety of colors, but there have been no widely studied the question of the creation technology of such representatives of cultural heritage. Scientific paper deals with the research of the basic…

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Twelve gra using simple random sampling technique and an En ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. Technol. ... he quantitative data disclosed lower student scores, .... work on relating the title to students' lives, motivating,.

  3. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  4. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON THE EXTERNAL AUDIT OF BANKS IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovković; Snežana Ljubisavljević; Vladimir Obradović

    2012-01-01

    The paper first explains the role, importance, and objectives of the external audit of banks through their most important definitions, thus illustrating the subject and aim of the research. The methodology of the research and data on the sample are presented afterwards. Results of the questionnaire survey which comprised 28 banks in the Republic of Serbia (RS) show what bankers prefer, and compared to global experience there is no significant difference. As a final point, the inherent l...

  5. Environmental disclosure: a study about evolution in companies comprising the environmental sustainability index A evidenciação da cultura organizacional voltada para a responsabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Rocha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This research aimed at assessing the evolution of environmental disclosure in the organizations that comprise the ISE since its first incarnation. In the methodology, we chose a descriptive research through a content analysis with a qualitative and quantitative approach. Presenting as a theoretical underpinning rapid approach to Environmental Management, Environmental Sustainability Index (ISE and Categories Cultural and Environmental Variables. We developed a model based on the indicators of corporate social responsibility of the Ethos Institute (2009 and later were organized into companies rankings, by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The sample is made up of companies that comprise the ISE BM&FBovespa from the start, totaling 14 participating companies. The results show that in 2006 there was a significant increase in disclosure by companies. It found a steady increase in the disclosure of information that demonstrate the business concern with respect to the environment. Thus meeting the demands of society, supporting their recovery by increasing transparency in attitudes to the environment. Thus, incorporating the company's culture, being operationalized and

  6. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... These include verbal reasoning, working memory, non-reasoning ability ... each commonly associated with deep and light sleep. ... comprise of sample selection and EEG acquisition, signal pre-processing and filtering, power.

  8. Copolymer semiconductors comprising thiazolothiazole or benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazole electron acceptor subunits, and electron donor subunits, and their uses in transistors and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenekhe, Samson A; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Ahmed, Eilaf; Xin, Hao; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2014-10-28

    The inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to copolymers comprising copolymers comprising electron accepting A subunits that comprise thiazolothiazole, benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazoles rings, and electron donating subunits that comprise certain heterocyclic groups. The copolymers are useful for manufacturing organic electronic devices, including transistors and solar cells. The invention also relates to certain synthetic precursors of the copolymers. Methods for making the copolymers and the derivative electronic devices are also described.

  9. Center for Information Systems Research Research Briefings 2002

    OpenAIRE

    ROSS, JEANNE W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is comprised of research briefings from the MIT Sloan School of Management's Center for Information Systems Research (CISR). CISR's mission is to perform practical empirical research on how firms generate business value from IT.

  10. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Henry W.; Dzenitis, John M.

    2016-06-21

    Provided herein are fluidics platforms and related methods for performing integrated sample collection and solid-phase extraction of a target component of the sample all in one tube. The fluidics platform comprises a pump, particles for solid-phase extraction and a particle-holding means. The method comprises contacting the sample with one or more reagents in a pump, coupling a particle-holding means to the pump and expelling the waste out of the pump while the particle-holding means retains the particles inside the pump. The fluidics platform and methods herein described allow solid-phase extraction without pipetting and centrifugation.

  11. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  12. Survival data for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy comprising cisplatin plus vinorelbine after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Wakuda, Kazushige; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Omori, Shota; Ono, Akira; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Kojima, Hideaki; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-09-01

    Despite the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy for patients who have undergone surgical resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), few reports have presented survival data for Asian patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy involving a combination of CDDP and vinorelbine (VNR). This study was performed to evaluate the survival of patients with NSCLC who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy comprising CDDP + VNR. We retrospectively evaluated patients with NSCLC who received adjuvant chemotherapy comprising CDDP + VNR at the Shizuoka Cancer Center between February 2006 and October 2011. One hundred patients who underwent surgical resection of NSCLC were included in this study. The patients' characteristics were as follows: median age 63 years (range 36-74 years), female 34%, never-smokers 20%, and non-squamous NSCLC 73%. Pathological stages IIA, IIB, and IIIA were observed in 31, 22, and 47% of patients, respectively. The 5- and 2-year overall survival rates were 73 and 93%, respectively. The 5- and 2-year relapse-free survival rates were 53 and 62%, respectively. Univariate analysis of prognostic factors showed that patient characteristics (sex, histology, and pathological stage) and CDDP dose intensity were not significantly associated with survival. In 48 patients who developed NSCLC recurrence, the 5-year survival rate after recurrence was 29%, and the median survival time after recurrence was 37 months. Our results suggest that the prognosis after surgical resection of NSCLC and adjuvant chemotherapy comprising CDDP + VNR might be improving compared with previous survival data of adjuvant chemotherapy for NSCLC.

  13. A Dew Point Meter Comprising a Nanoporous Thin Film Alumina Humidity Sensor with a Linearizing Capacitance Measuring Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Ghara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel trace moisture analyzer is presented comprising a capacitive nanoporous film of metal oxide sensor and electronics. The change in capacity of the sensor is due to absorption of water vapor by the pores. A simple capacitance measuring electronics is developed which can detect any change in capacitance and correlates to ambient humidity. The circuit can minimize the parasitic earth capacitance. The non linear response of the sensor is linearized with a micro-controller linearizing circuit. The experimental result shows a resolution of -4°C DP and accuracy within 2%.

  14. Polycondensation of Asparagine-comprising Dipeptides in Aqueous Media-A Simulation of Polypeptide Formation in Primordial Earth Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Tanikawa, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides.

  15. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of shielded metal arc-welded dissimilar joints comprising duplex stainless steel and low alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. Bala; Muthupandi, V.; Sivan, V.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Dietzel, W.

    2006-12-01

    This work describes the results of an investigation on a dissimilar weld joint comprising a boiler-grade low alloy steel and duplex stainless steel (DSS). Welds produced by shielded metal arc-welding with two different electrodes (an austenitic and a duplex grade) were examined for their microstructural features and properties. The welds were found to have overmatching mechanical properties. Although the general corrosion resistance of the weld metals was good, their pitting resistance was found to be inferior when compared with the DSS base material.

  16. Polycondensation of Asparagine-comprising Dipeptides in Aqueous Media-A Simulation of Polypeptide Formation in Primordial Earth Hydrosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Tanikawa, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides.

  17. Device for radioactivity measurement of liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaziere, J.

    1983-01-01

    The device for low activity gamma measurements comprises an automatic changer for sample transfer from a conveyor to a measuring chamber. The conveyor includes a horizontal table were are regularly distributed sample holders. A lift allows a vertical motion of a plate for the exposition in front of a detector [fr

  18. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples, Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw, Poland 4-8 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Concern about the release of radionuclides to the environment, especially to the foodchain, has been heightened by recent nuclear incidents. The assessment of any release of radioactivity demands rapid, reliable and practical techniques. In the intermediate and late post-accident period, where the interest is in food control rather then evacuation and sheltering, rapid methods would be useful for screening purposes as well as providing timely information and easing sample workload minimizing sample overloads. In the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research program ''Rapid.... samples'', the specifications for the time required for sample preparation, separation, and analysis and the accuracy desired were outlined. Considerable attention was given to the need to develop rapid method for sample preparation and dissolution. Emphasis was placed on achieving the development of rapid methods with the minimum sacrifice in reliability, practicality and economy

  19. A combination vaccine comprising of inactivated enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 elicits balanced protective immunity against both viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yicun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is an infectious disease frequently occurring in children. A bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16 is highly desirable. In the present study, we compare monovalent inactivated EV71, monovalent inactivated CA16, and a combination vaccine candidate comprising of both inactivated EV71 and CA16, for their immunogenicity and in vivo protective efficacy. The two monovalent vaccines were found to elicit serum antibodies that potently neutralized the homologous virus but had no or weak neutralization activity against the heterologous one; in contrast, the bivalent vaccine immunized sera efficiently neutralized both EV71 and CA16. More importantly, passive immunization with the bivalent vaccine protected mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, whereas the monovalent vaccines only prevented the homologous but not the heterologous challenges. Together, our results demonstrate that the experimental bivalent vaccine comprising of inactivated EV71 and CA16 induces a balanced protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and thus provide proof-of-concept for further development of multivalent vaccines for broad protection against HFMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; December 1, 1994 - January 22, 1996) (NODC Accession 0115009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115009 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE...

  1. Properties of samples containing natural gas hydrate from the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well, determined using Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an ongoing laboratory study, preliminary acoustic, strength, and hydraulic conductivity results are presented from a suite of tests conducted on four natural-gas-hydrate-containing samples from the Mackenzie Delta JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well. The gas hydrate samples were preserved in pressure vessels during transport from the Northwest Territories to Woods Hole, Massachusetts, where multistep tests were performed using GHASTLI (Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument), which recreates pressure and temperature conditions that are stable for gas hydrate. Properties and changes in sediment behaviour were measured before, during, and after controlled gas hydrate dissociation. Significant amounts of gas hydrate occupied the sample pores and substantially increased acoustic velocity and shear strength.

  2. A RESEARCH ABOUT EVALUATION OF VOCATIONAL SKILLS OF OFFICE MANAGEMENT AND PERSONEL ASSITANTSHIPS STUDENTS: BESNİ VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS OF HIGHER EDUCATION SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of management is a phenomenon as old as the history of humanity. Management, called as tribe leaders in B.C, stretching up today’s modern organizations in t his period, took quite important roles both in business and social life. The head spinning developments seen in production after the industrial revolution made the office events indispensable for the organizations. However important is the production for o peratings’ survival, the office activities are of that much importance in terms of following up the organization business. Office management means planning, organizing and controlling the office work. It is a community of events that coordinates the secret ariat services in the offices, provides and monitors the flow of communication and assigns the methods of written and verbal communication. The administrative assistants participating in today’s modern business gain importance as a job supporting the admin istrative in all aspects in organizational or managerial duties, conducting his duties in his absence, making up an organizational image, working as a team player, making career and work planning and doing opinion leadership and relationship expertise. Thi s research is for evaluating the professional qualifications required to be had through the education of the final year students in the department of Secretary and Office Management. The analysis were performed by the program SPSS 22.00 on the basis of the survey form applied to 40 people. As a result of the internal consisteny reliability analysis, Cronbach’ Alpha value is 0,942 for the five point likert scale in the survey form. The purpose of the research is to determine the students’ ability of using th e office programs, be able to make occupational writing, have effective communication, use the office machines effectively and provide getting efficiency from such office acitivities. Accordingly, it is to present the factors affecting the students’ gainin

  3. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  4. Radiotherapy in the curative treatment of breast cancer: current status and future trends. An opinion sample of radiation oncologists active in breast cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire regarding the current practice of breast cancer radiotherapy and possible future trends in this field was filled out by 13 radiation oncologists active in breast cancer research. In the opinion of this small group, radiotherapy is presently included in the initial treatment of the large majority of early breast cancers, particularly in the framework of breast-conserving therapy, which is currently used in >50% of these patients. Indications for post-mastectomy irradiation vary greatly among respondents, as do attitudes toward the potentially negative aspects of adjuvant radiotherapy. Most respondents feel that their future practices will be significantly influenced by an increase in screen-detected cancers, the aging of the population, the increasing influence of medical oncologists, participation in clinical trials, and increased patient participation in treatment decisions. An increase is foreseen in the use of breast-conserving approaches, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and a decrease in the use of both total mastectomy and axillary dissection. Most respondents feel that there will be a modest decrease in the percentage of conservatively operated patients receiving radiotherapy. A future role is seen for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, at least in well-defined subgroups, increasing the number of patients offered breast-conserving approaches. Most respondents expect that irradiation of lymph nodal areas will gain new credibility and be used more often. No majority opinion could be elicited regarding ways of improving the therapeutic ratio in breast cancer radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ? Sampling Method?. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling ? based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling ? based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probabilit...

  6. Accounting for the sedative and analgesic effects of medication changes during patient participation in clinical research studies: measurement development and application to a sample of institutionalized geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip; Ivey, Jena; Roth, Mary; Roederer, Mary; Williams, Christianna S

    2008-03-01

    To date, no system has been published that allows investigators to adjust for the overall sedative and/or analgesic effects of medications, or changes in medications, in clinical trial participants for whom medication use cannot be controlled. This is common in clinical trials of behavioral and complementary/alternative therapies, and in research involving elderly or chronically ill patients for whom ongoing medical care continues during the trial. This paper describes the development, and illustrates the use, of a method we developed to address this issue, in which we generate single continuous variables to represent the daily sedative and analgesic loads of multiple medications. Medications for 90 study participants in a clinical trial of a nonpharmacological intervention were abstracted from medication administration records across multiple treatment periods. An expert panel of three academic clinical pharmacists and a geriatrician met to develop a system by which each study medication could be assigned a sedative and analgesic effect rating. The two measures, when applied to data on 90 institutionalized persons with Alzheimer's disease, resulted in variables with moderately skewed distributions that are consistent with the clinical profile of analgesia and sedation use in long-term care populations. The average study participant received 1.89 analgesic medications per day and had a daily analgesic load of 2.96; the corresponding figures for sedation were 2.07 daily medications and an average daily load of 11.41. A system of classifying the sedative and analgesic effects of non-study medications was created that divides drugs into categories based on the strength of their effects and assigns a rating to express overall sedative and analgesic effects. These variables may be useful in comparing patients and populations, and to control for drug effects in future studies.

  7. Full-power test of a string of magnets comprising a half-cell of the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgett, W.; Christianson, M.; Coombes, R.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we describe the full-powered operation of a string of industrially-fabricated magnets comprising a half-cell of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The completion of these tests marks the first successful operation of a major SSC subsystem. The five 15-m long dipole magnets in the string had an aperture of 50 mm and the single 5-m long quadrupole aperture was 40 mm. Power and cryogenic connections were made to the string through spool pieces that are prototypes for SSC operations. The string was cooled to cryogenic temperatures in early July, 1992, and power tests were performed at progressively higher currents up to the nominal SSC operating point above 6500 amperes achieved in mid-August. In this paper we report on the electrical and cryogenic performance of the string components and the quench protection system during these initial tests

  8. Method of making Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide superconductors comprising heating at elevated pressures in a sealed container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtev, W.L.; Osofsky, M.S.; Skelton, E.F.; Toth, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of forming a Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide high T c superconductor. It comprises forming a reaction mixture of the oxides of Sr, Cu, Ca, and Tl in stoichiometric proportions to make a Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide high T c superconducting compound; compressing the reaction mixture into a hard body; placing the hard body into a container for containing thallium vapor; evacuating and sealing the hard body in the container; heating the hard body and the container at a temperature of about 800 degrees C to about 950 degrees C and under pressure of at least about 30,000 psi until the container metal around the hard body and the oxides of Tl, Sr, Ca, and Cu react to form a superconducting compound; and cooling the superconducting compound to room temperature and returning the superconducting compound to atmospheric pressure

  9. Erythrocyte folate, plasma folate and plasma homocysteine during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 404 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess folate and homocysteine status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study, performed in 1995-1996, comprised 404 healthy pregnant Danish Caucasian women residential in Copenhagen County. Women taking folic acid tablets or vitamin B12...... injections were not included. Dietary multivitamin supplements containing folic acid 100 microg or vitamin B12 1 microg, taken by 34%, were discontinued at inclusion. Participants had normal renal function. Folate status [erythrocyte (Ery-) folate, plasma (P-) folate, P-homocysteine] was measured at 18, 32...... new guidelines for folic acid supplement since 1997, only 13% of pregnant women followed the guidelines in 2003. The official recommendations for periconceptional folic acid supplement should be reconsidered and reinforced....

  10. Depression severity and quality of life of qualified and unqualified patients with a mood disorder for a research study targeting anhedonia in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Sweet, Jennifer; Su, Meilei; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the depression severity and quality of life of qualified and unqualified patients with a mood disorder for a research study based on anhedonia severity. Diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD) was ascertained with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The severity of depression was measured with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-16-SR), and Item 5, "feeling sad (sadness)," QIDS-16-SR Item 13, "change in general interest," was used to measure the severity of anhedonia. The quality of life was measured with the Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Of 96 patients with MDD and 147 with bipolar I or II disorder, the severity rating on sadness and anhedonia was similar. The severities of anhedonia and sadness were highly correlated with R 2 of ≥0.91. Without considering depressive severity, 55% of patients would be eligible for a study if≥mild anhedonia was used as a severity criterion, but only 26% of patients eligible for a study if≥moderate anhedonia was used without considering substance use and medical comorbidities. If patients with ≥ moderate overall depressive symptoms were considered, 88.1% of patients would be eligible if≥mild anhedonia was required for a study, and 45.2% of patients would be eligible for a study if≥moderate anhedonia was required. For those who were unqualified for the study based on≥moderate anhedonia, about 1/3 had≥moderate overall depressive symptoms and less than 40% of maximum possible scores of Q-LES-Q. If only patients in remission based on overall depressive symptom severity were considered for a study of anhedonia, no patient would be eligible for the study. Depressive mood and anhedonia are highly correlated. Screening patients with a mood disorder and an overall moderate depressive severity is a cost-effective approach for a study targeting anhedonia, especially for a study requiring

  11. Weak and or non-existent farmer-research-extension linkage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extension-farmer linkages in Nyanga district of Zimbabwe. The target sample population was comprised of 150 communal farmers (N=150) from three clusters in Nyanga districts, as well as 12 extension officers (N=12) and six research officers ...

  12. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  13. An Improved Nested Sampling Algorithm for Model Selection and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Ye, M.; Wu, J.; WANG, D.

    2017-12-01

    Multimodel strategy is a general approach for treating model structure uncertainty in recent researches. The unknown groundwater system is represented by several plausible conceptual models. Each alternative conceptual model is attached with a weight which represents the possibility of this model. In Bayesian framework, the posterior model weight is computed as the product of model prior weight and marginal likelihood (or termed as model evidence). As a result, estimating marginal likelihoods is crucial for reliable model selection and assessment in multimodel analysis. Nested sampling estimator (NSE) is a new proposed algorithm for marginal likelihood estimation. The implementation of NSE comprises searching the parameters' space from low likelihood area to high likelihood area gradually, and this evolution is finished iteratively via local sampling procedure. Thus, the efficiency of NSE is dominated by the strength of local sampling procedure. Currently, Metropolis-Hasting (M-H) algorithm and its variants are often used for local sampling in NSE. However, M-H is not an efficient sampling algorithm for high-dimensional or complex likelihood function. For improving the performance of NSE, it could be feasible to integrate more efficient and elaborated sampling algorithm - DREAMzs into the local sampling. In addition, in order to overcome the computation burden problem of large quantity of repeating model executions in marginal likelihood estimation, an adaptive sparse grid stochastic collocation method is used to build the surrogates for original groundwater model.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... East Coast Environmental Research Institu .... ground-to-aircraft and ... In this study, the receiver system used comprises as following: antenna, .... Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering, 2017, pp.

  15. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect the outcome of the study. Important factors to consider for estimating the sample size include the size of the study population, confidence level, expected proportion of the outcome variable (for categorical variables/standard deviation of the outcome variable (for numerical variables, and the required precision (margin of accuracy from the study. The more the precision required, the greater is the required sample size. Sampling Techniques: The probability sampling techniques applied for health related research include simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. These are more recommended than the nonprobability sampling techniques, because the results of the study can be generalized to the target population.

  16. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ' Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling - based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling - based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ' random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ' generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ' purposive sampling' for the study.

  17. Methodology series module 5: Sampling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the 'Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1 probability sampling – based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.; and 2 non-probability sampling – based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term 'random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample. The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the 'generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use 'purposive sampling' for the study.

  18. [A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Lee-Jen Wu; Huang, Hui-Man; Lee, Hao-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Convenience sampling and purposive sampling are two different sampling methods. This article first explains sampling terms such as target population, accessible population, simple random sampling, intended sample, actual sample, and statistical power analysis. These terms are then used to explain the difference between "convenience sampling" and purposive sampling." Convenience sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique applicable to qualitative or quantitative studies, although it is most frequently used in quantitative studies. In convenience samples, subjects more readily accessible to the researcher are more likely to be included. Thus, in quantitative studies, opportunity to participate is not equal for all qualified individuals in the target population and study results are not necessarily generalizable to this population. As in all quantitative studies, increasing the sample size increases the statistical power of the convenience sample. In contrast, purposive sampling is typically used in qualitative studies. Researchers who use this technique carefully select subjects based on study purpose with the expectation that each participant will provide unique and rich information of value to the study. As a result, members of the accessible population are not interchangeable and sample size is determined by data saturation not by statistical power analysis.

  19. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05

  20. Triple primary urogenital cancer. A case of secondary cancers following combination therapy comprising chemotherapy plus radiation therapy for testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuchi, Hiromichi; Watabe, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Katsuyuki; Takeyama, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic with left renal cell cancer and bladder cancer. He had undergone combination therapy comprising chemotherapy plus radiation therapy following radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer at the age of 48 years. The right testis could be felt within the scrotum, however the left testis could not. Blood tests showed no abnormality in regard to testicular tumor markers. Urine cytology was class V. Computed tomography revealed a 3.0 x 3.4 cm mass in the left kidney and a 4.5 x 1.5 cm mass in the left wall of the bladder. We made it a priority to treat the bladder cancer which was strongly suspected to be invasive cancer. At first the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Then left partial nephrectomy was carried out. Our case would appear to be the 24th case of triple primary urogenital cancer in Japan that consisted of left testicular cancer, left renal cancer and bladder cancer. Our case was also thought to be a case of secondary cancer that developed following treatment for testicular cancer. (author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of biopolymers comprising chitosan-grafted-ENR via acid-induced reaction of ENR50 with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. H. Mas Haris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first detailed tailored-approach for the preparation of biopolymers comprising chitosan (CTS grafted onto the backbone of epoxidized natural rubber (CTS-g-ENR. In a typical experiment, appropriate amount of CTS and AlCl3•6H2O was added to a specified amount of ENR50 (ENR with about 50% epoxy content dissolved in a dual-solvent consisting of 1,4-dioxane and water (97.5:2.5% v/v and the resulting mixture refluxed with continuous stirring for 6 hours. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral analysis of a biocomposite, CTS-g-ENR-P1, revealed that its epoxy content is 22.36% which is considerably lower than 44.93% as determined for ENR50-control (ENR50 derivative obtained under similar experimental condition but in the absence of CTS. This means that the grafting of CTS onto the backbone of ENR had occurred. The revelation is affirmed by the presence of the characteristic absorption bands of CTS and ENR, and the appearance of new bands at 1219, 902 and 733 cm–1 in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrum of CTS-g-ENR-P1. Further evidence that CTS had been successfully grafted onto the backbone of ENR can be deduced and described in this paper from the data obtained by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetric analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis and Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  2. A gas sensor comprising two back-to-back connected Au/TiO2 Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Niloofar; Yousefiazari, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    A miniature, but sturdy, gas sensor capable of operation at temperatures as high as 600 °C is presented. The device comprises two back-to-back connected gold/rutile Schottky diodes, which are fabricated on the opposite bases of a self-standing 100 μm-thick pellet of polycrystalline rutile. The rutile layer is formed by the direct oxidation of titanium metal in air at 900 °C, and the Au/rutile diodes are formed by the diffusion bonding of the gold wire segments to the pellet bases. The current versus voltage diagrams and gas sensing properties of the Au/rutile/Au structured device are recorded at different voltage sweeping frequencies and operating temperatures. The interesting features of these diagrams are explained based on an equivalent circuit of the device, which considers Schottky-type contacts at both bases and memristive conduction for the rutile in between. The device current is controlled by the leakage current of the reverse biased diode, which depends on the concentration of the oxygen vacancy at the Au/rutile interface and, hence, on the composition of the surrounding atmosphere. The device current increases 15 times in response to the presence of 1000 ppm of ethanol vapor in air. Consisting only of bulk gold and bulk rutile, the device is resilient to harsh environments and elevated temperatures; a suitable gas sensor for in-exhaust installation.

  3. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  4. Antigenicity of peptides comprising the immunosuppressive domain of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Jenkins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve persistent infection of the host, viruses often subvert or suppress host immunity through mechanisms that are not entirely understood. The envelope glycoprotein of several retroviruses is thought to possess potent immunosuppressive activity, mapped to a 17-amino acid residue conserved domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this immunosuppressive domain can inhibit lymphocyte activation, whereas mutation of key domain residues can increase the lymphocyte response to linked antigenic epitopes. Using three T cell receptors (TCRs of defined specificity, we examine the effect of the immunosuppressive domain on the T cell response to their respective antigenic peptides. We find that fusion of a T cell epitope to the immunosuppressive domain can greatly modulate its potency. However, the effects heavily depend on the particular combination of TCR and peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC II, and are mimicked by sequence-scrambled peptides of similar length, suggesting they operate at the level of TCR-pMHC interaction. These results offer an alternative explanation for the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes comprising the putative immunosuppressive domain, which is more consistent with an effect on peptide antigenicity than true immunosuppressive activity.

  5. Antigenicity of peptides comprising the immunosuppressive domain of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Jenkins

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve persistent infection of the host, viruses often subvert or suppress host immunity through mechanisms that are not entirely understood. The envelope glycoprotein of several retroviruses is thought to possess potent immunosuppressive activity, mapped to a 17-amino acid residue conserved domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this immunosuppressive domain can inhibit lymphocyte activation, whereas mutation of key domain residues can increase the lymphocyte response to linked antigenic epitopes. Using three T cell receptors (TCRs of defined specificity, we examine the effect of the immunosuppressive domain on the T cell response to their respective antigenic peptides. We find that fusion of a T cell epitope to the immunosuppressive domain can greatly modulate its potency. However, the effects heavily depend on the particular combination of TCR and peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC II, and are mimicked by sequence-scrambled peptides of similar length, suggesting they operate at the level of pMHC formation or TCR-pMHC interaction. These results offer an alternative explanation for the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes comprising the putative immunosuppressive domain, which is more consistent with an effect on peptide antigenicity than true immunosuppressive activity.

  6. Influence on Learning of a Collaborative Learning Method Comprising the Jigsaw Method and Problem-based Learning (PBL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kayoko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masukawa, Hiroyuki; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the practice of active learning has spread, increasingly recognized as an essential component of academic studies. Classes incorporating small group discussion (SGD) are conducted at many universities. At present, assessments of the effectiveness of SGD have mostly involved evaluation by questionnaires conducted by teachers, by peer assessment, and by self-evaluation of students. However, qualitative data, such as open-ended descriptions by students, have not been widely evaluated. As a result, we have been unable to analyze the processes and methods involved in how students acquire knowledge in SGD. In recent years, due to advances in information and communication technology (ICT), text mining has enabled the analysis of qualitative data. We therefore investigated whether the introduction of a learning system comprising the jigsaw method and problem-based learning (PBL) would improve student attitudes toward learning; we did this by text mining analysis of the content of student reports. We found that by applying the jigsaw method before PBL, we were able to improve student attitudes toward learning and increase the depth of their understanding of the area of study as a result of working with others. The use of text mining to analyze qualitative data also allowed us to understand the processes and methods by which students acquired knowledge in SGD and also changes in students' understanding and performance based on improvements to the class. This finding suggests that the use of text mining to analyze qualitative data could enable teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods employed to improve learning.

  7. Solute transport in a single fracture involving an arbitrary length decay chain with rock matrix comprising different geological layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Batoul; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2014-08-01

    A model is developed to describe solute transport and retention in fractured rocks. It accounts for advection along the fracture, molecular diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix composed of several geological layers, adsorption on the fracture surface, adsorption in the rock matrix layers and radioactive decay-chains. The analytical solution, obtained for the Laplace-transformed concentration at the outlet of the flowing channel, can conveniently be transformed back to the time domain by the use of the de Hoog algorithm. This allows one to readily include it into a fracture network model or a channel network model to predict nuclide transport through channels in heterogeneous fractured media consisting of an arbitrary number of rock units with piecewise constant properties. More importantly, the simulations made in this study recommend that it is necessary to account for decay-chains and also rock matrix comprising at least two different geological layers, if justified, in safety and performance assessment of the repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aggressive electrolyte poisons and multifunctional fluids comprised of diols and diamines for emergency shutdown of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelle, Daniel J.; Shi, Yang; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Qiao, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Electrolyte poisons comprised of diols and diamines are investigated for the intended function of exacerbating internal resistance in lithium-ion batteries upon short circuit failure, to quickly arrest uncontrolled joule heat generation in the earliest stages. The competing dynamics of powerful short circuit currents and electrolyte poisoning interactions are evaluated via simultaneous nail penetration and poison injection of LIR2450 format LiCoO2/graphite 120 mAh coin cells. To forcibly increase electrolyte impedance, diols serve to hinder charge-carrying ion mobility by raising solution viscosity, while diamines disrupt solvent permittivity by rapidly polymerizing the ethylene carbonate solvent. Diamines demonstrate great potency, and are suitable for integration into battery cells within chemically-inert, breakable containers, rigged for release upon mechanical activation. Mixtures of 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-ethanediamine show synergistic poisoning effects, decreasing peak temperature accrued by 70% when introduced simultaneously upon nail penetration. With the innate presence and abundance of diols and diamines in electric vehicle heat exchangers, they may be employed for multifunctional applications.

  9. Thermal Resistance across Interfaces Comprising Dimensionally Mismatched Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Junctions in 3D Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is employed to study thermal resistance across interfaces comprising dimensionally mismatched junctions of single layer graphene floors with (6,6 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT pillars in 3D carbon nanomaterials. Results obtained from unit cell analysis indicate the presence of notable interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction (along the longitudinal axis of the SWCNTs but negligible resistance in the in-plane direction along the graphene floor. The interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction is understood to be due to the change in dimensionality as well as phonon spectra mismatch as the phonons propagate from SWCNTs to the graphene sheet and then back again to the SWCNTs. The thermal conductivity of the unit cells was observed to increase nearly linearly with an increase in cell size, that is, pillar height as well as interpillar distance, and approaches a plateau as the pillar height and the interpillar distance approach the critical lengths for ballistic thermal transport in SWCNT and single layer graphene. The results indicate that the thermal transport characteristics of these SWCNT-graphene hybrid structures can be tuned by controlling the SWCNT-graphene junction characteristics as well as the unit cell dimensions.

  10. Removal of trace organic contaminants by an MBR comprising a mixed culture of bacteria and white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Yang, Shufan; Kang, Jinguo; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-11-01

    The degradation of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOC) by a white-rot fungus-augmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that white-rot fungal enzyme (laccase), coupled with a redox mediator (1-hydroxy benzotriazole, HBT), could degrade TrOC that are resistant to bacterial degradation (e.g. diclofenac, triclosan, naproxen and atrazine) but achieved low removal of compounds (e.g. ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and amitriptyline) that are well removed by conventional activated sludge treatment. Overall, the fungus-augmented MBR showed better TrOC removal compared to a system containing conventional activated sludge. The major role of biodegradation in removal by the MBR was noted. Continuous mediator dosing to MBR may potentially enhance its performance, although not as effectively as for mediator-enhanced batch laccase systems. A ToxScreen3 assay revealed no significant increase in the toxicity of the effluent during MBR treatment of the synthetic wastewater comprising TrOC, confirming that no toxic by-products were produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The human Vδ2+ T-cell compartment comprises distinct innate-like Vγ9+ and adaptive Vγ9- subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Martin S; Willcox, Carrie R; Hunter, Stuart; Kasatskaya, Sofya A; Remmerswaal, Ester B M; Salim, Mahboob; Mohammed, Fiyaz; Bemelman, Frederike J; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Oo, Ye H; Willcox, Benjamin E

    2018-05-02

    Vδ2 + T cells form the predominant human γδ T-cell population in peripheral blood and mediate T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent anti-microbial and anti-tumour immunity. Here we show that the Vδ2 + compartment comprises both innate-like and adaptive subsets. Vγ9 + Vδ2 + T cells display semi-invariant TCR repertoires, featuring public Vγ9 TCR sequences equivalent in cord and adult blood. By contrast, we also identify a separate, Vγ9 - Vδ2 + T-cell subset that typically has a CD27 hi CCR7 + CD28 + IL-7Rα + naive-like phenotype and a diverse TCR repertoire, however in response to viral infection, undergoes clonal expansion and differentiation to a CD27 lo CD45RA + CX 3 CR1 + granzymeA/B + effector phenotype. Consistent with a function in solid tissue immunosurveillance, we detect human intrahepatic Vγ9 - Vδ2 + T cells featuring dominant clonal expansions and an effector phenotype. These findings redefine human γδ T-cell subsets by delineating the Vδ2 + T-cell compartment into innate-like (Vγ9 + ) and adaptive (Vγ9 - ) subsets, which have distinct functions in microbial immunosurveillance.

  12. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  13. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ‘ Sampling Method’. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling – based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling – based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ‘ random sample’ when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ‘ generalizability’ of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ‘ purposive sampling’ for the study. PMID:27688438

  14. Amostragem por saturação em pesquisas qualitativas em saúde: contribuições teóricas Saturation sampling in qualitative health research: theoretical contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A transparência e a clareza dos relatórios de pesquisa, destacando a etapa de coleta de dados, são consideradas parâmetros importantes de avaliação do rigor científico dos estudos qualitativos. Este texto visa a refletir sobre o emprego do conceito metodológico de amostragem por saturação teórica, empregado freqüentemente nas descrições de pesquisas qualitativas nas diversas áreas do conhecimento, relevantemente, no campo da atenção à saúde. Discutimos e problematizamos os seguintes tópicos: definição de fechamento amostral por saturação teórica; dificuldades de aceitação e operacionalização de amostras intencionais (exemplificando-as, o tamanho adequado da amostra intencional, o significado de valorizar o que se repete ou as diferenças contidas nos relatos da amostra, os usos inadequados de expressões que empregam o termo saturação e, finalmente, possíveis metáforas para compreender o conceito.The transparency and clarity of research reports, emphasizing the data collection stage, are considered important parameters for evaluating the scientific rigor of qualitative studies. The current paper aims to analyze the use of saturation sampling as a methodological concept, frequently employed in descriptions of qualitative studies in various areas of knowledge, particularly in the field of health care. We discuss and confront the following topics: definition of sampling closure by theoretical saturation; difficulties in the acceptance and operationalization of intentional samples (with examples, adequate size of the intentional sample, the significance of valuing what is repeated or the differences contained in the sample reports, inadequate uses of expressions containing the term saturation, and finally possible metaphors for understanding the concept.

  15. Method of preparing an Al-Ti-B grain refiner for aluminium-comprising products, and a method of casting aluminium products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.J.; Duszczyk, J.; Katgerman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing an Al-Ti-B grain refiner for cast aluminium-comprising products. According to the invention the preparation is realized by mixing powders selected from the group comprising aluminium, titanium, boron, and alloys and intermetallic compounds thereof,

  16. Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Kücklich

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113, with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52. The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35, of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55, but very few volatiles (N = 10. Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%. Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.

  17. Sample collection and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hasai, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Beginning within a few weeks after the bombings and periodically during the intervening decades, investigators in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have collected samples of materials that were in the cities at the time of the bombings. Although some early efforts were not driven by specific measurement objectives, many others were. Even some of the very earliest samples collected in 1945 were based on carefully conceived research plans and detailed specifications for samples appropriate to particular retrospective measurements, i.e., of particular residual quantities remaining from exposure to the neutrons and gamma rays from the bombs. This chapter focuses mainly on the work of groups at two institutions that have actively collaborated since the 1980s in major collection efforts and have shared samples among themselves and with other investigators: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), and Hiroshima University. In addition, a number of others are listed, who also contributed to the literature by their collection of samples. (J.P.N.)

  18. Research Messages 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2018

    2018-01-01

    This report brings together research publicly released by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) over the year. The 2017 compilation reflects an extensive collection of NCVER research activities undertaken during 2017, comprising reports, summaries, infographics, occasional papers, presentations and webinars. NCVER has…

  19. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  20. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)