WorldWideScience

Sample records for research rugby players

  1. The consultation of rugby players in co-developing a player health study: feasibility and consequences of sports participants as research partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Madeleine A M; Balai, Edward; Adams, Jo; Carter, John-Henry; Judge, Andrew; Newton, Julia L; Arden, Nigel K

    2017-01-01

    Many funding bodies within the United Kingdom and globally have encouraged public involvement in research. The Department of Health has also called public involvement a sign of good research. Despite the wide acceptance of public involvement improving many aspects of research, from its design to its communication, involvement has varied levels of implementation across different fields of research. Sports people have rarely been involved in research, partly as this research tends not to be funded by mainstream funding bodies. This may lead to a lower research quality, not founded in player ('service user') experiences. When creating a study of former rugby player health, we were very keen to involve rugby players, understand their thoughts on player health, and their playing experiences. This article explains how rugby players were involved in several ways, but mainly in group discussions during the design stage. These groups helped to inform our study's aims and questionnaire, ensure the questionnaire would capture player experiences and answer questions relevant to players, that they would like to understand after their participation in rugby. We found that these groups were easy to arrange, and that in only one session with each group, we were given many ideas of how to improve the questionnaire and study. We believe that other studies in sports should involve sports people, and that this is a useful activity that will change data collection forms and processes, improving the research, helping researchers, and making studies more suitable for players who take part in them. Background Patient and public involvement ('involvement') in the UK has increased in accordance with funding requirements, patient-centered health policy initiatives and reporting of the positive impact of involvement for those involved, research and researchers. However, involvement has not been implemented equally across all disease areas and populations. The aim of this process was to

  2. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  3. Protective equipment use among female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Knox, Christy L

    2005-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use and the motivation for using protective equipment among a sample of US female rugby players. We surveyed a convenience sample of 234 current US female rugby players from 14 teams participating in a US women's rugby tournament, obtaining self-reported demographic, rugby exposure, and protective equipment use information. Mouthguards were the most commonly used piece of protective equipment: 90.8% of players reported having always worn a mouthguard while playing or practicing rugby within their most recent 3 months of play. Fewer than 15% of players reported having always worn other types of protective equipment. Equipment use varied by playing position. Whereas over 80% of players in all other positions always wore a mouthguard, 66.7% of scrum halves reported always wearing one. Both backs and forwards reported wearing shoulder pads, but only forwards reported always wearing padded headgear. Mouthguards, padded headgear, and shoulder pads were worn "to prevent injury," whereas ankle braces, neoprene sleeves, and athletic tape on joints were worn "to protect a current/recent injury." This is the first study of female rugby players to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use by playing position and the motivation for using protective equipment. With the exception of mouthguards, US female rugby players infrequently use protective equipment. Protective equipment use varies by playing position. Some types of protective equipment appear to be used as primary prevention mechanisms, whereas others are used as secondary or tertiary prevention mechanisms.

  4. Morphological evolution of Springbok rugby players: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physique of rugby players has evolved over the course of the Twentieth Century. A novel morphological dataset was constructed of all Springbok rugby players until 2014. Although most of the change in body structure, particularly body weight, occurs during the era of professionalism, white Springbok rugby players ...

  5. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic ...

  6. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  7. Acromioclavicular disruption in first class rugby players.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, J; Bannister, G

    1992-01-01

    In a random sample of 105 first class rugby players, 45% gave a history of injury of the acromioclavicular joint. All continued to play at the highest level. The effects of the injury appeared to be minimal. Supraspinatus impingement syndrome commonly associated with acromioclavicular pathology was sought, but not found.

  8. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  9. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the formation of a single body to govern rugby in South. Africa in 1992, the ... Players from across the country were identified and invited to various ... different levels of rugby cannot be evaluated because the players representing ..... programmes for youth and young adults is the disparity in body size and fitness of ...

  10. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  11. Inadequate pre-season preparation of schoolboy rugby players - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in prospective studies at the same schools. The players' knowledge of techniques known to prevent rugby injuries was inadequate and too little attention was paid at the start of the rugby season to training and coaching techniques to reduce injury risk. Coaching errors may therefore have predisposed players to injury.

  12. Reliability and Usefulness of Linear Sprint Testing in Adolescent Rugby Union and League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) whether there were differences in sprint times at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m between rugby union and rugby league players, (b) determine the reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby players. Data were collected on 28 rugby union and league academy players over 2 testing sessions, with 3-day rest between sessions. Rugby league players were faster at 5 m than rugby union players, with further difference unclear. Sprint time at 10, 20, 30, and 40 m was all reliable (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3.1, 1.8, 2.0, and 1.3%) but greater than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC [0.2 × between-subject SD]), rating the test as marginal for usefulness. Although the test was incapable of detecting the SWC, we recommend that practitioners and researchers use Hopkins' proposed method; whereby plotting the change score of the individual at each split (±typical error [TE] expressed as a CV) against the SWC and visually inspecting whether the TE crosses into the SWC are capable of identifying whether a change is both real (greater than the noise of the test, i.e., >TE) and of practical significance (>SWC). Researchers and practitioners can use the TE and SWC from this study to assess changes in performance of adolescent rugby players when using single beam timing gates.

  13. Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, A E; Lewis, W A

    1992-04-01

    Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player is described. The typical features of a delayed and difficult diagnosis of an external iliac artery stenosis were found. The noninvasive diagnostic protocol used to investigate this young patient with a minimal arterial lesion enabled accurate localization and angioplasty to be performed at the same time as diagnostic angiography. The patient was symptom free with normal arterial pressures on follow-up. It is suggested that appropriate noninvasive investigations should be performed before angiography in young people with minimal lesions.

  14. New Zealand rugby health study: motor cortex excitability in retired elite and community level rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyn N; Hume, Patria A; Stavric, Verna; Brown, Scott R; Taylor, Denise

    2017-01-13

    Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22). Assessments of corticomotor excitability were made using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Resting motor threshold was significantly higher and long-interval intracortical inhibition was greater in the elite rugby group compared to the control group. Participants in the two rugby groups had sustained significantly more concussions than the control group. We provide some evidence of altered corticomotor excitation and inhibition in retired elite rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. Given the absence of findings in the community rugby group, who had experienced a similar number of concussions, the association with previous brain injury is unclear.

  15. Mental skills of South African male high school rugby players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish preliminary South African high school rugby norms for the BMSQ. The sample consisted of 152 male high school rugby players from two schools in the Ethekwini region. Preliminary norms are presented in the form of means and standard deviations. Results are compared with those of ...

  16. Return to rugby after brain concussion: a prospective study in 35 high level rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermann, Jean Francois; Klouche, Shahnaz; Savigny, Alexis; Lefevre, Nicolas; Herman, Serge; Bohu, Yoann

    2014-12-01

    Although guidelines based on expert opinions have been developed for the immediate management and return to play of athletes after a concussion, data are lacking on this issue. Evaluate a standardized management of brain concussion among rugby players to prevent the recurrence. A prospective study was performed from September 2009 to June 2012. All rugby players who had a concussion when playing rugby were included. Patients were managed by a specialized hospital team with a specific protocol developed in collaboration with the medical staff of the rugby clubs included in the study. The series included 35 rugby players, with 23 professionals and 12 high-level players, 30 men and 5 women, mean age 23.1 ± 5.5 years old. The median number of previous concussions was 2 (0-30) episodes. According to the Cantu concussion severity classification, 3 athletes were grade 1, 12 were grade 2 and 20 were grade 3. None of the injured athletes was lost to follow-up. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a new concussion within 3 months after the first in patients who returned to rugby. Thirty-three patients returned to rugby after a mean 22.1 ± 10 days. The recurrence rate within 3 months was 2/33 (6.1%). The median delay before returning to rugby was 21 (7-45) days. Factors associated with a delayed return to play were young age, initial loss of consciousness, severity Cantu grade 3 and post-concussive syndrome of more than 5 days. Analysis of two failures showed that the initial injury was grade 3 and that both were professional athletes and had a history of concussion. This prospective study validated the study protocol for the management of concussion in rugby players.

  17. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  18. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  19. Self-determined motivation in rehabilitating professional rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, F.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the views of professional rugby union players during the early rehabilitation, late rehabilitation and return to play stages, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods A qualitative dominant, mixed methodological approach was utilized with five players who had suffered an ACL injury requiring reconstructive surgery. A longitudinal approach, concurrent with each player?s rehabilitation, consisting of twice monthly intervie...

  20. Optimal development of rugby players: a case study | Rainsford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical study was conducted among 40 contracted Vodacom players from the Golden Lions Rugby Union who completed structured questionnaires prior to a physical testing. The majority of players were between 19 and 31 years. Ninety percent belonged to the white population group and 10% identified themselves ...

  1. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using physical or psychological developmental milestones as guidelines, these models in sport were .... Rugby is a highly demanding, physical, technical and tactical team sport ... usually work with large groups of athletes, therefore a practical.

  2. Changes in the physical fitness of elite women's rugby union players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate changes in the physical fitness characteristics of elite women's rugby union players over a competitive season. Methods. Thirty-two elite women's rugby union players, all members of the South African Rugby Union High Performance Squad, were sub-divided into 2 positional categories of 17 ...

  3. Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player | Janse van Rensburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic iliopsoas haematoma is a serious complication of haemorrhage disorders rarely seen in young healthy athletes. It is mostly described in patients on anticoagulant therapy and commonly associated with various degrees of femoral nerve palsy. A 22-year-old male rugby player presented with severe onset of pain in ...

  4. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  5. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  6. The effect of deprivation on the developmental activities of adolescent rugby union players in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Charles O N; Ford, Paul R; McNarry, Melitta A; Lewis, Jason; Stratton, Gareth

    2017-12-01

    The developmental activities of rugby union players and their interaction with deprivation remain to be elucidated. Five-hundred and ninety elite junior rugby union players (14.8 ± 0.5 years) were split into deprivation quintiles. These players subsequently completed a participant history questionnaire to record their involvement in rugby and other sports. Players accumulated 1987 ± 1297 h in rugby between 6 and 15 years of age. During the mini rugby stage (6-10 years of age), players accumulated an average of 113 ± 105, 89 ± 69 and 43 ± 19 h per year in rugby play, practice and competition, respectively. Moreover, 461 players engaged in an average of two other sports during the mini rugby stage. During the junior rugby stage (11-15 years of age), players accumulated 179 ± 98, 115 ± 90 and 64 ± 26 h per year in rugby practice, play and competition, respectively, and 538 players took part in three other sports. Players who were more deprived accumulated less rugby hours and participated in fewer other sports, but age milestones were not different between deprivation quintiles. There were no differences within developmental activities in rugby between deprivation groups.

  7. Changes in the physical fitness of elite women's rugby union players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two elite women's rugby union players, all members of the South African Rugby Union High Performance ... due to low training loads, high match loads and injury rate. ..... more effective toleration of the physical demands of competition.

  8. Intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety as interpreted by rugby players and rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, S; Jones, G; Mullen, R

    2000-04-01

    This study reports the findings of part of an ongoing research program examining sports performers' interpretations of competitive anxiety prior to competition. The notion of 'directional perceptions' has questioned the limited utility of examining only the intensity of competitive anxiety responses as has Jones. The purpose of this study was to examine intensity and direction, i.e., interpretation of intensity as facilitative or debilitative, of anxiety symptoms as a function of two types of sport. The types of sport were explosive (rugby league) versus fine motor skills (target rifle shooting). The sample comprised 50 male rugby league participants and 50 target rifle shooters who completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 prior to competition. Contingency analysis yielded a significant difference in the number of rugby players who reported somatic anxiety as facilitative and the number of rifle shooters who reported somatic states as debilitative. No such differences were evident for cognitive anxiety. Analysis of variance indicated no differences between the two groups on the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety, but the performers competing in rugby league interpreted both states as being more facilitative to performance; the rugby league players also had higher scores on self-confidence than the shooters. These findings provide continuing support for the measurement of directional perceptions of competitive anxiety and highlight the importance of examining individual sports.

  9. Strength and Conditioning Practices in Adolescent Rugby Players: Relationship with Changes in Physical Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Weakley, JJS; Till, K; Roe, G; Darrall-Jones, J; Phibbs, P; Read, D; Jones, B

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent rugby players benefit from the implementation of resistance training. However resistance training practices and how they influence short-term physical change is unknown. Therefore the purpose of this study was to quantify resistance training practices, evaluate physical development, and relate these changes to resistance training variables across 12-weeks in adolescent rugby union players. Thirty-five male adolescent rugby union players participated in the study with subjects compl...

  10. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at our hospital over a 2-year period. We collected data on these patients from the operative records. The patients were recalled for outcome scoring and ultrasound scans. There were seven rugby league players and four rugby union players, including six internationals. Their mean age was 25.7 years. All had had a traumatic episode during match play and could not return to the game after the injury. The mean time to surgery was 5 weeks. The mean width of the cuff tear was 1.8 cm. All were full- thickness cuff tears. Associated injuries included two Bankart lesions, one bony Bankart lesion, one posterior labral tear, and two 360 degrees labral tears. The biceps was involved in three cases. Two were debrided and a tenodesis was performed in one. Repair was with suture anchors. Following surgery, all patients underwent a supervised accelerated rehabilitation programme. The final follow-up was at 18 months (range: 6-31 months) post surgery. The Constant scores improved from 44 preoperatively to 99 at the last follow-up. The mean score at 3 months was 95. The Oxford shoulder score improved from 34 to 12, with the mean third month score being 18. The mean time taken to return to full match play at the preinjury level was 4.8 months. There were no complications in any of the patients and postoperative scans in nine patients confirmed that the repairs had healed. We conclude that full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the contact athlete can be addressed successfully by arthroscopic repair, with a rapid return to

  11. Mechanisms of traumatic shoulder injury in elite rugby players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, James; Jones, Doug R; Funk, Lennard

    2012-01-01

    Background Shoulder injuries in rugby players are common, but the mechanisms of injury are less well understood. This study aims to elucidate common mechanisms of injury and identify the patterns of injury they produce. Materials and methods Twenty-four elite rugby players, referred to the senior author for diagnosis and management of shoulder injuries, were selected. Videos of the injuries were independently reviewed by rugby-medical experts to describe the mechanisms of injury. The mechanisms reported were collated and analysed to determine the level of agreement between reviewers and conclude an overall description of injury mechanisms. Results The authors identified three mechanisms of shoulder injury from the video analysis. These are the ‘Try-Scorer’, characterised by hyperflexion of the outstretched arm such as when scoring a try; the ‘Tackler’, extension of the abducted arm behind the player while tackling; and the ‘Direct Impact’, a direct blow to the arm or shoulder when held by the side in neutral or slight adduction. The Try Scorer and Tackler mechanisms both involve a levering force on the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). These mechanisms predominantly cause GHJ dislocation, with Bankart, reverse Bankart and superior labrum anterior–posterior tears. The Try-Scorer Mechanism also caused the majority (83%) of rotator cuff tears. The Direct Hit mechanism resulted in GHJ dislocation and labral injury in 37.5% of players and was most likely to cause acromioclavicular joint dislocation and scapula fractures, injuries that were not seen with the other mechanisms. Conclusion Greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in rugby shoulder injury is useful in understanding the pathological injuries, guiding treatment and rehabilitation and aiding the development of injury-prevention methods. PMID:22510645

  12. Do stingers affect scapular kinematics in rugby players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Shimizu, Kyoko; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Moriya, Shuichi; Kaketa, Takefumi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is observed in subjects with pathologic conditions of the shoulder; however, there is limited information about the factors related to scapular dyskinesis among participants in rugby. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, reliability, and relationships between scapular dyskinesis and variables related to the shoulder in high-school rugby players. A total of 164 Japanese high-school rugby players were evaluated with questionnaires, physical examinations, and a video analysis during their preseason. After evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of a classification of scapular dyskinesis, the outcomes were analyzed to assess the relationships between scapular dyskinesis and other variables during the preseason. The data were assessed with a logistic regression analysis calculating the odds ratios (OR). The inter-rater reliability among 3 blinded observers based on the Fleiss κ value and percentage agreement was .52 and 79.0%, respectively, which indicates that the method is moderately reliable. Scapular dyskinesis was identified in 16 (10.1%) shoulders among 159 players, with type I being prominent. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a type I dyskinesis was significantly associated with a past history of stingers with projected pain to the affected side of the shoulder (OR, 3.7) and the player's competitive grade at the time of the survey (OR, 3.9). Scapular dyskinesis is significantly associated with a past history of stingers. This suggests that stingers are a causative factor of scapular dyskinesis in the rugby population. Our method of evaluating scapular dyskinesis in collision athletes exhibits moderate reliability. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  14. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR—Front Row (prop & hooker), SR—Second Row, BR—Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB—Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF—Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p rugby union players specific to positional roles. PMID:27055230

  15. Motivation and burnout among top amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott L; Eklund, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    Self-determination theory has proven to be a useful theoretical explanation of the occurrence of ill-being on a variety of accounts. Self-determination theory may also provide a useful explanation of the occurrence of athlete burnout. To date, limited evidence exists to support links between motivation and burnout. To examine relationships and potential causal directions among burnout and types of motivation differing in degree of self-determination. Data were collected on burnout using the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Sport Motivation Scale from 392 top amateur male rugby players. Structural equation modeling procedures were employed to evaluate a measurement model and three conceptually grounded structural models. One conceptual model specified concomitant (noncausal) relationships between burnout and motivations varying in self-determination. The other conceptual models specified causal pathways between burnout and the three motivation variables considered in the investigation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, external regulation, and amotivation). Within the models, amotivation, the least self-determined type of motivation, had a large positive association with burnout. Externally regulated motivation had trivial and nonsignificant relationships with burnout. Self-determined forms of motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) exhibited significant negative associations with burnout. Overall the results support the potential utility of a self-determination theory explanation of burnout. As all models displayed reasonable and comparable fits, further research is required to establish the nature (concomitant vs directional causal vs reciprocal causal) of the relationship between burnout and motivation.

  16. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current

  17. Psychological skills, state anxiety and coping of South African rugby players : a cognitive perspective / Pieter Kruger

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the research in this thesis was to investigate the psychological skills, state anxiety and coping of senior rugby players in South Africa. Methodology: The first manuscript (Chapter 2) was a literature review that investigated whether the coping model suggested by Moos and Shaefer (1993) could be applied to investigate the interaction between various psychological factors involved in the coping process, within a sports context. The model was ev...

  18. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MR Spectroscopy Findings in Retired Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Levi, Christopher R; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Schofield, Peter W; Zafonte, Ross; Shultz, Sandy R; Lin, Alexander P; Stanwell, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine brain neurometabolite concentrations in retired rugby league players who had a history of numerous self-reported concussions. Participants were 16 retired professional rugby league players (ages 30-45 years) with an extensive history of concussion and participation in contact sports, and 16 age- and education-matched controls who had no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. All completed a clinical interview, psychological and cognitive testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) investigation. MRS voxels were placed in posterior cingulate grey matter and parietal white matter. Neurometabolite concentrations were quantified using LCModel. It was hypothesized that retired athletes would differ on N-acetyl aspartate, myo-inositol, choline, glutamate, and glutathione. Retired players had significantly lower concentrations of grey matter glutathione (p=0.02, d=0.91). They did not significantly differ in concentrations of other neurometabolites. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of depression, anxiety, or cognitive functioning. The retired athletes reported significantly greater alcohol use (pcognitive performance and self-reported psychological functioning. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  1. The rehabilitation process of an injured South African rugby player ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this article is to explore the dominant, positive epistemology that describes the understanding and management of sports injury and rehabilitation, and to compare it with an alternative epistemology, namely social constructionism. A single case study was used within a qualitative research design. One male rugby ...

  2. Neural bases of a specific strategy for visuospatial processing in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Satoru; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Ogawa, Takeshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-10-01

    Rugby is one of the most tactically complex sports. Rugby coaching theory suggests that rugby players need to possess various cognitive abilities. A previous study claimed that rugby players have high visuospatial awareness, which is induced by a strategy described as taking a "bird's eye view." To examine if there were differential cortical networks related to visuospatial processing tasks among top-level rugby players and control novices, we compared brain activities during a visuospatial processing task between 20 male top-level rugby players (Top) and 20 control novice males (Novice) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To avoid the effect of differential behavioral performances on brain activation, we recruited novices whose visuospatial ability was expected to match that of the rugby players. We adopted a 3-D mental rotation task during fMRI scanning as a visuospatial processing task. Significantly greater activations from baseline were observed for the Top group than for the Novice group in the right superior parietal lobe and lateral occipital cortex. Significantly greater deactivations from baseline were observed for the Top group than for the Novice group in the right medial prefrontal cortex. The discrepancy between psychobehavioral outputs and the fMRI results suggested the existence of a cognitive strategy among top-level rugby players that differs from that among control novices. The greater activation of the right superior parietal lobe and lateral occipital cortex in top-level rugby players suggested a strategy involving visuospatial cognitive processing with respect to the bird's eye view. In addition, the right medial prefrontal cortex is known to be a part of the default mode networks, suggesting an additional cognitive load for the Top group when using the bird's-eye-view strategy. This further supported the existence of a specific cognitive strategy among top-level rugby players.

  3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in University Rugby Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nirengi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves various metabolic disturbances. The effect of physical activity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been defined, particularly in athletes who are able to consume a diet to increase body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD and associated factors of NAFLD among male university rugby football players [n = 69, 37 forwards (FW and 32 backs (BK], relative to age-matched controls (CON; n = 29. For FW players exercise consists of physical contact play, such as ruck, mall, scrum, and tackle. For BK players exercise consists of sprints and endurance running. Liver function tests and bioimpedance analysis to assess body composition were performed. Subjects consuming ≤ 20 g/day of ethanol and exhibiting an aspartate transaminase (AST level ≥ 33 U/L, and/or alanine transaminase (ALT level ≥ 43 U/L, were considered to have NAFLD. The PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The body mass index, body fat mass, and lean body mass were significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK and CON groups (P < 0.05. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the FW group than in the CON group (P < 0.05. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK group and CON group (18.9, 8.6, and 0.0%, respectively, whereas there were non-significant between-group differences in the frequency of the PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes. These findings indicate that rugby football players, especially those in the FW position, are at higher risk of developing NAFLD, which emphasizes the role of diet and exercise in the development of NAFLD.

  4. Strategies for monitoring and training strength and power in elite rugby union players.

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union requires high levels of strength and power in order to support the physical requirements of the game. The competitive structure of rugby union in the English premiership places limitations on the time available for players’ physical development. The aim of this thesis was to analyse the scope and magnitude of strength and power adaptation potential, whilst identifying effective training strategies to support physical development in professional rugby union players. Chapter 3 monit...

  5. Long-term player development in rugby – how are we doing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    played under full rules. The Australian Rugby union maintains that the junior player pathway provides children with a safe and enjoyable introduction to the skills and practical principles of the game of rugby. 6. The gradual exposure to the skills is appropriate for their age. Physical development, size and body shape is not ...

  6. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Kilduff, Liam P; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M; Bracken, Richard M; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of this study was to examine the BAM as a quick measure of mood in relation to recovery status in elite rugby players alongside established physiological markers of recovery. Using elite rugby union players (N = 12), this study examined the utility of BAM as an indicator of mental and physical recovery in elite athletes by exploring pattern change in mood disturbance, energy index, power output, cortisol, and testosterone 36 hr before and 12 hr, 36 hr, and 60 hr after a competitive rugby match. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant changes in all variables across the 4 time points (p < .05, η(2) range = .20-.48), concurrent with previous study findings. Although visual inspection of the graphs indicated that the pattern of change for mood disturbance and energy index mapped changes in all physiological variables, only a low correlation was observed for power output (r = - .34). Although BAM scores changed significantly over time in accordance with the hypotheses, further testing is required to confirm the utility of the BAM as a measure of recovery. The results indicate that the BAM could be used as 1 indicator of recovery status alongside other measures.

  7. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  8. Self-determined motivation in rehabilitating professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Fraser; Polman, Remco C J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the views of professional rugby union players during the early rehabilitation, late rehabilitation and return to play stages, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A qualitative dominant, mixed methodological approach was utilized with five players who had suffered an ACL injury requiring reconstructive surgery. A longitudinal approach, concurrent with each player's rehabilitation, consisting of twice monthly interviews, a self-report diary and three established questionnaires (MOS-Social Support Survey, Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991; Sport Climate Questionnaire, Deci & Ryan, n.d.; Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, Deci & Ryan, n.d.) were completed. Theoretical thematic analysis was conducted on three distinct phases (Early Limited Participation phase, 10 higher order themes; Late Limited Rehabilitation phase, 11 higher order themes; and Return to Play phase, 9 higher order themes) and coded relating to autonomy, competence and relatedness. The findings suggest that increased autonomy and control assist emotional and behavioral responses during rehabilitation and return to play, while development of competence increases self-confidence.

  9. Force-Velocity-Power Assessment in Semiprofessional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel T; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    There is a constant and necessary evolution of training and assessment methods in the elite contact sports; as is required to continually improve the physical qualities of these respective athletes to match the growing sport and position-specific performance demands. Our aim was to examine the differences between ballistic upper body performance profiles and maximum upper body strength of elite rugby union forwards and backs. Twenty semiprofessional male rugby union players (age = 21.1 ± 3.0 years; mass = 94.9 ± 9.7 kg) were assessed for maximum bench press strength (1RM bench press = 121.3 ± 21.8 kg) and maximum throw power (Pmax), force (Fmax), and velocity (V[Combining Dot Above]max) from an incremental relative load testing protocol (15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% 1RM). Player rankings were also included to identify individual strength and weaknesses. The forwards were moderately stronger (effect size [ES] = 0.96; p = 0.01), produced significantly greater Fmax (ES = 1.17-1.41; p = 0.01) and were more powerful (ES = 0.57-0.64; p 0.15). There were inherent differences in strength and Fmax between the forwards and backs most likely because of the physical demands of these respective positions. Improvements in upper body strength may in turn improve ballistic force and power production, but not necessarily velocity capabilities. From the Fmax and V[Combining Dot Above]max observations, the forwards seem to be more force dominant and the backs more velocity dominant. Pmax, Fmax, and V[Combining Dot Above]max may be used to highlight proficient and deficient areas in ballistic upper body performance; the individual rankings could be further used to identify and possibly rectify individual deficiencies.

  10. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  11. Prevalence of and attitudes about concussion in Irish schools' rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N = 69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union cohort. An anonymous cross-sectional survey of youth rugby players was conducted. Diagnosed concussion was defined as an incident where diagnosis was confirmed by a health professional or coach. Demographics, prevalence, and attitudes to concussion were collated. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and logistic regression. Overall, 304 youth (aged 12-18 years) responded. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed concussion was 19.4%, with annual (2010) prevalence 6.6%. Approximately 25.4% of players with diagnosed concussions returned to play without medical advice. Internal motivation (11.8%) was the predominant factor in feeling pressure to play while concussed. A desire for further concussion education was expressed by 89.5% of participants. Reform is required to prevent and manage concussion injuries among youth players in the rugby union, including mandatory education specific to concussion and implementation of return-to-play protocols. These findings have relevance for governing bodies, coaches, clinicians, schools, parents, and rugby union players. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Influence of rugby injuries on players' subsequent health and lifestyle: beginning a long term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A J; Garraway, W M; Hepburn, W; Laidlaw, R

    2001-02-01

    To describe the current rugby playing status of a cohort of 1,169 men who had previously participated in an epidemiological survey of rugby injuries during the 1993-1994 season, and assess the consequences of rugby injuries sustained. In May 1998, 911 (78%) men completed a questionnaire reporting their current involvement in rugby and the influence that the 324 (71%) injuries they had sustained four years earlier had since had on their health and wellbeing. The most common reasons given by the 390 (43%) ex-players for ceasing to play rugby were family (10%), employment (25%), and an injury sustained while playing rugby (26%), 80% of which were dislocations, strains, and sprains, mainly to the knee (35%), back (14%), and shoulder (9%). A significantly (chi2 test 21.7, df = 1, pnegative effects to employment, family life, and health up to mid-1998 from injuries that occurred during the 1993-1994 season, although the impact on their lifestyle had been substantial in some cases. With the recent increase in the incidence of dislocation, strain, and sprain injuries in rugby football, the findings of this follow up could have a great impact on the game in the future. Although this survey has shown that, so far, only a small proportion of players suffer significant effects of rugby injuries, four years is not long enough to assess the long term effects. This cohort of rugby players need to be followed up for at least a further 20 years to determine whether there is a higher incidence of subsequent degenerative joint disease or other long term sequelae to injuries sustained while playing rugby.

  13. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power.

  14. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  15. Experiences of music listening among rugby players at North-West University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaryn L. Aslett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents a study that investigated the reasons why a group of student rugby players habitually listen to music as part of their pre-match routine. The investigation followed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach that allowed the players to verbalise their personal music listening experiences. The investigation links the music listening practices of the players with the concept of musical experience as an innate human capacity directed towards general well-being. For the players, well-being is a basic condition of happiness and optimism. Achieving and maintaining this condition draws on the emotive qualities of musical sound patterns, as well as the powerful, socially situated meanings of song lyrics. Consequent states of mind conceptualise a rewarding existence by integrating experiences in sport as well as in music. Directed towards rugby practice, the study found that music listening is an informal, individual activity that involves the use of earphones. The sense of personal isolation this induces is a prerequisite for generating focus as well as controlled energy, a state of mind regarded as essential for effective participation in rugby. The pervasive use yet informal application of this strategy by rugby players points to an officially undervalued psychological resource. This finding has implications for fuller exploitation and incorporation of music listening into rugby training programmes.

  16. The effects of acute creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycling and running performance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmun, Robert P; Tong, Richard J; Grimshaw, Paul N

    2005-02-01

    The benefits of creatine (CR) supplementation are well documented, particularly during repeated bouts of high-intensity muscular activity. Most published experiments use mass-supported (cycle ergometry) activities as a means of evaluating creatine's efficacy, therefore minimizing any possible adverse effects of increased body mass associated with CR supplementation. This study aims to use both mass-supported and mass-dependent activities to assess the effectiveness of acute CR supplementation on a group of highly trained rugby players. A randomized, double-blind, crossover research design was utilized, with subjects receiving 20 g.d(-1) x 5 d of both CR and a glucose placebo (PL). Subjects were assessed via 10 x 6-second Wingate test and a 10 x 40-m sprint test on separate days, presupplementation and postsupplementation. A 28-d washout period separated the two treatments. No significant treatment (p > 0.05) or treatment by test interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for peak or minimum power output (W), peak or minimum running velocity (m.s(-1)), or fatigue index (%). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found postsupplementation for body mass and percentage body fat. Although statistical significance was not achieved for any of the measured parameters, there were small improvements in performance that may be of benefit to rugby players.

  17. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  18. A Review of the Anthropometric Characteristics, Grading and Dispensation of Junior and Youth Rugby Union Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan Alexander; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Denny, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The grading of Australian junior and youth rugby union players has received substantial media attention in recent years. Media reports have focussed on size mismatches observed between players, especially players with Polynesian heritage, and the concerned parents who fear for the safety of their child owing to perceived mismatches. Although such concerns are well meaning, few media reports recognise the need for substantial evidence to determine the best grading system for junior and youth rugby union players. The current study reviewed relevant literature pertinent to the grading and dispensation of junior and youth rugby union players. Using primary and secondary search strategies, a total of 33 articles reporting the anthropometric characteristics of junior and youth rugby players were identified. Anthropometric data from the literature were compared with normative population data and currently used dispensation criteria. Junior and youth rugby players were found to be taller and heavier than normative population data. Current dispensation criteria, in terms of body mass, were found to vary and it is suggested that criteria be revised and standardised across rugby unions throughout Australia. Although it is acknowledged that other factors are important for grading players, anthropometric characteristics should be considered as potential dispensation criteria to supplement current age-based grading for junior and youth rugby union players. Measuring the body mass and stature of each junior player upon pre-season registration is suggested, which would provide data to establish valid dispensation criteria for the following season.

  19. Understanding mismatches in body size, speed and power among adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lyndon M; Naughton, Geraldine A; Denny, Greg; Patton, Declan; Hartwig, Tim; Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    With adolescent sport increasingly challenged by mismatches in size, new strategies are important to maximize participation. The objectives were to (1) improve the understanding of mismatches in physical size, speed and power in adolescent rugby union players, (2) explore associations between size and performance with demographic, playing-history, and injury profiles, and (3) explore the applicability of existing criteria for age/body mass-based dispensation (playing-down) strategies. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and eighty-five male community rugby union players were recruited from three Australian states selected to represent community-based U12, U13, U14 and U15 players. Body mass, stature, speed (10, 30, and 40 m sprints) and lower-leg power (relative peak power and relative peak force) were measured. Independent student t-tests, linear regressions and Chi square analyses were undertaken. Mean values in age groups for size, speed and power masked considerable overlap in the ranges within specific age groups of adolescent rugby players. Only a small proportion of players (approximately 5%) shared the highest and lowest tertiles for speed, relative peak power and body mass. Physical size was not related to injury. The mean body mass of current community rugby union players was above the 75th percentile on normative growth-charts. The notion that bigger, faster, and more powerful characteristics occur simultaneously in adolescent rugby players was not supported in the present study. Current practices in body mass-based criteria for playing down an age group lack a sufficient evidence for decision-making. Dispensation solely based on body mass may not address mismatch in junior rugby union. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do players and staff sleep more during the pre- or competitive season of elite rugby league?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caia, Johnpaul; Scott, Tannath J; Halson, Shona L; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-09-01

    This study establishes the sleep behaviour of players and staff during the pre- and competitive seasons of elite rugby league. For seven days during both the pre- and competitive seasons, seven rugby league players and nine full-time staff from one professional Australian rugby league club had their sleep monitored via wrist actigraphy and self-report sleep diaries. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance determined differences between the pre- and competitive season in players and staff, with effect sizes (ES) used to interpret the practical magnitude of differences. Findings show an earlier bed time and wake time for players (-34 min, ES = 1.5; ±0.5 and -39 min, 2.1; ±0.5 respectively) and staff (-29 min, ES = 0.8; ±0.3 and -35 min, ES = 1.7; ±0.4 respectively) during pre-season when compared to the competitive season. Despite this, no differences were seen when considering the amount of time in bed, sleep duration or sleep efficiency obtained between the pre- and competitive seasons. Our results suggest that early morning training sessions scheduled during pre-season advances wake time in elite rugby league. However, both players and staff can aim to avoid reductions in sleep duration and sleep efficiency with subsequent adjustment of night time sleep patterns. This may be particularly pertinent for staff, who wake earlier than players during both the pre- and competitive seasons.

  1. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Peak power, force, and velocity during jump squats in professional rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Anthony P; Unholz, Cedric N; Potts, Neill; Coleman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Training at the optimal load for peak power output (PPO) has been proposed as a method for enhancing power output, although others argue that the force, velocity, and PPO are of interest across the full range of loads. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of load on PPO, peak barbell velocity (BV), and peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the jump squat (JS) in a group of professional rugby players. Eleven male professional rugby players (age, 26 ± 3 years; height, ...

  3. The incidence and nature of injuries in South African rugby players in the rugby Super 12 competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, Louis J; Schwellnus, Martin P; Jakoet, Ismail; Pretorius, A L

    2006-12-01

    There are sparse scientific data concerning the aetiology and incidence of injuries in the Super 12 rugby competition. Aim. The aim of the study was to document the incidence, nature and risk factors associated with injuries during a Super 12 rugby competition. Injuries, defined as injuries preventing playing or training, or requiring medical treatment, were recorded in a cohort of 75 South African Super 12 players over one season. Injury severity was graded according to sessions missed: minor (1 - 3 missed), intermediate (4 - 9) and severe (> 9). During the tournament, a total of 740 player game hours and 4 900 player training hours were recorded. The overall incidence of injuries was 55.4 injuries/1,000 player game hours, and 4.3 injuries/1,000 player training hours. The most common injury types were: ligament sprains (25.8%), musculotendinous strains/tears (24.2%). The most common injured sites were: pelvis, hip (19.3%), head and knee (12.9% each). The tackle caused 40.3%, and rucks and mauls 11.3% of injuries. Injuries sustained during training accounted for 34%, and chronic overuse injuries 9.7% of injuries. There is a high injury rate during a Super 12 rugby competition. However, the majority of injuries were minor injuries. The most dangerous phase of play was the tackle. Training in tackling and rucking techniques, and rule enforcement are therefore recommended to reduce risk of injury. Injuries tended to occur late in games and early in the season, suggesting lack of physical conditioning and fatigue as possible causes of injury.

  4. The association between harm avoidance personality traits and self-reported concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-01-01

    Personality traits have been proposed to affect the risk of sports concussion, but evidence is limited. Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) measures novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TPQ scores and concussion history in rugby union players. Cross-sectional study. Rugby players from high schools, senior amateur clubs, and professional teams provided a self-reported concussion history and completed the TPQ. Participants reporting no previous concussions formed the control group, while participants reporting concussion formed the case group. A one-way analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, was used to examine the differences in TPQ scores between groups. Of the 309 participants, 54% reported a minimum of one concussion (junior: 47%; amateur: 52%; professional: 72%). HA scores were significantly higher in junior players without a history of concussion compared to cases (p=0.006). Specifically, the junior control group had higher "anticipatory worry" (p=0.009) and "fear of uncertainty" (p=0.008). In contrast, the professional control group had lower HA scores than cases (p=0.009), while the amateur cohort displayed no differences between control and case groups. This study identified a novel association between HA and concussion in rugby players, adding evidence to the role of personality in a multifactorial risk-model of concussion. The findings suggest that lower HA may lead to increased dangerous play in youth rugby, influencing concussion susceptibility. Contrasting associations in the professional cohort suggest further research is required to understand the role of personality in concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sport concussion assessment tool-Third edition normative reference values for professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M

    2018-04-01

    To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pRugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Cortical thickness and subcortical brain volumes in professional rugby league players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wojtowicz

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in professional rugby players with an extensive history of concussions compared to control subjects. Method: Participants included 24 active and former professional rugby league players [Age M(SD = 33.3(6.3; Range = 21–44] with an extensive history of concussion and 18 age- and education-matched controls with no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. Participants underwent T1-weighted imaging and completed a neuropsychological battery, including two tests of memory. Whole brain cortical thickness analysis and structural volume analysis was performed using FreeSurfer version 6.0. Results: Professional rugby league players reported greater alcohol consumption (p < .001 and had significantly worse delayed recall of a visually complex design (p = .04. They did not differ from controls on other clinical outcome measures. There were no differences in cortical thickness between the groups. Professional players had smaller whole brain (p = .003, bilateral hippocampi (ps = .03, and left amygdala volumes (p = .01 compared to healthy controls. Within the players group, there were significant associations between greater alcohol use and smaller bilateral hippocampi and left amygdala volumes. There were no associations between structural volumes and history of concussions or memory performance. Conclusions: The literature examining cortical thickness in athletes with a history of multiple concussions is mixed. We did not observe differences in cortical thickness in professional rugby league players compared to controls. However, smaller subcortical volumes were found in players that were, in part, associated with greater alcohol consumption. Keywords: Volumetric MRI, Cortical thickness, Concussion, Brain morphometry, Athletes, Rugby

  7. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  8. Mechanisms for Triceps Surae Injury in High Performance Front Row Rugby Union Players: A Kinematic Analysis of Scrummaging Drills

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Carol A.; Sayers, Mark G. L.; Gordon, Susan J.; Lee, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of t...

  9. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF NECK MUSCULAR SIZE AND RANGE OF MOTION IN RUGBY PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelryck, Walter; Calistri, Josselin; Papadopoulou, Virginie; Theunissen, Sigrid; Dugardeyn, Christian; Balestra, Costantino

    2018-02-01

    World Rugby Union laws are constantly evolving towards stringent injury-prevention, particularly for contested scrums, since front row players are most at risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, some countries have also introduced tailored training programs and minimum performance requirements for playing in the front row. Nevertheless, these approaches lack an objective assessment of each cervical muscle that would provide protective support. Since front row players are the most at risk for cervical spine injuries due to the specific type of contact during scrums, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether significant differences exist in neck muscle size and range of motion between front row players and players of other positions, across playing categories. Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. 129 sub-elite male subjects from various first-team squads of Belgian Rugby clubs were recruited. Subjects were grouped according to age: Junior (J)  35 years old; as well as playing position: Front row players (J = 10, S = 12, V = 11 subjects), (Rest of the) pack (J = 12, S = 12, V = 10), backs (J = 10, S = 11, V = 11). An age-matched control group of non-rugby players was also recruited (J = 10, S = 10, V = 10).For each subject, the total neck circumference (NC) and the cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured. In addition, the thickness of the trapezius (T), splenius capitis (SCa), semispinalis capitis (SCb), semispinalis cervicis (SPC), sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCOM), and the total thickness of all four structures (TT), were measured using ultrasonography. In each age category, compared to controls, rugby players were found to have decreased CROM, an increase in neck circumference (NC), and increased total thickness (TT), trapezius (T), semispinalis capitis (SCb) and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCOM) sizes. For junior players, the thickness of the semispinalis cervicis (SPC) was also increased compared to controls. The CROM was decreased

  10. A Comparison of Cognitive Function in Former Rugby Union Players Compared with Former Non-Contact-Sport Players and the Impact of Concussion History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Patria A; Theadom, Alice; Lewis, Gwyn N; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Brown, Scott R; Hill, Rosamund; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated differences in cognitive function between former rugby and non-contact-sport players, and assessed the association between concussion history and cognitive function. Overall, 366 former players (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 43.3 ± 8.2 years) were recruited from October 2012 to April 2014. Engagement in sport, general health, sports injuries and concussion history, and demographic information were obtained from an online self-report questionnaire. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the online CNS Vital Signs neuropsychological test battery. Cohen's d effect size statistics were calculated for comparisons across player groups, concussion groups (one or more self-reported concussions versus no concussions) and between those groups with CNS Vital Signs age-matched norms (US norms). Individual differences within groups were represented as SDs. The elite-rugby group (n = 103) performed worse on tests of complex attention, processing speed, executive functioning, and cognitive flexibility than the non-contact-sport group (n = 65), and worse than the community-rugby group (n = 193) on complex attention. The community-rugby group performed worse than the non-contact group on executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. Compared with US norms, all three former player groups performed worse on verbal memory and reaction time; rugby groups performed worse on processing speed, cognitive flexibility and executive functioning; and the community-rugby group performed worse on composite memory. The community-rugby group and non-contact-sport group performed slightly better than US norms on complex attention, as did the elite-rugby group for motor speed. All three player groups had greater individual differences than US norms on composite memory, verbal memory and reaction time. The elite-rugby group had greater individual differences on processing speed and complex attention, and the community-rugby group had greater individual

  11. Risk factors that predict severe injuries in university rugby sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsafaei Rizi, Rezvan; Yeung, Simon S; Stewart, Nathan J; Yeung, Ella W

    2017-07-01

    To investigate injury incidence and the influence of physical fitness parameters on the risk of severe injuries in players on rugby sevens university teams. Prospective cohort study. Rugby players from three universities (N=104; 90M:14F; 20.6±1.9years) were recruited before the beginning of the season. Players underwent pre-season assessments of power, strength, speed, agility, endurance, stability, and flexibility. Throughout the season, rugby-related injury and exposure data were collected. Potential predictor variables were analyzed using Cox proportional regression model to identify risk factors associated with severe injuries (time loss>28days). Thirty-one injuries occurred during the rugby season. The match and training injury incidence rates were 59.3 injuries and 3.3 injuries per 1000 player-hours, respectively. Lower limb injuries were most common and most severe. The ankle joint was the most prevalent site of injury, and ligamentous injury was most common (48.4%). Nine severe injuries were sustained resulting in an average time loss of 51.3±14.6days. Female (hazard ratio [HR]=8.35; 95% confidence intervals [CI]=2.01-34.8), slower (HR=3.51; 95% CI=1.17-10.5), and less agile (HR=2.22; 95% CI=1.26-3.92) players as well as those with hip flexors tightness (HR=1.12; 95% CI=1.00-1.25) were at significantly greater risk for sustaining severe injuries. Limited studies are available on risk factors associated with amateur rugby players in the Sevens version. The development of gender-specific injury prevention measures that emphasize speed and agility training, and improve hip flexor extensibility may be important to reduce the risk of severe injuries. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrelationships between measured running intensities and agility performance in subelite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Sullivan, Lee O; Davies, Bruce; Wiltshire, Huw; Baker, Julien S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate agility performance of rugby players using various intensity running tests. A further aim was to investigate if any differences existed between playing positions in relation to agility performance. Nineteen subelite players (mean +/- SD age, 23.0 +/- 5.4 years) participated in the study. Players underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of four skinfolds). Running tests investigated were speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), agility (T Test and Illinois), and multistage fitness tests (20 m, 10 m, and 5 m), with all tests for agility measured against the Illinois agility test. Results indicated that backline players produced significant correlations (P rugby-specific agility programs to aid performance may be of greater benefit and of higher priority in training programs designed for backs rather than forwards.

  13. Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Players during Whole Body Cryostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (−110°C to −140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

  14. A Study on In-Match Rugby Coaches' Communications with Players: A Holistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Alain; Harvey, Stephen; Light, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there is significant interest in coach behaviour during training sessions and recognition of what it could add to existing knowledge on coaching, in-game coach behaviour has received little attention. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' in-competition communications with rugby players, through a series of…

  15. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to

  17. SA Rugby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    (SA Rugby) Youth Week players: a pilot study. J Brown,1,2 ... management guidelines, to which all rugby-playing nations need to ... Consensus Statement for Concussion in Sport [1] and World. Rugby's ... Players with a “time-loss” injury (an ...

  18. Effect of Physical and Psychosocial Interventions on Hormone and Performance Outcomes in Professional Rugby Union Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahorn, Joshua; Serpell, Benjamin G; McKune, Andrew; Pumpa, Kate L

    2017-11-01

    Strahorn, J, Serpell, BG, McKune, A, and Pumpa, KL. Effect of physical and psychosocial interventions on hormone and performance outcomes in professional rugby union players: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3158-3169, 2017-This systematic review investigates the acute effects of physical or psychosocial interventions on testosterone and cortisol responses in elite male rugby union players, and the subsequent association with physical performance areas (e.g., strength, power, sprint performance) or key performance indicators (e.g., coach-identified skills). Medline (via EBSCO), SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, InformIT, ProQuest, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, with 6 articles examining the effect of speed, strength or power training, and the remaining 3 psychosocial interventions. Quality assessment of the articles as determined by their PEDro score was either 6 or 7 out of 11. This review found that both physical and psychosocial interventions can alter testosterone and cortisol, and physical performance areas important for rugby union are affected by these changes. The limited literature in the field supports the notion that physical interventions of short duration and high intensity, and psychosocial interventions that create a positive environment may elicit a hormonal response that is associated with favorable performance outcomes. Studies that reported psychosocial interventions suggest that testosterone and cortisol may be altered in elite rugby players without metabolic stress, something of great interest to elite athletes and coaches who are looking to elicit a performance advantage without increasing athlete load. Overall, this review identified that when the testosterone responses to an intervention are notably greater than that of cortisol, favorable outcomes are likely. Further research is required to improve our understanding on how to best manipulate training to induce

  19. Relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of playing rugby union for professional and amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T

    2000-08-01

    The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.

  20. RUGBY

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2013-01-01

    Women's rugby has been gaining popularity for some years now. The ‘’Wildcats’’, the women's rugby Club of CERN Meyrin St-Genis (RC CMSG), is the only women's team currently present in Geneva area. This year, the Wildcats will host the final of the Swiss Super Seven (rugby tournament 7). The tournament will be held on Saturday, May 4, 2013, at the Rugby Field in St-Genis-Pouilly, near the Golf de Serves. A dozen teams are expected to compete for the first place in the championship. The games will be played all day starting from 10 a.m. There will be refreshment stalls and meals will be sold , as well as bands will play music all day. Admission is free for all ages. Contact : wildcats@cern-rugby.ch Info : page facebook Wildcats women’s rugby

  1. Free-Weight Augmentation With Elastic Bands Improves Bench Press Kinematics in Professional Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Hernández-Sánchez, Sonsoles; Martín, Esperanza; Marín, Pedro J; Zarzosa, Fernando; Herrero, Azael J

    2016-09-01

    García-López, D, Hernández-Sánchez, S, Martín, E, Marín, PJ, Zarzosa, F, and Herrero, AJ. Free-weight augmentation with elastic bands improves bench press kinematics in professional rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2493-2499, 2016-This study aimed to investigate the effects of combining elastic bands to free weight resistance (EB + FWR) on the acceleration-deceleration and velocity profiles of the bench press in professional rugby players and recreationally trained subjects. Sixteen male subjects (8 rugby players and 8 recreationally trained subjects) were randomly assigned to complete 2 experimental conditions in a crossover fashion: EB + FWR and FWR. In both conditions, subjects performed 1 bench press set to volitional exhaustion with a load equivalent to the 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In the EB + FWR condition, the contribution of elastic resistance was approximately 20% of the selected load (85% 1RM). Results indicate that EB + FWR condition increased significantly the range of concentric movement in which the barbell is accelerated. This increase was significantly higher in rugby players (35%) in comparison with recreationally trained subjects (13%). Maximal velocity was also increased in EB + FWR (17%), when compared with FWR condition. These results suggest that when combined with variable resistance (i.e., EB), the external resistance seems to be more evenly distributed over the full range of motion, decreasing the need for dramatic deceleration at the end of the concentric phase. The present data also indicate that the kinematic benefits of an EB + FWR approach seems to be more prominent in athletes from modalities in which high level of strength and power are required (i.e., rugby players).

  2. Strength and Conditioning Practices in Adolescent Rugby Players: Relationship with Changes in Physical Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Read, Dale; Jones, Ben L

    2017-01-30

    Adolescent rugby players benefit from the implementation of resistance training. However resistance training practices and how they influence short-term physical change is unknown. Therefore the purpose of this study was to quantify resistance training practices, evaluate physical development, and relate these changes to resistance training variables across 12-weeks in adolescent rugby union players. Thirty-five male adolescent rugby union players participated in the study with subjects completing an anthropometric and physical testing battery pre- and post- a 12-week in-season mesocycle. Subjects recorded resistance training frequency, exercises, repetitions, load, minutes, and rating of perceived exertion for each session using weekly training diaries during the 12-week period. Paired sample t-tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess change, while Pearson correlation coefficients assessed relationships between variables. Resistance training practices were variable, while significant (p ≤0.05) improvements in body mass, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, front squat, bench press, and chin up strength were observed. Resistance training volume load had moderate to strong relationships with changes in CMJ (r =0.71), chin up (r =0.73) and bench press (r =0.45). Frequency of upper and lower body compound exercises had significant moderate to large relationships with changes in CMJ (r =0.68), chin up (r =0.65), and bench press (r =0.41). Across a 12-week in-season period, adolescent rugby union players have varying resistance training practices, while anthropometric and physical characteristics appear to improve. Given the observed relationships, increased volume loads through the implementation of free-weight compound exercises could be an effective method for improving physical qualities in young rugby players.

  3. Traumatic humeral articular cartilage shear (THACS) lesion in a professional rugby player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, I-H; Wallace, W A

    2004-08-01

    A 20 year old male professional rugby player was seen at the clinic for evaluation of shoulder pain after rugby play. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive subchondral bone bruising of the humeral head with defect of the articular cartilage. Arthroscopy showed that the inferior half of the humeral head had extensive articular cartilage loss with nearly 70% of the inferior head having lost its cartilage. Sports medicine doctors should be aware that the shoulder joint in young competitive athletes playing contact sports may be exposed to greater risk of this kind of injury.

  4. Cervical isometric strength and range of motion of elite rugby union players: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David F; Gatherer, Don

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck injury is relatively common in Rugby Union. Despite this, strength and range-of-motion characteristics of the cervical spine are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to provide data on the strength and range-of-motion of the cervical spine of professional rugby players to guide clinical rehabilitation. A cohort study was performed evaluating 27 players from a single UK professional rugby club. Cervical isometric strength and range-of-motion were assessed in 3 planes of reference. Anthropometric data was collected and multivariate regression modelling performed with a view to predicting cervical isometric strength. Largest forces were generated in extension, with broadly equal isometric side flexion forces at around 90% of extension values. The forwards generated significantly more force than the backline in all parameters bar flexion. The forwards had substantially reduced cervical range-of-motion and larger body mass, with differences observed in height, weight, neck circumference and chest circumference (p isometric extension (adjusted R(2) = 30.34). Rehabilitative training programs aim to restore individuals to pre-injury status. This work provides reference ranges for the strength and range of motion of the cervical spine of current elite level rugby players.

  5. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  6. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 μg·mL(-1), p caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  7. Sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Chung, Joanne W Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Shirley S M

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players and a control group. Forty-one amateur rugby players (22 males: 19 females; mean height ± SD = 168.8 ± 8.8 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.9 ± 12.5 kg) and 31 control participants (22 males: 9 females; mean height ± SD = 171.5 ± 10.3 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.8 ± 10.3 kg) completed the study. Their sensory organisation and standing balance performance were evaluated using a sensory organisation test (SOT), and their reactive balance performance was quantified using a motor control test (MCT). The SOT equilibrium scores (ES) and sensory ratios and the MCT motor response latencies were the major outcome measures. The results revealed that compared to the controls, amateur rugby players had lower SOT ESs under different sensory environments (P rugby group (P = .005, [Formula: see text] = 0.107 and 0.108, respectively). No significant difference was found in the somatosensory ratio (P = .853, [Formula: see text] rugby players demonstrated inferior standing balance performance compared to their non-trained counterparts. They relied less heavily on vestibular and visual inputs to maintain standing balance under different sensory environments. In addition, they reacted more slowly to postural disturbance, reflecting their suboptimal reactive balance ability in standing.

  8. A test battery for the determination of positional requirements in adolescent rugby players / Maria Magdalena van Gent

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gent, Maria Magdalena

    2003-01-01

    Motivation Rugby is a very popular sport and is played from primary school to senior level in more than a hundred countries world-wide (Pretorius, 1997:2). South Africa is no exception; it has been known to be the breeding ground/or some of the world's greatest players (Granger, 2002:56). According to Pienaar and Spamer (1998:14) certain anthropometric, physical, motor abilities and game-specific variables can distinguish between talented and less talented rugby players. How...

  9. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  10. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    however, very little research has been done on the prevalence of self- reported neck pain in rugby .... Car accident. Other. Fall. Other sport ... Driving. Work. Personal care. Recreation. Concentration. Sleeping. Reading. Lifting. Headaches.

  11. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin

    2009-10-01

    This study compared the neuromuscular performance (speed, power, strength) of elite rugby union players, by position, and examined the relationship between player performance and salivary hormones, by squad and position. Thirty-four professional male rugby players were assessed for running speed (10-m, 20-m or 30-m sprints), concentric mean (MP) and peak power (PP) during a 70-kg squat jump (SJ) and 50-kg bench press throw (BT), and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength for a box squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Tests were performed on separate days with absolute and normalized (power and strength only) values computed. Saliva was collected before each test and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). In absolute terms, the backs demonstrated greater speed and BT MP, whereas the forwards produced greater SJ PP and MP and BS 1RM (p 0.05). A comparison (absolute and normalized) of BT PP showed no positional differences (p > 0.05), whereas BP 1RM was greater for the forwards (p rugby. The Sal-T and/or Sal-C concentrations of players correlated to speed, power, and strength, especially for the backs (p benefit from acute and chronic hormone monitoring to identify those individuals likely to respond more to hormonal change.

  12. Effects of neck strength training on isometric neck strength in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.

  13. Position Affects Performance in Multiple-Object Tracking in Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment that examines the performance of rugby union players and a control group composed of graduate student with no sport experience, in a multiple-object tracking task. It compares the ability of 86 high level rugby union players grouped as Backs and Forwards and the control group, to track a subset of randomly moving targets amongst the same number of distractors. Several difficulties were included in the experimental design in order to evaluate possible interactions between the relevant variables. Results show that the performance of the Backs is better than that of the other groups, but the occurrence of interactions precludes an isolated groups analysis. We interpret the results within the framework of visual attention and discuss both, the implications of our results and the practical consequences.

  14. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. Method General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected duri...

  15. Validity of a Jump Mat for assessing Countermovement Jump Performance in Elite Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig

    2017-02-01

    This study determined the validity of the Just Jump System ® (JJS) for measuring flight time, jump height and peak power output (PPO) in elite rugby league players. 37 elite rugby league players performed 6 countermovement jumps (CMJ; 3 with and 3 without arms) on a jump mat and force platform. A sub-sample (n=28) was used to cross-validate the equations for flight time, jump height and PPO. The JJS systematically overestimated flight time and jump height compared to the force platform (Pjump height ( with R 2 =0.945; without R 2 =0.987). Our equations revealed no systematic difference between corrected and force platform scores and an improved the agreement for flight time (Ratio limits of agreement: with 1.00 vs. 1.36; without 1.00 vs. 1.16) and jump height ( with 1.01 vs. 1.34; without 1.01 vs. 1.15), meaning that our equations can be used to correct JJS scores for elite rugby players. While our equation improved the estimation of PPO ( with 1.02; without 1.01) compared to existing equations (Harman: 1.20; Sayers: 1.04), this only accounted for 64 and 69% of PPO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Association between the training loads imposed to amateur rugby sevens players and burnout syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sarly Coutinho Sobral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Burnout syndrome has been shown to be increasingly prevalent in athletes, since it is related to factors that influence levels of stress during the preparation of sports. Therefore, it has been studied in several sports, but not in Rugby Seven. The aim of this study was to correlate the effects of training loads imposed on amateur Rugby Sevens players with the burnout questionnaire. Nine players (25 ± 5 years-old were evaluated before the preparatory period. Assessment included the measurement of the % fat percentage; nutritional status, stress, and aerobic power. During the preparatory period, once again, it was assessed the state of stress, aerobic power, and intensity of the training program. It was observed that there is no significant correlation between the intensity of the workout and Burnout scores (p> 0.05, nor between Burnout scores and aerobic capacity. However, there was significant a correlation between the intensity of training performed with aerobic power (p< 0.01. Therefore, it is concluded that a training program prescribed properly, prevents the onset of burnout syndrome in Rugby Sevens players.

  17. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  18. Fluid and electrolyte balance during two different preseason training sessions in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Samuel D; Love, Thomas D; Brown, Rachel C; Baker, Dane F; Howe, Anna S; Black, Katherine E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fluid balance between a resistance and an aerobic training sessions, in elite rugby players. It is hypothesized that resistance exercise will result in a higher prevalence of overdrinking, whereas during the aerobic session, underdrinking will be more prevalent. As with previous fluid balance studies, this was an observational study. Twenty-six players completed the resistance training session, and 20 players completed the aerobic training session. All players were members of an elite rugby union squad competing in the southern hemisphere's premier competition. For both sessions, players provided a preexercise urine sample to determine hydration status, pre- and postexercise measures of body mass, and blood sodium concentration were taken, and the weight of drink bottles were recorded to calculate sweat rates and fluid intake rates. Sweat patches were positioned on the shoulder of the players, and these remained in place throughout each training session and were later analyzed for sodium concentration. The percentage of sweat loss replaced was higher in the resistance (196 ± 130%) than the aerobic training session (56 ± 17%; p = 0.002). Despite this, no cases of hyponatremia were detected. The results also indicated that more than 80% of players started training in a hypohydrated state. Fluid intake seems to differ depending on the nature of the exercise session. In this group of athletes, players did not match their fluid intakes with their sweat loss, resulting in overdrinking during resistance training and underdrinking in aerobic training. Therefore, hydration strategies and education need to be tailored to the exercise session. Furthermore, given the large number of players arriving at training hypohydrated, improved hydration strategies away from the training venue are required.

  19. The King-Devick (K-D) test and concussion diagnosis in semi-professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John H; Murphy, Ian; Gissane, Conor

    2017-08-01

    To determine the utility of the King-Devick (K-D) test in identifying sports-related concussion in semi-professional rugby players. Descriptive cohort study. 176 male players were recruited from a semi-professional rugby union competition in New Zealand (NZ). Baseline K-D scores were obtained in the pre-season. Post-match K-D and Pitch Side Concussion Assessment Version 2 (PSCA2) scores were obtained in those with suspected concussion. Post-match K-D scores were also administered to selected control players. 19 concussions in 18 players were analysed. In addition, 33 controls were used for analysis. A positive K-D test was identified in 53% of players with concussion post-match. Conversely, a positive test was identified in 33% of controls. The sensitivity and specificity of the K-D test was calculated as 53% and 69% respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value was 48% and 73% respectively. The PSCA2 correctly identified 74% of concussions. The K-D test identified 3 cases not identified by the PSCA2. When the PSCA2 and K-D were combined, 89% of concussions were correctly identified. The K-D test does not appear to be effective if used as a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of concussion. However, if used alongside current side-line cognitive and balance tests, it may assist in more accurately diagnosing sports-related concussion. Further research should look to utilise the K-D test in in-match protocols to establish if this improves the diagnostic accuracy of in-match protocols for sports-related concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. The Effects of Sleep Extension on Sleep, Performance, Immunity and Physical Stress in Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbourne, Richard; Miller, Joanna; Smart, Daniel; Dulson, Deborah K; Gill, Nicholas

    2018-05-10

    (1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i) characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during a pre-season training programme; (ii) evaluate the efficacy of a sleep extension intervention in improving sleep, markers of physical stress, immune function and performance. (2) Methods: Twenty five highly trained athletes from a professional rugby team (age (mean ± SD) 25 ± 2.7 years; height 1.87 ± 0.07 m; weight 105 ± 12.1 kg) participated in a six week pre-post control-trial intervention study. Variables of sleep, immune function, sympathetic nervous activity, physiological stress and reaction times were measured. (3) Results: Sleep extension resulted in a moderate improvement in sleep quality scores ([mean; ± 90% confidence limits] −24.8%; ± 54.1%) and small to moderate increases in total sleep time (6.3%; ± 6.3%) and time in bed (7.3%; ± 3.6%). In addition, a small decrease in cortisol (−18.7%; ± 26.4%) and mean reaction times (−4.3%; ± 3.1%) was observed following the intervention, compared to the control. (4) Conclusions: Professional rugby players are at risk of poor sleep during pre-season training, with concomitant rises in physical stress. Implementing a sleep extension programme among professional athletes is recommended to improve sleep, with beneficial changes in stress hormone expression and reaction time performance.

  2. The Effects of Sleep Extension on Sleep, Performance, Immunity and Physical Stress in Rugby Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Swinbourne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during a pre-season training programme; (ii evaluate the efficacy of a sleep extension intervention in improving sleep, markers of physical stress, immune function and performance. (2 Methods: Twenty five highly trained athletes from a professional rugby team (age (mean ± SD 25 ± 2.7 years; height 1.87 ± 0.07 m; weight 105 ± 12.1 kg participated in a six week pre-post control-trial intervention study. Variables of sleep, immune function, sympathetic nervous activity, physiological stress and reaction times were measured. (3 Results: Sleep extension resulted in a moderate improvement in sleep quality scores ([mean; ± 90% confidence limits] −24.8%; ± 54.1% and small to moderate increases in total sleep time (6.3%; ± 6.3% and time in bed (7.3%; ± 3.6%. In addition, a small decrease in cortisol (−18.7%; ± 26.4% and mean reaction times (−4.3%; ± 3.1% was observed following the intervention, compared to the control. (4 Conclusions: Professional rugby players are at risk of poor sleep during pre-season training, with concomitant rises in physical stress. Implementing a sleep extension programme among professional athletes is recommended to improve sleep, with beneficial changes in stress hormone expression and reaction time performance.

  3. The Effect of Caffeine on Repeat-High-Intensity-Effort Performance in Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-02-01

    Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.

  4. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Cartwright, Laura; Corish, Clare; Sugrue, Sheila; Wood-Martin, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the body composition, nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and educational needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Participants included 203 male rugby players age 15-18 yr competing at Senior School's Cup level in Leinster, Ireland. Estimation of body composition included measurement of height, weight, and percentage body fat (PBF; using bioelectrical impedance analysis, Tanita BC-418). Nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and education needs were assessed by questionnaire. The range of PBF was 5.1-25.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the players in this study had a healthy PBF (10-20%), 32 (22%) were classified as underweight (benefit from appropriate nutritional education.

  5. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Component Tests Predict Severe Contact Injuries in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga

    2016-11-01

    Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.

  6. Does player time-in-game affect tackle technique in elite level rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Gregory J; Denvir, Karl; Farrell, Garreth; Simms, Ciaran K

    2018-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that fatigue may be a major factor in tackle-related injury risk in rugby union and hence more injuries occur in the later stages of a game. The aim of this study is to identify changes in ball carrier or tackler proficiency characteristics, using elite level match video data, as player time-in-game increases. Qualitative observational cohort study. Three 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup games were selected for ball carrier and tackler proficiency analysis. Analysis was only conducted on players who started and remained on the field for the entire game. A separate analysis was conducted on 10 randomly selected 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup/Pro 12 games to assess the time distribution of tackles throughout a game. A Chi-square test and one-way way ANOVA with post-hoc testing was conducted to identify significant differences (p<0.05) for proficiency characteristics and tackle counts between quarters in the game, respectively. Player time-in-game did not affect tackle proficiency for both the ball carrier and tackler. Any results that showed statistical significance did not indicate a trend of deterioration in proficiency with increased player time-in-game. The time distribution of tackles analysis indicated that more tackles occurring in the final quarter of the game than the first (p=0.04) and second (p=<0.01). It appears that player time-in-game does not affect tackler or ball carrier tackle technique proficiency at the elite level. More tackles occurring in the final quarter of a game provides an alternative explanation to more tackle-related injuries occurring at this stage. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.

  8. The acute effect of a plyometric stimulus on jump performance in professional rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-02-01

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is the elevation of motor performance to a higher level in response to a conditioning stimulus. Extensive research exists examining the PAP effect after a heavy resistance exercise. However, there is limited research examining the PAP effect after a plyometric stimulus. This study was designed to examine whether a plyometric stimulus could produce a PAP effect comparable to that typically reported with a heavy resistance protocol. Importantly, it was hypothesized that the PAP effect would exist without the same levels of acute fatigue resulting from a heavy stimulus, thus allowing improvement in performance within a short rest interval range. Twenty professional rugby players were recruited for the study. Subjects performed 2 countermovement jumps (CMJs) at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 minutes after a plyometric stimulus consisting of 40 jumps. Two separate 1-way repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to compare the dependent variables CMJ height and peak force at the 4 time points. Results of the Bonferroni adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that jump height and peak force before plyometric exercises were significantly lower than all other time points (p plyometric exercises causes a significant acute enhancement in CMJ height (p plyometric series induced an improvement in CMJ height comparable to that reported elsewhere after a heavy lifting stimulus but without the need for a prolonged rest interval. Performing repeated series of plyometric jumps appears to be an efficient method of taking advantage of the PAP phenomenon, thus possibly eliminating the need for a complex training protocol.

  9. Comparative cervical profiles of adult and under-18 front-row rugby players: implications for playing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D F; Gatherer, D; Robson, J; Graham, N; Rennie, N; MacLean, J G B; Simpson, A H R W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cervical isometric strength, fatigue endurance and range of motion of adult and under-18 age-grade front-row rugby players to inform the development of a safe age group policy with particular reference to scrummaging. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting ‘Field testing’ at Murrayfield stadium. Participants 30 high-performance under-18 players and 22 adult front-row rugby players. Outcome measures Isometric neck strength, height, weight and grip strength. Results Youth players demonstrated the same height and grip strength as the adult players; however, the adults were significantly heavier and demonstrated substantially greater isometric strength (prugby players demonstrate the same peripheral strength as their adult counterparts on grip testing, the adults demonstrate significantly greater cervical strength. If older youths and adults are to play together, such findings have to be noted in the development of age group policies with particular reference to the scrum. PMID:24797427

  10. Recovery strategies implemented by sport support staff of elite rugby players in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Van Wyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine strategies used toaccelerate recovery of elite rugby players after training and matches, asused by medical support staff of rugby teams in South A frica. A  secondaryaim was to focus on specifics of implementing ice/cold water immersion asrecovery strategy. Design: A  Questionnaire-based cross sectional descriptive survey was used.Setting and Participants: Most (n=58 of the medical support staff ofrugby teams (doctors, physiotherapists, biokineticists and fitness trainerswho attended the inaugural Rugby Medical A ssociation conference linked to the South A frican Sports MedicineA ssociation Conference in Pretoria (14-16th November, 2007 participated in the study. Results: Recovery strategies were utilized mostly after matches. Stretching and ice/cold water immersion were utilized the most (83%. More biokineticists and fitness trainers advocated the usage of stretching than their counter-parts (medical doctors and physiotherapists. Ice/Cold water immersion and A ctive Recovery were the top two ratedstrategies. A  summary of the details around implementation of ice/cold water therapy is shown (mean as utilized bythe subjects: (i The time to immersion after matches was 12±9 min; (ii The total duration of one immersion sessionwas 6±6 min; (iii 3 immersion sessions per average training week was utilized by subjects; (iv The average water temperature was 10±3 ºC.; (v Ice cubes were used most frequently to cool water for immersion sessions, and(vi plastic drums were mostly used as the container for water. Conclusion: In this survey the representative group of support staff provided insight to which strategies are utilizedin South A frican elite rugby teams to accelerate recovery of players after training and/or matches.

  11. Instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for head impacts in amateur rugby union players over a season of matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria A; Brughelli, Matt; Gissane, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Direct impacts with the head (linear acceleration or pressure) and inertial loading of the head (rotational acceleration or strain) have been postulated as the 2 major mechanisms of head-related injuries such as concussion. Although data are accumulating for soccer and American football, there are no published data for nonhelmeted collision sports such as rugby union. To quantify head impacts via instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for rugby union players over a season of matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data on impact magnitude and frequency were collected with molded instrumented mouthguards worn by 38 premier amateur senior rugby players participating in the 2013 domestic season of matches. A total of 20,687 impacts >10g (range, 10.0-164.9g) were recorded over the duration of the study. The mean ± SD number of impacts per player over the duration of the season of matches was 564 ± 618, resulting in a mean ± SD of 95 ± 133 impacts to the head per player, per match over the duration of the season of matches. The impact magnitudes for linear accelerations were skewed to the lower values (Sp = 3.7 ± 0.02; P rugby union players over a season of matches, measured via instrumented mouthguard accelerations, were higher than for most sports previously reported. Mean linear acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to the mean linear accelerations previously reported for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but lower than that for female youth soccer players. Mean rotational acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to mean rotational accelerations for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but less than those for female youth soccer players, concussed American collegiate players, collegiate American football players, and professional American football players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. Association of dental trauma experience and first-aid knowledge among rugby players in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Dalia; Liew, Amy Kia Cheen; Wan Noorina, Wan Ahmad; Khoo, Selina; Wee, Fay Chwee Lin

    2015-10-01

    To assess and compare the knowledge of rugby players regarding first-aid measures for dental injuries. A cross-sectional study was conducted at rugby tournaments in 2009 and 2010 on players aged 16 and over. Convenient sampling was performed. A total of 456 self-administered questionnaires were returned. Data collected were analysed using SPSS 21. Descriptive analysis was undertaken for the demographic data. The subjects were classified according to their experience of sustaining each type of injury. Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were carried out to compare the responses. When the expected cell count was less than five, Fisher's exact test was used. The level of significance was set at P history of tooth fracture were more likely to seek immediate treatment (P history of tooth avulsion admitted to not knowing the correct answer, while three of five casualties would keep the tooth iced. Knowledge of the management of tooth fracture and storage medium differs between previous casualties and non-casualties. Overall, knowledge of dental trauma management was insufficient, suggesting the need to educate and train the players. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A comparison of the musculoskeletal assessments of the shoulder girdles of professional rugby players and professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsley Ian G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To identify posture types that exist in professional rugby players, and compare them with a population of non-overhead athletes in order to identify possible relationships towards the potential for shoulder injuries. Design Observational design Setting: Sports Medicine Clinic Participants: Convenience sample Methodology: Static assessment of posture was carried out in standing, active and passive range of glenohumeral motion, and isometric strength was carried out in accordance with previously recorded protocols. Interventions Nil Outcome Measures: Observational classification of posture, active and passive range of glenohumeral joint range of motion, isometric strength of selected muscle groups, selected muscle flexibility and Hawkins and Neer impingement tests. Results There was a significant difference on range of motion between the two groups (0.025–0.000, isometric middle (0.024–0.005, and lower trapezius (0.01–0.001. Conclusion: There were significant differences between strength and flexibility of muscles around the shoulder girdle between professional rugby players and a control group of professional non-overhead athletes.

  14. Peak power, force, and velocity during jump squats in professional rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony P; Unholz, Cedric N; Potts, Neill; Coleman, Simon G S

    2012-06-01

    Training at the optimal load for peak power output (PPO) has been proposed as a method for enhancing power output, although others argue that the force, velocity, and PPO are of interest across the full range of loads. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of load on PPO, peak barbell velocity (BV), and peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the jump squat (JS) in a group of professional rugby players. Eleven male professional rugby players (age, 26 ± 3 years; height, 1.83 ± 6.12 m; mass, 97.3 ± 11.6 kg) performed loaded JS at loads of 20-100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) JS. A force plate and linear position transducer, with a mechanical braking unit, were used to measure PPO, VGRF, and BV. Load had very large significant effects on PPO (p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.915); peak VGRF (p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.854); and peak BV (p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.973). The PPO and peak BV were the highest at 20% 1RM, though PPO was not significantly greater than that at 30% 1RM. The peak VGRF was significantly greater at 1RM than all other loads, with no significant difference between 20 and 60% 1RM. In resistance trained professional rugby players, the optimal load for eliciting PPO during the loaded JS in the range measured occurs at 20% 1RM JS, with decreases in PPO and BV, and increases in VGRF, as the load is increased, although greater PPO likely occurs without any additional load.

  15. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC.

  16. Movement patterns and muscle damage during simulated rugby sevens matches in National team players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas A; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Kitamura, Katia; Ramos, Solange P; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to analyze the match performance (i.e., distance covered in different intensities), signs of muscle damage (assessed by means of creatine kinase [CK] activity and rate of force development [RFD]), and neuromuscular fatigue (using linear sprint and vertical jump performances) following three single-day simulated matches performed by rugby sevens players from the Brazilian National Team. Ten male rugby sevens players (25.2 ± 3.6 years; 88.7 ± 7.1 kg; 182.2 ± 6.3 cm) participated in this study. On the day prior to the matches, the athletes performed a 40-m sprint, a vertical jump assessment and a maximal isometric force test. In the morning of the match day, blood samples were collected to analyze the CK activity. Afterwards, three simulated rugby sevens' matches were performed with 2-h intermission periods. The match performance (encompassing total distance and distance covered in different velocity ranges and body loads [BL]) were obtained from global positioning system units. The statistical analysis was performed by using a mixed model approach and the effect sizes (ES) of the differences. The statistical significance level was set at P0.8) and significant (P< 0.05) reductions were demonstrated in the total distance and BL when comparing the 2 with the 1 halves. Decrements in the explosive force capacity (assessed by means of RFD) and the squat jump were noticed (ES varying from 0.55 to 1.14; P< 0.05). The CK activity increased after the matches (ES = 1.29; P< 0.05). The rugby sevens players were able to maintain the physical performance across three successive matches simulating the first day of a tournament. The augmented CK activity and the decreases in the squat jump and RFD suggest that increased levels of muscle damage were experienced on the day after the matches. Therefore, the technical staff are encouraged to implement recovery strategies and planned substitutions during multi-day tournaments in order to reduce the impact of

  17. The relationship between burnout and mood state among student rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Grobbelaar, H.W.; Malan, D.D.J.; Steyn, B.J.M.; Ellis, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mood state changes are widely regarded as a symptom of athlete burnout and show potential to be used as a marker for this condition. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in burnout scores would be accompanied by similar changes in mood state scores, and to determine the strength of the relationship between burnout and mood state scores at different test points. Forty-one male student rugby union players (mean age: 22.26 ± 1.39 years) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnai...

  18. Acute sacroiliac joint infection in a rugby player with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tadashi; Nisimatsu, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    In athletes, acute bacterial infection is an unusual cause of pain in the sacroiliac joint. Although an entry site for infection is not always evident, the present case of a 15-year-old rugby player suggests the association between right sacroiliac joint infection and skin lesion of atopic dermatitis (AD) infected with group A streptococcus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed inflammation around the sacroiliac joint with abscess formation. The infection resolved after a course of antibiotics. Because atopic skin lesion is a potential portal of bacteria, treatment for AD is essential for the prevention of pyogenic arthritis in athletes.

  19. The role of anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes in predicting selection into an elite development programme in older adolescent rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.

  20. Movement Demands of Elite Under-20s and Senior International Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s) and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 (U20s) and 8 (senior) international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 258) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR–Front Row (prop & hooker), SR–Second Row, BR–Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB–Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF–Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Linear mixed models revealed significant differences between U20 and senior teams in both the forwards and backs. In the forwards the seniors covered greater HML distance (736.4 ± 280.3 vs 701.3 ± 198.7m, p = 0.01) and severe decelerations (2.38 ± 2.2 vs 2.28 ± 1.65, p = 0.05) compared to the U20s, but performed less relative HSR (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.5, p rugby, however, the current study highlight for the first time that certain positional groups may require more time to be able to match the movement demands required at a higher playing level than others. Conditioning staff must also bear in mind that the U20s players whilst maintaining or improving match movement capabilities may require to gain substantial mass in some positions to match their senior counterparts. PMID:27824865

  1. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James C; Viljoen, Wayne; Lambert, Mike I; Readhead, Clint; Fuller, Chelsea; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-07-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby injuries. This descriptive study quantified medical treatments of injured players at the South African Rugby Union Youth tournaments in 2011/2012 and the days of work parents missed as a result of the injuries. A health insurer used these data to calculate associated costs. Legal guardians of the 421 injured players were contacted telephonically on a weekly basis until they returned to play. Treatments costs were estimated in South African Rands based on 2013 insurance rates and converted to US$ using purchasing power parities. Of the 3652 players, 2% (n=71) sought medical care after the tournament. For these players, average treatment costs were high (US$731 per player, 95% CI: US$425-US$1096), with fractures being the most expensive type of injury. Players with medical insurance had higher costs (US$937, 95% CI: US$486-US$1500) than those without (US$220, 95% CI: US$145-US$302). Although a minority of players sought follow-up treatment after the tournaments, the cost of these injuries was high. Players without medical insurance having lower costs may indicate that these players did not receive adequate treatment for their injuries. Injury prevention efforts should consider injuries with high costs and the treatment of players without medical insurance. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hiroyuki; Iide, Kazuhide; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kumagai, Kenya; Oshikata, Reika; Miyahara, Keiko; Oda, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Noriko; Nakazawa, Anthony

    2013-02-13

    There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their consumption of green and other vegetables

  3. Countermovement-Jump-Phase Characteristics of Senior and Academy Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John J; Murphy, Shannon; Rej, Sophie J E; Comfort, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Gross measures of countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance are commonly used to track maturational changes in neuromuscular function in rugby league (RL). The purpose of this study was to conduct both a gross and a more detailed temporal-phase analysis of the CMJ performances of senior and academy RL players, to provide greater insight into how neuromuscular function differs between these groups. Twenty senior and 14 academy (under-19) male RL players performed 3 maximal-effort CMJs on a force platform, with forward dynamics subsequently employed to allow gross performance measures and entire kinetic- and kinematic-time curves to be compared between groups. Jump height (JH), reactive strength index modified, concentric displacement, and relative concentric impulse (C-IMP) were the only gross measures that were greater for senior players (d = 0.58-0.91) than for academy players. The relative force- and displacement-time curves were similar between groups, but the relative power- and velocity-time curves were greater (d = 0.59-0.97) for the senior players at 94-96% and 89-100% of the total movement time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between senior and academy RL players, with seniors demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger C-IMP and thus achieving greater velocity throughout the majority of the concentric phase and at takeoff. Therefore, academy RL players should train to improve triple (ie, ankle, knee, and hip) extension velocity during the CMJ to bring their JH scores in line with those attained by senior players.

  4. Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S

    2017-08-01

    To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation (ADRV), including individuals' explanations for how/why the ADRV occurred. Between 2009 and 2015, 49 rugby union players and one coach from across the UK were sanctioned. Over 50% of the cases involved players under the age of 25, competing at sub-elite levels. Reasons in defence of the ADRV focused on functional use and lifestyle factors rather than performance enhancement. An a priori assessment of the "need", "risk" and "consequence" of using a substance was not commonplace; further strengthening calls for increasing the reach of anti-doping education. The findings also deconstruct the view that "doped" athletes are the same. Consequently, deepening understanding of the social and cultural conditions that encourage doping remains a priority.

  5. Effects of Variable Resistance Using Chains on Bench Throw Performance in Trained Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Mark S; Fernandes, John F T; Twist, Craig

    2018-04-01

    Godwin, MS, Fernandes, JFT, and Twist, C. Effects of variable resistance using chains on bench throw performance in trained rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 950-954, 2018-This study sought to determine the effects of variable resistance using chain resistance on bench throw performance. Eight male rugby union players (19.4 ± 2.3 years, 88.8 ± 6.0 kg, 1RM 105.6 ± 17.0 kg) were recruited from a national league team. In a randomized crossover design, participant's performed 3 bench throws at 45% one repetition maximum (1RM) at a constant load (no chains) or a variable load (30% 1RM constant load and 15% 1RM variable load; chains) with 7 days between conditions. For each repetition, the peak and mean velocity, peak power, peak acceleration, and time to peak velocity were recorded. Differences in peak and mean power were very likely trivial and unclear between the chain and no chain conditions, respectively. Possibly greater peak and likely greater mean bar velocity were accompanied by likely to most likely greater bar velocity between 50 and 400 ms from initiation of bench press in the chain condition compared with the no chain condition. Accordingly, bar acceleration was very likely greater in the chain condition compared with the no chain condition. In conclusion, these results show that the inclusion of chain resistance can acutely enhance several variables in the bench press throw and gives support to this type of training.

  6. Virus activation and immune function during intense training in rugby football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, R; Shimizu, K; Kimura, F; Takemura, M; Suzuki, K; Akama, T; Kono, I; Akimoto, T

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that highly trained athletes are more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) compared with the general population. Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) often appear as either primary invasion of pathogenic organisms and/or reactivation of latent viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EBV reactivation and the appearance of URS during intensive training in collegiate rugby football players. We evaluated EBV-DNA expression in saliva and examined the relationship between onset of URS and daily changes in EBV-DNA as well as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels among 32 male collegiate rugby football players during a 1-month training camp. The EBV-DNA expression tended to be higher in subjects who exhibited sore throat (p=0.07) and cough (p=0.18) than that of those who had no symptoms, although their differences were not significant. The SIgA level was significantly lower 1 day before the EBV-DNA expression (p<0.05). The number of URS increased along with the EBV-DNA expression and decrease of SIgA levels. These results suggest that the appearance of URS is associated with reactivation of EBV and reduction of SIgA during training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Specific tackling situations affect the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-03-01

    Tackling in Rugby Union is an open skill which can involve high-speed collisions and is the match event associated with the greatest proportion of injuries. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanics of rugby tackling under three conditions: from a stationary position, with dominant and non-dominant shoulder, and moving forward, with dominant shoulder. A specially devised contact simulator, a 50-kg punch bag instrumented with pressure sensors, was translated towards the tackler (n = 15) to evaluate the effect of laterality and tackling approach on the external loads absorbed by the tackler, on head and trunk motion, and on trunk muscle activities. Peak impact force was substantially higher in the stationary dominant (2.84 ± 0.74 kN) than in the stationary non-dominant condition (2.44 ± 0.64 kN), but lower than in the moving condition (3.40 ± 0.86 kN). Muscle activation started on average 300 ms before impact, with higher activation for impact-side trapezius and non-impact-side erector spinae and gluteus maximus muscles. Players' technique for non-dominant-side tackles was less compliant with current coaching recommendations in terms of cervical motion (more neck flexion and lateral bending in the stationary non-dominant condition) and players could benefit from specific coaching focus on non-dominant-side tackles.

  8. A Comparison of Speed Profiles During Training and Competition in Elite Wheelchair Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James M; Mason, Barry S; Paulson, Thomas A W; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the speed profiles of individual training modes in comparison with wheelchair rugby (WCR) competition across player classifications. Speed profiles of 15 international WCR players were determined using a radio-frequency-based indoor tracking system. Mean and peak speed (m/s), work:rest ratios, and the relative time spent in (%) and number of high-speed activities performed were measured across training sessions (n = 464) and international competition (n = 34). Training was classified into 1 of 4 modes: conditioning (n = 71), skill-based (n = 133), game-related (n = 151), and game-simulation drills (n = 109). Game-simulation drills were further categorized by the structured duration, which were 3-min game clock (n = 44), 8-min game clock (n = 39), and 10-min running clock (n = 26). Players were grouped by their International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classification as either low-point (≤1.5; n = 8) or high-point players (≥2.0; n = 7). Conditioning drills were shown to exceed the demands of competition, irrespective of classification (P ≤ .005; effect size [ES] = 0.6-2.0). Skill-based and game-related drills underrepresented the speed profiles of competition (P ≤ .005; ES = 0.5-1.1). Mean speed and work:rest ratios were significantly lower during 3- and 8-min game-simulation drills in relation to competition (P ≤ .039; ES = 0.5-0.7). However, no significant differences were identified between the 10-min running clock and competition. Although game-simulation drills provided the closest representation of competition, the structured duration appeared important since the 10-min running clock increased training specificity. Coaches can therefore modify the desired training response by making subtle changes to the format of game-simulation drills.

  9. Incidence of and risk factors for traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: an epidemiologic study in high-school rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Maki, Nobukazu; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of reinjuries due to glenohumeral instability and the major risk factors for primary anterior shoulder dislocation in youth rugby players have been unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, mechanisms, and intrinsic risk factors of shoulder dislocation in elite high-school rugby union teams during the 2012 season. A total of 378 male rugby players from 7 high-school teams were investigated by use of self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of shoulder dislocation was 14.8%, and there were 21 events of primary shoulder dislocation of the 74 overall shoulder injuries that were sustained during the season (3.2 events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). During the season, 54.3% of the shoulders with at least one episode of shoulder dislocation had reinjury. This study also indicated that the persistence of glenohumeral instability might affect the player's self-assessed condition, regardless of the incidence during the current season. By a multivariate logistic regression method, a history of shoulder dislocation on the opposite side before the season was found to be a risk factor for contralateral primary shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.97; P = .02). High-school rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation are not playing at full capacity and also have a significant rate of reinjury as well as a high risk of dislocating the other shoulder. These findings may be helpful in deciding on the proper treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in young rugby players. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sprint performance and propulsion asymmetries on an ergometer in trained high- and low-point wheelchair rugby players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Vegter, Riemer J K; Mason, Barry S; Paulson, Thomas A W; Lenton, John P; van der Scheer, Jan W; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    The purpose of this study was to examine the propulsion asymmetries of wheelchair athletes while sprinting on an instrumented, dual-roller ergometer system. Eighteen experienced wheelchair rugby players (8 low point (LP) (class 1.5) and 10 high point (HP) (class 2.0)) performed a 15-second sprint in

  11. Perceptions and Determinants of Eating for Health and Performance in High-Level Male Adolescent Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Stokes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sports nutrition recommendations provide guidance on dietary strategies to optimise sports performance. However, research indicates that young athletes often find it difficult to follow these guidelines in practice. Limited research exists on the determinants that influence adherence to sports nutrition guidelines. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and determinants of eating for health and performance in high-level male adolescent rugby union players. Determinants were explored using semi-structured individual interviews in New Zealand high-level male rugby union players (n = 20, 16–18 years. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then underwent thematic analysis. Perceptions of eating for health and performance included balance and variety, appropriate portions, and specific foods. Both adolescent- and sport-specific determinants influenced the food choices of participants. Determinants relevant to adolescent lifestyles included the influence of significant others such as peers and family but also included the taste, cost, convenience, and availability of food. Sports-specific determinants revolved around the desire to enhance sports performance, motivation to perform, and team culture. The media (mainstream and social media, physical appearance, and feeling good were identified as both adolescent- and sport-specific factors influencing food choice. These findings highlight the importance of having support and positive role modelling to help young athletes make optimal food choices for health and performance. Strategies to further enable healthy eating practices should aim to strengthen the support available to young athletes in the home, school, and sporting environments and should include education on appropriate social media use to inform eating for health and performance.

  12. Match Demands of Senior and Junior Players During International Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Gary M; Gibson, Neil V; Sykes, Dave; Pryjmachuk, Bradley C; Turner, Anthony P

    2018-06-01

    Dempsey, GM, Gibson, NV, Sykes, D, Pryjmachuk, BC, and Turner, AP. Match demands of senior and junior players during International Rugby League. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1678-1684, 2018-This study aims to quantify and compare the positional game demands of international junior and senior rugby league competition for the first time. Global positioning system (GPS) and video analysis were used to track 118 elite male rugby league players (57 seniors aged 28.7 ± 4.4 years; 61 juniors aged 17.2 ± 0.5 years) over 10 international matches (6 senior; 4 junior) characterized as either forwards (n = 67) or backs (n = 51). There were significant increases in the offensive carries (0.18 cf. 0.09 n·min; r = 0.56) and defensive tackles (0.36 cf. 0.23 n·min; r = 0.3) between senior and junior players, and forwards and backs (0.16 cf. 0.09; r = 0.34 and 0.41 cf. 0.14; r = 0.52), respectively. Running demands were significantly greater in backs than forwards (independent of playing level) for total distance (6,962 ± 1,263 m cf. 4,879 ± 1,824 m; r = 0.55), individualized high-speed distances (310 ± 158 m cf. 250 ± 171 m; r = 0.2), high-intensity accelerations (28.7 ± 12.1 m·s cf. 21.9 ± 11.7 m·s; r = 0.27), and decelerations (57.2 ± 18.3 m·s cf. 43.0 ± 17.8 m·s; r = 0.38). Positional differences were eliminated when reported relative to minutes played. From a practical perspective, although running demands relative to time on the pitch may prepare junior players for senior competition, it is not representative of the increased body mass and contact frequency within the senior game. Coaches should therefore reflect these differences within their physical preparation programs to prepare junior athletes accordingly for progression to the senior level.

  13. Mechanisms and Factors Associated With Tackle-Related Injuries in South African Youth Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike Ian; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James Craig; Readhead, Clint; den Hollander, Steve; Hendricks, Sharief

    2017-02-01

    The majority of injuries in rugby union occur during tackle events. The mechanisms and causes of these injuries are well established in senior rugby union. To use information from an injury database and assess video footage of tackle-related injuries in youth rugby union matches to identify environmental factors and mechanisms that are potentially confounding to these injuries. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week rugby tournament. Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in match video footage (role-matched noninjury tackle events were identified for the cohort of injured players). Events were coded using match situational variables (precontact, contact, and postcontact). Relative risk ratio (RRR; ratio of probability of an injury or noninjury outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed) was reported by use of logistic regression. In comparison with the first quarter, injury risk was greater in the third (RRR = 9.75 [95% CI, 1.71-55.64]; P = .010) and fourth quarters (RRR = 6.97 [95% CI, 1.09-44.57]; P = .040) for ball carriers and in the fourth quarter (RRR = 9.63 [95% CI, 1.94-47.79]; P = .006) for tacklers. Ball carriers were less likely to be injured when they were aware of impending contact (RRR = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03-0.66]; P = .012) or when they executed a moderate fend (hand-off) (RRR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.06-0.84]; P = .026). Tacklers were less likely to be injured when performing shoulder tackles (same side as leading leg) in comparison to an arm-only tackle (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.79]; P = .037). Ball carriers (RRR = 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01-0.89]; P = .040) and tacklers (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.32]; P =.006) were less likely to be injured when initial contact was made with the tackler's shoulder/arm instead of his head/neck. The relative risk of tackle-related injury was higher toward the end of matches. Incorrect technique may contribute to increased injury

  14. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam K

    2010-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a heavy weight training exercise on sprinting performance and on the effect of repeated exposure to a complex training protocol. Eleven male rugby union players (age 20.9 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study, which involved 5 separate testing sessions. Back squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) was established in session 1. Sessions 2-5 were identical and involved the subjects completing a 30-m sprint before and after a 3RM back squat protocol. Four minutes of rest was given between the back squatting and the posttest 30-m sprint. All sprint trials were measured with a laser measurement device (LAVEG, Jenoptik, Jena, Germany). Sprint time and instantaneous, average, and maximum velocity were the dependent variables. The criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p > or = 0.05. No significant improvement was evident for any of the testing sessions (p > or = 0.05). In session 1, there was a significant increase in 30-m time and a significant reduction in average 30-m velocity and maximum velocity (p benefits in sprinting may not have been realized because of intra and intersubject variations in sprint technique. The session x phase interaction revealed a significant improvement in the pre to posttest changes in instantaneous velocity at 20 m (p = 0.035) and 30 m (p = 0.036) from session 1 to session 4. This indicates that the rugby players may be able to learn to apply the potentiation effects of complex training. From a practical perspective, players may need repeated exposure to this training modality to gain benefit from it, and this should be reflected in program planning.

  15. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players

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    Rolf Christer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. Aim To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Methods Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. Results This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2 after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. Conclusion We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated

  16. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyami, Masoud; Rolf, Christer

    2009-05-07

    Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2) after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively) however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated by MRI and a modified knee function score occurred between 5 to 7

  17. The BokSmart intervention programme is associated with improvements in injury prevention behaviours of rugby union players: an ecological cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Gardner-Lubbe, S.; Lambert, M.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Participants of rugby union (‘rugby’) have an above-average risk of injury compared with other popular sports. Thus, BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention programme for rugby, was introduced in South Africa in 2009. Improvements in injurypreventing behaviour of players are critical

  18. Arthroscopic Surgical Technique for an Acute Talar Dome Osteochondral Lesion in a Professional Rugby League Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin; Fraser, Ethan J; Linklater, James; Harris, Craig; Morgan, Kieran

    2017-06-01

    Talar osteochondral lesions represent challenging clinical entities, particularly in high-demand athletes. Surgical treatment of large lesions often requires a 2-step procedure, or the use of osteotomy in the case of autologous osteochondral transfer, which can delay return to sport. A professional rugby league player underwent surgery for a complex injury to the ankle. A talar osteochondral lesion with a maximal diameter of 15 mm was treated in an arthroscopic fashion using the cartilage taken from the completely displaced osteochondral fragment. Cartilage was cut into chips and combined with bone graft product containing platelet-derived growth factor and a porous collagen scaffold. Autologous cartilage was then reimplanted arthroscopically. The patient was allowed full ankle motion from 2 weeks postoperatively, and weightbearing was commenced at 6 weeks. Follow-up imaging and functional outcomes, including return to sport, were assessed at regular intervals. The patient was able to return to professional rugby league by 23 weeks postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging at 16 months postoperatively showed restoration of the subchondral plate and osseous infill. At final follow-up, the patient remained pain free and was playing at preinjury level. This report describes good outcomes using a novel, 1-step cartilage repair technique to treat a large talar osteochondral lesion in a professional athlete. Level V: Expert opinion.

  19. Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliera, Emanuela; Dogliotti, Giada; Melegati, Gianluca; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of a brief exposure to extreme cold air (-110°C) in a controlled chamber and it is applied in sports medicine to improve recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. The aim of this study is to better define the beneficial effect of WCB on the musculoskeletal system of athletes, in particular on bone remodelling. Remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers OPG, RANKL and RANK were measured after WBC treatment in 10 male rugby players randomly selected from the Italian National team. OPG levels were increased significantly, supporting the view that WBC induces an osteogenic effect. Further studies evaluating the effect of WBC on bone metabolism are desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does cluster loading enhance lower body power development in preseason preparation of elite rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Newton, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether cluster training led to improved power training adaptations in the preseason preparation of elite level rugby union players. Eighteen highly trained athletes were divided into 2 training groups, a traditional training (TT, N = 9) group and a cluster training (CT, N = 9) group before undertaking 8 weeks of lower body resistance training. Force-velocity-power profiling in the jump squat movement was undertaken, and maximum strength was assessed in the back squat before and after the training intervention. Two-way analysis of variance and magnitude-based inferences were used to assess changes in maximum strength and force, velocity, and power values pretraining to posttraining. Both TT and CT groups significantly (p benefit of cluster type loading in training prescription for lower body power development.

  1. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  2. Self-talk influences vertical jump performance and kinematics in male rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christian; Tod, David; McGuigan, Michael

    2008-11-01

    We examined the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on centre of mass displacement and hip kinematics during the vertical jump. Twenty-four male rugby union players (age 21.1 years, s = 3.5; body mass 81.0 kg, s = 8.9; height 1.80 m, s = 0.06) performed three vertical jump tests, with a 2 min rest between jumps. Before each jump, participants engaged in one of three counterbalanced interventions (motivational self-talk, instructional self-talk or no-intervention). Motivational self-talk led to greater centre of mass displacement (0.602 m, s = 0.076; P = 0.012) than the no-intervention control (0.583 m, s = 0.085). Centre of mass displacement did not differ between instructional self-talk and the control condition or between motivational and instructional self-talk. Motivational (100.75 degrees , s = 16.05; P = 0.001) and instructional self-talk (106.14 degrees , s = 17.04; P = 0.001) led to greater hip displacement than the no-intervention control (94.11 degrees , s = 17.14). There was also a significant difference in hip displacement between motivational and instructional self-talk (P = 0.014), although there was no difference between instructional self-talk and the control condition. Motivational (451.69 degrees /s, s = 74.34; P = 0.008) and instructional self-talk (462.01 degrees /s, s = 74.37; P = 0.001) led to greater hip rotation velocity than the no-intervention control (434.37 degrees /s, s = 75.37), although there was no difference between the two self-talk interventions. These results indicate that self-talk may influence performance and technique during the vertical jump in male rugby players.

  3. Effects of heavy episodic drinking on physical performance in club level rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Christopher; Stannard, Stephen R; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption, in a natural setting, on exercise performance in the 2 days after the drinking episode. Additionally, alcohol related behaviours of this group of rugby players were identified. Prospective cohort study. Nineteen male club rugby players volunteered for this study. Measures of counter movement jump, maximal lower body strength, repeated sprint ability and hydration were made 2 days before and in the 2 days following heavy episodic alcohol consumption. Participants completed a questionnaire at each time point so that alcohol consumption and sleep hours from the previous 24 h period could be quantified. Additionally, participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT) prior to completing baseline measures of performance. Reported alcohol consumption ranged from 6 to >20 standard drinks (mean category scale score=11-19 standard drinks). A significant decrease in sleep hours (p=0.01) was reported after the drinking episode with participants reporting 1-3 h for the night. A significant reduction (-1.8±1.5 cm) in counter movement jump (p0.05). AUDIT scores for this group (18.2±4.3) indicate regular alcohol consumption at a hazardous level. Heavy episodic alcohol use, and associated reduced sleep hours, results in a reduction in lower body power output but not other measures of anaerobic performance the morning after a drinking session. Full recovery from this behaviour is achieved by 2 days post drinking episode. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

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    Hoskins Wayne

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.

  5. Performance Effects of Repetition Specific Gluteal Activation Protocols on Acceleration in Male Rugby Union Players

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    Barry Lorna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Warm-up protocols have the potential to cause an acute enhancement of dynamic sprinting performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three repetition specific gluteal activation warm-up protocols on acceleration performance in male rugby union players. Forty male academy rugby union players were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (control, 5, 10 or 15 repetition gluteal activation group and performed 10 m sprints at baseline and 30 s, 2, 4, 6 and 8 min after their specific intervention protocol. Five and ten meter sprint times were the dependent variable and dual-beam timing gates were used to record all sprint times. Repeated measures analysis of variance found no significant improvement in 5 and 10 m sprint times between baseline and post warm-up scores (p ≥ 0.05 for all groups. There were no reported significant differences between groups at any of the rest interval time points (p ≥ 0.05. However, when individual responses to the warm-up protocols were analyzed, the 15 repetition gluteal activation group had faster 10 m times post-intervention and this improvement was significant (p = 0.021. These results would indicate that there is no specific rest interval for any of the gluteal interventions that results in a potentiation effect on acceleration performance. However, the individual response analysis would seem to indicate that a 15 repetition gluteal activation warm-up protocol has a potentiating effect on acceleration performance provided that the rest interval is adequately and individually determined.

  6. Changes in sleep quantity and efficiency in professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, A; Mclellan, C; Hing, W; Carloss, N; Lovell, D

    2014-11-04

    Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is know about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve night period using the Bodymedia sensewear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (pwake over the twelve night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (p<0.05) reduced sleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.

  7. Analysis of Running and Technical Performance in Substitute Players in International Male Rugby Union Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men's rugby union matches. A semiautomatic computerized time-motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles. A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50-55 and 60-65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES -0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3-0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES -0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear. This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

  8. Avulsion of the L4 spinous process: an unusual injury in a professional rugby player: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alwyn; Andrews, John; Shoaib, Amer; Lyons, Kath; Ahuja, Sashin; Howes, John; Davies, Paul

    2005-06-01

    A case of L4 spinous process avulsion following a hyperflexion injury treated with surgical excision. To show that single photon emission computerized tomography is essential for the diagnosis and that excision can provide a successful outcome. The avulsion resulted from a forced hyperflexion injury at the L4/5 area, where the interspinous ligament provides a high resistance to flexion. A 29-year-old international rugby football player injured his low back during a match. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal the injury. Single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography showed the lesion. Initial conservative therapy failed to control the symptoms, and, therefore, late excision was performed with pain-free return to contact sports at 3 months. Few cases of interspinous process avulsions have been described, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rugby football player who had a successful outcome with late surgical excision.

  9. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players.

  10. Critical reflection of the advanced rehabilitation of an elite rugby league player sustaining a posterior Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew; Funk, Lennard

    2013-02-01

    The following is a critical description and discussion of the successful assessment and rehabilitation of a right shoulder posterior Bankart repair in an elite rugby league player. The rehabilitation follows accelerated, goal based guidelines, widely adopted in current sports practice but not well documented in the literature (Funk & Snow, 2007; Park, Lin, Yokota, & McFarland, 2004). The study serves to be the first critical discussion of such a regime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term health outcomes after exposure to repeated concussion in elite level: rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; McSkimming, P; Wainman-Lefley, J; Maclean, L M; Hay, J; McConnachie, A; Stewart, W

    2017-06-01

    There is continuing concern about effects of concussion in athletes, including risk of the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, information on long-term health and wellbeing in former athletes is limited. Outcome after exposure to repeated brain injury was investigated in 52 retired male Scottish international rugby players (RIRP) and 29 male controls who were similar in age and social deprivation. Assessment included history of playing rugby and traumatic brain injury, general and mental health, life stress, concussion symptoms, cognitive function, disability and markers of chronic stress (allostatic load). The estimated number of concussions in RIRP averaged 14 (median=7; IQR 5-40). Performance was poorer in RIRP than controls on a test of verbal learning (p=0.022) and of fine co-ordination of the dominant hand (p=0.038) and not significantly different on other cognitive tests (p>0.05). There were no significant associations between number of concussions and performance on cognitive tests. Other than a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in controls, no group differences were detected in general or mental health or estimates of allostatic load. In RIRP, persisting symptoms attributed to concussion were more common if reporting more than nine concussions (p=0.028), although these symptoms were not perceived to affect social or work functioning. Despite a high number of concussions in RIRP, differences in mental health, social or work functioning were not found late after injury. Subtle group differences were detected on two cognitive tests, the cause of which is uncertain. Prospective group comparison studies on representative cohorts are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. MECHANISMS FOR TRICEPS SURAE INJURY IN HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT ROW RUGBY UNION PLAYERS: A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SCRUMMAGING DRILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Flavell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players

  13. Game movement demands and physical profiles of junior, senior and elite male and female rugby sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    To inform recruitment, selection, training and testing of male and female rugby sevens players game running movement patterns and physical characteristics were quantified across junior, senior, and elite playing levels. Anthropometric and physical testing (40 m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo IR1) occurred prior to players' national championships or international tournaments (n = 110 players), while game movements were obtained via GPS (n = 499 game files). The game movements of male players were similar across playing levels except for number of impacts >10 g which were 2 to 4-fold higher in elite (25.0 ± 11.2 impacts · game - 1 ; mean ± SD), than junior (6.3 ± 3.5) and senior (11.8 ± 6.6) players. In men, there were fewer substantial correlations between on- and off-field measures which may reflect similar physical attributes across playing levels, and that other (strength, technical or tactical) factors may better differentiate these players. In females, elite players had more favourable on- and off-field performance measures than juniors and seniors, with moderate to strong correlations between on- and off-field variables. Female players should benefit from additional fitness training, while male players need to balance fitness with other technical and tactical factors.

  14. Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physiological responses to an intensified rugby league competition and explore the relationships between fatigue and match performance. Prospective cohort study. Fifteen junior rugby league players (n=8 forwards, 7 backs; mean±SE, age 16.6±0.2 years; body mass 81.6±3.0kg; and height 178.9±1.8cm) competed in five 40min games over 5 days (two games each on days 1 and 2, one game on day 4, and no games on days 3 and 5). Over the competition, players performed a countermovement jump to assess neuromuscular fatigue, provided a fingertip blood sample to measure blood creatine kinase, and completed a questionnaire to monitor perceived wellbeing; ratings of perceived effort were recorded following each game. Global positioning system and video analysis of each game were used to assess match performance. Over the first 3 days, there were progressive and large increases in neuromuscular fatigue which peaked 12h after game 4 (forwards ES=4.45, p=0.014; backs ES=3.62, p=0.029), and muscle damage which peaked 1h post game 4 (forwards ES=4.45, p=0.004; backs ES=3.94 p=0.012), as well as reductions in perceived wellbeing. These measures gradually recovered over the final 2 days of the competition. Compared to the backs, the forwards experienced greater increases in creatine kinase following game 2 (ES=1.30) and game 4 (ES=1.24) and reductions in perceived wellbeing (ES=0.25-0.46). Match intensity, high-speed running, and repeated-high intensity effort bouts decreased in games 4 and 5 of the competition. Small to large associations were observed between the changes in fatigue, muscle damage and match performance, with significant correlations between creatine kinase and repeated high-intensity effort bout number (r=-0.70, p=0.031) and frequency (r=0.74, p=0.002) and low-speed activity (r=-0.56, p=0.029). Fatigue and muscle damage accumulate over an intensified competition, which is likely to contribute to reductions in high

  15. Responses of Lower-Body Power and Match Running Demands Following Long-Haul Travel in International Rugby Sevens Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John A; Pumpa, Kate L; Pyne, David B

    2017-03-01

    Mitchell, JA, Pumpa, KL, and Pyne, DB. Responses of lowerbody power and match running demands after long-haul travel in international rugby sevens players. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 686-695, 2017-This study determined the effect of long-haul (>5 hours) travel on lower-body power and match running demands in international rugby sevens players. Lower-body power was assessed in 22 male international rugby sevens players (age 21.7 ± 2.7 years, mass 89.0 ± 6.7 kg, stature 180.5 ± 6.2 cm; mean ± SD) monitored over 17 rugby sevens tournaments. A countermovement jump was used to monitor lower-body power (peak and mean power) over repeated three week travel and competition periods (pretravel, posttravel, and posttournament). Small decreases were evident in peak power after both short and long-haul travel (-4.0%, ±3.2%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) with further reductions in peak and mean power posttournament (-4.5%, ±2.3% and -3.8%, ±1.5%) culminating in a moderate decrease in peak power overall (-7.4%, ±4.0%). A subset of 12 players (completing a minimum of 8 tournaments) had the effects of match running demands assessed with lower-body power. In this subset, long-haul travel elicited a large decrease in lower-body peak (-9.4%, ±3.5%) and mean power (-5.6%, ±2.9%) over the monitoring period, with a small decrease (-4.3%, ±3.0% and -2.2%, ±1.7%) posttravel and moderate decrease (-5.4%, ±2.5% and -3.5%, ±1.9%) posttournament, respectively. Match running demands were monitored through global positioning system. In long-haul tournaments, the 12 players covered ∼13%, ±13% greater total distance (meter) and ∼11%, ±10% higher average game meters >5 m·s when compared with short-haul (rugby sevens tournaments after long-haul travel.

  16. Changes in body mass, stature and BMI in South African elite U18 Rugby players from different racial groups from 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandt, Justin; Green, Mervin; Masimla, Herman; Lambert, Mike

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences between racial groups for body mass, stature and body mass index (BMI) in South African elite U18 rugby players and whether there were significant changes in these measurements between 2002 and 2012. Self-reported body mass and stature were obtained from U18 players (n = 4007) who attended the national tournament during this period. BMI was calculated for each player.White players were 9.8 kg heavier than black players, who were 2.3 kg heavier than coloured players (P body mass of all groups increased from 2002 to 2012 (P body mass, stature and BMI of elite under-18 rugby players in South Africa were significantly different between racial groups. This has implications for transforming the game to make it representative of the South African population.

  17. β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation Effects on Body Mass and Performance in Elite Male Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Nicholas D; Love, Thomas D; Haszard, Jillian J; Osborne, Hamish R; Black, Katherine E

    2018-01-01

    McIntosh, ND, Love, TD, Haszard, J, Osborne, H, and Black, KE. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation effects on body mass and performance in elite male rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 19-26, 2018-Preseason is characterized by high training volumes with short recovery periods β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been postulated to assist with recovery. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate has been shown to improve strength and body composition among untrained groups; the benefits of HMB among trained populations are unclear because of the methodologies employed. This randomized control trail determined the effects of 11 weeks HMB supplementation on body mass and performance measures in 27 elite rugby players. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate group (n = 13), mean ± SD age 20.3 ± 1.2 years, body mass 99.6 ± 9.1 kg; placebo group (n = 14), age 21.9 ± 2.8 years body mass 99.4 ± 13.9 kg for placebo. During the supplementation period, body mass increased with HMB 0.57 ± 2.60 kg but decreased with placebo 1.39 ± 2.02 kg (p = 0.029). There were no significant differences in any of the 4 strength variables (p > 0.05). However, on the yo-yo intermittent recovery test (YoYo IR-1), the placebo group improved 4.0 ± 2.8 levels but HMB decreased 2.0 ± 3.0 levels (p = 0.003). The results of this study suggest that HMB could be beneficial for gaining or maintaining body mass during periods of increased training load. However, it appears that HMB may be detrimental to intermittent running ability in this group although further research is required before firm conclusions can be made. Only 6 participants on HMB managed to complete both YoYo IR-1 tests because of injury, a larger sample size is required to fully investigate this potentially negative effect. Further, the mechanisms behind this decrement in performance cannot be fully explained and requires further biochemical and psychological investigation.

  18. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  19. Explosive force production during isometric squats correlates with athletic performance in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillin, Neale Anthony; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between explosive force production during isometric squats and athletic performance (sprint time and countermovement jump height). Sprint time (5 and 20 m) and jump height were recorded in 18 male elite-standard varsity rugby union players. Participants also completed a series of maximal- and explosive-isometric squats to measure maximal force and explosive force at 50-ms intervals up to 250 ms from force onset. Sprint performance was related to early phase (≤100 ms) explosive force normalised to maximal force (5 m, r = -0.63, P = 0.005; and 20 m, r = -0.54, P = 0.020), but jump height was related to later phase (>100 ms) absolute explosive force (0.51 squats (33-67%; 0.001 squats was associated with athletic performance. Specifically, sprint performance was most strongly related to the proportion of maximal force achieved in the initial phase of explosive-isometric squats, whilst jump height was most strongly related to absolute force in the later phase of the explosive-isometric squats.

  20. Concussion in youth rugby union and rugby league: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Graham; Parekh, Nikesh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Children and adolescents who play rugby are at increased risk of concussion and its effects. Competitive rugby union and rugby league feature as major sports in the school sport curriculum in the UK. There is a need for a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of concussion in youth rugby, the mechanisms involved in injuries and predisposing risk factors. The publication databases Pubmed, Embase and SportDISCUS were searched in April 2014 for primary research studies of child and adolescent rugby union and rugby league (under 20 years) in English language with data on concussion injuries. The review was conducted within a larger all injury systematic review on rugby union and rugby league where key words used in the search included rugby, injury and concussion with child, adolescent, paediatric and youth. There were 25 studies retrieved with data on child or adolescent rugby and concussion, 20 were on rugby union, three on rugby league and in two the code of rugby was unspecified. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of injuries and of concussion. The incidence of child and adolescent match concussion ranged from 0.2 to 6.9 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby union and was 4.6 and 14.7 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby league, equivalent to a probability of between 0.3% and 11.4% for rugby union and of 7.7% and 22.7% for rugby league. There is a significant risk of concussion in children and adolescents playing rugby union and rugby league evident from the studies included in this systematic review. There is a need for reliable data through routine monitoring and reporting in schools and clubs and in hospital emergency departments in order to inform prevention. Concussion protocols should be implemented and tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  2. Effect of caffeine on maximal oxygen uptake in wheelchair rugby players: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Klimešová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The positive effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power and endurance performance in healthy athletes have been demonstrated in many studies. A possible mechanism for its ergogenic effect relates to its influence on the central nervous system. Post-traumatic complications in cervical spinal cord injury affect almost all body systems including the nervous system. For this reason, we expect that caffeine will have a different effect of performance in the group of athletes with spinal cord injuries. Objective: To examine the effects of caffeine supplementation on maximal aerobic power in elite wheelchair rugby players. Methods: Seven elite male wheelchair rugby players with complete cervical-level SCI (C4-Th1 were recruited (mean age: 28 ± 5.42 years; mean body mass index: 26 ± 2.84 kg/m2. The effect of caffeine was assessed by an incremental arm ergometer test until volitional exhaustion. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max/kg, maximum power (W max/kg, peak heart rate (HR peak, and intensity of perceived exertion (RPE were measured. Participants performed the test twice with a two-week washout period. One hour before each exercise test subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or caffeine (3 mg per kg of body weight. The tests were applied in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures, and cross-over design. Wheelchair rugby players were chosen because of the expected high homogeneity of participants - in terms of the type and degree of disability, gender, and age of the players. Results: The monitored parameters were not significantly influenced by caffeine intervention as compared to placebo: VO2max/kg (p = .40, W max/kg (p = .34, HR peak (p = .50 and RPE (p = .50. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that a caffeine dose of 3 mg/kg body mass does not improve oxygen uptake and maximal power in elite wheelchair rugby players.

  3. Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes after consuming 0.3 g/kg BW of either NaHCO₃ or placebo, participants completed a 25-min warm-up followed by 9 min of high-intensity rugby-specific training followed by a rugby-specific repeated-sprint test (RSRST). Whole-blood samples were collected to determine lactate and bicarbonate concentrations and pH at baseline, after supplement ingestion, and immediately after the RSRST. Acute GI discomfort was assessed by questionnaire throughout the trials, and chronic GI discomfort was assessed during the 24 hr postingestion. After supplement ingestion and immediately after the RSRST, blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and pH were higher for the NaHCO₃ condition than for the placebo condition (p < .001). After the RSRST, blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher for the NaHCO₃ than for the placebo condition (p < .001). There was no difference in performance on the RSRST between the 2 conditions. The incidence of belching, stomachache, diarrhea, stomach bloating, and nausea was higher after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (all p < .050). The severity of stomach cramps, belching, stomachache, bowel urgency, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach bloating, and flatulence was rated worse after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (p < .050). NaHCO₃ supplementation increased blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and attenuated the decline in blood pH compared with placebo during high-intensity exercise in well-trained rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect

  4. Health amongst former rugby union players: A cross-sectional study of morbidity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Madeleine A M; D Judge, Andrew; Delmestri, Antonella; P T Kemp, Simon; Stokes, Keith A; Arden, Nigel K; Newton, Julia L

    2017-09-28

    In the general population, physical activity is associated with improved health outcomes. However, long-term sports participation may be associated with adverse outcomes, particularly at the elite level. The aims of this study were to assess morbidity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL) amongst former rugby players, compared to an age-standardised general population sample. A cross-sectional study of former elite, male, rugby players (n = 259) was undertaken, and standardised morbidity ratios (SMR) calculated, assessing morbidity prevalence relative to English Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (ELSA, n = 5186). HrQoL, measured using the EQ-5D, was compared to a Health Survey for England (HSE, n = 2981) sample. In SMR analyses of participants aged 50+, diabetes was significantly lower amongst former players, (0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.66), whereas osteoarthritis (4.00, 95% CI 3.32-4.81), joint replacement (6.02, 95% CI 4.66-7.77), osteoporosis (2.69, 95% CI 1.35-5.38), and anxiety (2.00, 95% CI 1.11-3.61) were significantly higher. More problems in HrQoL were reported amongst former players within the domains of mobility (p < 0.001), self-care (p = 0.041), usual activities (p < 0.001) and pain/discomfort (p < 0.001). Morbidity and HrQoL differ between players and the general population, with higher musculoskeletal morbidity and lower diabetes amongst former players. The magnitude of musculoskeletal morbidity may warrant proactive osteoarthritis management within this population.

  5. Movement Demands of Elite Under-20s and Senior International Rugby Union Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cunningham

    Full Text Available This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS during 15 (U20s and 8 (senior international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 258 were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR-Front Row (prop & hooker, SR-Second Row, BR-Back Row (Flankers & No.8, HB-Half Backs (scrum half & outside half, MF-Midfield (centres, B3 -Back Three (wings & full back for match analysis. Linear mixed models revealed significant differences between U20 and senior teams in both the forwards and backs. In the forwards the seniors covered greater HML distance (736.4 ± 280.3 vs 701.3 ± 198.7m, p = 0.01 and severe decelerations (2.38 ± 2.2 vs 2.28 ± 1.65, p = 0.05 compared to the U20s, but performed less relative HSR (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.5, p < 0.01, moderate (19.4 ± 10.5 vs 23.6 ± 10.5, p = 0.01 and high accelerations (2.2 ± 1.9 vs 4.3 ± 2.7, p < 0.01 and sprint•min-1 (0.11 ± 0.06 vs 0.11 ± 0.05, p < 0.01. Senior backs covered a greater relative distance (73.3 ± 8.1 vs 69.1 ± 7.6 m•min-1, p < 0.01, greater High Metabolic Load (HML distance (1138.0 ± 233.5 vs 1060.4 ± 218.1m, p < 0.01, HML efforts (112.7 ± 22.2 vs 98.8 ± 21.7, p < 0.01 and heavy decelerations (9.9 ± 4.3 vs 9.5 ± 4.4, p = 0.04 than the U20s backs. However, the U20s backs performed more relative HSR (7.3 ± 2.1 vs 7.2 ± 2.1, p <0.01 and sprint•min-1 (0.26 ± 0.07 vs 0.25 ± 0.07, p < 0.01. Further investigation

  6. A simulated rugby match protocol induces physiological fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    physiological fatigue may develop during a rugby simulation, no differences were ..... ensure player safety and was deemed safe to have live one-on- one scrummaging .... This work was supported by the National Research. Foundation under ...

  7. Comparison of metamotivational dominance and cultural identity between Japanese National Team and Māori All Blacks rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kuroda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study used a reversal theory framework to examine metamotivational dominance of rugby players on the Māori All Blacks (MABs squad of New Zealand and the Japanese National Team (JNT. Since the two groups have different cultural team demographics, cultural identity was also examined. Twenty six players from the MABs and 31 from the JNT completed questionnaires on metamotivational dominance and cultural identity. In terms of metamotivational dominance, the findings indicated that the MABs were more playful minded and spontaneous oriented than the JNT. Regarding cultural identity, the JNT showed a greater knowledge of their own culture and higher comfort level in their cultural context, while the MABs felt more positive and willing to sustain their own culture. The motivational personality differences between the teams may reflect the style of play that is valued within each team culture that is, flair, spontaneity and high-risk play within Māori rugby, and structure, team unity and conformity within the JNT. This suggests that metamotivational dominance of teams and players is influenced by the cultural identity of both the individuals and the group, which may have a further impact on team cohesion and performance. Keywords: Sociology, Psychology

  8. Comparison of metamotivational dominance and cultural identity between Japanese National Team and Māori All Blacks rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yusuke; Palmer, Farah; Nakazawa, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    This pilot study used a reversal theory framework to examine metamotivational dominance of rugby players on the Māori All Blacks (MABs) squad of New Zealand and the Japanese National Team (JNT). Since the two groups have different cultural team demographics, cultural identity was also examined. Twenty six players from the MABs and 31 from the JNT completed questionnaires on metamotivational dominance and cultural identity. In terms of metamotivational dominance, the findings indicated that the MABs were more playful minded and spontaneous oriented than the JNT. Regarding cultural identity, the JNT showed a greater knowledge of their own culture and higher comfort level in their cultural context, while the MABs felt more positive and willing to sustain their own culture. The motivational personality differences between the teams may reflect the style of play that is valued within each team culture that is, flair, spontaneity and high-risk play within Māori rugby, and structure, team unity and conformity within the JNT. This suggests that metamotivational dominance of teams and players is influenced by the cultural identity of both the individuals and the group, which may have a further impact on team cohesion and performance.

  9. The epidemiology of 1345 shoulder dislocations and subluxations in French Rugby Union players: a five-season prospective study from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Yoann; Klouche, Shahnaz; Lefevre, Nicolas; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Dusfour, Bernard; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Ribaut, Aurélie; Herman, Serge

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in rugby union players could help develop targeted prevention programmes and treatment. We performed a multiyear epidemiological survey of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in a large cohort of rugby players. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed prospectively for five playing seasons (2008-2013) in all players licensed in the French Rugby Union. Rugby players were categorised into five groups by age. The player and the team physician reported the injury to the club insurance company if it occurred during training or a match. The goals of the study were to define the rate, type and causes of shoulder dislocation/subluxation. 88,044 injuries were reported, including 1345 (1.5%) episodes of dislocation/subluxation in 1317 men and 28 women, mean age 22.5±5.9 years. About 10/10,000 men and 5/10,000 women reported an episode of shoulder dislocation/subluxation per season, including 83/10,000 senior professionals, 17/10,000 senior amateurs, 21/10,000 juniors, 12/10,000 cadets and rugby school players. Shoulder dislocation/subluxation was significantly more frequent in senior and junior players (prugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation/subluxation should receive special attention from sports medicine professionals and orthopaedic surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Anthropometry profiles of elite rugby players: quantifying changes in lean mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, G M; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Livingstone, S; Hooper, S L

    2006-03-01

    To demonstrate the utility of a practical measure of lean mass for monitoring changes in the body composition of athletes. Between 1999 and 2003 body mass and sum of seven skinfolds were recorded for 40 forwards and 32 backs from one Super 12 rugby union franchise. Players were assessed on 13 (7) occasions (mean (SD)) over 1.9 (1.3) years. Mixed modelling of log transformed variables provided a lean mass index (LMI) of the form mass/skinfolds(x), for monitoring changes in mass controlled for changes in skinfold thickness. Mean effects of phase of season and time in programme were modelled as percentage changes. Effects were standardised for interpretation of magnitudes. The exponent x was 0.13 for forwards and 0.14 for backs (90% confidence limits +/-0.03). The forwards had a small decrease in skinfolds (5.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) between preseason and competition phases, and a small increase (7.8%, 90% confidence limits +/-3.1%) during the club season. A small decrease in LMI (approximately 1.5%) occurred after one year in the programme for forwards and backs, whereas increases in skinfolds for forwards became substantial (4.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) after three years. Individual variation in body composition was small within a season (within subject SD: body mass, 1.6%; skinfolds, 6.8%; LMI, 1.1%) and somewhat greater for body mass (2.1%) and LMI (1.7%) between seasons. Despite a lack of substantial mean changes, there was substantial individual variation in lean mass within and between seasons. An index of lean mass based on body mass and skinfolds is a potentially useful tool for assessing body composition of athletes.

  11. Influence of ballistic bench press on upper body power output in professional rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Cunningham, Daniel J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2013-08-01

    The use of heavy resistance exercise provides an effective preload stimulus for inducing postactivation potentiation (PAP) and increasing peak power output (PPO). However, this approach has limited application in many sporting situations (e.g., incorporation in a precompetition warm-up); and therefore, more practical strategies for inducing PAP need to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the PPO changes after performing a preload stimulus of either a ballistic exercise or a traditional heavy resistance exercise. Twenty professional rugby union players completed 3 testing sessions, each separated by 48 hours. On the first occasion, subjects underwent a 3 repetition maximum (3RM)-bench press testing session. On the next 2 occasions, subjects performed a ballistic bench throw at baseline (30% of 1RM), followed by a preload stimulus of either heavy resistance training (HRT) (heavy bench press: 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM) or BBP (3 sets of 3 repetitions at 30% on 1RM) followed by ballistic bench throw after 8 minutes recovery. The trials were randomized and counterbalanced. Both preload stimuli protocols increased PPO compared with baseline (BBP baseline 892 ± 108 vs. 8 minutes 924 ± 119 W, p < 0.001; HRT baseline 893 ± 104 vs. 8 minutes 931 ± 116 W; p < 0.001). There were no conditional differences between PPO at 8 minutes (p = 0.141); moreover, the change in PPO from baseline was also similar between conditions (BBP Δ + 33 ± 18; HRT Δ + 38 ± 21 W; p = 0.112). In conclusion, a ballistic exercise provided an effective method of inducing PAP and increasing upper-body PPO; moreover, this elicited similar increases in PPO as a traditional heavy resistance exercise preloading stimulus.

  12. Mechanisms for triceps surae injury in high performance front row rugby union players: a kinematic analysis of scrummaging drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Carol A; Sayers, Mark G L; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players. Key pointsFront rowers exhibited patterns of single leg weight bearing, in a position of greater ankle plantar flexion and knee extension at toe off during scrummaging, which is a risk position for TS injury.Front rowers also exhibited greater acceleration at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, and greater changes in ankle ROM from toe strike to toe off during attacking scrum drills.These reported accelerations and joint displacements may be risk factors for TS injury, as the ankle is accelerating into plantar flexion at final push off and the muscle is shortening from an elongated state.

  13. Shoulder injuries in rugby: Report of its incidence and severity in a group of Portuguese male players during a season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cruz-Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rugby union is a fast growing sport all over the world, due to its nature as a contact sport it is frequent for players to sustain injuries, more specifically on the shoulder joint, were the injuries occur with greater severity. Method: The authors present a cohort prospective study focusing on the incidence and severity of shoulder injuries in a population of 51 male of top-tier Portuguese Rugby Union players aiming, to characterize relevant epidemiological aspects, conducted between September 2013 and May 2014. All data was collected and recorded according to the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in Rugby Union. Results: A total injury incidence rate of 23.68 per 1000 player match-hours was found with a mean severity of injuries of 34.22, a value higher than expected when comparing with previous studies. New and recurrent injuries occurred in a 7:2 ratio. Reported mean severity of 41.57 days in new injuries versus 8.50 days. Conclusion: The proportion of recurrent injuries alerts us for the importance of preventing measures. Poor physical condition of the players seems to have contributed to the increased number of shoulder injuries of our target population. Specific training programs to improve muscle strength and directed training to improve correct technical aspects of the tackling engagement during the fatigue periods of the game could be very important in the prevention of shoulder injuries. Resumen: Objetivo: El rugby es un deporte de rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo, debido a su naturaleza, tratándose de un deporte de contacto es frecuente que los jugadores sufran lesiones, más específicamente en la articulación del hombro, donde las lesiones suceden con mayor severidad. Método: Los autores presentan un estudio de cohorte prospectivo centrado en la incidencia y la gravedad de las lesiones de hombro en una población de 51 jugadores de primer nivel de Rugby de la liga portuguesa, caracterizando aspectos

  14. BokSmart: Pre-participation screening of rugby players by coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sion sport such as rugby, using easily understood questions that cast the screening net wide .... at the time of questioning should preclude him or her from training .... tion statement on the management of sports-related concussion. Journal.

  15. Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Correlates With Strength, Sprint, and Agility Performance in Collegiate Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Tanigawa, Satoru; Miramonti, Amelia A; La Monica, Michael B; Beyer, Kyle S; Church, David D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Tanigawa, S, Miramonti, AA, La Monica, MB, Beyer, KS, Church, DD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Isometric mid-thigh pull correlates with strength, sprint, and agility performance in collegiate rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3051-3056, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) force and strength, sprint, and agility performance in collegiate rugby union players. Fifteen members of a champion-level university's club rugby union team (mean ± SD: 20.67 ± 1.23 years, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, and 86.51 ± 14.18 kg) participated in this investigation. One repetition maximum (1RM) squat, IMTP, speed (40 m sprint), and agility (proagility test and T-test) were performed during 3 separate testing sessions. Rate of force development (RFD) and force output at 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 milliseconds of IMTP, as well as the peak value were determined. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between these measures. Performance in the 1RM squat was significantly correlated to the RFD between 90 and 250 milliseconds from the start of contraction (r's ranging from 0.595 to 0.748), and peak force (r = 0.866, p ≤ 0.05). One repetition maximum squat was also correlated to force outputs between 90 and 250 milliseconds (r's ranging from 0.757 to 0.816, p ≤ 0.05). Sprint time over the first 5 m in the 40 m sprint was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) correlated with peak RFD (r = -0.539) and RFD between 30 and 50 milliseconds (r's = -0.570 and -0.527, respectively). Time for the proagility test was correlated with peak RFD (r = -0.523, p ≤ 0.05) and RFD between 30 and 100 milliseconds (r's ranging from -0.518 to -0.528, p's strength, agility, and sprint performance. Future studies should examine IMTP as a potential tool to monitor athletic performance during the daily training of rugby union players.

  16. Exposure time, running and skill-related performance in international u20 rugby union players during an intensified tournament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Carling

    Full Text Available This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship.Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd and event coding (Opta Pro®.Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1% participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5% in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches, comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches.These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter. These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and intervention strategies during

  17. Exposure time, running and skill-related performance in international u20 rugby union players during an intensified tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Christopher J.; Flanagan, Eamon; O’Doherty, Pearse; Piscione, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship. Method Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS) tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd) and event coding (Opta Pro®). Results Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1%) participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5%) in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play) showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches), comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches) reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches. Conclusions These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter). These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and

  18. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  19. Competition performance of rugby-players of youth championship of Europe U-20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvasnitsa O.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of pedagogical supervision and comparative analysis of components of contention activity of the best commands of participants of zonal and final part of championship of Europe are rotined on rugby among masculine youth collapsible commands. Age of sportsmen made 19-20 years. 16 games were treated in all. For research video data and protocols of games of youth championship of Europe served as information in Warsaw (Poland. The comparative analysis of quantitative and high-quality competition performance indicators was carried out on the basic components of game on middle indexes in a game: amount of collisions for a game and their realization; amount of corridors for a game and their realization; amount of attempts and their realization; amount of the appointed penalty shots and their high-quality implementation; general effectiveness of game. The necessity of display of psychological emotional firmness sportsmen is well-proven, to exactness in execution motions, special adroitness, speed-power qualities.

  20. Changes in body size and physical characteristics of South African under-20 rugby union players over a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wayne P; Durandt, Justin J; Masimla, Herman; Green, Mervin; Lambert, Michael I

    2015-04-01

    This study compared changes in the body size and physical characteristics of South African under-20 rugby union players over a 13-year period. A total of 453 South African under-20 players (forwards: n = 256 and backs: n = 197) underwent measurements of body mass, stature, muscular strength, endurance, and 10- and 40-m sprint times. A 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences for the main effects of position (forwards vs. backs) and time (1998-2010). The pooled data showed that forwards were significantly heavier (22%), taller (5%), and stronger (18%) than the backs. However, when 1 repetition maximum strength scores were adjusted for body mass, backs were stronger per kg body mass. Stature did not change over the 13-year period for both groups. There were, however, significant increases in muscular strength (50%), body mass (20%), and muscular endurance (50%). Furthermore, an improvement in sprint times over 40 (4%) and 10 m (7%) was evident over the period of the study. In conclusion, the players became heavier, stronger, taller, and improved their upper-body muscular endurance over the 13 years of the study. Furthermore, sprint times over 10 and 40 m improved over the same time period despite the increase in body mass. It can be speculated that the changes in physical characteristics of the players over time are possibly a consequence of (a) adaptations to the changing demands of the game and (b) advancements in training methods.

  1. Effect of 8 days of a hypergravity condition on the sprinting speed and lower-body power of elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Matthew J; Gabbett, Tim J; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    -Sprinting speed and lower-body power are considered to be key physical abilities for rugby players. A method of improving the lower-body power of athletes is simulated hypergravity. This method involves wearing a weighted vest at all times during the day for an extended period of time. There are no studies that have examined the effect of hypergravity on speed or the benefit for rugby players. An experimental group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 7) of national team rugby players took part in the study, which consisted of rugby, conditioning, speed, and strength sessions. The experimental group wore a weighted vest equating to 12% of their body mass for 8 days. All players were tested for speed and lower-body power before, 2 days after, and 9 days after the intervention. Speed testing involved the athletes completing 40-m sprints with timing lights and high-speed video cameras assessing acceleration and maximal velocity sprinting kinematics. Lower-body power was assessed using weighted countermovement jumps (CMJs). No group differences were found for sprinting speed at any point. The experimental group displayed a large decrease in acceleration ground contact time (-0.01 ± 0.005 s, d = 1.07) and a moderate increase in 15-kg CMJ velocity (0.07 ± 0.11 m·s, d = 0.71). Individual responses showed that players in the experimental group had both negative and positive speed and power responses to the training intervention. Simulated hypergravity for 8 days is likely ineffective at improving sprinting speed while undergoing standard rugby training.

  2. Genomics in rugby union: A review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Day, Stephen H; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces some aspects of sports genomics in a rugby union context, considers the rugby-specific genetic data in the published literature and outlines the next research steps required if the potential applications of genetic technology in rugby union, also identified here, are to become possible. A substantial proportion of the inter-individual variation for many traits related to rugby performance, including strength, short-term muscle power, VO2 max, injury susceptibility and the likelihood of being an elite athlete is inherited and can be investigated using molecular genetic techniques. In sports genomics, significant efforts have been made in recent years to develop large DNA biobanks of elite athletes for detailed exploration of the heritable bases of those traits. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of rugby athletes, and most of the little research that has focused on rugby was conducted with small cohorts of non-elite players. With steadily growing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underpinning complex performance traits and the aetiology of injury, investigating sports genomics in the context of rugby is now a viable proposition and a worthwhile endeavour. The RugbyGene project we describe briefly in this article is a multi-institutional research collaboration in rugby union that will perform molecular genetic analyses of varying complexity. Genetic tests could become useful tools for rugby practitioners in the future and provide complementary and additional information to that provided by the non-genetic tests currently used.

  3. Influence of Fatigue on Tackling Ability in Rugby League Players: Role of Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Aerobic Qualities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Gabbett

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint, upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up, upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips, lower-body strength (4RM squat, and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test. Tackling ability was assessed using a standardized one-on-one tackling test, before, during, and following four bouts of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE exercise. The relationship between physical qualities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability were determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Each cycle of the RHIE protocol induced progressive reductions in tackling ability. A moderate reduction (Effect Size = ~-1.17 ± 0.60, -34.1 ± 24.3% in tackling ability occurred after the fourth cycle of the RHIE protocol. Players with greater relative lower-body strength (i.e. 4RM squat/kg had the best tackling ability under fatigued conditions (r = 0.72, p = 0.013. There were no significant relationships between tackling ability under fatigued conditions and any other physical quality. These findings suggest that lower-body strength protects against fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability. The development of lower-body strength should be a priority to facilitate the development of robust tackling skills that are maintained under fatigue.

  4. Surgical treatment of anterior instability in rugby union players: clinical and radiographic results of the Latarjet-Patte procedure with minimum 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyton, Lionel; Young, Allan; Dawidziak, Bérangère; Visona, Enrico; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Yann; Walch, Gilles

    2012-12-01

    Anterior instability in rugby players is characterized by the common finding of a bony lesion, which has been identified as a potential cause of recurrence after soft-tissue reconstruction. The Latarjet-Patte procedure is effective in the treatment of recurrent anterior instability in collision sports such as rugby union. We retrospectively assessed 34 rugby players (37 shoulders) stabilized with the Latarjet-Patte procedure. The mean follow-up was 12 years. All patients underwent clinical and radiographic assessment preoperatively and at final follow-up. Functional evaluation was performed with the Walch-Duplay and Rowe scores. A visual analog scale score for the evaluation of pain and the subjective shoulder value were recorded. In addition, all patients completed a questionnaire regarding the return to playing rugby. No recurrence of either dislocation or subluxation occurred. Persistent apprehension on clinical examination was present in 5 patients (14%). A bony lesion of the glenoid was present in 73% and a Hill-Sachs lesion in 68%. Sixty-five percent of the patients returned to playing rugby; only 1 patient did not return to playing rugby because of his shoulder. The mean Walch-Duplay and Rowe scores were 86 and 93 points, respectively. The mean subjective shoulder value was 90%. Radiographic healing of the bone block was observed in 89% of cases. At final follow-up, 11 patients (30%) had minor arthritic changes, with no cases of moderate or severe arthritis. The Latarjet-Patte procedure provides a reliable method for stabilizing the shoulder, resulting in a return to playing rugby in a high number of cases without increasing the risk of long-term arthritic degradation. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rugby Club

    CERN Document Server

    Rugby Club

    2012-01-01

    CERN Wildcats (Women Rugby Team),  Season_2011-2012_act_II   After a booming start of season, the reputed Wildcats team (women team of the RC CMSG) went all around Switzerland to play their away games for the second part of the championship, Basel, Berne, Lucerne and Zurich. The team still motivated and united tried to play its best Rugby and rise up its play level game after game. The statement is promising, indeed our players end up at the forth place just behind the biggest teams gathering most of the Swiss National players. Besides the regular championship, the Wildcats, this year again, acquired experiences at Rugby 7’s in participating to an international Rugby sevens tournament, the famous Amsterdam Sevens and also in being part of the Swiss sevens tournament. To end on a high note this excellent season, the Wildcats organized on June the 9th, a friendly women Rugby tournament at St-Genis-Pouilly pitch. With the attendance of 6 teams, this day was a success; it deligh...

  6. Sprint performance and propulsion asymmetries on an ergometer in trained high- and low-point wheelchair rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V L; Vegter, R J K; Mason, B S; Paulson, T A W; Lenton, J P; van der Scheer, J W; van der Woude, L H V

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the propulsion asymmetries of wheelchair athletes while sprinting on an instrumented, dual-roller ergometer system. Eighteen experienced wheelchair rugby players (8 low point (LP) (class ≤1.5) and 10 high point (HP) (class ≥2.0)) performed a 15-second sprint in their sports wheelchair on the instrumented ergometer. Asymmetry was defined as the difference in distance and power output (PO) between left and right sides when the best side reached 28 m. Propulsion techniques were quantified based on torque and velocity data. HP players covered an average 3 m further than the LP players (P = .002) and achieved faster sprint times than LP players (6.95 ± 0.89 vs 8.03 ± 0.68 seconds, P = .005) and at the time the best player finished (5.96 seconds). Higher peak POs (667 ± 108 vs 357 ± 78 W, P = .0001) and greater peak speeds that were also evident were for HP players (4.80 ± 0.71 vs 4.09 ± 0.45 m/s, P = .011). Greater asymmetries were found in HP players for distance (1.86 ± 1.43 vs 0.70 ± 0.65 m, P = .016), absolute peak PO (P = .049), and speed (0.35 ± 0.25 vs 0.11 ± 0.10 m/s, P = .009). Although HP players had faster sprint times over 28 m (achieved by a higher PO), high standard deviations show the heterogeneity within the two groups (eg, some LP players were better than HP players). Quantification of asymmetries is important not only for classifiers but also for sports practitioners wishing to improve performance as they could be addressed through training and/or wheelchair configuration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rugby is a highly demanding sport that carries a high risk of injury, specifically to the neck region. Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain. Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  8. The athlete's body and the global condition: Tongan rugby players in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of rugby professionals from Tonga to Japan and points beyond poses new questions about the role of the body as a mediator between the subjective and the objective, which anthropologists and other social scientists have generally examined within the confines of specific societies.

  9. The false equivalent of terrible triad of elbow combined with neurovascular damage in a rugby player - A new case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BOUSSAKRI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available  Terrible triad is a severe traumatic injury of the elbow. We report a new variety of this clinical entity originating from a rare combination of injuries, namely the fracture-dislocation of the right elbow. The symptoms are acute ischemia of the hand with neurological damage following a sport accident suffered by a professional rugby player. We treated him surgically after immediate reduction of the dislocation. The short-term monitoring was clinical, while in the medium-term it was radiological and electrophysiological. On the whole, our (clinical, electrophysiological and radiological results obtained initially, and medium-term during the last consultation, were satisfactory. The objective of this study is to draw attention to this clinical and radiological variety, as well as to its neurovascular complications and to discuss its therapeutic treatment. During the vascular and neurologic exam we should pay attention to and systematically look for neurovascular complications when treating a similar clinical case.

  10. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced as a professional sport by the International Rugby. Board (IRB). Rugby ... to as SRFC) is made up of five senior teams (including one women's team) ..... and rugby players – comparison of incidence and characteristics. Br J Sports.

  11. Association of ACTN3 R577X but not ACE I/D gene variants with elite rugby union player status and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, S M; Kilduff, L P; Erskine, R M; Day, S H; McPhee, J S; McMahon, G E; Stebbings, G K; Neale, J P H; Lockey, S J; Ribbans, W J; Cook, C J; Vance, B; Raleigh, S M; Roberts, C; Bennett, M A; Wang, G; Collins, M; Pitsiladis, Y P; Williams, A G

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to quantify the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genetic variants in elite rugby athletes (rugby union and league) and compare genotype frequencies to controls and between playing positions. The rugby athlete cohort consisted of 507 Caucasian men, including 431 rugby union athletes that for some analyses were divided into backs and forwards and into specific positional groups: front five, back row, half backs, centers, and back three. Controls were 710 Caucasian men and women. Real-time PCR of genomic DNA was used to determine genotypes using TaqMan probes and groups were compared using χ(2) and odds ratio (OR) statistics. Correction of P values for multiple comparisons was according to Benjamini-Hochberg. There was no difference in ACE I/D genotype between groups. ACTN3 XX genotype tended to be underrepresented in rugby union backs (15.7%) compared with forwards (24.8%, P = 0.06). Interestingly, the 69 back three players (wings and full backs) in rugby union included only six XX genotype individuals (8.7%), with the R allele more common in the back three (68.8%) than controls (58.0%; χ(2) = 6.672, P = 0.04; OR = 1.60) and forwards (47.5%; χ(2) = 11.768, P = 0.01; OR = 2.00). Association of ACTN3 R577X with playing position in elite rugby union athletes suggests inherited fatigue resistance is more prevalent in forwards, while inherited sprint ability is more prevalent in backs, especially wings and full backs. These results also demonstrate the advantage of focusing genetic studies on a large cohort within a single sport, especially when intrasport positional differences exist, instead of combining several sports with varied demands and athlete characteristics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Criterion and Construct Validity of an Isometric Midthigh-Pull Dynamometer for Assessing Whole-Body Strength in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig

    2018-02-01

    To examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric midthigh-pull dynamometer to assess whole-body strength in professional rugby league players. Fifty-six male rugby league players (33 senior and 23 youth players) performed 4 isometric midthigh-pull efforts (ie, 2 on the dynamometer and 2 on the force platform) in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Isometric peak force was underestimated (P  .05) between the predicted and peak force from the force platform and an adjusted R 2 (79.6%) that represented shrinkage of 0.4% relative to the cross-validation model (80%). Peak force was greater for the senior than the youth professionals using the dynamometer (2261.2 ± 222 cf 1725.1 ± 298.0 N, respectively; P isometric midthigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimates criterion peak force but is capable of distinguishing muscle-function characteristics between professional rugby league players of different standards.

  13. Coracoid fracture in an adolescent rugby player – Case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsey, Karl J.; Mahapatra, Anant N.; Jessop, Julian H.

    2012-01-01

    Coracoid fractures are rare injuries which may be easily missed radiographically. This case report discusses a 14 year old child who sustained a coracoid fracture during a violent tackle whilst playing rugby. The fracture was clearly visible only on the axial view of the shoulder, and was subsequently confirmed by CT scan. This article includes a discussion detailing the anatomy and developmental features of the coracoid process of the scapula, its clinical significance, and radiological assessment of suspected coracoid injury.

  14. Effects of a short-term pre-season training programme on the body composition and anaerobic performance of professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin; Hopkins, Will G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2010-04-01

    Pre-season rugby training develops the physical requisites for competition and consists of a high volume of resistance training and anaerobic and aerobic conditioning. However, the effects of a rugby union pre-season in professional athletes are currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a 4-week pre-season on 33 professional rugby union players. Bench press and box squat increased moderately (13.6 kg, 90% confidence limits +/-2.9 kg and 17.6 +/- 8.0 kg, respectively) over the training phase. Small decreases in bench throw (70.6 +/- 53.5 W), jump squat (280.1 +/- 232.4 W), and fat mass (1.4 +/- 0.4 kg) were observed. In addition, small increases were seen in fat-free mass (2.0 +/- 0.6 kg) and flexed upper-arm girth (0.6 +/- 0.2 cm), while moderate increases were observed in mid-thigh girth (1.9 +/- 0.5 cm) and perception of fatigue (0.6 +/- 0.4 units). Increases in strength and body composition were observed in elite rugby union players after 4 weeks of intensive pre-season training, but this may have been the result of a return to fitness levels prior to the off-season. Decreases in power may reflect high training volumes and increases in perceived of fatigue.

  15. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Viljoen, W.; Lambert, M.I.; Readhead, C.; Fuller, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby

  16. Injury Profile of American Women's Rugby-7s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention protocols.

  17. The Functional Movement Screen and modified Star Excursion Balance Test as predictors of T-test agility performance in university rugby union and netball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ross; Greig, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Agility is a functional requirement of many sports, challenging stability, and commonly cited as a mechanism of injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT) have equivocally been associated with agility performance. The aim of the current study was to establish a hierarchical ordering of FMS and mSEBT elements in predicting T-test agility performance. Cross-sectional study design. University. Thirty-two female rugby players, 31 male rugby players and 39 female netballers MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FMS, mSEBT, T-test performance. The predictive potential of composite FMS and mSEBT scores were weaker than when discrete elements were considered. FMS elements were better predictors of T-test performance in rugby players, whilst mSEBT elements better predicted performance in netballers. Hierarchical modelling highlighted the in-line lunge (ILL) as the primary FMS predictor, whereas mSEBT ordering was limb and sport dependent. The relationship between musculoskeletal screening tools and agility performance was sport-specific. Discrete element scores are advocated over composite scores, and hierarchical ordering of tests might highlight redundancy in screening. The prominence of the ILL in hierarchical modelling might reflect the functional demands of the T-test. Sport-specificity and limb dominance influence hierarchical ordering of musculoskeletal screens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between COMT rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 and serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes with concussion history and personality traits. Rugby players ("all levels": n = 303), from high schools ("junior", n = 137), senior amateur, and professional teams ("senior", n = 166), completed a self-reported concussion history questionnaire, Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and donated a DNA sample. Participants were allocated into control (non-concussed, n = 140), case (all) (previous suspected or diagnosed concussions, n = 163), or case (diagnosed only) (previous diagnosed concussion, n = 140) groups. COMT rs4680 Val/Val genotypes were over-represented in controls in all levels (P = 0.013, OR:2.00, 95% CI:1.15-3.57) and in juniors (P = 0.003, OR:3.57, 95% CI:1.45-9.09). Junior Val/Val participants displayed increased "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.023). The 5-HTTLPR low expressing group was under-represented in controls when all levels were considered (P = 0.032; OR:2.02, 95% CI:1.05-3.90) and in juniors (P = 0.021; OR:3.36, 95% CI:1.16-9.72). Junior 5-HTTLPR low and intermediate expressing groups displayed decreased "harm avoidance" (P = 0.009), "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.041), and "fear of uncertainty" (P < 0.001). This study provides preliminary indications that personality associated genetic variants can influence concussion in rugby.

  19. Injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett, S G

    1998-10-01

    To document injury rates in professional rugby players in the Rugby Super 12 competition and to act as a pilot study for future studies of rugby injuries. Prospective longitudinal study encompassing the 1997 Super 12 rugby season. A New Zealand Super 12 rugby squad. 25 professional rugby players (replacement players were used for unavailable players, so although 30 different players were used during the season, there were only 25 in the squad at any one time). An "injury" was defined as something that prevented a player from taking part in two training sessions, from playing the next week, or something requiring special medical treatment (suturing or special investigations). An injury was "significant" if it prevented the player from being able to play one week after sustaining it (that is, if it made the player miss the next match). The overall injury rate was 120/1000 player hours. The rate of significant injuries was 45/1000 player hours. Those playing the position of "forward" had a higher overall injury rate than other players, but there was no difference in significant injury rate between the forwards and the backs. Injuries that caused players to miss game time occurred almost exclusively during the pre-season program or in the final third of the season. The majority of injuries were musculo-tendinous sprains or strains. The phase of play responsible for the majority of injuries was the tackle. The most frequently injured body part was the head and face. No catastrophic injuries occurred during the study period. Injury rates increase with increasing grade of rugby, injury rates in the Super 12 competition being higher than in first grade rugby. There is very little quality data on rugby injuries, and the few studies available use different methods of data collection and injury definition. There is a pressing need for the collection of accurate ongoing epidemiological data on injuries in rugby.

  20. Effects of Preseason Training on the Sleep Characteristics of Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the influence of daily and exponentially weighted moving training loads on subsequent nighttime sleep. Sleep of 14 professional rugby league athletes competing in the National Rugby League was recorded using wristwatch actigraphy. Physical demands were quantified using GPS technology, including total distance, high-speed distance, acceleration/deceleration load (SumAccDec; AU), and session rating of perceived exertion (AU). Linear mixed models determined effects of acute (daily) and subacute (3- and 7-d) exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) on sleep. Higher daily SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (effect-size correlation; ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and sleep duration (ES = 0.12; ±0.09). Greater 3-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (ES = 0.14; ±0.09) and an earlier bedtime (ES = 0.14; ±0.09). An increase in 7-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with heightened sleep efficiency (ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and earlier bedtimes (ES = 0.15; ±0.09). The direction of the associations between training loads and sleep varied, but the strongest relationships showed that higher training loads increased various measures of sleep. Practitioners should be aware of the increased requirement for sleep during intensified training periods, using this information in the planning and implementation of training and individualized recovery modalities.

  1. The effect of varying plyometric volume on stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Mark; De Ste Croix, Mark; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Jonathan

    2017-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time. A significant between group × time (F = 4.01, P plyometric program. The low volume program elicited the same performance improvement in RSI as a high volume program whilst undertaking a lower dose. This suggests that strength and conditioning coaches may be able to benefit from the ability to develop more time efficient and effective plyometric programs.

  2. The relationship of strength and muscle balance to shoulder pain and impingement syndrome in elite quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Sleivert, G G; Gerrard, D F

    1998-04-01

    Wheelchair athletes are susceptible to injuries related to overuse of the shoulder, in particular shoulder impingement syndrome. The present study examined the relationship of shoulder pain to demographic details, isokinetic strength and muscle balance in 8 elite quadriplegic rugby players. Demographic data were collected using personal interviews and each subject was clinically examined for signs of impingement syndrome by a physician. In addition each subject underwent bilateral isokinetic strength testing of the shoulder at 60 and 180 deg/s for abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation. A series of step-wise multiple discriminant analysis successfully predicted clinical symptoms from demographic, muscular strength and balance data. In particular, there was a significant deficit in adductor strength and this was related to shoulder pain and wasting of the scapular muscles. This strength deficit may be due to the high level of spinal lesions in the quadriplegic population. The level of spinal lesion may contribute to the aetiology of shoulder pathology in quadriplegia, and differentiate it from that observed in able-bodied athletes who exhibit weak abductors.

  3. A game of two discs: a case of non-contiguous and occult cervical spine injury in a rugby player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Piggot, Robert; Jaddan, Mutaz; McCabe, John P

    2016-03-14

    The aim of this case report was to highlight the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elucidating serious and occult injuries in a single case of hyperflextion injury of a patient cervical spine (C-Spine). A chart and radiology review was performed to establish the sequence of care and how the results of imaging studies influenced the clinical management in this trauma case. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities of the C-Spine revealed bilateral C4/C5 facetal subluxation with no obvious fractures; however, the MR imaging of the C-Spine revealed a non-contiguous and occult injury to C6/C7 disc with a posterior annular tear and associated disc extrusion. This altered the operative intervention that was initially planned. MR imaging proved an invaluable diagnostic addition in this particular case of cervical trauma in a rugby player following a hyperflextion injury, by revealing a serious non-contiguous and occult injury of the C-Spine. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  4. Effects of an off-season conditioning program on the physical characteristics of adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Daniel J; Gill, Nicholas D

    2013-03-01

    The aims of the study were to determine if a supervised off-season conditioning program enhanced gains in physical characteristics compared with the same program performed in an unsupervised manner and to establish the persistence of the physical changes after a 6-month unsupervised competition period. Forty-four provincial representative adolescent rugby union players (age, mean ± SD, 15.3 ± 1.3 years) participated in a 15-week off-season conditioning program either under supervision from an experienced strength and conditioning coach or unsupervised. Measures of body composition, strength, vertical jump, speed, and anaerobic and aerobic running performance were taken, before, immediately after, and 6 months after the conditioning. Post conditioning program the supervised group had greater improvements in all strength measures than the unsupervised group, with small, moderate and large differences between the groups\\x{2019} changes for chin-ups (9.1%; ± 11.6%), bench-press (16.9%; ± 11.7%) and box-squat (50.4%; ± 20.9%) estimated 1RM respectively. Both groups showed trivial increases in mass; however increases in fat free mass were small and trivial for supervised and unsupervised players respectively. Strength declined in the supervised group while the unsupervised group had small increases during the competition phase, resulting in only a small difference between the long-term changes in box-squat 1RM (15.9%; ± 13.2%). The supervised group had further small increases in fat free mass resulting in a small difference (2.4%; ± 2.7%) in the long-term changes. The postconditioning differences between the 2 groups may have been a result of increased adherence and the attainment of higher training loads during supervised training. The lack of differences in strength after the competition period indicates that supervision should be maintained to reduce substantial decrements in performance.

  5. Upper limb fractures in rugby in Huddersfield 1986-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, K S; Abdel-Salam, A; Cleary, J

    1991-01-01

    Most injuries sustained by rugby players affect the soft tissues, and fracture is relatively uncommon. Whereas the lower limb is most affected in footballers, the upper limb tends to be injured in rugby players. Thirty consecutive fractures and ten dislocations affecting the upper limb, sustained by 35 rugby players, are reported.

  6. Concussions in Community-Level Rugby: Risk, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Kyle; Hrubeniuk, Travis J; Witiw, Christopher D; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff

    Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk. Cross-sectional analysis. Level 3. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management. In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion. Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured." Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.

  7. Playing by the Rules: Researching, Teaching and Learning Sexual Ethics with Young Men in the Australian National Rugby League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…

  8. Psychological skills of provincial netball players in different playing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ... rugby union and American football players in different playing positions have been reported. These differences are believed to be the result of the specific demands of ...

  9. Bibliometric study (1922-2009) on rugby articles in research journals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to perform a bibliometric analysis of research journals containing scientific articles on the sport of rugby from 1922 to 2009. In this field 2057 articles were selected from major databases. The journals, authors and contents published were selected by taking into account the year of ...

  10. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BT Crewther

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB and split-body (SB training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T and cortisol (C concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4% and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%, whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4% and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%, respectively (all p ≤ 0.021. The SB protocol elevated T (21% and C (50% concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28% after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039. The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05 between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg, but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg, men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength.

  11. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heke, TOL; Keogh, JWL

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength. PMID:27274103

  12. Reducing musculoskeletal injury and concussion risk in schoolboy rugby players with a pre-activity movement control exercise programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Michael D; Stokes, Keith A; Williams, Sean; McKay, Carly D; England, Mike E; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-08-01

    Injury risk in youth rugby has received much attention, highlighting the importance of establishing evidence-based injury reduction strategies. To determine the efficacy of a movement control exercise programme in reducing injuries in youth rugby players and to investigate the effect of programme dose on injury measures. In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, 40 independent schools (118 teams, 3188 players aged 14-18 years) were allocated to receive either the intervention or a reference programme, both of which were to be delivered by school coaches. The intervention comprised balance training, whole-body resistance training, plyometric training, and controlled rehearsal of landing and cutting manoeuvres. Time-loss (>24 hours) injuries arising from school rugby matches were recorded by coaches and medical staff. 441 time-loss match injuries (intervention, 233; control, 208) were reported across 15 938 match exposure-hours (intervention, 9083; control, 6855). Intention-to-treat results indicated unclear effects of trial arm on overall match injury incidence (rate ratio (RR)=0.85, 90% confidence limits 0.61 to 1.17), although clear reductions were evident in the intervention arm for concussion incidence (RR=0.71, 0.48 to 1.05). When trial arm comparisons were limited to teams who had completed three or more weekly programme sessions on average, clear reductions in overall match injury incidence (RR=0.28, 0.14 to 0.51) and concussion incidence (RR=0.41, 0.17 to 0.99) were noted in the intervention group. A preventive movement control exercise programme can reduce match injury outcomes, including concussion, in schoolboy rugby players when compared with a standardised control exercise programme, although to realise the greatest effects players should complete the programme at least three times per week. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  13. The effect of three different (-135°C whole body cryotherapy exposure durations on elite rugby league players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Selfe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole body cryotherapy (WBC is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. PURPOSE: To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. METHOD: This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at -135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. RESULTS: No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05 in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05 in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05 were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05 in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05 in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. CONCLUSION: Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of -135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies.

  14. The Effects of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Balance – A Study with Elite Amateur Rugby League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gosselin, Michael J. Fagan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neck muscle fatigue has been shown to alter an individual’s balance in a similar way to that reported in subjects suffering from neck pain or subjects that have suffered a neck injury. The main purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of neck fatigue on neck muscle electromyography (EMG activity, balance, perceived fatigue and perceived stability. Forty four elite amateur rugby league players resisted with their neck muscles approximately 35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC force for 15 minutes in eight different directions. Sway velocity and surface electromyography were measured. Questionnaires were used to record perceived effort and stability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that after 15 minutes isometric contraction, significant changes were seen in sway velocity, perceived sway and EMG median frequency. There were no differences in perceived efforts. The changes in sway velocity and median frequency were more pronounced after extension and right and left posterior oblique contractions but there was no significant difference in sway velocity after contraction in the right lateral flexion, right anterior oblique and left anterior oblique direction of contraction. All the subjects showed oriented whole-body leaning in the plane of the contraction. The experiment produced significantly altered and perceived altered balance in this group of physically fit individuals. The results may contribute to our understanding of normal functional capacities of athletes and will provide a basis for further investigation in healthy non-athletes and participants that have suffered neck injuries. This may ultimately help develop accurate and valid rehabilitation outcome measures.

  15. Individualized Internal and External Training Load Relationships in Elite Wheelchair Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Thomas A W; Mason, Barry; Rhodes, James; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    The quantification and longitudinal monitoring of athlete training load (TL) provides a scientific explanation for changes in performance and helps manage injury/illness risk. Therefore, accurate and reliable monitoring tools are essential for the optimization of athletic performance. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between measures of internal [heart rate (HR) and session RPE (sRPE)] and external TL specific to wheelchair rugby (WR). Fourteen international WR athletes (age = 29 ± 7 years; body mass = 58.9 ± 10.9 kg) were monitored during 18 training sessions over a 3 month period during the competitive phase of the season. Activity profiles were collected during each training session using a radio-frequency based indoor tracking system (ITS). External TL was quantified by total distance (m) covered as well as time spent and distance covered in a range of classification-specific arbitrary speed zones. Banister's TRIMP, Edwards's summated HR zone (SHRZ), and Lucia's TRIMP methods were used to quantify physiological internal TL. sRPE was calculated as the product of session duration multiplied by perceived exertion using the Borg CR10 scale. Relationships between external and internal TL were examined using correlation coefficients and the 90% confidence intervals (90% CI). sRPE (r = 0.59) and all HR-based (r > 0.80) methods showed large and very large relationships with the total distance covered during training sessions, respectively. Large and very large correlations (r = 0.56 - 0.82) were also observed between all measures of internal TL and times spent and distances covered in low and moderate intensity speed zones. HR-based methods showed very large relationships with time (r = 0.71-0.75) and distance (r = 0.70-0.73) in the very high speed zone and a large relationship with the number of high intensity activities (HIA) performed (r = 0.56-0.62). Weaker relationships (r = 0.32-0.35) were observed between sRPE and all measures of

  16. Individualised internal and external training load relationships in elite wheelchair rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Andrew William Paulson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The quantification and longitudinal monitoring of athlete training load (TL provides a scientific explanation for changes in performance and helps manage injury/illness risk. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between measures of internal (heart rate (HR and session RPE (sRPE and external TL specific to wheelchair rugby (WR. Methods: Fourteen international WR athletes (age = 29 ± 7 yrs; body mass = 58.9 ± 10.9 kg were monitored during 18 training sessions over a 3 month period. Activity profiles were collected during each training session using a radio-frequency based indoor tracking system. External TL was quantified by total distance (m covered as well as time spent and distance covered in a range of classification-specific arbitrary speed zones. Banister’s TRIMP, Edwards’s summated HR zone (SHRZ and Lucia’s TRIMP methods were used to quantify physiological internal TL. sRPE was calculated as the product of session duration multiplied by perceived exertion using the Borg CR10 scale. Relationships between external and internal TL were examined using correlation coefficients and the 90% confidence intervals (90% CI. Results: sRPE (r=0.59 and all HR-based (r >0.80 methods showed large and very large relationships with the total distance covered during training sessions, respectively. Large and very large correlations (r =0.56-0.82 were also observed between all measures of internal TL and times spent and distances covered in low and moderate intensity speed zones. HR-based methods showed very large relationships with time (r=0.71-0.75 and distance (r=0.70-0.73 in the very high speed zone and a large relationship with the number of high intensity activities performed (r=0.56-0.62. Weaker relationships (r=0.32–0.35 were observed between sRPE and all measures of high intensity activity. A large variation of individual correlation co-efficient was observed between sRPE and all external TL measures

  17. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2011-01-01

    Women’s Rugby Team – CERN Wildcats The season 2010/2011 has been a challenging one for the Wildcats, hit by injuries and a lack of players. But the RCMSG women’s Rugby team have never lost heart. At the beginning of the summer 2011, the team welcomed a group of recruits, new to rugby, but bursting with enthusiasm to become part of the Wildcats. The summer is a  moment for the Wildcats to rebuild their team, creating a group of friends willing to train hard, play well and party together.  Early in the season, the coach’s words are clear: for the championship matches it won’t be a question of victory or defeat, but the goal is to gain  experience, confidence and to keep improving and developing the skills and techniques learnt during  training. The work is positive; the Wildcats end this first half of the season with enthusiasm and satisfaction: 3 Victories, 3 defeats. The Wildcats have given everything for each game, whi...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INJURIES AND DISEASES DUE TO OVERUSE IN RUGBY: OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE PLAYERS OF “CUS PERUGIA RUGBY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bisaccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rugby is a contact sport and for this reason is very demanding from a physical point of view. Up to now few studies describe the incidence and types of the most frequent traumas. The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of the major accidents related to the practice of this sport. Materials and methods: We collected data on a total of 321 players belonging to the Sports Club "CUS Rugby Perugia" for a total of three years taking into consideration the type of injury, the part of the body concerned, if the injury occurred during official competitions or in training, and also the lapse of time necessary for recovery. Results: We had a total of 240 accidents (45.8% of minor gravity, 36.6% of average gravity and 17.6% serious. In relation to the type of trauma, we noticed that minor injuries consisted in most cases and above all in facial injuries, while the average and the serious severity accidents affected in most cases the knees: (sprains, meniscal and ligamentous tears. Discussion: By analyzing the collected data we have noticedthat the highest number of accidents occurred during official competitions, and especially during the last minutes of the game, probably due to a greater muscle fatigue. The role of the players is also important because it correlates to a different type of risk. Conclusions: This study confirms that rugby has a higher accident rate than other contact sports. Therefore specific training strategies and techniques should be implemented, in order to reduce the incidence of injuries, especially at the level of the lower limbs.

  19. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  20. The Physiological and Performance Effects of Caffeine Gum Consumed During A Simulated Half-Time By Professional Academy Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Russell; N A, Reynolds; B T, Crewther; C J, Cook; L, Kilduff

    2017-11-27

    Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1). Thereafter, during a 15 min simulated half-time period, players chewed either caffeine (CAF: 400 mg; 4.1 ± 0.5 mg·kg) or PL gum for five min before completing a second repeated sprint test (RSSA2). Blood lactate, salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations, and indices of cognitive function (i.e., reaction time and Stroop test) were measured at baseline, pre-RSSA1, post-RSSA1, pre-RSSA2 and post-RSSA2. Sprint performance was not affected by CAF (P=0.995) despite slower sprint times following the first sprint of both RSSA tests (all P0.05). Although performance effects were absent, chewing caffeine gum increased the salivary testosterone concentrations of professional rugby union players over a simulated half-time. Practitioners may therefore choose to recommend caffeine gum between successive exercise bouts due to the increases in salivary testosterone observed; a variable associated with increased motivation and high-intensity exercise performance.

  1. Epidemiology of concussion in men's elite Rugby-7s (Sevens World Series) and Rugby-15s (Rugby World Cup, Junior World Championship and Rugby Trophy, Pacific Nations Cup and English Premiership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the incidence, nature and causes of concussions sustained during men's elite professional Rugby-7s and Rugby-15s. A prospective cohort study recording injuries classified as a time-loss concussion. Players competing in the following tournaments: Rugby 15s-English Premiership (2007/2008 to 2010/2011), Rugby World Cup (2007, 2011), Pacific Nations Cup (2012, 2013), Junior World Championship (2008, 2010-2013), Junior World Rugby Trophy (2008, 2010-2013); Rugby 7s-Sevens World Series (2008/2009, 2010/2011 to 2012/2013). The study was implemented according to the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; the main outcome measures included the number, incidence (number of concussions/1000 player-match-hours), mean and median severity (days absence) and cause of concussion. The incidence of concussion in Rugby-7s was significantly higher than that in Rugby-15s (risk ratio=1.84; pRugby-7s than Rugby-15s (mean-Rugby-7s: 19.2, Rugby-15s: 10.1; median-Rugby 7s: 20, Rugby-15s: 7; pRugby-7s and collisions (43.6%) in Rugby-15s. Significantly more (risk ratio=1.49; p=0.004) concussed players were removed immediately from the game in Rugby-7s (69.7%) compared to Rugby-15s (46.7%). Six actions were identified to improve the management of concussion in rugby: implement a pitch-side concussion assessment protocol; improve compliance with return-to-play protocols; work with referees to review the nature and consequences of collisions; improve players' tackle technique; investigate the forces involved in tackles and collisions; and evaluate reasons for the higher incidence of concussions in Rugby-7s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Noon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy Rugby Union players (mean ± SD: age: 18 ± 1 years performed a low load (15 min and a high load (90 min bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test one week apart. Monitoring assessments were performed immediately prior to and 20 h following each trial. Subjective self-report Well-being Questionnaire (WQ items showed small to large deteriorations following the high load compared to low load (d = 0.4–1.5, p = 0.03–0.57. A very large increase in resting HR (HRrest (d = 2.1, p = 0.02, moderate decrease in heart rate variability (HRV indices (d = 0.7, p = 0.04 and d = 0.7, p = 0.01 for the natural logarithm of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (ln SDNN and the root square of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD, respectively and no change in countermovement jump (d = 0.0, p = 0.97 were evident following the high load compared to low load. Individual WQ responses revealed 7/9, 7/9, 6/9, 6/9, 5/9, 3/9 and 1/9 participants reported deteriorations in recovery, sleep quality, motivation, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and appetite, respectively, following the high load compared to low load. Individual analysis indicated a negative response following the high load compared to low load in HRrest, ln SDNN and ln rMSSD for 4/6, 2/6 and 1/6 participants, respectively. Selected WQ items detected group and individual responses to high load and low load highlighting their potential utility. However, objective assessments lacked the sensitivity to detect small individual changes.

  3. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  4. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-08-12

    The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Observational cohort study. Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Tackle-related injury severity ('time-loss' and 'medical attention'), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ(2) analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater 'time-loss' injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of 'overall' ('time-loss' and 'medical attention' combined) and 'time-loss' tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of 'overall' and 'time-loss' injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies targeting the tackle may only be effective once the rate and nature of injuries have been accurately determined

  5. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  6. A systematic review of concussion in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  7. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season; influence of diet and exercise load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Reyes-Ortiz, A; Suarez Moreno-Arrones, L; García A, A; Garcíacaballero, M

    2014-04-01

    Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season taking into account the position of the player for measuring exercise intensity, and developing a personalized nutritional and training plan to each player. At baseline the players were away from the internationally recommended body composition, with high percentages of body fat. Appropriate and personalized diet plans and training custom achieved fat percentages close to those recommended. The personalized program of diet and training directed has adequate leverage to improve all parameters studied them bringing them as close to the ideal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M.; Bracken, Richard M.; Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T.; Cook, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of…

  9. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett MD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Matthew D Barrett,1 Terence F McLoughlin,2 Kieran R Gallagher,1 Don Gatherer,3 Michael TR Parratt,1 Jonathan R Perera,1 Tim WR Briggs1 1Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom; 2Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, Mersey Deanery, United Kingdom; 3The Gatherer Partnership, Aylesbury, United Kingdom Purpose: To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16–18-year-old male rugby players. Materials and methods: Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. Results: There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. Conclusion: This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in

  10. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    passing, blocking, speed and long distance passing to wheelchair rugby athletes was developed in the U.S.A. by Yilla & Sherrill (1998.The aim of this study was to examine the criteria of scientific authenticity of the battery to the Brazilian athletes population. The results of two assessments with the battery (test and retest with 11 athletes (mean age 27.59 ± 5.37 years, length of lesion 8.19 ± 3.83 years, were recorded by three assessors , which allowed the analysis of objectivity, reliability and internal consistency. We used ANOVA for analysis of objectivity and linear correlation and t test for analysis of reliability and consistency. No differences were found between results from different raters (p values ranging from 0.45 to 1.00 and the values of intraclass correlation coefficient found (range r 0.78 to 0.99 p < 0.00 indicate that the battery is consistent and reliable. The results of this study indicate that the criteria of scientific authenticity to the battery are satisfied and battery can be considered a valid tool for motricity evaluation of wheelchair rugby brazilian players.

  11. A passive heat maintenance strategy implemented during a simulated half-time improves lower body power output and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell

    Full Text Available Reduced physical performance has been observed following the half-time period in team sports players, likely due to a decrease in muscle temperature during this period. We examined the effects of a passive heat maintenance strategy employed between successive exercise bouts on core temperature (Tcore and subsequent exercise performance. Eighteen professional Rugby Union players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study. After a standardised warm-up (WU and 15 min of rest, players completed a repeated sprint test (RSSA 1 and countermovement jumps (CMJ. Thereafter, in normal training attire (Control or a survival jacket (Passive, players rested for a further 15 min (simulating a typical half-time before performing a second RSSA (RSSA 2 and CMJ's. Measurements of Tcore were taken at baseline, post-WU, pre-RSSA 1, post-RSSA 1 and pre-RSSA 2. Peak power output (PPO and repeated sprint ability was assessed before and after the simulated half-time. Similar Tcore responses were observed between conditions at baseline (Control: 37.06±0.05°C; Passive: 37.03±0.05°C and for all other Tcore measurements taken before half-time. After the simulated half-time, the decline in Tcore was lower (-0.74±0.08% vs. -1.54±0.06%, p<0.001 and PPO was higher (5610±105 W vs. 5440±105 W, p<0.001 in the Passive versus Control condition. The decline in PPO over half-time was related to the decline in Tcore (r = 0.632, p = 0.005. In RSSA 2, best, mean and total sprint times were 1.39±0.17% (p<0.001, 0.55±0.06% (p<0.001 and 0.55±0.06% (p<0.001 faster for Passive versus Control. Passive heat maintenance reduced declines in Tcore that were observed during a simulated half-time period and improved subsequent PPO and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

  12. The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Shane; Riches, Christopher J; Jennings, Carl; Weatherby, Robert P; Meir, Rudi A; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M

    2007-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an herbal nutritional supplement that is promoted to produce large gains in strength and lean muscle mass in 5-28 days (15, 18). Although some manufacturers claim T. terrestris will not lead to a positive drug test, others have suggested that T. terrestris may increase the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, which may place athletes at risk of a positive drug test. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of T. terrestris on strength, fat free mass, and the urinary T/E ratio during 5 weeks of preseason training in elite rugby league players. Twenty-two Australian elite male rugby league players (mean +/- SD; age = 19.8 +/- 2.9 years; weight = 88.0 +/- 9.5 kg) were match-paired and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to either a T. terrestris (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) group. All subjects performed structured heavy resistance training as part of the club's preseason preparations. A T. terrestris extract (450 mg.d(-1)) or placebo capsules were consumed once daily for 5 weeks. Muscular strength, body composition, and the urinary T/E ratio were monitored prior to and after supplementation. After 5 weeks of training, strength and fat free mass increased significantly without any between-group differences. No between-group differences were noted in the urinary T/E ratio. It was concluded that T. terrestris did not produce the large gains in strength or lean muscle mass that many manufacturers claim can be experienced within 5-28 days. Furthermore, T. terrestris did not alter the urinary T/E ratio and would not place an athlete at risk of testing positive based on the World Anti-Doping Agency's urinary T/E ratio limit of 4:1.

  13. Anthropometric and Three-Compartment Body Composition Differences between Super League and Championship Rugby League Players: Considerations for the 2015 Season and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Barlow, Matthew; Lees, Matthew; O'Hara, John Paul; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Super League (SL) and Championship (RLC) rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional) and RLC (part-time semi-professional) players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards) and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards) players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC), total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk) fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%), greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g), greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg) and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg) than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond.

  14. Anthropometric and Three-Compartment Body Composition Differences between Super League and Championship Rugby League Players: Considerations for the 2015 Season and Beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jones

    Full Text Available Super League (SL and Championship (RLC rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional and RLC (part-time semi-professional players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC, total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%, greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g, greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond.

  15. Epidemiology of rugby injuries sustained by Free State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Rugby results in more hospitalisations and visits to the emergency rooms of hospitals than any other sport. It is also the sport with the highest injury rate. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and profile of the rugby injuries that were sustained by hostel-league rugby players at the University of the ...

  16. Injuries at Johannesburg high school rugby festivals | Constantinou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with simple first aid at the primary care level. Conclusion. The number, nature and mechanisms of rugby injuries at this rugby festival were similar to numerous local and international studies of schoolboy rugby players. Adequate standardised record keeping is recommended to increase knowledge and monitor trends.

  17. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  18. Evaluation of goal kicking performance in international rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-03-01

    Goal kicking is an important element in rugby but has been the subject of minimal research. To develop and apply a method to describe the on-field pattern of goal-kicking and rank the goal kicking performance of players in international rugby union matches. Longitudinal observational study. A generalized linear mixed model was used to analyze goal-kicking performance in a sample of 582 international rugby matches played from 2002 to 2011. The model adjusted for kick distance, kick angle, a rating of the importance of each kick, and venue-related conditions. Overall, 72% of the 6769 kick attempts were successful. Forty-five percent of points scored during the matches resulted from goal kicks, and in 5.7% of the matches the result of the match hinged on the outcome of a kick attempt. There was an extremely large decrease in success with increasing distance (odds ratio for two SD distance 0.06, 90% confidence interval 0.05-0.07) and a small decrease with increasingly acute angle away from the mid-line of the goal posts (odds ratio for 2 SD angle, 0.44, 0.39-0.49). Differences between players were typically small (odds ratio for 2 between-player SD 0.53, 0.45-0.65). The generalized linear mixed model with its random-effect solutions provides a tool for ranking the performance of goal kickers in rugby. This modelling approach could be applied to other performance indicators in rugby and in other sports in which discrete outcomes are measured repeatedly on players or teams. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Perfection of educational-training process on the basis of account of parameters special physical preparedness of rugby-players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Pasko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the special physical fitness rugby, who were engaged in the experimental procedure. The technique is based on the application of the developed relations training load. Material : the study involved 60 athletes aged 16-18 years. Results : the program presents the main provisions of special physical preparation of athletes in the preparatory period of training macrocycle. Value for training work on special physical preparation as follows: September - the main emphasis is placed on special endurance and was 100 % of the training time; October - special endurance - 70%, strength endurance - 20% power capacity - 10%; November - respectively 50, 30, 20 %, December - 30, 40, 30 %. Conclusions : the proposed construction of a pilot version of training is more effective than traditional. It allows rational selection of training load. Also contributing to the priority development of physical qualities, gaming specialization athletes.

  20. Association of ACTN3 R577X but not ACE I/D gene variants with elite rugby union player status and playing position

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, S. M.; Kilduff, L. P.; Erskine, R. M.; Day, S. H.; McPhee, J. S.; McMahon, G. E.; Stebbings, G. K.; Neale, J. P. H.; Lockey, S. J.; Ribbans, W. J.; Cook, C. J.; Vance, B.; Raleigh, S. M.; Roberts, C.; Bennett, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to quantify the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genetic variants in elite rugby athletes (rugby union and league) and compare genotype frequencies to controls and between playing positions. The rugby athlete cohort consisted of 507 Caucasian men, including 431 rugby union athletes that for some analyses were divided into backs and forwards and into specific positional groups: front five, back row, half backs, centers, and back three. Controls were 710 Caucasian men and women. Rea...

  1. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2012-01-01

    The Wildcats started out in September 2005 and we are currently the only female club in the Geneva. We train on Tuesdays and Thursdays evenings in Meyrin (at the pitch off the chemin de Arbères) from 7-9pm. We have a huge mix of nationalities and levels of experience so don't hesitate to come and join us. Aside from trainings, there are also matches throughout the year in the form of rugby XVs (national women's league) and rugby VIIs (Super Swiss Sevens). We also enjoy the non sporting side of things and often organise events such as pub quizzes (to train the basics) and outings in town as well as ski excursions in winter and also a fun rugby tour in the summer. So, come and check out our Facebook page. Infos, contacts: www.cern-rugby.ch Facebook page : wildcats women's rugby wildcats@cern-rugby.ch

  2. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Papalia, R.; Tecame, A.; Torre, G.; Narbona, P.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V.

    2014-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and ...

  3. The effects of a combined resisted jump training and rugby-conditioning program on selected physical, motor ability and anthropometric components of rugby players / Jacobus Johannes Oosthuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, Jacobus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Plyometrics is primarily used by coaches and sport scientists to improve explosive power among athletes who participate in dynamic, high intensity type of sports. One of the plyometric-related training methods that has received attention in recent years, is loaded or resistance (resistive) jump training. Limited research does, however, exist with regard to the benefits and use of this training method as well as in conjunction with other training methods, especially among team spor...

  4. Tackle technique and tackle-related injuries in high-level South African Rugby Union under-18 players: real-match video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    The high injury rate associated with rugby union is primarily due to the tackle, and poor contact technique has been identified as a risk factor for injury. We aimed to determine whether the tackle technique proficiency scores were different in injurious tackles versus tackles that did not result in injury using real-match scenarios in high-level youth rugby union. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week tournaments (2011-2013). Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in the match video footage and non-injury events were identified for the injured player cohort. Injury and non-injury events were scored for technique proficiency and Cohen's effect sizes were calculated and the Student t test (p<0.05) was performed to compare injury versus non-injury scores. The overall mean score for front-on ball-carrier proficiency was 7.17±1.90 and 9.02±2.15 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind ball-carrier proficiency was 4.09±2.12 and 7.68±1.72 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). The overall mean score for front-on tackler proficiency was 7.00±1.95 and 9.35±2.56 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind tackler proficiency was 5.47±1.60 and 8.14±1.75 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). Higher overall mean and criterion-specific tackle-related technique scores were associated with a non-injury outcome. The ability to perform well during tackle events may decrease the risk of injury and may manifest in superior performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, N.; Lambert, M.I.; Viljoen, W.; Brown, J.; Readhead, C.; Hendricks, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of

  6. Injuries in Australian school-level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Hides, Julie A

    2017-11-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. In youth rugby union, there are large variations in injury rates reported. Our study investigated the rates of injuries in school-level rugby union players in Australia using the consensus statement for rugby union injuries. Injury surveillance was conducted on 480 rugby players from 1 school in Queensland, Australia. Injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the 8-week rugby season using a "medical-attention" injury definition. In total, 76 players sustained one or more injuries, with a total of 80 injuries recorded. The overall injury rate was 31.8 injuries/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 25.4-39.4). Concussion had an incidence rate of 6.0/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 3.5-9.6). The incidence of upper limb and lower limb injuries were 9.1 and 9.9/1000 match player hours, respectively (95% CI, 5.9-13.5 and 6.6-14.5). The older age divisions had higher injury rates and most injuries occurred while tackling or being tackled. The injury rates observed in this sample of Australian school rugby union players provides direction for future studies to enable informed decisions relating to development of injury prevention programmes at this level of rugby.

  7. Effects of postexercise ice-water and room-temperature water immersion on the sensory organization of balance control and lower limb proprioception in amateur rugby players: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Joanne W Y; Fong, Shirley S M

    2017-02-01

    This single-blinded, three-armed randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the effects of postexercise ice-water immersion (IWI), room-temperature water immersion (RWI), and no water immersion on the balance performance and knee joint proprioception of amateur rugby players. Fifty-three eligible amateur rugby players (mean age ± standard deviation: 21.6 ± 2.9 years) were randomly assigned to the IWI group (5.3 °C), RWI group (25.0 °C), or the no immersion control group. The participants in each group underwent the same fatigue protocol followed by their allocated recovery intervention, which lasted for 1 minute. Measurements were taken before and after the fatigue-recovery intervention. The primary outcomes were the sensory organization test (SOT) composite equilibrium score (ES) and the condition-specific ES, which were measured using a computerized dynamic posturography machine. The secondary outcome was the knee joint repositioning error. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the effect of water immersion on each outcome variable. There were no significant within- and between-group differences in the SOT composite ESs or the condition-specific ESs. However, there was a group-by-time interaction effect on the knee joint repositioning error. It seems that participants in the RWI group had lower errors over time, but those in the IWI and control groups had increased errors over time. The RWI group had significantly lower error score than the IWI group at postintervention. One minute of postexercise IWI or RWI did not impair rugby players' sensory organization of balance control. RWI had a less detrimental effect on knee joint proprioception to IWI at postintervention.

  8. Evidence in support of the call to ban the tackle and harmful contact in school rugby: a response to World Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allyson M; White, Adam John; Kirkwood, Graham

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in BJSM (June 2016), World Rugby employees Ross Tucker and Martin Raftery and a third coauthor Evert Verhagen took issue with the recent call to ban tackling in school rugby in the UK and Ireland. That call (to ban tackling) was supported by a systematic review published in BJSM Tucker et al claim that: (1) the mechanisms and risk factors for injury along with the incidence and severity of injury in youth rugby union have not been thoroughly identified or understood; (2) rugby players are at no greater risk of injury than other sports people, (3) this is particularly the case for children under 15 years and (4) removing the opportunity to learn the tackle from school pupils might increase rates of injuries. They conclude that a ban 'may be unnecessary and may also lead to unintended consequences such as an increase in the risk of injury later in participation.' Here we aim to rebut the case by Tucker et al We share new research that extends the findings of our original systematic review and meta-analysis. A cautionary approach requires the removal of the tackle from school rugby as the quickest and most effective method of reducing high injury rates in youth rugby, a public health priority. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Breaking the mould? Whiteness, masculinity, Welshness, working-classness and rugby league in Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, K; Spracklen, C

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, rugby in Wales has meant rugby union, the once-amateur, fifteen-a-side code that has a long history of working-class, male involvement in the Valleys of South Wales (Williams, G., 1985). In recent years, however, rugby union has been joined in South Wales by the non-traditionally Welsh sport of rugby league. Once upon a time, rugby league was the sport that “bought” Welsh rugby players who went north (Collins, 2006). Rugby league has now expanded into Wales, developing its vers...

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Williams, W Huw; Baker, Stephanie; Stanwell, Peter

    2014-12-01

    . Concussion is a common injury sustained and reported in match play and to a lesser extent during practice by Rugby Union players. Based on the available published data, there appears to be a variation in risk of concussion across level of play, with the sub-elite level having the greatest incidence of injury. Future research focused on studying the acute consequences and best management strategies in current players, and the potential longer term outcomes of concussion in retired players, is needed. A focus on the areas of prevention, injury identification, and medical management, and risk for long-term outcomes will be of benefit to current athletes.

  11. The epidemiology of schoolboy rugby injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C E; Goedeke, R; Visser, G R; van Zyl, W A; Noakes, T D

    1987-03-07

    During one 18-week season, in which players from 26 high schools played 3,350 rugby matches, 495 injuries prevented players from participating in rugby for at least 1 week; 71% occurred during matches and 29% during practices. Injury was more common during the first 4 weeks of the season and again in the same time period after the mid-season vacation. At all ages, A-team players suffered the greatest number of injuries. The safest playing positions were tight-forward and scrum-half; the most dangerous loose-forward and in the back-line excluding the scrum-half. Overall, eightmen were the most often injured players. Of all injuries 55% occurred while the player was tackling or being tackled and 18% during the loose scrum/maul. The lower limb (37%), the head and neck (29%) and the upper limb (20%) were most commonly injured, and fractures (27%), ligament/tendon injuries (25%) and muscle injuries (17%) were commonest. However, concussion injuries were underreported in 19 of the 26 schools. This study shows: that monitoring rugby injuries through correspondence results in underreporting of injuries; that rugby injuries show specific trends with age, team level, playing position, time of the season and phase of play; and that players in the different positions suffer specific injuries in predictable phases of the game. Speed of play may be the most important aetiological factor in the majority of rugby injuries.

  12. A Review of a Decade of Rugby Union Injury Epidemiology: 2007-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviers, Pierre L; Viljoen, Jeandré T; Derman, Wayne

    Rugby union is the most widely played team collision sport globally. As with other contact sports, there is substantial risk of injury. To date, the majority of studies on injury epidemiology have focused on elite male cohorts, which inherently prevents extrapolation of research findings to other groups within the player continuum. This review aims to describe emerging injury trends across the spectrum of various rugby union subpopulations and to highlight gaps that may influence future injury prevention tactics. Relevant articles published from 2007 to 2017 were obtained by searching MEDLINE, PubMed, and SPORT Discus. Studies on 15-a-side rugby union, implemented according to the 2007 consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for injuries in rugby union, were used. Clinical review. Level 3. Match injuries occur more frequently than training injuries. Injury rates increase consistently according to age and level of play. Severity of injury often is greater among lower levels of the game, and sex-specific differences relating to injury patterns and incidence rates exist. To date, a paucity of injury surveillance data exists for women and players of both sexes at all levels of community rugby union. Furthermore, the incidence of injuries and illnesses are poorly reported in epidemiological studies. Despite methodological differences, injury trends remain consistent throughout all levels of play.

  13. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union

    OpenAIRE

    LACOME, Mathieu; PISCIONE, Julien; HAGER, Jean-Philippe; BOURDIN, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe an original approach to assessing individual workload during international rugby union competitions. The difference between positional groups and between the two halves was explored. Sixty-seven files from 30 French international rugby union players were assessed on a computerised player-tracking system (Amisco Pro®, Sport Universal Process, Nice, France) during five international games. Each player's action was split up into exercise and recovery pe...

  14. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2017-01-01

    L’école de rugby du Rugby Club CERN Meyrin Saint Genis Pouilly organise son tournoi le Dimanche 30 Avril 2017 de 12h à 16h au terrain de rugby situé proche du Golf des Serves à Saint Genis Pouilly. Ne manquez pas de venir encourager nos jeunes rugby(wo)men. C’est également l’occasion de faire découvrir ce sport à votre enfant ! Le reste de l’année, les entraînements des enfants (de 4 à 16 ans) ont lieu le mercredi de 17h30 à 19h au terrain de rugby de Meyrin situé avenue Louis Rendu (jouxtant le parking de la piscine de Meyrin). Après trois séances d’essais offertes, vos enfants pourront alors décider de transformer l’essai en s’inscrivant.    Le Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St Genis c'est aussi une section Masculine et une section F&...

  15. Rugby club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby club

    2016-01-01

    Pour le rugby club du CERN… c’est la rentrée ! La fin des vacances rime aussi avec la reprise des activités sportives et le club de rugby du CERN ne fait pas exception : ses 3 sections reprennent du service. L’école de rugby reprend ses entrainements le Mercredi 31 août 2016 à 17h30. Vous voulez faire découvrir à vos enfants un nouveau sport? N’hésitez pas. Le rugby c’est l’école de la vie. L’Ecole de Rugby du Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St Genis et ses éducateurs accueillent les enfants dès l’âge de 5 ans, de tous gabarits et origines et les invitent à découvrir de façon ludique un sport d’équipe. Après trois séances offertes, ils pourront alors décider de transformer l’essai en s’inscrivant...

  16. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role-player expectations regarding the education of nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelie, S C; Bornman, J E; Botes, A C

    2003-12-01

    This article reports on role player expectations regarding the education of nursing research. The importance of the role player expectations are two-fold: firstly as a factor in the external environment influencing and guiding the formulation phase of the development of standards and secondly, due to the clear indications of problems regarding nursing research in the nursing profession in literature. The role player expectations were elicited using a qualitative, exploratory and contextual design. The role player population included nurse educators, nurses in managerial, clinical and research positions, students and the medical profession. The data was gathered using the naïve sketches and qualitative data analysis was done using Morse & Field's approach (1996:103-107) in combination with Tesch's data analysis approach as cited by Creswell (1994:154-156). Sixty initial categories were narrowed down to six final categories, which are the research learning programme, personnel, students, departmental policies, funding and support systems. The role player expectations were elicited as part of a research study aiming tot develop a self-evaluation system for quality assurance in nursing research and as such, the role player expectations plays a pivotal role in the development of standards for the self-evaluation system.

  18. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  19. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Rugby school

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a sport for your kid? How about Rugby? Rugby is a team sport that allows children to develop their motor skills as well as their intellectual skills in a fun way. The CERN-Meyrin-Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby school, given its international location, welcomes children from the age of 5 from all nationalities and levels. Diversity is welcomed and encouraged to build a strong sense of belonging and team spirit. Training sessions take place on Wednesdays from 17h30 to 19h00 at the pitch by the parking lot of the Meyrin pool. Adding to the training sessions, children are also have the opportunity to participate in several Swiss tournaments. One of these tournaments will be organized by the CERN rugby school on Sunday, October 4th 2015 from 12h-16h in the Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby pitch (by the Gold des Serves). Do not hesitate to come see us for more information and support the kids on the date. The first 2015/2016 practice will take place on Wednesday, 26th of August. Come join us in Meyrin! For more...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... Methods: Venous blood was taken into EDTA for 12 soccer players of KNUST soccer team before .... haemoglobin concentration in elite rugby players. .... diet, over-training, and possibly due to a transient increase in.

  2. The role of the visual hardware system in rugby performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the importance of the 'hardware' factors of the visual system in the game of rugby. A group of professional and club rugby players were tested and the results compared. The results were also compared with the established norms for elite athletes. The findings indicate no significant difference in hardware ...

  3. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Teaching Youth Rugby: Instructional Strategies and Models that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward B.; Caram, Courtney; Griffin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Rookie Rugby is a continuous team invasion game of tag with a ball. It is also inclusive giving every participant an active role regardless of their size, shape, gender, or experience. In essence, all players are quarterbacks who can run, catch, pass, tag, evade, and score. Thus, rugby empowers students to create and react, cooperate and compete,…

  5. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch Rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and proportion of total injuries occurring at Stellenbosch Rugby Football Club in Stellenbosch, South Africa, between the years 1973 - 1975 and 2003 - 2005. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. Main outcome measures. Injured rugby players from the ...

  6. Fast-tracked Rehabilitation and Return to Sport of an Elite Rugby Player with a Complicated Posterolateral Corner Injury and Associated Peroneal Paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, L. D. A.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Maas, M.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Acute posterolateral corner injuries of the knee with associated hamstring avulsions and peroneal paralysis are rare in rugby. Regain of motor function following a complete paralysis is documented to be 38%. To our knowledge, only one case describes return to preinjury level of competitive sport

  7. Not all players are equally motivated: The role of narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Lofthouse, Sian; Williams, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Research on motivational climates consistently demonstrates that mastery-focused climates are associated with positive outcomes and ego-involving performance climates lead to maladaptive outcomes. However, the role of personality within such a framework has been largely ignored. To redress this imbalance, we examined the potential role of narcissism in moderating the effects of different motivational climates on leader-inspired extra effort in training. Training is where rugby players spend most of their rugby time and we were keen to examine the combination of personality and climate that might maximise the yield of such training environments. Female rugby players (n = 126) from 15 clubs completed measures of narcissism, motivational climate and effort. Moderated regression analyses revealed that narcissism moderated the relationship between motivational climate and effort. Increases in either performance or mastery climates were associated with increases in effort for narcissists; no such relationship was revealed for low narcissists. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering personality within rugby training environments, as it is clear that not every player will respond the same way to specific training conditions. Coaches who understand this and are able to tailor individualised motivational climates will likely gain the greatest benefits from their different players.

  8. Injuries in Rugby Union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Gibson, T

    In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.

  9. A comparison of talented south african and english youth rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reference to game-specific-, anthropometric-, physical and motor variables. ... English youth rugby players (18-year old) with reference to game-specific-, anthropometric- and physical and motor variables. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Sports-related concussion relevant to the South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    memory loss and fatigue are particularly significant in young people .... modified for rugby, to assess recent memory. ... and non-concussed players (Table III). 31 ..... Petterson J, Skelton R. Glucose enhances long-term declarative memory in.

  11. The comparative incidence of reported concussions presenting for follow-up management in South African Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Noakes, Timothy D; Radloff, Sarah E; Whitefield, Victoria J; Clark, Susan B; Roberts, Craig O; Essack, Fathima B; Zoccola, Diana; Boulind, Melissa J; Case, Stephanie E; Smith, Ian P; Mitchell, Julia L G

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the seasonal concussion incidence for school, university, club and provincial level Rugby Union players in South Africa. The study presents a retrospective statistical analysis of the number of reported concussions documented annually for groups of Rugby Union players as a proportion of those who received preseason neurocognitive assessment. Between 2002 and 2006, concussion management programs using computerized neuropsychological assessment were implemented for clinical and research purposes by psychologists in selected South African institutions involved in Rugby Union from school through to the professional level. The incidence figures were based on 175 concussive episodes reported for 165 athletes who were referred for neurocognitive assessment from a population of 1366 athletes who received preseason baseline testing. Concussion management routines varied according to the protocols adopted by the different psychologists and rugby organizations. It was expected that the incidence of concussion would vary significantly due to level of play and different management protocols. There was wide disparity in the manner in which concussion follow-up was managed by the various organizations. Within broadly comparable cohorts, tighter control was associated with a relatively higher concussion incidence for athletes per rugby playing season, with average institutional figures ranging from 4% to 14% at school level and 3% to 23% at adult level. This analysis suggests that concussion goes unrecognized and therefore incorrectly managed in a number of instances. Recommendations for optimal identification of concussed athletes for follow-up management are presented.

  12. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985 1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained ...

  13. Proof of Concept of Automated Collision Detection Technology in Rugby Sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    Clarke, AC, Anson, JM, and Pyne, DB. Proof of concept of automated collision detection technology in rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1116-1120, 2017-Developments in microsensor technology allow for automated detection of collisions in various codes of football, removing the need for time-consuming postprocessing of video footage. However, little research is available on the ability of microsensor technology to be used across various sports or genders. Game video footage was matched with microsensor-detected collisions (GPSports) in one men's (n = 12 players) and one women's (n = 12) rugby sevens match. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative events between video and microsensor-detected collisions were used to calculate recall (ability to detect a collision) and precision (accurately identify a collision). The precision was similar between the men's and women's rugby sevens game (∼0.72; scale 0.00-1.00); however, the recall in the women's game (0.45) was less than that for the men's game (0.69). This resulted in 45% of collisions for men and 62% of collisions for women being incorrectly labeled. Currently, the automated collision detection system in GPSports microtechnology units has only modest utility in rugby sevens, and it seems that a rugby sevens-specific algorithm is needed. Differences in measures between the men's and women's game may be a result of physical size, and strength, and physicality, as well as technical and tactical factors.

  14. Role-player expectations regarding the education of nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Zeelie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on role player expectations regarding the education of nursing research. The importance of the role player expectations are two-fold: firstly as a factor in the external environment influencing and guiding the formulation phase of the development of standards and secondly, due to the clear indications of problems regarding nursing research in the nursing profession in literature. The role player expectations were elicited using a qualitative, exploratory and contextual design. The role player population included nurse educators, nurses in managerial, clinical and research positions, students and the medical profession. The data was gathered using the naïve sketches and qualitative data analysis was done using Morse & Field’s approach (1996:103-107 in combination with Tesch’s data analysis approach as cited by Creswell (1994:154-156. Sixty initial categories were narrowed down to six final categories, which are the research learning programme, personnel, students, departmental policies, funding and support systems.

  15. Procedural Zelda : A PCG Environment for Player Experience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Norbert; Bakkes, Sander

    2017-01-01

    To contribute to the domain of player experience research, this paper presents a new PCG environment with a relatively wide expressive range that builds upon the iconic The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past action-RPG game; it contributes by providing the openly-available Procedural Zelda

  16. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  17. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Epidemiology of injuries in Australian school level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Brown, Mark; Rahmann, Ann; Mendis, M Dilani; Hides, Julie A

    2017-08-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. There is a lack of large-scale injury surveillance data reported for school level rugby players of different ages. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency and nature of injuries being sustained during an Australian school level rugby union season. Prospective observational study. Injury surveillance was conducted on 3585 rugby players from all 8 schools participating in an interschool rugby competition in Queensland, Australia. Match injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the season using a 'medical-attention' injury definition for each age group from opens (17 and 18year olds) through to year 5 teams (9-10year olds). There were 332 injuries recorded over 14,029 player hours during the season. The overall rate of injury was 23.7/1000 player hours (95% CI, 21.2-26.3). The incidence of upper and lower limb injuries were 6.3 and 5.6 injuries/1000 player hours respectively (95% CI, 5.1-7.8 and 4.5-7.0). The incidence of suspected concussion injuries was 4.3/1000 player hours (95% CI, 3.6-5.5). Injuries differed across age groups and tackling was the most common mechanism of injury. The injury patterns observed in this large sample of players could be used to guide injury prevention programs in school level rugby union. Injury prevention programs should include age appropriate interventions and focus on improving the techniques used during the contact phase of rugby. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of U18 school and academy rugby union match play

    OpenAIRE

    Read, D; Jones, B; Till, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the physical demands of rugby union can assist coaches in the preparation of players. Match demands in senior players for domestic competitions (Cahill et al., 2013) and international games (Quarrie et al., 2013) are well established. However, despite adolescent rugby union players playing concurrently at various standards, there is no study that has attempted to compare them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the physical demands of U18 school vs....

  20. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947

  1. An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2007-02-01

    Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production.

  2. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF POSITION ON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY AND RECONSTRUCTION IN RECREATIONAL RUGBY FOOTBALL UNION PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dawes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The different player positions in rugby union may place varying demands on a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in regards to 'cutting manoeuvres', this in turn may effect performance. In order to investigate sporting performance post reconstruction, a questionnaire was sent to amateur rugby clubs affiliated to the Oxfordshire Rugby Football Union (R.F.U. From the returned questionnaires player positions were placed into categories based on similar 'cutting manoeuvre' demands. Seventy five percent of Individuals playing in the category 1 (low 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at slow running speeds could play a full game with a damaged ACL and post-reconstruction the majority returned to play at a higher level. Fifty percent of ACL injuries occurred on category 2 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at medium running speeds suggesting they may be more prone to ACL injury than other positions. The majority of individuals playing in category 3 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at fast speeds played at a lower level of rugby post reconstruction. Positional demands may influence ACL injury and post reconstruction sporting performance. However, more research is needed

  4. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  5. Training activities and injuries in English youth academy and schools rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Deborah S; Stokes, Keith A; Fuller, Colin W; England, Michael; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-02-01

    All rugby training activities carry an injury risk, but in the training environment these injury risks should be more controllable than during matches. To (1) describe the incidence, severity, anatomic location, and type of youth rugby training injuries; (2) determine the injury events and type of training activities associated with injuries; and (3) compare 2 levels of play (professional academy vs school) within English youth rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A 2-season (2006-2007 and 2007-2008) study recorded exposure to training activities and time-loss injuries in male youth rugby union players (age range, 16-18 years) from 12 English Premiership academies (250 player-seasons) and 7 schools (222 player-seasons). Players from the Premiership academies, associated with the top-level professional clubs in England, represented the elite level of youth rugby; the school players were from established rugby-playing schools but were overall considered at a lower level of play. There was a trend for training injury incidence to be lower for the academy group (1.4/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) compared with the school group (2.1/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9) (P = .06). Injuries to the ankle/heel and thigh were most common in academy players and injuries to the lumbar spine and ankle/heel region most common in school players. The training activities responsible for injury differed between the 2 groups: technical skills (scrummaging) for school players and contact skills (defense and ruck/maul drills) for academy players. For injury risk management in youth rugby, coaches of school players should focus on the development of the correct technique during practice of technical skills such as scrummaging, weight training, and skills training, and coaches of academy players should consider the extent to which contact drills are necessary during training. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horsley, Ian G; Fowler, Elizabeth M; Rolf, Christer G

    2013-01-01

    Background In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. Objective The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. Method This study is a retrospective analysis set a...

  7. Imaging the cervical spine following rugby related injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.

  8. Spinal cord injuries in South African Rugby Union (1980 - 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanus, Fiona J; Draper, Catherine E; Noakes, Timothy D

    2010-03-30

    To address an apparent increase in the number of rugby-related spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in South Africa, a retrospective case-series study was conducted on injuries that occurred between 1980 and 2007. We aimed to identify preventable causes to reduce the overall rate of SCIs in South African rugby. We identified 264 rugby-related SCIs. A structured questionnaire was used, and it was possible to obtain information on a total of 183 players, including 30 who had died. SCIs increased in number in the 1980s and in 2006. Forwards sustained 76% of all SCIs, and club players 60%. Players aged 17 had the highest number of SCIs. In only 50% of cases were medical personnel present at the time of injury, and 49% of injured players waited longer than 6 hours for acute management. Of players with an SCI, 61% had a catastrophic outcome after 12 months, including 8% who died during that time; 65% received no financial compensation; and only 29% of players had medical aid or health insurance. A register of all rugby-related SCIs in South Africa is essential to monitor the magnitude of the problem, identify potential risk factors, and formulate appropriate preventive interventions. The lack of reliable denominator data limits calculation of incident rates. Players from previously disadvantaged communities in particular suffered the consequences of limited public health care resources and no financial compensation.

  9. Concussions and Head Injuries in English Community Rugby Union Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Michael; Goodison, William; Stokes, Keith A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has described general injury patterns in community-level rugby union, but specific information on time-loss head injuries has not been reported. To establish the incidence and nature of significant time-loss head injuries in English community rugby match play, and to identify the injury risk for specific contact events. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over 6 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), 76 (2011-2012), 50 (2012-2013), 67 (2013-2014), and 58 (2014-2015) English community rugby clubs (Rugby Football Union levels 3-9) over a total of 175,940 hours of player match exposure. Club injury management staff reported information for all head injuries sustained during match play whereby the player was absent for 8 days or greater. Clubs were subdivided into semiprofessional (mean player age, 24.6 ± 4.7 years), amateur (24.9 ± 5.1 years), and recreational (25.6 ± 6.1 years) playing levels. Contact events from a sample of 30 matches filmed over seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012 provided mean values for the frequency of contact events. The overall incidence for time-loss head injuries was 2.43 injuries per 1000 player match hours, with a higher incidence for the amateur (2.78; 95% CI, 2.37-3.20) compared with recreational (2.20; 95% CI, 1.86-2.53) ( P = .032) playing level but not different to the semiprofessional (2.31; 95% CI, 1.83-2.79) playing level. Concussion was the most common time-loss head injury, with 1.46 per 1000 player match hours. The tackle event was associated with 64% of all head injuries and 74% of all concussions. There was also a higher risk of injuries per tackle (0.33 per 1000 events; 95% CI, 0.30-0.37) compared with all other contact events. Concussion was the most common head injury diagnosis, although it is likely that this injury was underreported. Continuing education programs for medical staff and players are essential for the improved identification and management of

  10. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  11. Is the game of touch rugby safe for female adolescents? | Vijam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanisms producing the musculoskeletal injuries were rapid, rotational movement (33.3%) and poor landing (26.6%) (p<0.05). Female adolescent touch rugby players experience a high prevalence of acute musculoskeletal knee and ankle injuries. Keywords: Touch rugby, musculoskeletal injury, female adolescents.

  12. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with

  13. Incidence of injury in elite junior Rugby Union: a prospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, A; Cross, D S

    2004-12-01

    The high incidence of injury in Rugby Union is well documented, particularly at elite levels of competition. This article describes the incidence and nature of all injuries sustained by elite Western Australian junior Rugby Union players during the 26 weeks up to and including the 1997 National Championship campaign. Informed consent was gained for each participant (n = 44) prior to completion of an extensive baseline questionnaire. Exposure and injury data were collected at each training session and game. The injury incidence rate over the 26 week period was 13.26/1000 player hours. Injury data were analysed by phase of play, position, severity and if occurred at games or training. The incidence of injury was significantly associated with the position played (chi2 = 67.49, p value = 0.008) and the phase of play in which the injury occurred (chi2 = 8.07, p value = 0.042). Tackling was the most dangerous phase of play (52% of injuries) and the most common site of injury was the lower limb (37%). Most injuries occurred during games (56%) and the flanker was the position most at risk of injury (12%). Further research is needed to identify the aetiology of injury at all levels of competition and to use these findings to develop effective injury prevention strategies in this sport. Position-specific risk factors should also be investigated, as should the mechanism of injury associated with tackling which is the phase of play in which significantly more injuries occur in rugby.

  14. Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s: An American Experience and Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Weinstein, Meryle G; Cantu, Robert C; Myers, Laurel S D; Nadkar, Nisha S; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-07-01

    There is a comparative lack of concussion incidence data on the new Olympic sport Rugby 7s. This study aimed to determine the incidence (number of concussions per 1000 playing hours [ph]), mean and median severity (days absence), and cause of concussive injuries. This is a prospective epidemiology study, amateur to elite/national candidate, male (9768) and female (3876) players in USA Rugby sanctioned tournaments, compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby union. Concussions in US Rugby 7s were 7.7/1000 ph (n = 67). Women encountered concussions at 8.1/1000 ph, and men at 7.6/1000 ph (risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, P = 0.593). Elite/national-level players encountered concussions at higher rates (18.3/1000 ph) than lower levels (6.4/1000 ph; RR = 5.48, P Rugby 7s players. US Elite tournament players sustained concussions at much higher rates than international male Rugby 7s counterparts. A substantial portion of US players who sustained a concussion had previous concussion injuries. Given the high rate of concussion, including repetitive concussive injuries, US Rugby 7s may benefit from concussion prevention measures similar to other contact sports such as instruction on proper tackling techniques, in-game and postgame medical assessment, and a standardized return-to-play protocol.

  15. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Tecame, A; Torre, G; Narbona, P; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic.

  16. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A rugby tournament for CERN's 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 4 April the rugby pitch at the Meyrin sports centre will be the venue for the Swiss Rugby Schools' tournament, organised by the CERN-Meyrin-St Genis Rugby Club. The organisers will be unmistakable, kitted out in CERN Staff Association t-shirts specially dedicated to the CERN clubs for the Organization's 50th anniversary. Come along and cheer on the 250 players from Switzerland and neighbouring France, aged from 6 to 18, who will do battle on the rugby field over the course of 50 matches from 11.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. At the end of the tournament, the winners will be presented with 50th anniversary memorabilia by the Mayor and a CERN representative who will say a few words about the Laboratory.

  18. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Water Status Markers after a Rugby Sevens Match

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; el-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R.; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. Methods Twelve recreational rugby sevens players played three matches: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status...

  19. Research of individual psychological particular qualities handball players 15-17 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova H.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences of individual-psychological characteristics of young handball players playing in different game roles. It is shown the relationship of certain personality characteristics of athletes with a line of attack handball players. In research took part handball players at the age of 15-17 years. It is analyzed data from questionnaires by R. Kettela and R. Rusalova. Evaluated the differences in the properties of the temperament handball players of different roles. Established that the distribution of game functions athletes must take into account their individual psychological characteristics.

  20. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Spinal injuries in professional rugby union: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Kemp, Simon P T

    2007-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity, nature, and causes of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine injuries sustained during competition and training in professional rugby union. A 2 season prospective cohort design. Twelve English Premiership rugby union clubs. Five hundred and forty-six male rugby union players of whom 296 were involved in both seasons. Location, diagnosis, severity (number of days unavailable for training and matches), and cause of injury: incidence of match and training injuries (injuries/1000 player-hours). Player age, body mass, stature, playing position, use of headgear, and activity and period of season. The incidences of spinal injuries were 10.90 (9.43 to 12.60) per 1000 player match-hours and 0.37 (0.29 to 0.47) per 1000 player training-hours. No player sustained a catastrophic spinal injury, but 3 players sustained career-ending injuries. Overall, players were more likely to sustain a cervical injury during matches and a lumbar injury during training. Forwards were significantly more likely to sustain a spinal injury than backs during both matches (P accounting for 926 days (23%) and cervical nerve root injuries sustained during matches for 621 days (15%). During matches, more injuries were caused by tackles (37%), and during training more injuries were caused by weight-training (33%). The results showed that rugby union players were exposed to a high risk of noncatastrophic spinal injury during tackling, scrummaging, and weight-training activities; injury prevention strategies, therefore, should be focused on these activities.

  2. Misunderstandings of concussion within a youth rugby population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; See, James

    2017-11-01

    The recognition and management of concussion has become a major health concern within rugby union. Identifying misconceptions and attitudes regarding concussion is valuable for informing player education. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, concussion in subgroups of youth rugby players. Cross-sectional survey. Information sheets and consent forms were distributed at training sessions for multiple teams at each of three schools and three clubs. Players who returned consent forms completed a custom-designed survey at a subsequent session. Two hundred and fifty-five English players, aged 11-17 years, completed the anonymous survey. Sixty-one participants reported a total of 77 concussions. Self-reported return to play ranged from 0 to 365 days; only seven players (11%) reported a return to play after the Rugby Football Union's recommendation of 23 days. Although the majority of findings relating to players' knowledge of concussion were positive, a number of important misunderstandings were revealed. While the majority of players reported positive attitudes towards concussion, a substantial minority (up to 30%) reported inappropriate attitudes in response to specific questions. Participants who played at multiple venues did report superior knowledge and attitudes relative to their peers who played at a single venue. Despite generally positive results, youth rugby players were found to hold a number of misconceptions regarding concussion which should be the focus for education initiatives. Considering general subgroups of players by concussion history, age, or playing position appears unlikely to enhance the design of concussion education programmes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LINE-OUT THROWING IN ELITE INTERNATIONAL RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G.L. Sayers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rugby union line-out is a key aspect of game play and involves players from both teams contesting for the ball after it has been thrown in from the side line. Successful lines-out throws require the ball to be delivered accurately to the hands of a jumping and/or lifted team mate (approximately 3-3.5 m off the ground over distances of between 5- 18 m. Previous research has suggested considerable inter and intra-individual differences in the throwing techniques of international level players. Accordingly, this project investigated the interrelationships between accuracy and the line-out throwing characteristics of three elite international rugby players, and then analyzed whether these changed for throws over increasing length. Three-dimensional (3D data were developed from video footage (50 Hz of three elite international subjects for 30 throws over three distances (6 m, 10 m, and 15 m. Results showed notable differences between subjects in many variables at each of the key throw phases. However, several variables such as the degree of trunk flexion at the end of the backswing and at ball release, coupled with elbow flexion angle at ball release remained constant as throw length increased. All subjects exhibited high levels of consistency in movement patterns across all throw lengths. Findings indicated that these high performance line-out throwers shared several common characteristics that will provide useful guides in the development of training programs

  4. Incidence and Nature of Medical Attendance Injuries in English Community Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P.; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified injury patterns during community-level rugby union match play, but none have investigated the frequency and reasons for on-field injury management. Purpose: To establish the frequency, reasons, and patterns of on-field injury management in English community rugby, including differences between different levels of play. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over 3 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), and 76 (2011-2012) English community clubs (Rugby Football Union [RFU] levels 3-9). Club injury management staff reported information for all medical attendances during match play, including details on the injury site and type, playing position (seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 only), and whether the player was removed from play. Clubs were subdivided into groups A (RFU levels 3 and 4 [mainly semiprofessional]; n = 39), B (RFU levels 5 and 6 [mainly amateur]; n = 71), and C (RFU levels 7-9 [social and recreational]; n = 79) to differentiate playing levels. Results: The overall medical attendance incidence was 229 per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 226-232), with 45 players removed per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 44-46). Attendance incidence for group A (294 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 287-301) was higher compared with group B (213; 95% CI, 208-218; P < .001) and C (204; 95% CI, 200-209; P < .001). There was a higher incidence of attendances to forwards (254; 95% CI, 249-259) compared with backs (191; 95% CI, 187-196; P < .001). The head was the most common specific site of injury (55 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 53-57) but the lower limb region overall accounted for most attendances (87; 95% CI, 85-89) and the greatest chance of removal from the pitch (22; 95% CI, 21-23). Conclusion: With the likelihood of 1 injury for each team per match severe enough for the player to leave the pitch and with at least 1 attendance for a head injury per match

  5. Untypical Undergraduate Research: Player Motion Analysis in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerke, Dinah

    There is significant concern about the degree of attrition in STEM disciplines from the start of K-12 through to the end of higher education, and the analysis of the `leaky pipeline' from the various institutions has identified a critical decline - which may be as high as 60 percent - between the fraction of students who identify as having an interest in a science or engineering major at the start of college/university, and the fraction of students who ultimately graduate with a STEM degree. It has been shown that this decline is even more dramatic for women and underrepresented minorities (Blickenstaff 2005, Metcalf 2010). One intervention which has been proven to be effective for retention of potential STEM students is early research experience, particularly if it facilitates the students' integration into a STEM learning community (Graham et al. 2013, Toven-Lindsey et al. 2015). In other words, to retain students in STEM majors, we would like to encourage them to `think of themselves as scientists', and simultaneously promote supportive peer networks. The University of Denver (DU) already has a strong undergraduate research program. However, while the current program provides valuable training for many students, it likely comes too late to be effective for student retention in STEM, because it primarily serves older students who have already finished the basic coursework in their discipline; within physics, we know that the introductory physics courses already serve as gatekeeper courses that cause many gifted but `non-typical' students to lose interest in pursuing a STEM major (Tobias 1990). To address this issue, my lab is developing a small research spinoff program in which we apply spatiotemporal motion analysis to the motion trajectories of players in sports, using video recordings of DU Pioneer hockey games. This project aims to fulfill a dual purpose: The research is framed in a way that we think is attractive and accessible for beginning students who

  6. Collision count in rugby union: A comparison of micro-technology and video analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P; Tierney, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if there is a role for manipulation of g force thresholds acquired via micro-technology for accurately detecting collisions in rugby union. In total, 36 players were recruited from an elite Guinness Pro12 rugby union team. Player movement profiles and collisions were acquired via individual global positioning system (GPS) micro-technology units. Players were assigned to a sub-category of positions in order to determine positional collision demands. The coding of collisions by micro-technology at g force thresholds between 2 and 5.5 g (0.5 g increments) was compared with collision coding by an expert video analyst using Bland-Altman assessments. The most appropriate g force threshold (smallest mean difference compared with video analyst coding) was lower for all forwards positions (2.5 g) than for all backs positions (3.5 g). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement indicated that there may be a substantial over- or underestimation of collisions coded via GPS micro-technology when using expert video analyst coding as the reference comparator. The manipulation of the g force thresholds applied to data acquired by GPS micro-technology units based on incremental thresholds of 0.5 g does not provide a reliable tool for the accurate coding of collisions in rugby union. Future research should aim to investigate smaller g force threshold increments and determine the events that cause coding of false positives.

  7. Epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby union sevens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Antonio; Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo; Santiago, Luiz; Taborda Barata, Luis

    2017-02-01

    In 2016 the Rugby Union variant of sevens will enter the official Olympic Programme. Until now, most of injury surveillance studies in Rugby Union focus on elite 15-a-side cohorts, with reported injury incidence rates reaching 96 per 1000 player-match-hours, and mean severity set at 20 days. Sparse data is available regarding rugby sevens. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data regarding the epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby sevens. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Scielo and IndexRMP) were searched in September 2015, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies and relevant "grey literature". Seven prospective cohort original articles addressing injuries in senior male rugby sevens players were included in this review. Overall injury incidence rates in elite rugby sevens tournaments ranged 101.5 to 119.8 per 1000 player-match-hours. Mean severity was greater than 34.1 days. Lower limb and joint/ligament injuries were the most frequent in elite players. The only study on amateur players revealed a lower injury incidence rate (74.7 per 1000 player-match-hours), and a higher proportion of muscle/tendon (37.5 %) injuries. Injury incidence rates in rugby sevens are higher than those reported for the 15-a-side variant, at the same level of competition. Injuries are also more severe, resulting in longer absence periods. This might result from the fact that rugby sevens is played with greater speed, leading to an increase in energy transfers during tackles, more running and turning manoeuvers, that can possibly cause more severe injuries.

  8. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key Points First study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player. Physical components alone, of either ball-carrier or

  9. Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1) n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1), d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key PointsFirst study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player.Physical components alone, of either ball

  10. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Savage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.

  11. A New Model for Inclusive Sports? An Evaluation of Participants’ Experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Corazza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport has been recognised as a potential catalyst for social inclusion. The Mixed Ability Model represents an innovative approach to inclusive sport by encouraging disabled and non-disabled players to interact in a mainstream club environment. However, research around the impacts of the Model is currently lacking. This paper aims to contribute empirical data to this gap by evaluating participants’ experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby and highlighting implications for future initiatives. Primary qualitative data were collected within two Mixed Ability Rugby teams in the UK and Italy through online questionnaires and focus groups. Data were analysed using Simplican et al.’s (2015 model of social inclusion. Data show that Mixed Ability Rugby has significant potential for achieving inclusionary outcomes. Positive social impacts, reported by all participants, regardless of (disability, include enhanced social networks, an increase in social capital, personal development and fundamental perception shifts. Factors relevant to the Mixed Ability Model are identified that enhance these impacts and inclusionary outcomes. The mainstream setting was reportedly the most important, with further aspects including a supportive club environment and promotion of self-advocacy. A ‘Wheel of Inclusion’ is developed that provides a useful basis for evaluating current inclusive sport initiatives and for designing new ones.

  12. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrington Lee C; Horsley Ian G; Rolf Christer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later veri...

  14. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  15. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and

  16. Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Smith, Tiaki Brett; Driller, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The physical demands and combative nature of rugby lead to notable levels of muscle damage. In professional rugby, athletes only have a limited timeframe to recover following training sessions and competition. Through the implementation of recovery strategies, sport scientists, practitioners and coaches have sought to reduce the effect of fatigue and allow athletes to recover faster. Although some studies demonstrate that recovery strategies are extensively used by rugby athletes, the research remains equivocal concerning the efficacy of recovery strategies in rugby. Moreover, given the role of inflammation arising from muscle damage in the mediation of protein synthesis mechanisms, some considerations have been raised on the long-term effect of using certain recovery modalities that diminish inflammation. While some studies aimed to understand the effects of recovery modalities during the acute recovery phase (rugby training or competition. Given that cold modalities may potentially affect muscle size adaptations from training, their inclusion should be treated with caution and perhaps restricted to certain periods where athlete readiness is more important than increases in muscle size.

  17. Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St-Genis (RC CMSG) – Women’s team

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-2016 rugby season start is just around the corner for the “RUGBY CERN” ladies team. In order to be ready for the first official clash to be held mid-September, the Wildcats have engaged in fitness training sessions throughout the month of August. Every Thursday, the players meet at 19h30 by the Perl du Lac in Geneva for a bootcamp session while on Tuesdays, the team gathers for an aerobic training session, in Meyrin. Feel free to join the ladies for any of the sessions. Not only will you have a great workout but also enjoy the well-known rugby fun environment. All levels are welcome! For more information, do not hesitate to contact us: wildcats@cern-rugby.ch www.cern-rugy.ch // facebook : Wildcats Women’s Rugby

  18. Motivation and Burnout in Professional Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott L.; Eklund, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among burnout and motivational types differing in self-determination, using simple correlational analyses as well as more sophisticated canonical correlation analyses allowing for the simultaneous examination of multiple independent and dependent variables. The authors hypothesized that: (a) motivation low in…

  19. Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or groin and thigh pain or swelling. Muscle .... haematoma may vary from open surgery,[3,8] to percutaneous drainage,[5] laparoscopy[1] or the ... Basheer A, Jain R, Anton T, Rock J. Bilateral iliopsoas hematoma: Case report and literature review. ... treating traumatic iliopsoas hematoma: A retroperitoneoscopic approach.

  20. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using physical or psychological developmental milestones as guidelines, these models in sport were ... windows and the long-term effects of failing to exploit a training ... low deliberate practice approach, or start focusing on specific sports.

  1. Player communities in multiplayer online games : A systematic review of emperical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, H.J.G.; Siitonen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers have written about the social dynamics of player communities in multiplayer online games. Following a systematic review of refereed empirical research publications from 2000-2010, this article synthesizes the key methods and concepts researchers have used to study and

  2. Injuries in youth amateur soccer and rugby players—comparison of incidence and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players.

  3. Joueuse de rugby de première division : une activité dangereuse ?

    OpenAIRE

    JONCHERAY , Hélène; Tlili , Haïfa

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper is about women’s rugby union and dangerousness, two themes which are oftenassociated. Indeed, when women say they play rugby a lot of people instantly think about danger. Theresearch is based upon 197 questionnaires filled out by rugbywomen who play in the french first division.If the analysis (using the Sphinx2 software) of some results does not encourage women to start playingrugby (75 % of the players said they had been injured), social explanations have ...

  4. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talent identification and development in youth rugby players: a research review · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EJ Spamer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajrs.v31i2.46332 ...

  5. Evaluation of passive recovery, cold water immersion, and contrast baths for recovery, as measured by game performances markers, between two simulated games of rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor; Cameron, Melainie; Climstein, Mike

    2012-06-11

    ABSTRACT: In team sports, during the competitive season, peak performance in each game is of utmost importance to coaching staff and players. To enhance recovery from training and games a number of recovery modalities have been adopted across professional sporting teams. To date there is little evidence in the sport science literature identifying the benefit of modalities in promoting recovery between sporting competition games. This research evaluated hydrotherapy as a recovery strategy following a simulated game of rugby union and a week of recovery and training, with dependent variables between two simulated games of rugby union evaluated. Twenty-four male players were randomly divided into three groups: one group (n=8) received cold water immersion therapy (2 X 5min at 10oC, whilst one group (n=8) received contrast bath therapy (5 cycles of 10oC/38oC) and the control group (n=8) underwent passive recovery (15mins, thermo neutral environment). The two forms of hydrotherapy were administered following a simulated rugby union game (8 circuits x 11 stations) and after three training sessions. Dependent variables where generated from five physical stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union and one skilled based station, as well as sessional RPE values between two simulated games of rugby union. No significant differences were identified between groups across simulated games, across dependent variables. Effect size analysis via Cohen's d and ηp2 did identify medium trends between groups. Overall trends indicated that both treatment groups had performance results in the second simulated game above those of the control group of between 2% and 6% across the physical work stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union. In conclusion, trends in this study may indicate that ice baths and contrasts baths may be more advantageous to athlete's recovery from team sport than passive rest between successive games of rugby union We are pleased to

  6. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Tackle injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2008-09-01

    The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.

  8. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief Hendricks, David Karpul, Mike Lambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior and position (forwards vs. backs, and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact. Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60. Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29. Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact.

  9. Evaluation of hydrotherapy, using passive tests and power tests, for recovery across a cyclic week of competitive rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Climstein, Mike; Cameron, Melainie

    2013-04-01

    In team sports, a cycle of training, competition, and recovery occurs weekly during the competitive season. In this research, we evaluated hydrotherapy for recovery from a simulated game of rugby union tracked over a week of training. Twenty-four experienced male rugby union players (mean ± SD age 19.46 ± 0.82 years, weight 82.38 ± 11.12 kg, height 178.54 ± 5.75 cm) were randomly divided into 3 groups: cold water immersion (n = 8), contrast bath therapy (n = 8), and a control group (n = 8). The 2 forms of hydrotherapy were administered immediately after a simulated rugby game. Testing was conducted 1 hour before the game and at 5 intervals postgame: 1, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours. Dependent variables included countermovement jump, 10- and 40-m sprints, sessional rating of perceived exertion (RPE), flexibility, thigh circumference, and self-reported delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Significant differences in DOMS were found between the cold water immersion and contrast bath groups at 48 hours post intervention (p = 0.02), and between the control and contrast bath groups at 72 (p = 0.03) and 96 (p = 0.04) hours post intervention. Cold water immersion and contrast bath groups reported significantly different RPE at 72 hours (p = ?) and 96 hours post (p = 0.05) intervention. Athletes' perceptions of muscle soreness and sessional RPE scores for training were greater in the contrast bath group (20%) after the simulated game and throughout the training week. Although results from passive and power tests were inconclusive in determining whether cold water immersion or passive recovery was more effective in attenuating fatigue, results indicated contrast baths had little benefit in enhancing recovery during a cyclic week of rugby union.

  10. Comparison of Injuries in American Collegiate Football and Club Rugby: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact

  11. An evaluation of mouthguard requirements and dental injuries in New Zealand rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, K; Gianotti, S; Chalmers, D; Hopkins, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To document the effects of compulsory mouthguard wearing on rugby related dental injury claims made to ACC, the administrator of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme. Methods: An ecological study was conducted. Estimates of mouthguard wearing rates were available from prospective studies conducted in 1993, 2002, and 2003. Rugby related dental injury claims were available for the period 1995–2003. Player numbers were available from 1998. Mouthguard wearing was made compulsory during match play for rugby players at under 19 level and below at the beginning of the 1997 season, and for all grades of domestic rugby at the beginning of the 1998 season. Greater powers of enforcement were provided to referees at the beginning of the 2003 season. Results: The self reported rate of mouthguard use was 67% of player-weeks in 1993 and 93% in 2003. A total of 2644 claims was reported in 1995. There was a 43% (90% confidence interval 39% to 46%) reduction in dental claims from 1995 to 2003. On the reasonable assumption that the number of players and player-matches remained constant throughout the study period, the relative rate of injury claims for non-wearers versus wearers was 4.6 (90% confidence interval 3.8 to 5.6). The cumulative savings in claim costs compared with the cost per year if claim numbers had remained constant from 1995 is $1.87 million NZD. Conclusion: Although ecological studies have acknowledged weaknesses, the findings provide evidence that mouthguard use is a simple and effective injury prevention strategy for rugby players. The use of mouthguards for all players in both matches and contact practice situations is strongly recommended. PMID:16118304

  12. Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...

  13. Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non- injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower

  14. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with injury-related forced retirement. This study aimed to compare mental health between former professional rugby players who were and weren't forced to retire. A questionnaire including the 4DSQ (distress), GHQ-12 (anxiety/depression), PROMIS short-form (sleep disturbance) and AUDIT-C (alcohol misuse) was completed by retired professional players from Ireland, France and South Africa. The questionnaire asked players whether or not they were forced to retire, as well as the reason for retirement. Players forced to retire were more than twice as likely to report symptoms of distress in comparison to those that retired voluntarily (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.6, prugby players that were forced to retire may require support structures and longitudinal monitoring. Future studies should begin monitoring players during their careers to accurately assess the effect of retirement on mental health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Epidemiology and location of rugby injuries treated in US emergency departments from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesan V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vani Sabesan,1 Zachary Steffes,2 Daniel J Lombardo,1 Graysen R Petersen-Fitts,1 Toufic R Jildeh2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 2Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Rugby participation in the US is increasing, and with its inclusion in the 2016 Summer Olympics, the increased participation rates are expected to continue. Naturally, as participation increases, so too do rugby-related injuries. The difference in injury patterns with regard to age and gender illustrates differences in how the game is being played. Understanding what accounts for these emerging injury patterns will help guide future injury prevention efforts. This study provides an update on injury rates for the growing population of rugby players in the US, especially young players. Our results focus on the variation of injury types and the injury rates of various levels of rugby players, including youth, collegiate, and recreational. Using injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, we analyzed data in rugby patients for age, gender, body region, type of injury, and severity. We employed statistical weights to calculate national injury estimates. During the 10 years studied, the trend in the number of rugby injuries among all age groups showed a statistically significant increase (R=0.804, P=0.005. The average age of injury was 21.5±6.3 years with facial and head injuries constituting >33% of all injuries, representing a proportional increase of >10%. Men were most frequently injured in the face (18.2% and head (15.9%; women were most frequently injured in the head (23% and shoulder (12.3%. There were 9,059 concussions, constituting 7% of all injuries. Keywords: rugby, injury pattern, epidemiology

  16. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Seamus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting 'the tackle' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  17. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-05

    Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old) who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting \\'the tackle\\' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  18. Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Fowler, Elizabeth M; Rolf, Christer G

    2013-04-26

    In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. This study is a retrospective analysis set at a university sports medicine clinic. Eighty-seven professional rugby players, referred by their professional medical team since they could no longer play, underwent shoulder arthroscopy between June 2001 and October 2007 due to persistent shoulder pain and dysfunction. All were full-time professional male rugby union and rugby league players. They all had failed conservative treatment for their complaint, and the diagnosis was unclear. Arthroscopic findings were used as a measure of main outcome. The primary mechanism of injury was reported as direct tackling (56%; n = 49) followed in succession by falling onto the arm (10%; n = 8). However, in 30% of the cases, no definite injury could be recalled. The main operative finding was that most patients exhibited multiple shoulder pathologies, with 75% of cases presenting with two or more pathologies. A superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion was evident at arthroscopy in 72 of the 87 cases (83%), while rotator cuff tears were evident in 43% of cases (n = 37). One-third of all cases had a Bankart tear (n = 29), despite none of them reporting previous dislocations, while other labral tears, excluding SLAP tears, to the inferior or posterior labrum were present in 34% (n = 30) of the cohort. Repeated tackling, which is clearly rugby specific, is most likely to be responsible for most of these shoulder injuries, which upon arthroscopic examination, showed signs of mixed pathology. We suggest that an early arthroscopic investigation is valuable in

  19. Retrospective analysis of anthropometric and fitness characteristics associated with long-term career progression in Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... The objectives of this study is two folds; firstly to develop an interactive mobile application software .... athletes: A systematic review. International ... rugby league players: Does knowledge translate into practice? Journal of the ...

  1. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup | Jakoet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...

  2. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South. Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...

  3. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Bourdin, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe an original approach to assessing individual workload during international rugby union competitions. The difference between positional groups and between the two halves was explored. Sixty-seven files from 30 French international rugby union players were assessed on a computerised player-tracking system (Amisco Pro(®), Sport Universal Process, Nice, France) during five international games. Each player's action was split up into exercise and recovery periods according to his individual velocity threshold. Exercise-to-recovery (E:R) period ratios and acceleration were calculated. Results indicated that about 65% of exercise periods lasted less than 4 s; half of the E:Rs were less than 1:4, and about one-third ranged between 1 and 1:4 and about 40% of exercise periods were classified as medium intensity. Most acceleration values were less than 3 m·s(-2) and started from standing or walking activity. Back row players showed the highest mean acceleration values over the game (P physical performance was seen between the first and second halves of the games except for back rows, who showed a significant decrease in mean acceleration (P physical performance.

  4. Research on the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın İlimdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players based upon the importance of motivation on the athletes’ successes. The research group comprises 243 voluntary amateur football players who actively participated in the competitions during 2016-2017 season in Elazig. In the study, “Sports-Specific Achievement Motivation Scale” that was developed by Willis (1982 and adapted to Turkish by Tiryaki and Godelek (1997 was used. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 22 programme. The margin of error was accepted as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha value was found as ,78. Consequently; when the subscales of achievement motivation of the amateur soccer players participating in the study were analyzed with some variables, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those aged 22-24 years and those aged 25-27 years in approach success. In the team playing year variable, the statistical significance was found between the ones who have 1 year football history in the team and those who are 5 years or more in the approach success. It was observed the approach to achievement motivation increased as the experience of playing for a team increased. As for the year of working with a trainer variable, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those who had 1 year past with coach and those who had 2 years past with the motivation to avoid failure.

  5. Overground-Propulsion Kinematics and Acceleration in Elite Wheelchair Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, David S; Pinder, Ross A; Grimshaw, Paul N; Robertson, William S P

    2018-02-01

    Maximal acceleration from standstill has been identified as a key performance indicator in wheelchair rugby; however, the impact of classification and kinematic variables on performance has received limited attention. This study aimed to investigate kinematic variables during maximal acceleration, with level of activity limitation accounted for using sport-classification scores. Based on their sporting classification scores, which reflect combined trunk, arm, and hand function, 25 elite wheelchair rugby players were analyzed in high-, mid-, and low-point groups before completing five 5-m sprints from a stationary position. Inertial measurement units and video analysis were used to monitor key kinematic variables. Significant differences in kinematic variables were evident across the classification groups, particularly for the first stroke-contact angle (1-way ANOVA F 2,122  = 51.5, P propulsion approaches exist across classification groups, with this information potentially informing individual wheelchair setups and training programs.

  6. Shoulder injuries in elite rugby union football matches: Epidemiology and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Quarrie, Kenneth; Targett, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoulder injury mechanisms. Data were collected from Super Rugby matches from 2005 to 2010 involving elite level adult male rugby players. 7920 player participation hours and 100 shoulder injuries were recorded during 397 Super Rugby matches. The shoulder injury incidence rate was 13 per 1000 player hours (95% confidence interval 10-16). The mean number of days unavailable for selection due to these injuries was 37 (95% confidence interval 25-54). Tacklers sustained shoulder injuries at a higher rate than ball carriers (Rate Ratio=1.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5-5.3)). The most frequently reported injuries were those to the acromio-clavicular joint; dislocations resulted in the greatest amount of missed play. Using video analysis, 47 of the 100 shoulder injury events were successfully identified and analyzed. The main mechanisms of shoulder injury were contact with the ground with the shoulder/arm in horizontal adduction, flexion, and internal rotation; and impact to the lateral aspect of the shoulder with the elbow flexed and arm at the side. Direct impact to the shoulder, either through player-to-player contact or contact with the ground, is the main cause of shoulder injury. Methods to reduce injury risk, such as shoulder pads and tackle skills, require consideration. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute response to hydrotherapy after a simulated game of rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Cameron, Melainie L; Climstein, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Despite lacking clear scientific evidence, hydrotherapies (water treatments) are accepted techniques to help team sport athletes recover from the physical effects of games. The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of cold water immersions (CWIs) and hot-and-cold contrast baths on athletes' recovery after a simulated game of rugby union. Twenty-four experienced, well-trained, male rugby union players were divided into 3 groups to receive recovery interventions: CWI for 1 group, contrast baths for a second group, and passive recovery for a third (control) group. Pregame and postgame measurements included a countermovement jump (normalized as a ratio to body weight), a sit-and-stretch flexibility test (centimeters), thigh circumference (to detect swelling; centimeters), and participants' perception of delayed-onset muscular soreness (DOMS, 100-mm visual analog scale). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, and the calculation of omnibus effect sizes for each group ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) and the magnitudes of change within and between groups (Cohen's d). The participants in the contrast bath group reported statistically significantly greater measures of DOMS than participants in the control group did at 1 hour postintervention (p = 0.05, control group: d = 1.80; contrast bath: d = 4.75), and than participants in the CWI group did at 48 hours postintervention (p = 0.02, CWI: d = 1.17; contrast bath: d = 1.97). These findings provide modest evidence that contrast baths are a less effective strategy for recovery from rugby union than are CWI or passive recovery. Specifically, 2 × 5-minute CWI is superior to both contrasts baths and passive recovery in alleviating DOMS after exercise-induced muscle damage. Our recommendation for rugby union players aiming to attenuate the effects of DOMS postgames is to take 2 × 5-minute CWIs baths immediately after the game.

  8. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A

    2007-06-02

    To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.

  9. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  10. Injury Patterns, Physiological Profile, and Performance in University Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Sharp, Tristan; Orr, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically demanding collision sport with high injury rates. There is a common perception that higher training loads result in greater injury risk in field-based sports. To determine injury, anthropometric, and physical-performance characteristics in junior rugby union players and investigate the interaction between training load and injury across a competitive season. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-one players (age 19.2 ± 0.7 y) from an under-20 university rugby union team (forwards, n = 27; backs, n = 24) participated in a study conducted over a competition season. Training load, injury characteristics, anthropometry, physiological performance, and match time-loss injury incidence were observed. Backs had significantly lower body mass (ES [95% CI] = 1.6 [0.9, 2.2]), skinfold thickness (ES = 1.1 [0.5, 1.7]), strength (squat ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.2], deadlift ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.1], bench press ES = 0.9 [0.4, 1.5]), lower-body power (ES = 0.4 [-0.2, 1.0]), and higher maximal aerobic capacity (ES = -0.3 [-0.8, 0.3]) than forwards. Match injury incidence was 107.3 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 91.4/1000, backs 125.5/1000) during preseason and 110.7 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 124.1/1000, backs 95.2/1000) during in-season. Forwards showed higher incidence of joint and ligament (P = .049) and upper-limb (P = .011) injuries than backs. No significant relationship between overall training load and match injury incidence was found. However, lower match injury incidence was associated with higher weekly training volume in backs (P = .007). Positional differences in body composition, performance, injury characteristics, and match injury patterns were identified in junior university rugby union players, indicating the need for position-specific training programs to reduce risk of injury.

  11. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  12. Head impacts in a junior rugby league team measured with a wireless head impact sensor: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec 2 to 22,928 rad/sec 2 (mean 4041 rad/sec 2 , median 2773 rad/sec 2 , and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec 2 ). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.

  13. Health and safety implications of injury in professional rugby league football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissane, C; White, J; Kerr, K; Jennings, S; Jennings, D

    2003-12-01

    Professional sport is characterized by high injury rates but is also covered by health and safety legislation. To examine the incidence of injury in professional rugby league as defined by the Reporting of Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95). All injuries received during playing and training to both first-team and 'academy' (rugby league is much higher than reported in other high-risk occupations such as mining and quarrying. The large differences in injury rates between first and academy teams have implications for young players likely to progress to first-team status.

  14. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  15. Eight-season epidemiological study of injuries in men's international Under-20 rugby tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained in men's international under-20 rugby. The study comprised an 8-season prospective study of 16 international under-20 rugby tournaments. Procedures complied with the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby. Outputs included players' mean age, stature and body mass and incidence, severity, location, type and cause of match injuries. The overall incidence of injury was 49.7 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 48.3; forwards: 50.9) with a mean severity of 32.2 days-absence (backs: 29.4; forwards: 34.4). There were no significant changes in incidence or severity of injury over the study period. Shoulder/clavicle (18.3%), head/face (16.4%), knee (13.7%) and ankle (13.7%) were the most common injury locations and ligament sprain (35.4%), haematoma/bruise (15.9%), concussion (12.5%) and muscle strain (11.2%) the most common types of injury. Being-tackled (29.2%), tackling (24.0%) and collisions (14.3%) were the most common events leading to injury. The results confirm that international under-20 rugby has a high incidence and severity of injury but the incidence is half that reported for senior international players. There was no significant change in the overall incidence of injury at the Under-20 level in the period 2008 to 2016.

  16. The physical characteristics of match-play in English schoolboy and academy rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dale B; Jones, Ben; Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The aim was to compare the physical characteristics of under-18 academy and schoolboy rugby union competition by position (forwards and backs). Using a microsensor unit, match characteristics were recorded in 66 players. Locomotor characteristics were assessed by maximum sprint speed (MSS) and total, walking, jogging, striding and sprinting distances. The slow component (<2 m · s -1 ) of PlayerLoad TM (PL slow ), which is the accumulated accelerations from the three axes of movement, was analysed as a measure of low-speed activity (e.g., rucking). A linear mixed-model was assessed with magnitude-based inferences. Academy forwards and backs almost certainly and very likely covered greater total distance than school forwards and backs. Academy players from both positions were also very likely to cover greater jogging distances. Academy backs were very likely to accumulate greater PL slow and the academy forwards a likely greater sprinting distance than school players in their respective positions. The MSS, total, walking and sprinting distances were greater in backs (likely-almost certainly), while forwards accumulated greater PL slow (almost certainly) and jogging distance (very likely). The results suggest that academy-standard rugby better prepares players to progress to senior competition compared to schoolboy rugby.

  17. Complex dynamics in the distribution of players’ scoring performance in Rugby Union world cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is investigated over the seven rugby world cups (RWC) that took place from 1987 to 2011, and a specific attention is given to how they may have been impacted by the switch from amateurism to professionalism that occurred in 1995. The distribution of the points scored by individual players, Ps, ranked in order of performance were well described by the simplified canonical law Ps∝(, where r is the rank, and ϕ and α are the parameters of the distribution. The parameter α did not significantly change from 1987 to 2007 (α=0.92±0.03), indicating a negligible effect of professionalism on players’ scoring performance. In contrast, the parameter ϕ significantly increased from ϕ=1.32 for 1987 RWC, ϕ=2.30 for 1999 to 2003 RWC and ϕ=5.60 for 2007 RWC, suggesting a progressive decrease in the relative performance of the best players. Finally, the sharp decreases observed in both α(α=0.38) and ϕ(ϕ=0.70) in the 2011 RWC indicate a more even distribution of the performance of individuals among scorers, compared to the more heterogeneous distributions observed from 1987 to 2007, and suggest a sharp increase in the level of competition leading to an increase in the average quality of players and a decrease in the relative skills of the top players. Note that neither α nor ϕ significantly correlate with traditional performance indicators such as the number of points scored by the best players, the number of games played by the best players, the number of points scored by the team of the best players or the total number of points scored over each RWC. This indicates that the dynamics of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is influenced by hidden processes hitherto inaccessible through standard performance metrics; this suggests that players’ scoring performance is connected to ubiquitous phenomena such as anomalous diffusion.

  18. Caffeine use in a Super Rugby game and its relationship to post-game sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunican, Ian C; Higgins, Charles C; Jones, Maddison J; Clarke, Michael W; Murray, Kevin; Dawson, Brian; Caldwell, John A; Halson, Shona L; Eastwood, Peter R

    2018-05-01

    To examine the relationship between regular game-related caffeine consumption on sleep after an evening Super Rugby game. Twenty elite rugby union players wore a wrist-activity monitor to measure sleep for three days before, three days after and on the night of an evening Super Rugby game (19:00-21:00). Players ingested caffeine as they would normally (i.e. before and sometimes during a game) and saliva samples were collected before (17:00) and after (21:30) the game for caffeine concentration. Compared to the nights leading up to the game, on the night of the game, players went to bed 3 h later (23:08 ± 66 min vs 02:11 ± 114 min; p sleep (5:54 ± 2:59 vs 8:02 ± 1:24 hh:mm; p sleep after the game. Post-game caffeine saliva concentrations were greater than pre-game levels in 17 players (Pre-game 0.40 µg/mL vs Post-game 2.77 µg/mL; p sleep latency (p sleep efficiency (p sleep duration (p = .06) on game night. Caffeine consumption before a Super Rugby game markedly increases post-game saliva caffeine levels. This may contribute to the observed 3.5 h delay in time at sleep onset and the 1.5 h reduction in sleep duration on the night of the game. This study highlights the need for a strategic approach to the use of caffeine within a Super Rugby team considering the potential effect on post-game sleep.

  19. Risk factors for injury in rugby union football in New Zealand: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, David J; Samaranayaka, Ari; Gulliver, Pauline; McNoe, Bronwen

    2012-02-01

    To identify risk factors for injury in amateur club rugby. Prospective cohort design; with follow-up over the 2004 season. Amateur club rugby in New Zealand. Participants Seven hundred and four male rugby players, aged 13 years and over. Assessment of risk factors The study investigated the independent effect on injury incidence of age, ethnicity, rugby experience, height, weight, body mass index, physical activity, cigarette smoking, previous injury, playing while injured, grade, position, training, time of season, warm-up, foul play, weather conditions, ground conditions and protective equipment. Generalised Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of each factor after adjusting for all other factors. Game injury, defined as 'any event that resulted in an injury requiring medical attention or causing a player to miss at least one scheduled game or team practice'. A total of 704 players, representing 6263 player-games, contributed information on injury and exposure. Evidence was obtained of the effect on injury incidence of increasing age, Pacific Island versus Maori ethnicity (injury rate ratio (IRR)=1.48, 1.03-2.13), ≥40 h strenuous physical activity per week (IRR=1.54, 1.11-2.15), playing while injured (IRR=1.46, 1.20-1.79), very hard ground condition (IRR=1.50, 1.13-2.00), foul-play (IRR=1.87, 1.54-2.27) and use of headgear (IRR=1.23, 1.00-1.50). Opportunities for injury prevention might include promoting injury-prevention measures more vigorously among players of Pacific Island ethnicity, ensuring injured players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play, reducing the effects of ground hardness through ground preparation and stricter enforcement of the laws relating to foul play.

  20. Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dale; Weaving, Daniel; Phibbs, Padraic; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Weakley, Jonathon; Hendricks, Sharief; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background In England, rugby union is a popular sport and is widely played within schools. Despite the large participation numbers, the movement and physical demands of the sport and how they progress by age have not been explored. Method Ninety-six male rugby union players wore microtechnology devices during six rugby union matches within the education pathway to investigate the movement and physical demands of match-play. To quantify the positional differences and progression by age, data were obtained for participants at the under 16 (U16) (n=31 participants), under 18 (U18) (n=34 participants) and university (n=31 participants) levels. Players were further divided in forwards and backs. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Results For the movement demands, U16 total distance and ‘striding’ was likely higher for forwards than backs, whereas at U18, unclear differences were observed and from university players the inverse was observed (very likely). In all age groups sprint distance was likely to very likely greater for backs than forwards. Forwards had greater physical demands than backs at all age groups. For consecutive age groups, U16 had a likely higher relative distance than U18, and U18 had a likely lower relative distance than university players. Physical demands were similar across age groups for forwards, and greater for backs at older age groups. Conclusion The movement and physical demands of rugby union players participating in schools (U16 and U18), may not be as expected, however, the findings from university players show a similar pattern to the senior game. PMID:28879027

  1. Athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model

    OpenAIRE

    Boardley, Ian D; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness, based on the coaching efficacy model, and their effort, commitment, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and prosocial and antisocial behavior in rugby union. Participants were 166 adult male rugby-union players (M age = 26.5, SD = 8.5 years), who completed questionnaires measuring their perceptions of four dimensions of coaching effectiveness as well as their effort, commitment, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and ...

  2. Lung injury and respiratory mechanics in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Bernard, Angelique; Davidson, Shaun M; Redmond, Daniel P; Chiew, Yeong S; Pretty, Christopher; Chase, J Geoffrey; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Gieseg, Steven P; Draper, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Rugby is a highly popular team contact sport associated with high injury rates. Specifically, there is a chance of inducing internal lung injuries as a result of the physical nature of the game. Such injuries are only identified with the use of specific invasive protocols or equipment. This study presents a model-based method to assess respiratory mechanics of N=11 rugby players that underwent a low intensity experimental Mechanical Ventilation (MV) Test before and after a rugby game. Participants were connected to a ventilator via a facemask and their respiratory mechanics estimated using a time-varying elastance model. All participants had a respiratory elastance respiratory mechanics (P>0.05). Model-based respiratory mechanics estimation has been used widely in the treatment of the critically ill in intensive care. However, the application of a ventilator to assess the respiratory mechanics of healthy human beings is limited. This method adapted from ICU mechanical ventilation can be used to provide insight to respiratory mechanics of healthy participants that can be used as a more precise measure of lung inflammation/injury that avoids invasive procedures. This is the first study to conceptualize the assessment of respiratory mechanics in healthy athletes as a means to monitor postexercise stress and therefore manage recovery.

  3. Severe cervical spinal cord injuries related to rugby union and league football in New South Wales, 1984-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, T R; Lawson, J S; Wilson, S F; Engel, S; Rutkowski, S B; Aisbett, C W

    1998-04-20

    To determine the frequency and circumstances of serious cervical cord injuries associated with rugby union and league football in New South Wales. Retrospective review of patients with rugby football-related cervical spinal cord injuries. The two central spinal units in NSW, from January 1984 to July 1996. Admission to spinal units; injury resulting in permanent tetraplegia. During the review period, 115 rugby football players (56 union and 59 league) were admitted to the spinal units because of cervical spinal cord injuries. 49 patients had resultant permanent neurological deficits (complete tetraplegia [quadriplegia])--26 associated with rugby union and 23 with rugby league. Two patients died of injury sequelae within two weeks of admission. There was no significant change in the rate of football-related admissions to spinal units for either code. There was a small decline in the number (from 15 in 1984 to 1987 to 7 in 1992 to 1996) and incidence (from 1.2 to 0.5 per 10,000 participants) of patients with tetraplegia associated with rugby union. When this decline was tested as a trend over the years, it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.06). No significant trend was found in the tetraplegia data associated with rugby league. Cervical spinal cord injuries leading to complete tetraplegia were most commonly associated with scrum-like plays in union and with tackles in league. Serious cervical spinal injuries associated with both codes of rugby continue to occur in NSW. Rugby football in its various forms is still an inherently dangerous game.

  4. Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Skill Performance During an International Female Rugby Sevens Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Portillo, J, Del Coso, J, and Abián-Vicén, J. Effects of caffeine ingestion on skill performance during an international female rugby sevens competition. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3351-3357, 2017-The aim of this study was to establish the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on skills and technical performance during a match in female elite rugby sevens players. On 2 nonconsecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish national rugby sevens team (mean age = 23 ± 2 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 minutes for caffeine absorption, participants played 3 rugby sevens matches against another national team. Body impacts during the matches were assessed by triaxial accelerometers. The matches were videotaped, and each individual technical action was notated afterward by 2 experienced observers. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the rate of body impacts in zone 1 (16.1 ± 4.9 vs. 20.8 ± 9.9 impacts/min, p rugby-specific technical actions during the games. In conclusion, the ingestion of 3 mg·kg of caffeine in the form of an energy drink increased the number of body impacts during a rugby sevens international competition which suggests a higher engagement of the players during the game. However, the caffeine ingestion did not influence the quality of the technical actions performed during the competition.

  5. Learning Masculinities in a Japanese High School Rugby Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on research conducted on a Tokyo high school rugby club to explore diversity in the masculinities formed through membership in the club. Based on the premise that particular forms of masculinity are expressed and learnt through ways of playing (game style) and the attendant regimes of training, it examines the expression and…

  6. Peak Running Intensity of International Rugby: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Pryor, John F; Stewart, Andrew M; Dascombe, Ben J; Duthie, Grant M

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s 2 ), and average metabolic power (P met ) for a range of durations (1-10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network. Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27-1.00). P met demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86-0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and P met outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands. The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  7. Rugby-metoden SCRUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2012-01-01

    En ny måde at bedrive projekter på breder sig i disse år med overraskende fart. Selv om de første tanker om ”Scrum” – hvor navnet og fremgangsmåden er inspireret af Rugby-spillet – blev tænkt for mere end 10 år siden, så er det først nu at fremgangsmåden for alvor har vundet udbredelse i Danmark....... Denne artikel gennemgår metoden og fortæller om både positive resultater og udfordringer i tre danske organisationer: Et softwarehus, en bank, og et universitet. De tre cases illustrer meget forskellige anvendelsessituationer af Scrum set i forhold til projekternes størrelse, karakter og den...... organisatoriske kontekst. Artiklen slutter med at diskutere, hvad det er der gør, at Scrum er blevet så populær, og i dag fremstår som et reelt alternativ til klassisk plandreven projektledelse...

  8. Effect of ramadan fasting on body water status markers after a rugby sevens match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; El-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. TWELVE RECREATIONAL RUGBY SEVENS PLAYERS PLAYED THREE MATCHES: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status markers. Total body water was measured with an impedancemeter only before matches. At rest, an increase in hematocrit (+4.4%, P=0.03), hemoglobin (+3.4%, P=0.01) and plasma osmolarity (+2.8%, PRamadan. Total body water measured before Ramadan did not differ significantly from that of Ramadan. After the match, values of hematocrit and plasma osmolarity increased significantly at End-R (+1.4%, P=0.02; +3.1%, PRamadan. Although, hemoglobin measured after matches occurring during Ramadan did not differ from those of before Ramadan. In response to matches, the change of percentage of body water status markers did not differ during each period of the investigation. The present results show that Ramadan fasting induces dehydration at basal conditions. Also, rugby sevens match played during Ramadan did not exacerbate the magnitude of responses to matches of blood and body water status markers.

  9. Metabolic power demands of rugby league match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Tom; Sirotic, Anita Claire; Rampinini, Ermanno; Coutts, Aaron James

    2015-01-01

    To describe the metabolic demands of rugby league match play for positional groups and compare match distances obtained from high-speed-running classifications with those derived from high metabolic power. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 25 players from a team competing in the National Rugby League competition over 39 matches. Players were classified into positional groups (adjustables, outside backs, hit-up forwards, and wide-running forwards). The GPS devices provided instantaneous raw velocity data at 5 Hz, which were exported to a customized spreadsheet. The spreadsheet provided calculations for speed-based distances (eg, total distance; high-speed running, >14.4 km/h; and very-high-speed running, >18.1 km/h) and metabolic-power variables (eg, energy expenditure; average metabolic power; and high-power distance, >20 W/kg). The data show that speed-based distances and metabolic power varied between positional groups, although this was largely related to differences in time spent on field. The distance covered at high running speed was lower than that obtained from high-power thresholds for all positional groups; however, the difference between the 2 methods was greatest for hit-up forwards and adjustables. Positional differences existed for all metabolic parameters, although these are at least partially related to time spent on the field. Higher-speed running may underestimate the demands of match play when compared with high-power distance-although the degree of difference between the measures varied by position. The analysis of metabolic power may complement traditional speed-based classifications and improve our understanding of the demands of rugby league match play.

  10. A systems approach to understanding the identification and treatment of sport-related concussion in community rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment. Through an online survey, 118 members of the amateur (community) rugby union system were asked about their role-specific concussion management responsibilities and strategies. Respondents included players, parents, medics, coaches, club managers, administrators, and volunteers. The majority of respondents indicated that they were able to identify the symptoms of rugby-related concussion, however, only medics stated their responsibility to use formal concussion assessments (e.g., SCAT2). A smaller number of the respondents indicated that they were involved in treating concussion within their current role/s (majority of which were medics). This study illustrated that the current challenges in the identification and treatment of rugby-related concussion in community sport may be due to role/responsibility confusion and possible overreliance on field-side medics. These findings offer insight into the possible limitations of the current concussion management guidelines and may offer empirically based direction for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  12. Cardiac structure and function in elite Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Rugby Football League athletes: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; Papadakis, Michael; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to define the Athletes Heart (AH) phenotype in Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander (NH&PI) Rugby Football League (RFL) athletes. Specifically, (1) to describe conventional echocardiographic indices of left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) structure and function in NH&PI RFL players and matched RFL Caucasian controls (CC) and (2) to demonstrate LV and RV mechanics in these populations. Ethnicity is a contributory factor to the phenotypical expression of the AH. There are no data describing the cardiac phenotype in NH&PI athletes. Twenty-one male elite NH&PI RFL athletes were evaluated using conventional echocardiography and myocardial speckle tracking, allowing the assessment of global longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rate (SR); and basal, mid and global radial and circumferential ε and SR. Basal and apical rotation and twist were also assessed. Results were compared with age-matched Caucasian counterparts (CC; n = 21). LV mass [42 ± 9 versus 37 ± 4 g/(m 2.7 )], mean LV wall thickness (MWT: 9.5 ± 0.7 and 8.7 ± 0.4 mm), relative wall thickness (RWT: 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.31 ± 0.03) and RV wall thickness (5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mm, all p rugby players have a greater LV mass, MWT and RWT with concomitant reductions in circumferential and twist mechanics. This data acts to prompt further research in NH&PI athletes.

  13. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  14. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum:a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E.; Stokes, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to ...

  15. A systematic review protocol investigating tests for physical or physiological qualities and game-specific skills commonly used in rugby and related sports and their psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-07-27

    Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention programmes. Although there are a number of tests available in the literature to measure physical or physiological variables and game-specific skills, there is limited information available on the psychometric properties of the tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature for tests commonly used in rugby to measure physical or physiological characteristics and rugby-specific skills, documenting evidence of reliability and validity of the identified tests. A systematic review will be conducted. Electronic databases such as Scopus, MEDLINE via EBSCOhost and PubMed, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL and Africa-Wide Information via EBSCOhost will be searched for original research articles published in English from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, using a pre-defined search strategy. The principal investigator will select potentially relevant articles from titles and abstracts. To minimise bias, full text of titles and abstracts deemed potentially relevant will be retrieved and reviewed by two independent reviewers based on the inclusion criteria. Data extraction will be conducted by the principal investigator and verified by two independent reviewers. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Choosing an appropriate test to be included in the screening test battery should be based on sound psychometric properties of the test available. This systematic review will provide an overview of the tests commonly used in rugby union

  16. SecurityCom: A Multi-Player Game for Researching and Teaching Information Security Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Twitchell

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A major portion of government and business organizations’ attempts to counteract information security threats is teams of security personnel.  These teams often consist of personnel of diverse backgrounds in specific specialties such as network administration, application development, and business administration, resulting in possible conflicts between security, functionality, and availability.  This paper discusses the use of games to teach and research information security teams and outlines research to design and build a simple, team-oriented, configurable, information security game. It will be used to study how information security teams work together to defend against attacks using a multi-player game, and to study the use of games in training security teams.  Studying how information security teams work, especially considering the topic of shared-situational awareness, could lead to better ways of forming, managing, and training teams.  Studying the effectiveness of the game as a training tool could lead to better training for security teams. 

  17. Performance-Based Outcomes Following Lisfranc Injury Among Professional American Football and Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sameer K; George, Andrew; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K

    2018-04-27

    Professional National Football League (NFL) and rugby athletes have high rates of Lisfranc injuries. Although favorable return-to-play rates have been previously reported, a thorough assessment of postinjury performance is lacking. Professional NFL and rugby athletes who sustained a Lisfranc injury were identified using a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were determined for each athlete. League participation and game performance were collected 1 season prior to injury and up to 3 seasons after injury. Statistical analysis was performed, with P≤.05 being significant. A total of 47 athletes (NFL=35, rugby=12) with Lisfranc injuries were identified, having 23 ligamentous injuries and 24 fractures. Thirty-five (75%) were treated operatively. Among NFL players, 29 (83%) returned to play, taking 10.0±2.9 months to do so. Overall, NFL players started fewer games 2 and 3 seasons following surgery (P=.002 and .035, respectively) and showed a significant decline in performance 1 season after return compared with preinjury levels (21%; P=.05). Offensive players had a significantly greater decline in statistical performance compared with defensive counterparts (P=.02). Although professional NFL athletes return to play at a high rate (83%) following Lisfranc injury, their league participation and performance is significantly decreased on return. Ligamentous and bony injuries have similar prognoses; however, offensive players show greater declines in performance compared with defensive players. To best guide therapy, players, coaches, and team physicians should be aware of the impact of Lisfranc injuries on career performance and longevity. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Progress of Rugby Hohlraum Experiments on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Casner, Alexis; Gauthier, Pascal; Seytor, Patricia; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, Harry; Ross, Steven; Amendt, Peter; Girard, Frederic; Villette, Bruno; Reverdin, Charles; Loiseau, Pascal; Caillaud, Tony; Landoas, Olivier; Li, Chi Kang; Petrasso, Richard; Seguin, Fredrick; Rosenberg, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept is predicted to enable better coupling and higher gains in the indirect drive approach to ignition. A collaborative experimental program is currently pursued on OMEGA to test this concept in preparation for future megajoule-scale ignition designs. A direct comparison of gas-filled rugby hohlraums with classical cylinders was recently performed, showing a significant (up to ~40%) observed x-ray drive enhancement and neutron yields that are consistently higher in the rugby case. This work extends and confirms our previous findings in empty rugby hohlraums.

  19. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Romain; Paillard, Thierry; Lyons, Mark; McGrath, David; Maurelli, Olivier; Prioux, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2) to explore the relationship between these methods and (3) to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y), over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h-1, 20 W.kg-1 and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; pdemands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high-intensity thresholds demonstrates that the metabolic power approach may represent an interesting alternative to the traditional approaches used in evaluating the high-intensity running efforts required in rugby union games. Key points Elite/professional rugby union players Heart rate monitoring during official games Metabolic power approach PMID:28344455

  20. Return to play in elite rugby union: application of global positioning system technology in return-to-running programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Laura C; Cowman, Jason R; Green, Brian S; Coughlan, Garrett F

    2013-05-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union. Case series. Professional Rugby Union club team. 8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg). Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game. Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured. Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables. An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

  1. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Specificity of Rugby Union Training Sessions in Preparation for Match Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G; Peake, Jonathan M; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-04-01

    Investigations into the specificity of rugby union training practices in preparation for competitive demands have predominantly focused on physical and physiological demands. The evaluation of the contextual variance in perceptual strain or skill requirements between training and matches in rugby union is unclear, yet holistic understanding may assist to optimize training design. This study evaluated the specificity of physical, physiological, perceptual, and skill demands of training sessions compared with competitive match play in preprofessional, elite club rugby union. Global positioning system devices, video capture, heart rate, and session ratings of perceived exertion were used to assess movement patterns, skill completions, physiologic, and perceptual responses, respectively. Data were collected across a season (training sessions n = 29; matches n = 14). Participants (n = 32) were grouped in playing positions as: outside backs, centers, halves, loose forwards, lock forwards, and front row forwards. Greater total distance, low-intensity activity, maximal speed, and meters per minute were apparent in matches compared with training in all positions (P  0.90). Similarly, match heart rate and session ratings of perceived exertion responses were higher than those recorded in training (P  0.8). Key skill completions for forwards (ie, scrums, rucks, and lineouts) and backs (ie, kicks) were greater under match conditions than in training (P  1.50). Considerable disparities exist between the perceptual, physiological, and key skill demands of competitive matches versus training sessions in preprofessional rugby union players. Practitioners should consider the specificity of training tasks for preprofessional rugby players to ensure the best preparation for match demands.

  3. The Measurement and Interpretation of Dietary Protein Distribution During a Rugby Preseason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kristen; Slater, Gary; King, Neil; Byrne, Nuala

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that increasing protein distribution may be desirable to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in combination with resistance exercise. However, there is a threshold above which additional protein consumption has limited benefit for MPS and may promote protein loss due to increased oxidation. This study aimed to measure daily protein intake and protein distribution in a cohort of rugby players. Twenty-five developing elite rugby union athletes (20.5 ± 2.3 years, 100.2 ± 13.3 kg, 184.4 ± 7.4 cm) were assessed at the start and end of a rugby preseason. Using a 7-day food diary the reported daily protein intake was 2.2 ± 0.7 g · kg · day(-1) which exceeds daily recommendations. The reported carbohydrate intake was 3.6 ± 1.3 g · kg · day(-1) which may reflect a suboptimal intake or dietary underreporting. In general, the rugby athletes were regularly consuming more than 20 g of protein; 3.8 ± 0.9 times per day (68 ± 18% of eating occasions). In addition to documenting current dietary intakes, an excess protein estimation score was calculated to determine how frequently the rugby athletes consumed protein above a known effective dose with a margin of error. 2.0 ± 0.9 eating occasions contained protein in excess of doses (20 g) known to promote MPS. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether the consumption of regular large doses of protein will benefit rugby athletes via increasing protein distribution, or whether high protein intakes may have unintended effects including a reduction in carbohydrate and/or energy intake.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Sprinting in Elite Rugby Union and Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matt R; Brughelli, Matt; Brown, Scott R; Samozino, Pierre; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2015-09-01

    To compare mechanical properties of overground sprint running in elite rugby union and rugby league athletes. Thirty elite rugby code (15 rugby union and 15 rugby league) athletes participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Radar was used to measure maximal overground sprint performance over 20 or 30 m (forwards and backs, respectively). In addition to time at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m, velocity-time signals were analyzed to derive external horizontal force-velocity relationships with a recently validated method. From this relationship, the maximal theoretical velocity, external relative and absolute horizontal force, horizontal power, and optimal horizontal force for peak power production were determined. While differences in maximal velocity were unclear between codes, rugby union backs produced moderately faster split times, with the most substantial differences occurring at 2 and 5 m (ES 0.95 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, rugby union backs produced moderately larger relative horizontal force, optimal force, and peak power capabilities than rugby league backs (ES 0.73-0.77). Rugby union forwards had a higher absolute force (ES 0.77) despite having ~12% more body weight than rugby league forwards. In this elite sample, rugby union athletes typically displayed greater short-distance sprint performance, which may be linked to an ability to generate high levels of horizontal force and power. The acceleration characteristics presented in this study could be a result of the individual movement and positional demands of each code.

  5. Incidence and Factors Associated With Concussion Injuries at the 2011 to 2014 South African Rugby Union Youth Week Tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Brown, James; Hendricks, Sharief; Posthumus, Michael; Readhead, Clint; Lambert, Mike; September, Alison V; Viljoen, Wayne

    2016-09-01

    To determine the concussion incidence and to identify factors associated with concussion in South African youth rugby union players. Prospective cohort study. Injury surveillance was completed at the South African Rugby Union Youth Week tournaments (under-13, under-16, and under-18 age groups). South African youth rugby union players. A total of 7216 players participated in 531 matches between 2011 and 2014. None. Concussion incidence was calculated per 1000 player-match-hours with 95% CIs. Poisson regression was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between factors (age, time period, playing position, and activity at the time of concussion) potentially associated with concussions. The concussion incidence was 6.8/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI, 5.5-8.1) across all age groups. Under-13s (IRR, 1.5; P = 0.09) and under-16s (IRR, 1.7; P = 0.03) had higher concussion incidence rates than the under-18 age group. The incidence was higher in the third (IRR, 2.1; P = 0.04) and fourth (IRR, 2.5; P = 0.01) quarters of matches compared with the first quarter. Sixty-two percent of concussions occurred in the tackle situation. The tackler had a 4-fold greater concussion rate (IRR, 4.3; P < 0.001) compared with the ball carrier. The hooker and loose forwards had higher incidence rates than several other player positions (P < 0.05). The reported concussion incidence falls within the broad range previously reported in youth rugby. The evidence highlighted in this study may contribute to targeted concussion prevention strategies and provide a baseline against which the effectiveness of future interventions can be measured.

  6. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0433; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport has made this action...

  7. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  8. Teaching and Assessing Tag Rugby Made Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Hughes, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The game of rugby is a fast and fluid invasion game, similar to football, that involves scoring with an oval ball into an end zone. The game presents, like other invasion games, a series of highly complex tactical problems so that the ball can be maneuvered into a scoring position. Pugh and Alford (2004) recently indicated that rugby is now…

  9. Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory

    2010-05-01

    The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.

  10. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  11. Comparing the Activity Profiles of Wheelchair Rugby Using a Miniaturised Data Logger and Radio-Frequency Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study assessed the validity and reliability of a miniaturised data logger (MDL against a radio-frequency-based indoor tracking system (ITS for quantifying key aspects of mobility performance during wheelchair rugby. Eleven international wheelchair rugby players were monitored by both devices during four wheelchair rugby matches. MDL data were averaged over both 1-second (MDL-1 and 5-second (MDL-5 intervals to calculate distance, mean, and peak speeds. The results revealed no significant differences between devices for the distance covered or mean speeds, although random errors of 10% and 12%, respectively, were identified in relation to the mean values. No significant differences in peak speed were revealed between ITS (3.91±0.32 m·s−1 and MDL-1 (3.85±0.45 m·s−1. Whereas peak speeds in MDL-5 (2.75±0.29  m·s−1 were significantly lower than ITS. Errors in peak speed led to large random errors in time and distance spent in speed zones relative to peak speed, especially in MDL-5. The current study revealed that MDL provide a reasonable representation of the distance and mean speed reported during wheelchair rugby. However, inaccuracy in the detection of peak speeds limits its use for monitoring performance and prescribing wheelchair rugby training programmes.

  12. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  13. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of stamping impacts during simulated rucking in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Bodil Y; Driscoll, Heather F; Dunn, Marcus; James, David

    2018-04-01

    Laceration injuries account for up to 23% of injuries in rugby union. They are frequently caused by studded footwear as a result of a player stamping onto another player during the ruck. Little is known about the kinetics and kinematics of rugby stamping impacts; current test methods assessing laceration injury risk of stud designs therefore lack informed test parameters. In this study, twelve participants stamped on an anthropomorphic test device in a one-on-one simulated ruck setting. Velocity and inclination angle of the foot prior to impact was determined from high-speed video footage. Total stamping force and individual stud force were measured using pressure sensors. Mean foot inbound velocity was 4.3 m ∙ s -1 (range 2.1-6.3 m ∙ s -1 ). Mean peak total force was 1246 N and mean peak stud force was 214 N. The total mean effective mass during stamping was 6.6 kg (range: 1.6-13.5 kg) and stud effective mass was 1.2 kg (range: 0.5-2.9 kg). These results provide representative test parameters for mechanical test devices designed to assess laceration injury risk of studded footwear for rugby union.

  14. Influence of sports vision techniques on adult male rugby players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport has become increasingly competitive and this places enormous pressure on sportsmen to perform at their absolute best. For athletes to achieve their greatest potentials, aspects of sport such as reaction time and hand-eye coordination need to be at their peaks. Sports vision aims to enhance performance through a ...

  15. Strength and energetics of elite rugby union players | Lombard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater absolute strength spectrum (p < 0.05) measured on an isokinetic dynamometer for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of elite backs and forwards, confirmed the acquisition of strength for elite performance. The elite backs and forwards did not possess greater quadriceps and hamstring endurance (p < 0.05) than ...

  16. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature has shown a positive relationship with increased frequency of tackles and ... is redistributed between them at impact. Speed differentiation ..... should be accompanied by video analysis. Our current injury ... Laws of the game. Ireland:.

  17. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players | Hendricks | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 4 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Effects of exercise on visual performance of female rugby players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 3 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tackle contributed to 61% of all injuries, making it the most dangerous phase of play. The tackler is more at risk than the ball carrier, especially for injuries to the face, with lacerations having the highest prevalence. For the ball carrier the location of the most injuries was the head, although joint sprains were the most ...

  20. Inadequate pre-season preparation of schoolboy rugby players - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allocated to the practice of tackJing and falling techniques prior to the ... Uberty Ufe Chair of Exercise and Sport Science and MRCIUCT ... The effects of these rule changes on the .... psychological reasons (religion, glory, sportsmanship) and.

  1. A comparison of catastrophic injury incidence rates by Provincial Rugby Union in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Marelise; Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Mechelen, Willem; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Baerecke, Gail; Brown, James C

    2017-07-01

    To compare catastrophic injury rates between the 14 South African Provincial Rugby Unions. A prospective, population-based study conducted among all South African Unions between 2008-2014. Player numbers in each Union were obtained from South African Rugby's 2013 Census. Catastrophic injuries were analysed from BokSmart's serious injury database. Incidence rates with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Catastrophic injuries (Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries) within Unions were compared statistically, using a Poisson regression with Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and a 95% confidence level (pUnion ranged from 1.8 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-6.5) to 7.9 (95% CI: 0.0-28.5) per 100000 players per year. The highest incidence rate of permanent outcome Acute Spinal Cord Injuries was reported at 7.1 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-17.6). Compared to this Union, five (n=5/14, 36%) of the Unions had significantly lower incidence rates of Acute Spinal Cord Injuries. Proportionately, three Unions had more Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and three other Unions had more catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries. There were significant differences in the catastrophic injury incidence rates amongst the Provincial Unions in South Africa. Future studies should investigate the underlying reasons contributing to these provincial differences. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceleratory match-play demands of a Super Rugby team over a competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Shaun M; Venter, Rachel E; du Toit, Stephan; Kraak, Wilbur J

    2015-01-01

    The match-play demands of rugby union have increased over time, and these demands should be quantified so as to provide a basis for optimal player loading during training. The primary aim of this article was to quantify accelerations, decelerations, impacts and aggregated body demands during the first half of match-play in a Super Rugby team. The secondary aim was to determine whether these characteristics are position-specific. Thirty-three players were monitored for 14 matches using global positioning system units with inbuilt microtechnology. Players were grouped according to positional roles and data were analysed for those who completed the entire duration of the first half of a given match. Forwards sustained more (d = 0.44) high-intensity impacts and greater (d = 0.26) aggregated body demands, while backs had more moderate (d = 0.55) and heavy accelerations (d = 0.76), and moderate (d = 0.23) and heavy decelerations (d = 0.54). These differences suggest that conditioning and recovery strategies should reflect the physical demands placed on players in different playing positions. Forwards should be conditioned with a focus on impacts and require longer recovery for the same duration of playing time, whereas conditioning for backs should emphasise rapid accelerations and decelerations.

  3. Women’s rugby tournament | 27 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Women’s rugby tournament Saint-Genis rugby pitch - Golf des Serves 27 September 2014 - 10 a.m. For the third consecutive year, the women's rugby club of CERN Meyrin St Genis, The Wildcats, are organising a women’s 7's rugby tournament. With the support of the Office Municipal des Sports of St Genis-Pouilly and various other sponsors, we will be welcoming 10 teams ready to fight it out for victory! Bring your family and friends for a great day of rugby! Come and discover the values of team spirit in rugby and support your local team (RC CMSG). An initiation for kids between 4 and 10 years old will be organised by school rugby trainers. There will also be a live music concert. Food and drink will be available all day. Concert schedule 6 p.m.: Bad spirits out of the boot 7 p.m.: SoundHazard 8 p.m.: Miss Proper & the Moving Targets 9 p.m.: Fuzzy Dunlop More information on: http://www.facebook.com/events/509236532536269/

  4. Methods of Identifying Limb Dominance in Adolescent Female Basketball Players: Implications for Clinical and Biomechanical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrey, Colleen R; Shultz, Sandra J; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-29

    To identify relationships between self-reported limb preferences and performance measures for determining limb dominance in adolescent female basketball players. Cross-sectional cohort study. Forty adolescent female basketball players. Participants provided self-reported preferred kicking and jumping limbs, then completed 3 trials of a single-limb countermovement hop (HOPVER) and unilateral triple hop for distance (HOPHOR) on each limb. Each test was used to independently define limb dominance by the limb that produced the largest maximum vertical height and horizontal distance, respectively. Chi-square tests for independence identified a significant relationship between self-reported preferred kicking and jumping legs (χ = 7.41, P = 0.006). However, no significant relationships were found when comparing self-reported preference to measures of performance during the HOPHOR (χ = 0.33, P = 0.57) or HOPVER (χ = 0.06, P = 0.80). In addition, the 2 performance measures did not consistently produce the same definition of limb dominance among individuals (χ = 1.52, P = 0.22). Self-selection of the dominant limb is unrelated to performance. Furthermore, limb dominance, as defined by vertical jump height, is unrelated to limb dominance defined by horizontal jump distance. The results of this study call into question the validity of consistently defining limb dominance by self-reported measures in adolescent female basketball players.

  5. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of the German rugby union 7s team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Rucker, Alfred M; Clarys, Peter; Küng, Ursula M; Stoop, Rahel; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-12-01

    Somatotyping is advantageous in sports for the optimal development of performance level and injury prevention. The aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of the German national rugby union 7s team. Seventeen male rugby players, classified as forwards (N.=9; 24.2±2.1 years) and backs (N.=8; 24.3±5.05 years) were assessed. Anthropometric measurements included: body height, weight, height to weight ratio (H/W), five skinfolds, biepicondylar humerus and femur breadth, upper arm- and calf girth, estimated lower body fat percentage and determination of the individual and mean somatotype. The physical performance tests included: sit-and-reach, handgrip strength, one minute of sit-ups, one minute of push-ups, vertical jump performance, peak power performance, bent arm hanging, 40-m sprint, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test. The forward players were significantly taller (P=0.003), heavier (P=0.001) with a smaller H/W (P=0.009) compared to the backs. Humerus and femur bone breadths (P<0.05) and flexed upper arm and calf girths (P<0.05) were significantly different between the groups. Handgrip strength left (P=0.04), one minute of sit-ups (P=0.03), and peak power output (P=0.015) were also significantly different between the groups. The data indicate that German forward and back players have a similar somatotype and performance level. However, a higher body mass of forward players could be advantageous in that their playing position is much more body contact intensive, and requires a significant amount of tackling. The nominative data of this study may assist coaches to detect weak links in rugby specific athletic performance.

  6. Upper limb injury in rugby union football: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2013-04-01

    There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.

  7. RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H A P; Rankin, A T; Webb, M; Nicholas, R; Eames, N W A; Wilson, R K; Henderson, L A; Heyes, G J; Bleakley, C M

    2017-04-01

    To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Prospective injury surveillance study. N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014-2015 playing season). 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and

  8. Injuries at Johannesburg high school rugby festivals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences ... withdrawal from play at time of injury and management. ..... 2011 South African Rugby Union (SARU) Youth Week tournaments.

  9. The Blindside Flick: Race and Rugby League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.

  10. Training volume and injury incidence in a professional rugby union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multiplicity of factors that contribute to injury in rugby union makes it difficult to .... computed under the assumption that rugby union matches last on average 80 ..... for the physiological and musculoskeletal demands of competition. 20.

  11. Modifying scoring system at South African University rugby level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in rugby is measured by winning the game and in order to do so, teams need to score more points ... if modifying the scoring system at South African University rugby level changes the game dynamics. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. The Same Story or a Unique Novel? Within-Participant Principle Component Analysis of Training Load Measures in Professional Rugby Union Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Dan; Dalton, Nicholas E; Black, Christopher; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Gray, Michael; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory A B

    2018-03-27

    The study aimed to identify which combination of external and internal training load (TL) metrics capture similar or unique information for individual professional players during skills training in rugby union using principal component analysis (PCA). TL data were collected from twenty-one male professional rugby union players across a competitive season. This included PlayerLoad™, total distance (TD), and individualised high-speed distance (HSD; >61% maximal velocity; all external TL) obtained from a micro-technology device worn by each player (Optimeye X4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) and the session-rating of perceived exertion (sRPE; internal TL). PCA was conducted on each individual to extract the underlying combinations of the four TL measures that best describe the total information (variance) provided by the measures. TL measures with PC "loadings" (PC L ) above 0.7 were deemed to possess well-defined relationships with the extracted PC. The findings show that from the four TL measures, the majority of an individual's TL information (1 st PC: 55 to 70%) during skills training can be explained by either sRPE (PC L : 0.72 to 0.95), TD (PC L : 0.86 to 0.98) or PlayerLoad™ (PC L : 0.71 to 0.98). HSD was the only variable to relate to the 2nd PC (PC L : 0.72 to 1.00), which captured additional TL information (+19 to 28%). Findings suggest practitioners could quantify the TL of rugby union skills training with one of PlayerLoad™, TD, or sRPE plus HSD whilst limiting omitted information of the TL imposed during professional rugby union skills training.

  13. Time loss injuries compromise team success in Elite Rugby Union: a 7-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Trewartha, Grant; Kemp, Simon P T; Brooks, John H M; Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen E; Cross, Matthew J; Stokes, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    A negative association between injuries and team success has been demonstrated in professional football, but the nature of this association in elite Rugby Union teams is currently unclear. To assess the association between injury burden measures and team success outcomes within professional Rugby Union teams. A seven-season prospective cohort design was used to record all time-loss injuries incurred by English Premiership players. Associations between team success measures (league points tally and Eurorugby Club Ranking (ECR)) and injury measures (injury burden and injury days per team-match) were modelled, both within (changes from season to season) and between (differences averaged over all seasons) teams. Thresholds for the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally and ECR were 3 points and 2.6%, respectively. Data from a total of 1462 players within 15 Premiership teams were included in the analysis. We found clear negative associations between injury measures and team success (70-100% likelihood), with the exception of between-team differences for injury days per team-match and ECR, which was unclear. A reduction in injury burden of 42 days (90% CI 30 to 70) per 1000 player hours (22% of mean injury burden) was associated with the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally. Clear negative associations were found between injury measures and team success, and moderate reductions in injury burden may have worthwhile effects on competition outcomes for professional Rugby Union teams. These findings may be useful when communicating the value of injury prevention initiatives within this elite sport setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in

  15. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  16. Concussion knowledge and experience among Welsh amateur rugby union coaches and referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steffan Arthur; Ranson, Craig; Moore, Isabel; Mathema, Prabhat

    2017-01-01

    Background Rugby union is a collision sport where participants are at high risk of sustaining a concussion. In settings where there is little qualified medical supervision, certain stakeholders (eg, coaches and officials) should possess sufficient knowledge in regard to the recognition and management of concussion. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and experience of various aspects of concussion among coaches and referees involved in Welsh amateur rugby union. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 1843 coaches and 420 referees. Results A total of 333 coaches and 283 referees completed the questionnaire (18% and 68% response rates, respectively). Participants exhibited greater knowledge of concussion symptom recognition relative to knowledge of both the consequences of concussion and associated return-to-play protocols, both of which could be considered poor. There were no differences in knowledge levels between coaches and referees or between participants with or without a history of concussion. Two-thirds of participants incorrectly believed that headgear could prevent concussion, and nearly 30% of coaches reported having witnessed other coaches allowing a potentially concussed player to continue playing. Conclusions Identification of several misconceptions indicates that concussion management within Welsh amateur rugby union needs to be improved, warranting a multi-faceted educational intervention. PMID:29259806

  17. Video Analysis of Primary Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby Tackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler's movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler's shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler's head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown whether external force to the glenoid is different in each mechanism

  18. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E; Stokes, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to the medical and biomechanical aspects of the rugby union scrum, in order to (1) review the injury epidemiology of rugby scrummaging; (2) consider the evidence for specific injury mechanisms existing to cause serious scrum injuries and (3) synthesise the information available on the biomechanics of scrummaging, primarily with respect to force production. The review highlights that the incidence of acute injury associated with scrummaging is moderate but the risk per event is high. The review also suggests an emerging acknowledgement of the potential for scrummaging to lead to premature chronic degeneration injuries of the cervical spine and summarises the mechanisms by which these chronic injuries are thought to occur. More recent biomechanical studies of rugby scrummaging confirm that scrum engagement forces are high and multiplanar, but can be altered through modifications to the scrum engagement process which control the engagement velocity. As the set scrum is a relatively 'controlled' contact situation within rugby union, it remains an important area for intervention with a long-term goal of injury reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, M.C.; Marinho, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength wer...

  20. 76 FR 66870 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...-0433; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-12] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport, Rugby, ND, has made this action necessary for the safety and management...

  1. Dispositions of Elite-Level Australian Rugby Coaches towards Game Sense: Characteristics of Their Coaching Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Evans, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu's analytic concept of "habitus" has provided a valuable means of theorising coach development but is yet to be operationalised in empirical research. This article redresses this oversight by drawing on a larger study that inquired into how the "coaching 'habitus'" of elite-level Australian and New Zealand rugby coaches…

  2. Coaching Whiteness: Stories of "Pacifica Exotica" in Australian High School Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The intersection of sport and education is a potentially powerful site for the production of class and gender. This paper examines how the relationship between sport and education can also serve to (re)produce ideas about "race". Drawing on research conducted during my time as a coach of the first XV rugby team at an elite private school…

  3. Swallows Rugby Football Club, South Africa: The story of a century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to deconstruct and isolate a century-long story of the Swallows RFC from a multifarious Xhosa and black peoplees rugby history and locate it in the epicentre of research in the country. This Club was established in 1911 at the East Bank Location (EBL) of East London, in the present day Eastern Cape ...

  4. Enduring Injustice: A Case Study of Retirement from Professional Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Jim; Thomas, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Garth Armstrong (pseudonym) agreed to participate based on a pre-existing "career-guidance-and-support" relationship with the researcher, to explore the realities of career transition. An account-making approach was used over the last eight months of his professional rugby-playing career (termination) and for a further ten months into…

  5. Communicating in and through "Murderball": Masculinity and Disability in Wheelchair Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Kurt; Cherney, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates communicative practices surrounding wheelchair rugby, a growing sport played worldwide by people with quadriplegia. Researchers have studied extensively the practice of using sport for rehabilitation, but the role of communication in this process has been overlooked. We argue that participating in this sport is itself a…

  6. The development, retention and decay rates of strength and power in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Strength and power are crucial components to excelling in all contact sports; and understanding how a player's strength and power levels fluctuate in response to various resistance training loads is of great interest, as it will inevitably dictate the loading parameters throughout a competitive season. This is a systematic review of training, maintenance and detraining studies, focusing on the development, retention and decay rates of strength and power measures in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football players. A literature search using MEDLINE, EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, IngentaConnect, Ovid LWW, ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect Journals, SPORTDiscus and Wiley InterScience was conducted. References were also identified from other review articles and relevant textbooks. From 300 articles, 27 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for further analysis. STUDY QUALITY: Study quality was assessed via a modified 20-point scale created to evaluate research conducted in athletic-based training environments. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) quality rating of the included studies was 16.2 ± 1.9; the rating system revealed that the quality of future studies can be improved by randomly allocating subjects to training groups, providing greater description and detail of the interventions, and including control groups where possible. Percent change, effect size (ES = [Post-Xmean - Pre-Xmean)/Pre-SD) calculations and SDs were used to assess the magnitude and spread of strength and power changes in the included studies. The studies were grouped according to (1) mean intensity relative volume (IRV = sets × repetitions × intensity; (2) weekly training frequency per muscle group; and (3) detraining duration. IRV is the product of the number of sets, repetitions and intensity performed during a training set and session. The effects of weekly training frequencies were assessed by normalizing the percent change values to represent the weekly changes in

  7. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  8. Rugby Union on-field position and its relationship to shoulder injury leading to anterior reconstruction for instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Abayasankar; Bokor, Desmond J; Davidson, Andrew S

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique demands of each position on the Rugby Union field, the likelihood of an athlete sustaining a dislocation of their shoulder joint that requires surgical reconstruction may be affected by their position on the field. 166 patients with 184 involved shoulders requiring anterior reconstruction following an on-field Rugby Union injury between January 1996 and September 2008 were analysed. The mean age at time of injury was 18 years with the mean age at time of surgery being 20 years. The most prevalent mechanism of injury was a tackle in 66.3% of players. Players were more likely to suffer injury to their non-dominant shoulder than their dominant side (McNemar's Test, prisk of injury for all player positions. Positions with significantly different risk of injury were five-eighth (increased risk) and wing (reduced risk). Although we observed an increased risk in flankers and fullbacks, and a lower risk in second row, these results did not reach statistical significance after application of the Bonferroni correction. This information can be utilized by team staff to assist in pre-season conditioning as well as the development of improved muscle co-ordination programmes for the non-dominant shoulder, and planning a graduated return to sport by the player recovering from surgical reconstruction of the shoulder for instability. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secin, F P; Poggi, E J; Luzuriaga, F; Laffaye, H A

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play.

  10. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  11. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge of New Zealand premier club rugby coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.

  12. Detecting deception in movement: the case of the side-step in rugby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Brault

    Full Text Available Although coordinated patterns of body movement can be used to communicate action intention, they can also be used to deceive. Often known as deceptive movements, these unpredictable patterns of body movement can give a competitive advantage to an attacker when trying to outwit a defender. In this particular study, we immersed novice and expert rugby players in an interactive virtual rugby environment to understand how the dynamics of deceptive body movement influence a defending player's decisions about how and when to act. When asked to judge final running direction, expert players who were found to tune into prospective tau-based information specified in the dynamics of 'honest' movement signals (Centre of Mass, performed significantly better than novices who tuned into the dynamics of 'deceptive' movement signals (upper trunk yaw and out-foot placement (p<.001. These findings were further corroborated in a second experiment where players were able to move as if to intercept or 'tackle' the virtual attacker. An analysis of action responses showed that experts waited significantly longer before initiating movement (p<.001. By waiting longer and picking up more information that would inform about future running direction these experts made significantly fewer errors (p<.05. In this paper we not only present a mathematical model that describes how deception in body-based movement is detected, but we also show how perceptual expertise is manifested in action expertise. We conclude that being able to tune into the 'honest' information specifying true running action intention gives a strong competitive advantage.

  13. Effectiveness of rugby headgear in preventing soft tissue injuries to the head: a case-control and video cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Lyons, R A; Evans, R; Newcombe, R G; Nash, P; McCabe, M; Palmer, S R

    2004-04-01

    To determine if headgear use by rugby players was associated with a reduced risk of head or facial laceration, abrasion, or fracture. An emergency department based case-control study in South Wales, UK, with cases being rugby players treated for superficial head and facial injuries and controls being their matched opponents during the game. A review of videos of the 41 games in the 1999 Rugby World Cup was also carried out to compare with the case-control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to measure association between exposure (headgear wearing) and outcome (head and facial injuries). In the case-control study, 164 pairs were analysed, with headgear worn by 12.8% of cases and 21.3% of controls. Headgear use was associated with substantial but non-significant reductions in superficial head (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.19) and facial (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.46) injuries. The video study followed 547 players over 41 games, during which there were 47 bleeding injuries to the head. Headgear use significantly reduced the risk of bleeding head injury in forwards (OR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.99, p = 0.02), but not in backs. There was also a higher risk of facial injury among forwards, but this was not significant. The combined results suggest that headgear can prevent certain types of superficial head injuries in players at all levels of the game, but the evidence is strongest for superficial head injury in elite forwards. A randomised controlled trial would be the best way to study this further.

  14. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  15. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer

    2010-02-25

    The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.

  16. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  17. The Nature and Frequency of Rugby Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-16

    Nov 16, 1974 ... medical services that are sport-orientated (with the recent exception of the University ... field and weather conditions, the time of injury in relation to the practice ..... the truth be known, the type of youth that engages in vigorous contact ... prevention and management of rugby injuries should come from doctors ...

  18. Investigating the relationship between Malaysian rugby sevens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is is to investigate the relationship between rugbgby match officials physical fitness to their perfor formance. 132 rugby side match official seven wewere selected as the respondent of the study. ANOANOVA indicated no significant differences [F = (3, 128) = 0.322, p = 0.809] in physical fitness ac ...

  19. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  20. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  1. 2016 Rio Olympics: an epidemiological study of the men's and women's Rugby-7s tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the men's and women's 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 Sevens World Series (SWS) and 2016 Olympic Games Rugby Sevens tournaments. A prospective cohort study. All players from the core teams competing in the men's and women's 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 SWS (men: 15 teams; women: 11 teams) and all players from the men's (12 teams) and women's (12 teams) 2016 Rio Olympics tournaments. The gold, silver and bronze medal-winning women's teams contained bigger players (body mass and stature) than other teams but the men's medal winning teams came from across the size spectrum of men's teams competing at Rio 2016. The incidences of injury in the men's tournaments (2014/2015 SWS: 107.7 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI 90.9 to 127.4); 2015/2016 SWS: 109.7 (95% CI 93.7 to 128.6); Rio 2016: 124.5 (95% CI 73.7 to 210.2)) were higher but not statistically significant than those in the equivalent women's tournaments (2014/2015 SWS: 88.5 (95% CI 68.4 to 114.5), p=0.250; 2015/2016 SWS: 109.4 (95% CI 84.2 to 142.2), p=0.984; Rio 2016: 71.1 (95% CI 35.6 to 142.2), p=0.208). There were no statistically significant differences between the incidences of injury at the men's and women's 2016 Rio Olympics and the equivalent 2014/2015 (men: p=0.603; women: p=0.562) and 2015/2016 (men: p=0.652; women: p=0.254) SWS. The incidence, severity and nature of the injuries sustained during the men's and women's Rio 2016 Rugby-7s tournaments fell within the normal range of values for international Rugby-7s tournaments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Association among practice frequency on depression and stress among competitive US male wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, S L; Ledoux, T; Cottingham, M; Hernandez, D C

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine whether frequency of training is related to self-reported lower psychological distress, defined as depressive symptomology and perceived stress, among the US male wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia. United States. Survey data were collected on a convenience sample at wheelchair rugby tournaments from January-April 2016. Participants self-reported depressive symptomology (CES-D-10), perceived stress scale (PSS), and frequency of rugby practice. Covariate-adjusted regression models were conducted among the full sample and a subsample of individuals who reported spinal cord injury (SCI) as the nature of their disability. Participants included 150 males with tetraplegia, and 87% identified the nature of their disability as SCI. Participants were primarily Caucasian with an average age of ~35 years. Participants scored low on measures of depressive symptomology (mean=5.63; s.d.=4.35) and perceived stress (mean=4.63; s.d.=2.73). Sixty-seven percent of the participants practiced two or more times per week. Results of the main analyses indicated that practicing wheelchair rugby two times or more (compared to once a week or less) was significantly associated with lower depressive symptomology and perceived stress among the full sample and subsample of individuals with SCI. Greater frequency of wheelchair rugby participation was associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Future research should examine the directional and mechanistic relationship between frequency of sports participation and psychological distress to inform the benefits of adaptive sport.

  3. The science of golf putting a complete guide for researchers, players and coaches

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the motor performance and biomechanics of golf putting, providing methodologies, studies and approaches to this concept. Presenting outcomes of research published over the past six years, it offers guidelines from a scientifically oriented perspective, and employs new technologies and mathematical methods to assess golf putting. The chapters cover aspects such as pendulum-like motion in sports, setting up the experimental design, and performance metrics for putting variables. Paving the way for an improved understanding of what leads to failure and success in golf putting, this book offers an invaluable reference source for sports scientists, engineers and mathematicians, as well as golfers.

  4. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  5. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  6. Interim evaluation of the effect of a new scrum law on neck and back injuries in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, S; Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Harawira, J; Truman, R

    2008-06-01

    In January 2007 the International Rugby Board implemented a new law for scrum engagement aimed at improving player welfare by reducing impact force and scrum collapses. In New Zealand the new law was included in RugbySmart, an annual compulsory workshop for coaches and referees. To determine the effect of the new law on scrum-related moderate to serious neck and back injury claims in 2007. Claims filed with the Accident Compensation Corporation (the provider of no-fault injury compensation and rehabilitation in New Zealand) were combined with numbers of registered players to estimate moderate to serious scrum-related claims for players who take part in scrums (forwards). Poisson linear regression was used to compare the observed claims per 100 000 forwards for 2007 with the rate predicted from data for 2002-6. The observed and predicted claims per 100 000 forwards were 52 and 76, respectively (rate ratio 0.69; 90% CI 0.42 to 1.12). The likelihoods of substantial benefit (rate ratio 1.1) attributable to the scrum law were 82% and 5%, respectively. The decline in scrum-related injury claims is consistent with a beneficial effect of the new scrum law in the first year of its implementation. Another year of monitoring should provide more evidence for the efficacy of the new law.

  7. Comparison of Designated Coefficients and their Predictors in Functional Evaluation of Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were twofold: to determine differences between groups by means of chosen coefficients and to create significant predictors using regression models for athletes in wheelchair rugby who had the same spinal cord injury (tetraplegia and were classified as low point and high point players. The study sample consisted of 24 subjects, who had sustained cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI. They were divided into low point (n=15 and high point (n=9 groups according to the IWRF Classification System. A one-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in the following coefficients differentiating the groups: AC (η2=0.778, LC (η2=0.687, IC (η2=0.565, SC (η2=0.580. The Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test indicated statistically significant higher values of coefficients in the HP compared to the LP group: AC=0.958 (p=0.022, LC=0.989 (p=0.031, IC=0.971 (p=0.044, SC=0.938 (p=0.039. In the HP group, the most significant predictor was the sum of visceral and trunk fat which was negatively correlated with the SC (what constituted a positive adaptive change in response to training. With regard to the LP group, body height and circumference of the chest appeared to be most significant predictors and were positively correlated with the SC. In the LP group no predictor with respect to the SC was significantly correlated to sports training. Therefore, the functional classification system confirmed lower status of the LP players. The results of the present study indicate that both metabolic and somatic profiles which highly determine potential of wheelchair rugby athletes are significantly different in LP and HP players, what confirms the reliability of the functional classification system.

  8. Severe brachial plexus injuries in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, F; Mannan, K; Bharania, P; Sewell, M D; Di Mascio, L; Sinisi, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe the mechanisms, pattern of injuries, management and outcomes of severe injuries to the brachial plexus sustained during the play of rugby. Thirteen cases of severe injury to the brachial plexus caused by tackles in rugby had detailed clinical assessment, and operative exploration of the brachial plexus. Seventeen spinal nerves were avulsed, two were ruptured and there were traction lesions in continuity of 24 spinal nerves. The pattern of nerve lesion was related to the posture of the neck and the forequarter at the moment of impact. Early repair by nerve transfer enabled some functional recovery, and decompression of lesions in continuity was followed by recovery of nerve function and relief of pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Villarejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuantitative scientific production analysis is used to detect the activity, structure, and evolution of an area of knowledge and to quantify their results. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify, and categorize the scientific literature in the field of rugby union that was indexed on the ISI Web of Knowledge (WOK between 1998 and 2007. A total of 136 papers were found. The characteristics of the studies that were found were: a 99.3% were in English; b 83.5% were research studies; c 51.4% were about injuries in the sport; d the majority of the publications were from anglosaxon institutions, and e; an increase in the number of publications in the last five years (15-20 publications per year was found.Key words: team sport, bibliometrics, research, database

  10. Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Villarejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative scientific production analysis is used to detect the activity, structure, and evolution of an area of knowledge and to quantify their results. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify, and categorize the scientific literature in the field of rugby union that was indexed on the ISI Web of Knowledge (WOK between 1998 and 2007. A total of 136 papers were found. The characteristics of the studies that were found were: a 99.3% were in English; b 83.5% were research studies; c 51.4% were about injuries in the sport; d the majority of the publications were from anglosaxon institutions, and e; an increase in the number of publications in the last five years (15-20 publications per year was found. Key words: team sport, bibliometrics, research, database

  11. Perfil antropométrico e fisiológico de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" Anthropometric and physiological profile of Brazilian rugby athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lopes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" é um esporte bastante popular internacionalmente e em franca ascensão no Brasil. É caracterizado pela existência de duas posições táticas básicas ("forwards" e "backs", cujos atletas apresentam demandas funcionais e características físicas distintas. Embora a literatura internacional apresente um número interessante de referências acerca do perfil antropométrico e fisiológico destes atletas, pouca atenção tem sido despendida aos atletas brasileiros. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o desempenho de 20 jogadores amadores de "Rugby" submetidos à ergoespirometria, teste de Wingate e Dinamometria isocinética bem como a comparação entre "backs" (n = 10 e "forwards" (n = 10 para verificar possíveis diferenças entre as posições táticas. Para determinação dos valores de VO2 e VCO2 foi utilizado um analisador de gases computadorizado (CPX-D; MedGraphics Cardiorespiratory Diagnostic Systems para variáveis de força um dinamômetro isocinético Cybex Norm (Lumex & Co., Ronkonkoma, USA e para comparações de composição corporal foi aplicada a técnica de cinco componentes da ISAK. A comparação entre os dados foi verificada por meio do teste t de Student para amostras independentes, sendo que para todas as variáveis foi adotado um índice de significância de p Rugby is a very popular sport around the world and on the rise in Brazil. It is characterized by the existence of two basic tactics positions (forwards and backs, in which athletes have distinguishing functional demands and physical characteristics. Although the international literature presents a number of interesting data about the physiological and anthropometric profile of these athletes, little attention has been spent to Brazilian athletes. This study aimed to verify the performance of 20 amateur rugby players and to compare the aerobic power (VO2max, anaerobic endurance and isokinetic strength in backs (n = 10 and forwards (n = 10. A

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Malaysian youth players before and during a national tournament. ... Team and individual sports like rugby, hockey, cricket and squash have the ... developed a real time analysis of tennis matches [7]. .... the university while consent for filming were procured from the team management and tournament.

  13. High Foot Implosion Experiments in Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Joseph; Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D.; Kaiser, P.; Morice, O.; Marion, D.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Strozzi, D.; Hinkel, D.; Michel, P.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Khan, S.; Rygg, R.; Hurricane, O.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; CEA/DAM Team

    2015-11-01

    The rugby hohlraum design is aimed at providing uniform x-ray drive on the capsule while minimizing the need for crossed beam energy transfer (CBET). As part of a series of experiments at the NIF using rugby hohlraums, design improvements in dual axis shock tuning experiments produced some of the most symmetric shocks measured on implosion experiments at the NIF. Additionally, tuning of the in-flight shell and hot spot shape have demonstrated that capsules can be tuned between oblate and prolate with measured velocities of nearly 340 km/s. However, these experimental measurements were accompanied by high levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) that may result from the long inner beam path length, reamplification of the inner SRS by the outers, significant (CBET) or a combination of these. All rugby shots results were achieved with lower levels of hot electrons that can preheat the DT fuel layer for increased adiabat and reduced areal density. Detailed results from these experiments and those planned throughout the summer will be presented and compared with results obtained from cylindrical hohlraums. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Lab under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Impact of the International Rugby Board's experimental law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury causation was similar for the two competitions but there were significantly fewer ruck/maul (p=0.001) and more tackled (p=0.010) injuries in Super 14 compared with English Premiership rugby and fewer collision (p=0.002) and more tackling (p<0.001) injuries compared with Rugby World Cup. In the Vodacom Cup, ...

  15. A simulated rugby match protocol induces physiological fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A rugby union game consists of 80 minutes of strenuous exertion. Forwards are required to participate in the arduous activity of scrummaging throughout a game. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify whether rugby-match simulated fatigue modified individual scrummaging technique and ...

  16. Physical and physiological differences of backs and forwards from the Brazilian National rugby union team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Moraes, José E; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Teixeira Vaz, Luís M; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare backs and forwards rugby union players recruited to a National team in the following physical and physiological indicators: anthropometrics, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10- and 30-meter sprint, resting heart rate variability (HRV), Yo-Yo Test and heart rate (HR) at 2 minutes of test. The measurements were performed on the first day of a training camp planned to finely select the players who would participate in the 2016 America's Rugby Championship. The magnitude-based inference was used in the comparisons. Backs demonstrated almost certainly greater distance in the Yo-Yo Test (backs: 2305.9±231.3 meters; forwards: 1802.4±361.2 meters), higher vertical jump height in both SJ and CMJ (SJ: 44.0±5.3 cm vs. 37.6±5.4 cm; CMJ: 46.1±5.0 cm vs. 40.0±5.5 cm, for backs and forwards respectively), and superior sprint velocity in 10- and 30-m (10-m: 6.02±0.23 m.s-1 vs. 5.51±0.34 m.s-1; 30-m: 7.46±0.25 m.s-1 vs. 6.89±0.37 m.s-1, for backs and forwards respectively) than the forwards. In contrast, forwards were almost certainly taller and heavier than backs, and displayed higher sprint momentum in 10- and 30-meters (10 meters: 513.0±51.6 kg.m.s-1 vs. 598.4±53.1 kg.m.s-1; 30 meters: 635.3±56.1 kg.m.s-1 vs. 749.0±70.5 kg.m.s-1, for backs and forwards respectively). The submaximal HR in the first 2-minutes of the Yo-Yo test was likely lower in the backs than in the forwards (77.6±5.1% of the maximal HR vs. 81.3±5.4% of the maximal HR for backs and forwards respectively), while HRV indices were not different between backs and forwards. Playing position appears to be determined by the players' physical and physiological characteristics in top-level rugby union, and the submaximal HR measured during Yo-Yo test can be a simple alternative to discriminate backs and forwards.

  17. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; pvelocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  18. Mechanisms of ACL injury in professional rugby union: a systematic video analysis of 36 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Connor; Blackburn, Jeff; Withers, Daniel; Tierney, Gregory; Moran, Cathal; Simms, Ciaran

    2016-12-30

    The mechanisms of ACL injury in rugby are not well defined. To describe the mechanisms of ACL injury in male professional rugby players using systematic video analysis. 36 cases from games played in top professional leagues and international matches were analysed. 5 analysts independently assessed all videos to record the estimated frame/time of initial ground contact, frame/time of ACL tear and a range of play specific variables. This included contact versus non-contact ACL injuries, injury timing, joint flexion angles and foot contact with the ground. 37 side-stepping manoeuvres from a control game were analysed to allow comparison of non-injury versus injury situations. 57% of ACL injuries occurred in a contact manner. 2 main scenarios were identified: (1) offensive running and (2) being tackled, indicating that the ball carrier might be at higher risk of ACL injury. The majority of non-contact ACL injuries resulted from a side-stepping manoeuvre. In most non-contact cases, initial ground contact was through heel strike. Statistical assessment of heel strike at initial ground contact versus non-heel strike cases showed a significant difference in injury versus non-injury outcomes, with heel strike associated with higher injury risk. Non-contact ACL injuries had lower median knee flexion angles and a more dorsiflexed ankle when compared with a control group (10° vs 20°, p≤0.001 and 10° vs 0°, p=0.033 respectively). Over half of ACL injuries in rugby in our analysis resulted from a contact mechanism. For non-contact injuries, lower knee flexion angles and heel-first ground contact in a side-stepping manoeuvre were associated with ACL injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Metabolic demands and replenishment of muscle glycogen after a rugby league match simulation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Hannon, Marcus P; Benford, Victoria; Morehen, James C; Twist, Craig; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Impey, Samuel G; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. Fifteen (mean±SD: age 20.9±2.9 year, body-mass 87.3±14.1kg, height 177.4±6.0cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6gkgday-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7. Players were prescribed an immediate or delayed (2-h-post) re-feed post-simulation. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained post-depletion, before and after simulated match-play, and 48-h after match-play with PlayerLoad and heart-rate collected throughout the simulation. Data were analysed using effects sizes±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. PlayerLoad (8.0±0.7 AUmin-1) and %HRpeak (83±4.9%) during the simulation were similar to values reported for RL match-play. Muscle glycogen very likely increased from immediately after to 48-h post-simulation (272±97 cf. 416±162mmolkg-1d.w.; ES±90%CI) after immediate re-feed, but changes were unclear (283±68 cf. 361±144mmolkg-1d.w.; ES±90%CI) after delayed re-feed. CK almost certainly increased by 77.9±25.4% (0.75±0.19) post-simulation for all players. The RLMSP presents a replication of the internal loads associated with professional RL match-play, although difficulties in replicating the collision reduced the metabolic demands and glycogen utilisation. Further, it is possible to replete muscle glycogen in damaged muscle employing an immediate re-feed strategy. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Time-loss injuries versus non-time-loss injuries in the first team rugby league football: a pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissane, Conor; Hodgson, Lisa; Jennings, De

    2012-09-01

    To describe the injury rates in first team rugby league in terms of those injuries that require missed playing time and those that do not. A pooled data analysis from 2 independent databases. Rugby league match and training environment over several seasons from 1990 to 2003. Injuries were reported as rates per 1000 hours of participation and as percentages with their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 1707 match injuries were recorded. Of these injuries, 257 required players to miss the subsequent match. The remaining 1450 injuries did not require players to miss the next game. They represented 85% (95% CI, 83-87) of all injuries received and recorded. The ratio of non-time-loss (NTL) to time-loss (TL) injuries was 5.64 (95% CI, 4.96-6.42). There were 450 training injuries, of which 81 were TL injuries and 369 NTL injuries. The NTL training injury rate was 4.56 (95% CI, 3.58-5.79) times higher than TL injury rate. Non-time-loss injuries represent the largest proportion of injuries in rugby league. If NTL injuries are not recorded, the workload of practitioners is likely to be severely underestimated.

  1. Home Versus Away Competition: Effect on Psychophysiological Variables in Elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Brian; Morgan, Kevin A; Baker, Julien S; Cardinale, Marco; Davies, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of game venue and starting status on precompetitive psychophysiological measures in elite rugby union. Saliva samples were taken from players (starting XV, n = 15, and nonstarters, n = 9) on a control day and 90 min before 4 games played consecutively at home and away venues against local rivals and league leaders. Precompetition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. The squad recorded 2 wins (home) and 2 losses (away) over the study period. Calculated effect sizes (ESs) showed higher pregame cortisol- (C) and testosterone- (T) difference values before all games than on a baseline control day (ES 0.7-1.5). Similar findings were observed for cognitive and somatic anxiety. Small between-venues C differences were observed in starting XV players (ES 0.2-0.25). Conversely, lower home T- (ES 0.95) and higher away C- (ES 0.6) difference values were observed in nonstarters. Lower T-difference values were apparent in nonstarters (vs starting XV) before home games, providing evidence of a between-groups effect (ES 0.92). Findings show an anticipatory rise in psychophysiological variables before competition. Knowledge of starting status appears a moderating factor in the magnitude of player endocrine response between home and away games.

  2. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  3. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contact technique and concussions in the South African under-18 Coca-Cola Craven Week Rugby tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; O'connor, Sam; Lambert, Michael; Brown, James; Burger, Nicholas; Mc Fie, Sarah; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In rugby union, understanding the techniques and events leading to concussions is important because of the nature of the injury and the severity and potential long-term consequences, particularly in junior players. Proper contact technique is a prerequisite for successful participation in rugby and is a major factor associated with injury. However, the execution of proper contact technique and its relationship to injury has yet to be studied in matches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contact techniques leading to concussion with a representative sample of similarly matched non-injury (NI) contact events. Injury surveillance was conducted at the 2011-2013 under-18 Craven Week Rugby tournaments. Video footage of 10 concussive events (5 tackle, 4 ruck and 1 aerial collision) and 83 NI events were identified (19 tackle, 61 ruck and 3 aerial collisions). Thereafter, each phase of play was analysed using standardised technical proficiency criteria. Overall score for ruck proficiency in concussive events was 5.67 (out of a total of 15) vs. 6.98 for NI events (n = 54) (effect size = 0.52, small). Overall average score for tackler proficiency was 7.25 (n = 4) and 6.67 (n = 15) for injury and NI tackles, respectively (out of 16) (effect size = 0.19, trivial). This is the first study to compare concussion injury contact technique to a player-matched sample of NI contact techniques. Certain individual technical criteria had an effect towards an NI outcome, and others had an effect towards a concussive event, highlighting that failure to execute certain techniques may substantially increase the opportunity for concussion.

  5. Variability of Characteristics Physiologic and Anthropometric in Practitioners of Rugby in Function of the Category and Position of Game: Systematic revision of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Campos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Analyse the existence variability of anthropometric and physiologic characteristics in Rugby players according their game position and competitive level. Methodology: enhances the existence of significant variability in matter of different evaluation parameters subordinated to two ranges of characteristics anthropometric (weight, height, % of body mass and age and physiologic (muscular power, maximum aerobic power, speed according the practice status (professionals, semi-professional, amateur and the position in game (forwards, backs. Results: they point with respect to clear differences the anthropometric and physiological level profile of the players, particularly when related to the competitive level. The level half-professional verifies a significant effect of the age in the corporal mass, muscular force, speed, agility and maximum aerobic capacity, with the physiological characteristics of the players to verify an increase in function of the increase of the game level. Conclusions: the results gotten in the different studies for amateur players do not demonstrate linearity what if it must in particular the games with low intensity, with frequency and regularity irregular, of short duration or based in training programs little structuralized or inappropriate. Parameters related with the agility, speed, muscular force and VO2máx present a gradual development in function of the increase of the age and the level the one that the game is practiced. On the other hand, in terms of the position assumed for the player in field, the physiological profile of professional players is similar wants if it deals with advanced wants well of defenses if that the anthropometric variations are in this field particularly well-known. In anthropometrics terms, the practitioners of Rugby present high muscular mass, being the players in the position of advanced older and more weighed than the defenses. Parallel he exists a significant effect of the age

  6. A rugby-shaped cavity for the LMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.P.; Lafitte, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical studies show that a rugby-shaped hohlraum for indirect drive laser ignition has some advantages: it allows a better symmetry for the X-ray irradiation of the central target and it required less laser power. Rugby-shaped cavities have been tested successfully at the Omega facility. The energetic advantage is all the more important as the cavity is bigger. Simulations have shown that a rugby-shaped hohlraum plus adequate materials for the intern wall plus an optimization of the central target could open the way to an ignition with only 160 laser beams at the LMJ (Megajoule Laser) facility. (A.C.)

  7. Technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance in International rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; van Niekerk, Tiffany; Sin, Drew Wade; Lambert, Mike; den Hollander, Steve; Brown, James; Maree, Willie; Treu, Paul; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2018-03-01

    The most frequently occurring contact events in rugby union are the tackle and ruck. The ability repeatedly to engage and win the tackle and ruck has been associated with team success. To win the tackle and ruck, players have to perform specific techniques. These techniques have not been studied at the highest level of rugby union. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance at the highest level of rugby union. A total of 4479 tackle and 2914 ruck events were coded for the Six Nations and Championship competitions. Relative risk ratio (RR), the ratio of the probability of an outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed (versus the non-observed characteristic), was determined using multinomial logistic regression. Executing front-on tackles reduced the likelihood of offloads and tackle breaks in both competitions (Six Nations RR 3.0 Behind tackle, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.9-4.6, effect size [ES] = large, P < 0.001); Championship RR 2.9 Jersey tackle, 95% CI: 1.3-6.4, ES = moderate, P = 0.01). Fending during contact increased the chances of offloading and breaking the tackle in both competitions (Six Nations RR 4.5 Strong, 95% CI: 2.2-9.2, ES = large, P = P < 0.001; Championship RR 5.1 Moderate, 95% CI: 3.5-7.4, ES = large, P < 0.001). For the ruck, actively placing the ball increased the probability of maintaining possession (Six Nations RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3, ES = moderate, P = 0.03); Championship RR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-11.8, ES = large, P = 0.01). The techniques identified in this study should be incorporated and emphasised during training to prepare players for competition. Furthermore, these techniques need to be added to coaching manuals for the tackle and ruck.

  8. A rugby-shaped cavity for the LMJ; Une cavite en forme de ballon de rugby pour le LMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.P.; Lafitte, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Numerical studies show that a rugby-shaped hohlraum for indirect drive laser ignition has some advantages: it allows a better symmetry for the X-ray irradiation of the central target and it required less laser power. Rugby-shaped cavities have been tested successfully at the Omega facility. The energetic advantage is all the more important as the cavity is bigger. Simulations have shown that a rugby-shaped hohlraum plus adequate materials for the intern wall plus an optimization of the central target could open the way to an ignition with only 160 laser beams at the LMJ (Megajoule Laser) facility. (A.C.)

  9. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  10. Rugby--The New Kid on the Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jim

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the rules and play for rugby are presented along with arguments for its inclusion and promotion in athletic programs. It is economical, exciting, individualistic, social, and fun. (JMF)

  11. Laser-plasma interactions and implosion symmetry in rugby hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Berger, R. L.; Lasinski, B. F.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Williams, E. A.; Meeker, D.; Langdon, B. A.; Park, H.; Amendt, P.

    2011-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer is studied in the context of ``rugby''-hohlraum experiments at the Omega laser facility in FY11, in preparation for future NIF experiments. The transfer acts in opposite direction between rugby and cylinder hohlraums due to the different beam pointing geometries and flow patterns. Its interaction with backscatter is also different as both happen in similar regions inside rugby hohlraums. We will analyze the effects of non-linearities and temporal beam smoothing on energy transfer using the code pF3d. Calculations will be compared to experiments at Omega; analysis of future rugby hohlraum experiments on NIF will also be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Optimizing implosion yields using rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, H.; Amendt, P.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    We present the first experimental results on optimizing capsule implosion experiments by using rugby-shaped hohlraums [1] on the Omega laser, University of Rochester. This campaign compared D2-filled capsule performance between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums for demonstrating the energetics advantages of the rugby geometry. Not only did the rugby-shaped hohlraums show nearly 20% more x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but also the high-performance design of the capsules provided nearly 20 times more DD neutrons than in any previous Omega hohlraum campaigns, thereby enabling use of neutron temporal diagnostics. Comparison with simulations on neutron burn histories, x-ray core imaging, backscattered laser light and radiation temperature are presented. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008)

  13. ECOLE DE RUGBY DE CERN / MEYRIN / ST-GENIS

    CERN Multimedia

    RUGBY CLUB

    2010-01-01

    La période de rentrée des classes coïncide également avec la reprise des activités sportives de nos enfants. L’Ecole de Rugby du CMSG Rugby Club, une des plus grandes de Suisse avec près d’une de licenciés de 6 à 18 ans, profite de cette période pour vous informer sur la réelle alternative que représente le Rugby. Pourquoi le rugby pour mon enfant ? Parce qu’il contribue à l’épanouissement harmonieux des enfants et des jeunes, ainsi qu’à la formation de leur personnalité. C’est même le ‘Sport Collectif par Excellence’ selon le Manuel des Castor Juniors ! Le rugby est un sport complet qui sollicite et développe les capacités motrices, intellectuelles, sociales et affectives de celui qui l’exerce. Le rugby...

  14. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in

  15. Implosion spectroscopy in Rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Bitaud, Laurent; Seytor, Patricia; Reverdin, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept has been validated in previous experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. This new hohlraum type can now be used as a well-characterized experimental platform to study indirect drive implosion, at higher radiation temperatures than would be feasible at this scale with classical cylindrical hohlraums. Recent experiments have focused on the late stages of implosion and hotspot behavior. The capsules included both a thin buried Titanium tracer layer, 0-3 microns from the inner surface, Argon dopant in the deuterium gas fuel and Germanium doped CH shells, providing a variety of spectral signatures of the plasma conditions in different parts of the target. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging were used to study compression, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth at the inner surface and mix between the shell and gas.

  16. Mobilizing by senses to allow teaming up Massages, messages and ways in and through the rugby locker room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien FEMENIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Element of folklore which gives rugby some of its flavour, object of curiosity for the medias and more generally for all those that are not accepted in it, the before the match lockers' room is a Mecca for Rugby. This contribution describes what is at stake inside those walls and shows how, through the mobilization of senses, collective preparation allows teaming up. We can see how the preparation time has moved from a silent moment to a collective sharing time of listening to the same music, or how each player is captured by and becomes one with the group during the camphor oil massage. Touching one's partner, rubbing on the same smell enables the player to connect with the group and with the expectations of the task to come : the symbolic charge of this esthetic transposition finds its energy in the mobilization of the senses on which it is grounded. The warming up is an expression of the values and goals of the group, trough gesture and words : it is about feeling together in order to better be together as one. All of the before the game activities is but a ritualised mediation, which, through the senses, adjusts and frames experiences, regulates emotions through focusing and introduces the player to the game's specific esthetics. Compulsory moment of expression, coded time and place, the lockers' room offers thus also an opportunity to question the effects of such a management shaped by our senses and which makes of the team both a political system and a galaxy of emotions.

  17. An evidence-driven approach to scrum law modifications in amateur rugby played in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, S.; Lambert, M.I.; Brown, J.; Readhead, C.; Viljoen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2012, the South African Rugby Union (SARU) approved a new set of scrum laws for amateur rugby played in the country, to be implemented at the start of the 2013 rugby season. These law changes were primarily based on the relatively high proportion of scrum-related catastrophic injury

  18. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Reardon

    Full Text Available A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p < 0.001, HSR% (absolute = 5.15 ± 3.18, individualised = 7.06 ± 2.48, p < 0.001 and HSR efforts (HSRE (absolute = 18.81 ± 12.25; individualised = 24.78 ± 8.30, p < 0.001. In contrast, there was a significant overestimation of the same HSR metrics for backs with the use of an absolute threshold (HSRD absolute = 697.79 ± 198.11, individualised = 570.02 ± 171.14, p < 0.001; HSR% absolute = 10.85 ± 2.82, individualised = 8.95 ± 2.76, p < 0.001; HSRE absolute = 41.55 ± 11.25; individualised = 34.54 ± 9.24, p < 0.001. This under- or overestimation associated with an absolute speed zone applies to varying degrees across the ten positional sub-categories analyzed and also to individuals within the same positional sub-category. The results of the present study indicated that although use of an individulised HSR threshold improves the interpretation of the HSR demands on a positional basis, inter

  19. Technical and tactical aspects in Italian youth rugby union in relation to different academies, regional tournaments, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, Alexandru Nicolae; Condello, Giancarlo; Pistore, Simonluca; Conte, Daniele; Lupo, Corrado

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of the Italian under-18 Academy Rugby Union in relation to different academies, regional tournaments, and game outcomes. A notational analysis (forty-four indicators) was performed on 16 games (2014-15 season) to evaluate strong differences (P ≤ 0.05; moderate-large effect sizes) according to variables. Among academies, strong differences were showed for defensive breakdown where the defending support is much (range=77-87%), equal (range=11-32%), and less (range=2-12%) numerous than the attacking support, total tackles (range=64-122) and passes (range=72-151), pass to possession ratio (range=6-10), possession lost due to an error (range=28-59%), and ball in play in own (range=8-25%) and opponent (range=7-31%) 22m area indicators. For tournaments, effects emerged for offensive breakdown when the ball is used quickly employing maximum 2 attacking supports (range=20-30%) and is not used quickly (range=28-41%), total penalty kicks (range=11-16), and sequences period 0-10 (range=26-35%) and 10-40 s (range=47-55%). Conversely, winning and losing academies reported differences with small effect sizes. These results highlight that the technical and tactical aspects of the Italian under-18 Academy Rugby Union are quite homogeneous, suggesting that FIR coaching staffs are more oriented to players' skills than successful games. However, tactical, and strength and conditioning coaches can benefit from the findings of this study, focusing training on cognitive, strength, and repeated sprint abilities with and without change of direction for improving the occurrence of "set pieces won/regained" and "ball in play in opponent 22m area", which appear as the key of the game in this rugby competition level.

  20. The effect of overnight sleep deprivation after competitive rugby league matches on postmatch physiological and perceptual recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skein, Melissa; Duffield, Rob; Minett, Geoffrey M; Snape, Alanna; Murphy, Alistair

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of overnight sleep deprivation on recovery after competitive rugby league matches. Eleven male amateur rugby league players played 2 competitive matches, followed by either a normal night's sleep (~8 h; CONT) or a sleep-deprived night (~0 h; SDEP) in a randomized fashion. Testing was conducted the morning of the match, immediately postmatch, 2 h postmatch, and the next morning (16 h postmatch). Measures included countermovement-jump (CMJ) distance, knee-extensor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and voluntary activation (VA), venous-blood creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP), perceived muscle soreness, and a word-color recognition cognitive-function test. Percent change between postmatch and 16-h postmatch was reported to determine the effect of the intervention the next morning. Large effects indicated a greater postmatch to 16-h-postmatch percentage decline in CMJ distance after SDEP than in CONT (P = .10-.16, d = 0.95-1.05). Similarly, the percentage decline in incongruent word-color reaction times was increased in SDEP trials (P = .007, d = 1.75). Measures of MVC did not differ between conditions (P = .40-.75, d = 0.13-0.33), although trends for larger percentage decline in VA were detected in SDEP (P = .19, d = 0.84). Furthermore, large effects indicated higher CK and CRP responses 16 h postmatch in SDEP than in CONT (P = .11-.87, d = 0.80-0.88). Sleep deprivation negatively affected recovery after a rugby league match, specifically impairing CMJ distance and cognitive function. Practitioners should promote adequate postmatch sleep patterns or adjust training demands the next day to accommodate the altered physical and cognitive state after sleep deprivation.

  1. MODIFICATION OF AGILITY RUNNING TECHNIQUE IN REACTION TO A DEFENDER IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane W. Wheeler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional kinematic analysis examined agility running technique during pre-planned and reactive performance conditions specific to attacking ball carries in rugby union. The variation to running technique of 8 highly trained rugby union players was compared between agility conditions (pre-planned and reactive and also agility performance speeds (fast, moderate and slow. Kinematic measures were used to determine the velocity of the centre of mass (COM in the anteroposterior (running speed and mediolateral (lateral movement speed planes. The position of foot-strike and toe-off was also examined for the step prior to the agility side- step (pre-change of direction phase and then the side-step (change of direction phase. This study demonstrated that less lateral movement speed towards the intended direction change occurred during reactive compared to pre-planned conditions at pre-change of direction (0.08 ± 0.28 m·s-1 and 0.42 ± 0.25 m·s-1, respectively and change of direction foot-strikes (0.25 ± 0.42 m·s-1 and 0.69 ± 0.43 m·s-1, respectively. Less lateral movement speed during reactive conditions was associated with greater lateral foot displacement (44.52 ± 6.10% leg length at the change of direction step compared to pre-planned conditions (41.35 ± 5.85%. Importantly, the anticipation abilities during reactive conditions provided a means to differentiate between speeds of agility performance, with faster performances displaying greater lateral movement speed at the change of direction foot- strike (0.52 ± 0.34 m·s-1 compared to moderate (0.20 ± 0.37 m·s-1 and slow (-0.08 ± 0.31 m·s-1. The changes to running technique during reactive conditions highlight the need to incorporate decision-making in rugby union agility programs

  2. Coping strategies of soccer players | Plaatjie | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...

  3. The Suitability of the Remedy of Specific Performance to Breach of a "Player's Contract" with Specific Reference to the Mapoe and Santos cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mould

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, rugby union formation in the Republic of South Africa developed rapidly from a system of strict amateurism to one of professionalism. Professional participants in the sport received salaries for participation, and rugby became a business like any other. As in all forms of business, rugby had to be regulated moreefficiently than had previously been the case. Tighter regulations were instituted by governing bodies, and ultimately labour legislation became applicable to professional rugby. A professional sportsman or woman participating in a team sport is generallyconsidered an employee. This means that the same principles that govern employees in general should also apply to professional sportsmen and women. The exact nature of the "player's contract", a term generally used to describe the contract of employment between a professional sportsman or sportswoman and his or her employer, deserves closer attention. It has been argued with much merit that the "player's contract", while in essence a contract of employment, possesses certain sui generis characteristics. The first aim of this article is to demonstrate how this statement is in fact a substantial one. If it is concluded that the "player's contract" isin fact a sui generis contract of employment, the most suitable remedy in case of breach of contract must be determined. The second aim of this article is to indicate why the remedy of specific performance, which is generally not granted in cases where the defaulting party has to provide services of a personal nature, is the most suitable remedy in case of breach of "player's contracts". To substantiate this statement, recent applicable case law is investigated and discussed, particularly the recent case of Vrystaat Cheetahs (Edms Beperk v Mapoe. Suggestions are finally offered as to how breach of "player's contracts" should be approached by South African courts in future.

  4. Wheelchair users' experience of non-adapted and adapted clothes during sailing, quad rugby or wheel-walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, G; Söderback, I; Guidetti, S; Hultling, C; Rykatkin, T; Söderström, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present quasi-experimental post-test-design study was to compare 32 wheelchair users' (mostly para/tetraplegics) experience of wearing specially adapted clothes and non-adapted clothes for sailing, quad rugby or wheel-walking. Four existing assessment instruments were used: the Klein-Bell Activities of Daily Living Scale; a two-part Basic Information Questionnaire eliciting experience of effort, comfort and feeling of physical condition; the Experience Sampling Form for investigating the individuals' attitudes in terms of involvement and affective and activity mood states, and the Occupational Therapy Assessment of Leisure Time interview framework for collecting data about experience of leisure time. The wheelchair users all associated significantly greater comfort with use of the adapted clothes and, particularly the 'sailors', better physical condition. Overall, significantly greater involvement and more positive affect states were associated with the adapted clothes than with conventional garments, and mood state changed for the better. The wheelchair users set a higher priority upon work or leisure activities than upon independence in activities of daily living, and for this reason the Klein-Bell ratings showed great variation between the 'sailors' and the 'quad rugby players' (range 57%-93%), though these groups demonstrated more independence than the 'wheel-walkers'. The results of the study confirm the value of adapting sportswear for handicapped people. Such adaptations should also be of benefit for other activities than those studied.

  5. HAVE RECENT CHANGES TO THE RUGBY UNION LAWS OF SCRUMMAGE REDUCED SERIOUS CERVICAL SPINE INJURIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence F. McLoughlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available All areas of play in rugby union are acknowledged to be potentially dangerous but it is in the scrum where the most frequent and serious spinal injuries occur (McIntosh & McCrory, 2005. This letter addresses the questions: what is it about the scrum which accounts for the alleged increased frequency of scrummage associated spinal cord injury (particular in the cervical region and what has the Rugby Football Union [RFU] done to minimise the chance of cervical cord damage by changes to the Laws? Scrums are used to restart play after infringement of Law 20.1. The team which is successful in winning the ball from the scrum can provide quality possession and space to their attacking backs (IRB, 2005.The three front row players are especially vulnerable to serious cervical spine injury. The majority of neck injuries are caused by heads not being properly aligned when opposing front row players make initial contact as the scrum is being formed. If the scrum collapses then excessive forward flexion/rotation of the cervical spine can occur and by wheeling the scrum this can result in increased abnormal lateral flexion/rotation. Added to these possible abnormal increases in directional movement of the cervical spine is the force generated at engagement. It has been calculated that in the front row a static weight of up to 1600kg is placed on each player's neck. Fracture dislocation (usually between C4/C6 of the spine can be the resulting injury which if the cord is involved can cause tetra paresis.In response to this evidence the IRB amended the law of scrummage which was put into effect 2007 in the hope of reducing the incidence of serious cervical spine injury. This is summarised as a 4 step Law of engagement which is: "crouch, touch, pause, engage". The distance between the front rows must now be less than arms length before making contact. Prior to the introduction of this Law with the stipulated distance apart before engagement, the front row

  6. Injuries at Johannesburg high school rugby festivals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cervical spine. Almost half of the injuries were due to tackles with the next most common injury resulting from accidental collision (Fig. 2). In year 1, 27% of all the injured players were stopped from continuing (indicating severity) compared with 22% in year 2. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.64, χ2).

  7. Thinking differently about rugby performance: The relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the backs, medium to strong positive correlations exit between emotion identification and total attacking contribution, passes as well as kicks. Therefore, effective pattern recognition ability and associated quick decision-making might be important cognitive functions for backline players as well as loose forwards.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  9. The psychological influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby: a social relational model of disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Haslett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007. Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in Wheelchair Rugby. Deductive thematic analysis produced four themes influenced by the social relational model: impairment effects; societal attitudes and discourse; opportunities and access; and psychological well-being. Links were made to the experience of embodied impairment, classification, oppression, inequality, media, independence, and self-efficacy. The analysis illustrates how cultural constructions of disability are inextricably linked to individual influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby. The results indicate that in disability sport participation, the experience of social oppression, inequality and cultural stereotypes of disability can be synonymous with the personal experience of physical impairment. The implication