WorldWideScience

Sample records for research royal cancer

  1. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  2. Effect of Honey and Royal Jelly against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Hasnaa; Abdullah, Aya; Gamal, Bassma; Emad, Dina; Sayed, Doha; Hussein, Eman; Mahfouz, Eman; Tharwat, Joy; Sayed, Sally; Medhat, Shrouk; Bahaa, Treza; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E A

    2017-07-01

    Cisplatin constitutes one of the most potent antineoplastic drugs; however, nephrotoxicity limited its eligibility for optimal clinical use. This study was designed to evaluate the role of honey and royal jelly with antioxidant properties in the protection of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in patients with cancer. Patients with cancer assigned for cisplatin chemotherapy were randomly divided into bee honey and royal jelly groups pretreated before the initiation and during cisplatin chemotherapeutic regimen and control group on cisplatin only. Serum creatinine and urea levels were measured before and after the chemotherapeutic cycle and over 2 cycles. Patients on crude bee honey and royal jelly capsules showed lower serum levels of renal injury products (creatinine and urea) compared to those in the control group. The changes in kidney parameters were significantly (p honey group before and after cisplatin treatment. Royal jelly was found to be effective; however, the difference in creatinine and urea levels before and after chemotherapy was not statistically significant. The use of bee honey and royal jelly as natural compounds is effective in reducing cisplatin nephrotoxicity and may offer a promising chance for clinically meaningful prevention. This study has potentially important implications for the treatment of cisplatin kidney side effects and is considered to be the first to investigate this effect of honey and royal jelly in human subjects. However, due to its small sample size, we recommend further investigation using a larger sample size.

  3. The Avaldsnes Royal Manor Project’s Research Plan and Excavation Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Skre, Dagfinn

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an outline of the scholarly problems that the Avaldsnes Royal Manor Project was designed to address, the central theme explored being the political institutions and processes in the first millennium AD. The research plan was developed during the 2007–9 pilot project phase, and was adjusted and supplemented during the 2011–12 excavations and the research and publication phase in the subsequent years. The first of the research plan’s two sections, the results of which are ...

  4. The dreams of a cancer patient: a "royal road" to understanding the somatic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogeras, R C; Alston, T M

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we have presented the principal dreams of a 39-year-old female patient in order to demonstrate how closely the dreams were linked with the understanding of her cancerous condition. The analysis, lasting over a period of eight years, ended with the remission of the patient's cancerous condition to the point where she was without pain and symptom-free. The findings suggested that her dreams played a special role in her analysis by providing important landmarks regarding her treatment's progress and state of her cancerous condition. In a general sense, it was concluded that the patient's dreams did provide a "royal road" to understanding her somatic illness. Specifically, it was concluded that, first, the patient's dreams were able to represent quite reliably, in symbolic form, the state of her cancerous condition; second, that the cancer condition and transference-countertransference reactions were closely entwined; and third, that each of the patient's dreams seemed to be introduced by a crisis situation connected with a traumatic early memory.

  5. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  6. Enhancements to the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Weir, R.D.; Nielson, K.S.; Chan, P.K.; Bennett, L.G.I., E-mail: paul.hungler@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In 1985 a Safe Low Power C(K)ritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) nuclear research reactor was installed at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC). The reactor at nominally 20 kW thermal was named SLOWPOKE-2 and the core was designed to have a total of 198 fuel pins with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel (19.89% U-235). Installation of the reactor was intended to provide an education tool for members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and an affordable neutron source for the application of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and radioisotope production. Today, the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC continues to be a key education tool for undergraduate and post-graduate students and successfully conducts NAA and isotope production as per its original design intent. RMCC has significantly upgraded the facility and instruments to develop capabilities such as delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) and neutron imaging, including 2D thermal neutron radiography and 3D thermal neutron tomography. These unique nuclear capabilities have been applied to relevant issues in the CAF. The analog control system originally installed in 1985 has been removed and replaced in 2001 by the SLOWPOKE Integrated Reactor Control and Instrumentation System (SIRCIS) which is a digital controller. This control system continues to evolve with SIRCIS V2 currently in operation. The continual enhancement of the facility, instruments and systems at the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC will be discussed, including an update on RMCC's refueling plan. (author)

  7. Enhancements to the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Weir, R.D.; Nielson, K.S.; Chan, P.K.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    2014-01-01

    In 1985 a Safe Low Power C(K)ritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) nuclear research reactor was installed at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC). The reactor at nominally 20 kW thermal was named SLOWPOKE-2 and the core was designed to have a total of 198 fuel pins with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel (19.89% U-235). Installation of the reactor was intended to provide an education tool for members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and an affordable neutron source for the application of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and radioisotope production. Today, the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC continues to be a key education tool for undergraduate and post-graduate students and successfully conducts NAA and isotope production as per its original design intent. RMCC has significantly upgraded the facility and instruments to develop capabilities such as delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) and neutron imaging, including 2D thermal neutron radiography and 3D thermal neutron tomography. These unique nuclear capabilities have been applied to relevant issues in the CAF. The analog control system originally installed in 1985 has been removed and replaced in 2001 by the SLOWPOKE Integrated Reactor Control and Instrumentation System (SIRCIS) which is a digital controller. This control system continues to evolve with SIRCIS V2 currently in operation. The continual enhancement of the facility, instruments and systems at the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC will be discussed, including an update on RMCC's refueling plan. (author)

  8. Does Royal jelly affect tumor cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad Maryam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Royal jelly is a substance that appears to be effective on immune system and it appears to be effective on both prevention and growth of cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to carry out a research to investigate the effect of royal jelly on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell in syngenic Balb/c mice. Methods: In an experimental study, 28 male Balb/c mice were designated into four equal groups. The mice were subcutaneously injected with 5x105 WEHI-164 tumor cells on the day zero in the chest area of the animal. Animals in groups 1 to 4 were orally given 100, 200, 300 mg/kg of royal jelly or vehicle, respectively. In every individual mouse, the tumour size was measured every 2 days from day 5 (days 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney-U tests. Result: Our results showed that the mean size of tumor in case group was significantly smaller than the control group in days 11, 13, 15 and 17 (P<0.05. No metastasis was seen in test and control groups. Conclusion: With emphasize on antitumor effect of royal jelly, it seems that royal jelly has important role in control and regression of fibrosarcoma cells. Since royal jelly showed a delayed effect in control of fibrosarcoma, we suggest that royal jelly be used at least 10 days before tumor inoculation.

  9. Current cancer research 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  10. Current cancer research 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  11. Looking back at the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship: the most prestigious research award of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boult, Margaret; Babidge, Wendy; Pleass, Susan; Scott, David

    2015-10-01

    The John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship is a generous endowment made to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) by the young neurosurgeon's family, following his death from a brain tumour. In this article, we examine the significance and legacy of the grant since its inception in 1979. This is the highest level of research fellowship awarded by the RACS recognizing early career excellence, as part of its significant research funding programme (over $1.7 million in 2015). John Mitchell Crouch recipients have been pioneers in various areas of medicine where they have developed new technologies, established research centres, improved patient safety and military surgery and embraced evidence-based medicine. The funds they received have directly contributed to research published in numerous highly respected peer-reviewed journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine; established new laboratories, helped fund clinical trials and allowed new directions of research to be pursued. Recipients of the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship have been recognized with many awards including 11 Australian and New Zealand Honours to date. Many other significant research funds have been subsequently bestowed, including over 120 National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants to Australian and New Zealand recipients subsequent to their Fellowship. This article also shows the range of disciplines in which the award has supported cutting-edge research leading to benefits for patients and health care. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  13. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  14. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusion research at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1978-01-01

    Summaries are given on the research activities in plasma physics and controlled fusion during 1977, and on the plans for research in 1978. The research programme includes investigations on plasma-neutral gas interaction and stability, magnetic confinement being mainly produced by poloidal fields, plasma heating, and reactor technology. (author)

  16. Fusion research at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1976-12-01

    Reviews are given on the research activities in plasma physics and controlled fusion during 1976 as well as on the plans for research in 1977, including short descriptions and motivations of the lines of approach being conducted by the laboratory. These lines include plasma-neutral gas interaction and stability, also with special approaches to plasma stabilization, magnetic confinement being mainly produced by poloidal fields, as well as heating and diagnostics of impermeable plasmas. (Auth.)

  17. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  18. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential diagnostics - the role of the Department of Biomedical Research of the Royal Tropical Institute in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Klatser

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of emerging and overlooked infectious diseases and widespread drug resistance, diagnostics have become increasingly important in supporting surveillance, disease control and outbreak management programs. In many low-income countries the diagnostic service has been a neglected part of health care, often lacking quantity and quality or even non-existing at all. High-income countries have exploited few of their advanced technical abilities for the much-needed development of low-cost, rapid diagnostic tests to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and accelerate the start of appropriate treatment. As is now also recognized by World Healt Organization, investment in the development of affordable diagnostic tools is urgently needed to further our ability to control a variety of diseases that form a major threat to humanity. The Royal Tropical Institute's Department of Biomedical Research aims to contribute to the health of people living in the tropics. To this end, its multidisciplinary group of experts focuses on the diagnosis of diseases that are major health problems in low-income countries. In partnership we develop, improve and evaluate simple and cheap diagnostic tests, and perform epidemiological studies. Moreover, we advice and support others - especially those in developing countries - in their efforts to diagnose infectious diseases.

  20. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  1. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermorken, A.; Durieux, L.

    1991-01-01

    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  2. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  3. A royal visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway made a trip to CERN on Tuesday 4 April, taking a tour of part of the LHC and greeting the Norwegian students and scientists at the Laboratory. Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN Director-General Robert Aymar.King Harald V and Queen Sonja are greeted warmly by members of the Norwegian community at the CERN Globe. CERN Director-General Robert Aymar welcomed the royal party, which included the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jonas Gahr Støre, and provided an overview of CERN's history and current and future research. ATLAS deputy spokesperson Steinar Stapnes then quickly explained the concept and inner workings of the LHC, some LHC physics goals and ATLAS, which is one of the main experiments receiving Norwegian contributions. 'I don't think I've ever had so many distinguished students before,' Stapnes said jokingly to the crowd.The royal delegation was then escorted underground for a look at the LHC tunnel and the...

  4. Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  5. The Effect of Topical Application of Royal Jelly on Chemoradiotherapy-Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichi Yamauchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the common side effects experienced by head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. Severe mucositis may be controllable by limiting cancer therapy, but it has resulted in decreasing the completion rate of chemoradiotherapy. The efficacy of royal jelly (RJ as prophylaxis against chemoradiotherapy-induced mucositis was evaluated through clinical scoring of oral and pharyngeal mucositis. Methods. In this randomized, single-blind (physician-blind, clinical trial, 13 patients with head and neck cancer requiring chemoradiation were randomly assigned to two groups. Seven patients assigned to the study group received RJ, and 6 patients were assigned to the control group. RJ group patients took RJ three times per day during treatment. The patients in both groups were evaluated twice a week for the development of mucositis using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results. A significant reduction in mucositis was seen among RJ-treated patients compared with controls (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that prophylactic use of RJ was effective in reducing mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. However, further studies are needed because of the small sample size and the absence of double blinding.

  6. Cognizance and utilization about breast cancer screening among the health professional female students and staffs of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A T M Emdadul; Mohd Hisham, Muhammad Afif Bin; Ahmad Adzman, Noor Azwa Laili Binti; Azudin, Nur Atiqah Binti; Shafri, Nursakinah Binti; Haque, Mainul

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a major life-threatening problem and a global concern including Malaysia. BC is an equal threat for both developing and developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors with knowledge, attitude, and perception on BC screening among the females of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP). This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016. The populations included were the students and staff of UniKL RCMP. The simple sampling method was used and a set of questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the participants who were willing to participate. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS version 17. Of the 220 only 203 questionnaires were returned. Nearly 87.7% of participants indicated genetic factors as the cause of BC, followed by exposure to carcinogenic and X-ray. Excessive smoking (54.2%) and sedentary lifestyle (52.2%) were the risk factors of the BC. 100% of participants thought that breast self-examination (BSE) is important to detect a breast lump and most of them (76.8%) knew what a mammogram is but only 2.0% went for a mammogram. Chemotherapy (71.9%) and surgery (71.9%) were treatments options according to study participants. Nearly 91.1% agreed that regular mammogram could help to detect BC at an early stage. Nearly 88.2% thought BC is not easily curable. Finally, for the attitude on BC screening, most of them knew how to perform BSE (69.0%) with the frequency of 36.0% doing it once a year. The majority of the participants found the good knowledge on BC and on how to perform BSE. Although most of them knew what a mammogram is, only a few have gone for it since perhaps it is recommended for those who are above 50-year-old. Therefore, researchers believe and trust that there is an urgent need of state-funded multicenter study to prevent and early diagnosis of BC in Malaysia.

  7. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    rate at baseline was 86% (n = 1876). Most participants were younger women with breast cancer. They were generally well educated and working. The cancer survivors reported having comprehensive social networks and being physically active. Several cancer-related symptoms were reported by women...... site, sex, age, family, working status and social position. These challenges might be addressed optimally in multi-dimensional rehabilitation programmes....... of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...

  8. Effect of different levels of royal jelly on biochemical parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... treatment of cancer, atherosclerosis, hypertension, infertility, asthma, depression and ... and body composition was determined by Tanita BC 418 MA. Royal jelly. Royal jelly used in the study was ... acids content of royal jelly. The composition of the royal jelly used in the study was determined. Saritaş et al.

  9. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - Research Associate III Dr. Zbigniew Dauter is the head investigator of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Section (SRRS) of CCR’s Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory. The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section is located at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; this is the site of the largest U.S. synchrotron facility. The SRRS uses X-ray diffraction technique to solve crystal structures of various proteins and nucleic acids of biological and medical relevance. The section is also specializing in analyzing crystal structures at extremely high resolution and accuracy and in developing methods of effective diffraction data collection and in using weak anomalous dispersion effects to solve structures of macromolecules. The areas of expertise are: Structural and molecular biology Macromolecular crystallography Diffraction data collection Dr. Dauter requires research support in these areas, and the individual will engage in the purification and preparation of samples, crystallize proteins using various techniques, and derivatize them with heavy atoms/anomalous scatterers, and establish conditions for cryogenic freezing. Individual will also participate in diffraction data collection at the Advanced Photon Source. In addition, the candidate will perform spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses of protein and nucleic acid samples in the context of their purity, oligomeric state and photophysical properties.

  10. Current concepts in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap; Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan; Chee Onn Leong

    2013-01-01

    Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction),chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development),physics (e.g. diagnostic devices) and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics). Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer r...

  11. Cancer Trends: Influencing Care and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the trends being seen in cancer are changing how we view cancer and how we address it, from prompting research to identify the underlying causes of cancers increasing in incidence to informing research on treatment and prevention.

  12. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  13. Senior Computational Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). The Cancer & Inflammation Program (CIP),

  14. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, N.G.; Anderson, W.; Davis, R.P.; Carden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  15. Introduction | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction In order to meet increasing demands from both NIH intramural and extramural communities for access to a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) resource, the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) under the leadership of Jeffrey Strathern and Bob Wiltrout established a partnership user program (PUP) with the Argonne National Laboratory Photon Source in October 2008.

  16. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research programs in basic or applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology or human genetics. As part of the BSP, the Microbiome and Genetics Core (the Core) characterizes microbiomes by next-generation sequencing to determine their composition and variation, as influenced by immune, genetic, and host health factors. The Core provides support across a spectrum of processes, from nucleic acid isolation through bioinformatics and statistical analysis. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Research Associate II will provide support in the areas of automated isolation, preparation, PCR and sequencing of DNA on next generation platforms (Illumina MiSeq and NextSeq). An opportunity exists to join the Core’s team of highly trained experimentalists and bioinformaticians working to characterize microbiome samples. The following represent requirements of the position: A minimum of five (5) years related of biomedical experience. Experience with high-throughput nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) extraction. Experience in performing PCR amplification (including quantitative real-time PCR). Experience or familiarity with robotic liquid handling protocols (especially on the Eppendorf epMotion 5073 or 5075 platforms). Experience in operating and maintaining benchtop Illumina sequencers (MiSeq and NextSeq). Ability to evaluate experimental quality and to troubleshoot molecular biology protocols. Experience with sample tracking, inventory management and biobanking. Ability to operate and communicate effectively in a team-oriented work environment.

  17. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  18. Techniques in cancer research: a laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.G.; Seshadri, R.; Mulherkar, R.; Mukhopadhyaya, R.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer Research Institute (CRI) works on all facets of cancer using the latest biomedical tools. For this purpose, it has established modern laboratories in different branches of cancer biology such as cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, chemical and viral oncogenesis, genetics of cancer including genetic engineering, tissue culture, cancer chemotherapy, neurooncology and comparative oncology. This manual describes the protocols used in these laboratories. There is also a chapter on handling and care of laboratory animals, an essential component of any modern cancer biology laboratory. It is hoped that the manual will be useful to biomedical laboratories, specially those interested in cancer research. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  20. A guide to radiological research. The Research Sub-Committee of the Board of the Faculty of Clinical Radiology, the Royal College of Radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    There are broad categories of radiological research. Basic science research undertaken in universities or in manufacturing companies may lead to new techniques or even new products like MRI, CT or contrast media. MRI is a product of university based research, while CT developed within a manufacturing company. Basic science type research is vital for the continuing development of our speciality, but requires considerable resources, teamwork, and research/management expertise. The best place for an interested radiologist to learn such skills is within university departments, typically in the context of an MD, Ph.D. or similar degree course. Clinical radiological research is of equal importance and, in the UK, underpins our international reputation for radiological excellence. Clinical research may be defined as research requiring patients. It can therefore only be carried out in hospitals and clinics. New technologies, drugs, indications, procedures etc., all require clinical research to validate them. The role of the clinical radiologist is pivotal to the proper conduct of clinical imaging research and technology assessment. This is not confined to university and teaching centres, but is of equal importance in district general hospitals. Results from clinical research carried out 'in the field' are the true test of our specialty. This research guide is sponsored by the RCR. Its target is radiologists and others carrying out clinical research within departments of radiology. If it stimulates Fellows and Members of the RCR to conduct more and better research then it will have succeeded in its basic objective. Research is always planned. It is based on observation, measurement and the testing of ideas or hypotheses. It is presented to peers for criticism and then published to be available to all for review. Research is always hard work and requires discipline. Like many things the ability to conduct research improves with practice. Many radiologists have not had much

  1. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

  2. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  3. Dr. Ted Trimble: Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a video, Dr. Ted Trimble talks about the importance of cancer research. World Cancer Research Day commemorates the important role research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer.

  4. Guidelines for the use of radioiodine in the management of hyperthyroidism: a summary. Prepared by the Radioiodine Audit Subcommittee of the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Diabetes and Endocrinology, and the Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, J H

    1995-01-01

    Radioiodine (131I) therapy is indicated in patients with nearly all causes of hyperthyroidism. It may safely be given to patients of all age groups but is less often given to children under 10 years old. It is completely contraindicated in pregnancy and while breast feeding, but there is no increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or solid tumours. Administration of radioiodine must conform to regulations and definitions laid down by ARSAC And POPUMET. Medical staff authorising therapy must hold an ARSAC licence. The recommended strategy is to give an activity sufficient to render the patient rapidly euthyroid and maintain that state or achieve no more than a low rate of hypothyroidism in subsequent years. A range of activity (300-800 MBq) is suggested depending on the clinical state. Antithyroid drugs may be given before or after (or both) radioiodine if necessary. Full written information should be given to the patient and written consent obtained. A structured follow-up should be used ensuring regular measurement of TSH or FT4. Close cooperation with the patient's general practitioner is recommended throughout the assessment, treatment and follow-up. Shared care with a computer based follow-up system is recommended.

  5. CCR Magazines | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) has two magazines, MILESTONES and LANDMARKS, that highlight our annual advances and top contributions to the understanding, detection, treatment and prevention of cancer over the years.

  6. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  7. Quality Parameters for Commercial Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ioana Muresan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly has become a high-value commercial product and the standardization of this product is required to guarantee its quality on the market. The objective of the research activity was to pursue the chemical composition of commercial samples of Royal Jelly in Romania in order to propose standardization for this product. The physico-chemical composition of commercial Royal Jelly samples was analysed by determining quality parameters like: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA and mineral elements. Carbohydrates analysis showed values between 3.4 % and 5.87 % for fructose, 4.12 % and 7.05 % for glucose, while for sucrose the values ranged between 0.95 % and 2.56 % (determined by HPLC-RI. The lipids content ranged between 1.85 % and 6.32 % (determined by the Soxhlet method. The protein values extended from 13.10 % (RJ2 to 17.04 % (RJ10 (the total protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. The values for the major fatty acid in Royal Jelly, 10-HDA, ranged between 1.35 % (RJ8 and 2.03 % (RJ10 (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of minerals varied between 3188.70 mg/kg and 4023.39 mg/kg (the concentration of minerals was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Potassium, followed by magnesium, sodium and calcium, occurs in the highest concentrations. The commercial Royal Jelly samples analysed presented variable physico-chemical characteristics that correspond with the values given by international quality standard proposals for Royal Jelly.

  8. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  9. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  10. Current cancer research. Reports from the German Cancer Research Center 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.) [de

  11. Biopsychosocial Research Training in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... Three others successfully defended their Master's theses. Training throughout YR 4 was closely coordinated with ongoing ACS-funded and NCI-funded biopsychosocial breast cancer research projects...

  12. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...

  13. Management of waste associated with the decommissioning of the JASON research reactor and the nuclear laboratories at the Royal Naval College Greenwich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, P.A.; Lockwood, R.J.S.; Hoult, D.; Major, R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 the UK Government announced that the Royal Naval College, Greenwich would pass to non-defence use by the millennium. As a consequence of this decision, the decommissioning of the JASON 10 kW Argonaut research reactor and the relocation of the Department of Nuclear Science and Technology (DNST) were approved by the Ministry of Defence. The decommissioning of the reactor commenced in November 1997 while DNST remained operational until October 1998. The DNST was responsible for education and training in support of the UK Naval Nuclear Propulsion Programme and operated academic laboratories for atomic and nuclear physics, health physics, instrument calibration and radiochemistry. Therefore, besides the nuclear reactor, open and sealed sources (alpha, beta and gamma), intense x-ray (sealed tube) and gamma-ray ( 60 CO and 137 Cs) sources and small 241 Am/Be neutron sources had been used in the Department for over 35 years. Decommissioning of all facilities was therefore a relatively complex task and the management of waste streams was challenging. All facilities were successfully decommissioned for unrestricted site release by December 1999 and this paper will describe the methodology used for preparation, storage, characterisation and disposal of all waste streams. The most significant waste management task during this decommissioning programme was that associated with the JASON reactor. It should be noted that the JASON reactor fuel was not designated as nuclear waste, the fuel removal and storage were covered under separate contracts and therefore no high level waste was generated. With respect to other waste streams, a combination of Monte Carlo modelling and selective sampling and analysis of the reactor materials was used to estimate the quantities of waste as follows: LLW - 76 tonnes packed in 4 half height ISO containers; LLW - 6 Tonnes packed in 200litre drums in 1 full height ISO container; ILW - 60 kg packed in approved shielded containers; FRW -121

  14. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will

  15. Setting Research Priorities for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen S; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel Y C; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    Defining disease-specific research priorities in cancer can facilitate better allocation of limited resources. Involving patients and caregivers as well as expert clinicians in this process is of value. We undertook this approach for kidney cancer as an example. The Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership that identified ten research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. These are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  17. Communications Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be part of our mission to support research against cancer. We have an exciting opportunity for a talented communicator to join our team and be part of the effort to find cures for cancer. We are looking for a creative, team-oriented communications professional, with strong writing skills to publicize our research advances, employment and training opportunities and clinical

  18. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  19. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  20. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K

    2002-09-01

    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  1. Creating the Royal Society's Sylvester Medal

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, G.

    2004-01-01

    Following the death of James Joseph Sylvester in 1897, contributions were collected in order to mark his life and work by a suitable memorial. This initiative resulted in the Sylvester Medal, which is awarded triennially by the Royal Society for the encouragement of research into pure mathematics. Ironically the main advocate for initiating this medal was not a fellow mathematician but the chemist and naturalist Raphael Meldola. Religion, not mathematics, provided the link between Meldola and...

  2. Quality Control Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  3. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  4. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  5. Retractions in cancer research: a systematic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Anthony; Bali, Kamal; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The annual number of retracted publications in the scientific literature is rapidly increasing. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and reason for retraction of cancer publications and to determine how journals in the cancer field handle retracted articles. Methods We searched three online databases (MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library) from database inception until 2015 for retracted journal publications related to cancer research. For each article, the re...

  6. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  7. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens expressed on the surface of target

  8. Staff Clinician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neuro-Oncology Branch (NOB), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) is seeking staff clinicians to provide high-quality patient care for individuals with primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies.  The NOB is comprised of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, healthcare providers, and scientists who

  9. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  10. Flow Cytometry Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Flow Cytometry Core (Flow Core) of the Cancer and Inflammation Program (CIP) is a service core which supports the research efforts of the CCR by providing expertise in the field of flow cytometry (using analyzers and sorters) with the goal of gaining a more thorough understanding of the biology of cancer and cancer cells. The Flow Core provides service to 12-15 CIP laboratories and more than 22 non-CIP laboratories. Flow core staff provide technical advice on the experimental design of applications, which include immunological phenotyping, cell function assays, and cell cycle analysis. Work is performed per customer requirements, and no independent research is involved. The Flow Cytometry Technician will be responsible for: Monitor performance of and maintain high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Operate high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Monitoring lab supply levels and order lab supplies, perform various record keeping responsibilities Assist in the training of scientific end users on the use of flow cytometry in their research, as well as how to operate and troubleshoot the bench-top analyzer instruments Experience with sterile technique and tissue culture

  11. Location | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  12. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  13. Statistical Tutorial | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data.  ST is designed as a follow up to Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) held in April 2018.  The tutorial will apply the general principles of statistical analysis of research data including descriptive statistics, z- and t-tests of means and mean

  14. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to provide an open door for students looking for an initial training opportunity. The goal is to enhance diversity within the CCR (Center for Cancer Research) training program and we have placed 338 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the division.  The CCR and the Center for Cancer Training’s Office of Training and Education provide stipend support, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (

  15. Electron Microscopist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Electron Microscopist will: Operate ultramicrotomes (Leica) and other instrumentation related to the preparation of embedded samples for EM (TEM and SEM) Operate TEM microscopes, (specifically Hitachi, FEI T20 and FEI T12) as well as SEM microscopes (Hitachi); task will include loading samples, screening, and performing data collection for a variety of samples: from cells to proteins Manage maintenance for the TEM and SEM microscopes Provide technical advice to investigators on sample preparation and data collection

  16. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  17. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  18. Kesejahteraan Karyawan PT. Royal Coconut Kabupaten Minahasa Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Londa, Very Y; Kaunang, Markus; Karim, Dian Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    Employee welfare is a form of welfare services provided by the company to the employees who have given power, mind and their services. Company Parties have an obligation to make efforts to motivate employees to provide benefits that can improve employee productivity. Welfare programs provided by the company to employees of PT. Royal Coconut North Minahasa yet either. Using qualitative methodology, research results show that the well-being of employees is not a good idea due to the PT. Royal C...

  19. A royal visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 19 February Albert II, King of the Belgians, visited CERN. He took a very active interest during his tour of the tunnel and the CMS cavern, in particular the pixel detector, which was made in Belgium. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1164771', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Watch the video! Albert II, King of the Belgians receiving a souvenir from Sergio Bertolucci, Director for Research and...

  20. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  1. Cancer Research in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R.; Borgan, Saif M.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2017-01-01

    This review aimed to examine trends in cancer research in the Arab world and identify existing research gaps. A search of the MEDLINE® database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was undertaken for all cancer-related publications published between January 2000 and December 2013 from seven countries, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Sudan. A total of 1,773 articles were identified, with a significant increase in yearly publications over time (P social and structural determinants of health (27.1%), followed by behavioural risk factors (14.1%), particularly tobacco use. Overall, more cancer research is needed in the Arab world, particularly analytical studies with high-quality evidence and those focusing on older age groups and associations with physical activity and diet. PMID:28690885

  2. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  3. Integrating research on thyroid cancer after Chernobyl--the Chernobyl Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G A; Bethel, J A; Galpine, A; Mathieson, W; Krznaric, M; Unger, K

    2011-05-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  5. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  6. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    chemotherapy can cure the disease, in many cases it will spread and kill the patient. Better basic scientific understanding of this disease is needed...Dixon Patent Development at UNEMED 10:30 T. Wasmoen Vaccine Research/Development at Intervet/Schering- Plough July 19 UNMC...cytokines and has been shown to inhibit the secretion of TNF-α by activated macrophages and thereby reduce the tumor killing activity of macrophages

  7. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  8. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  9. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  10. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. St. Croix’s laboratory at the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program (MCGP), National Cancer Institute, USA has an open postdoctoral position. We seek a highly motivated, creative and bright individual to participate in a collaborative project that involves the targeting of tumor-associated stroma using T-cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The laboratory focuses on the characterization and exploitation of molecules associated with tumor angiogenesis. The successful candidate would be involved in developing, producing and characterizing new therapeutic antibodies and CARs that recognize cancer cells or its associated stroma, and preclinical testing of these agents using mouse tumor models. The tumor angiogenesis lab is located at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick with access to state-of-the-art facilities for antibody engineering, genomic analysis, pathology, and small animal imaging, among others. Detailed information about Dr. St. Croix’s research and publications can be accessed at https://ccr.cancer.gov/Mouse-Cancer-Genetics-Program/brad-st-croix.

  11. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  12. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly motivated postdoctoral fellows sought to work on tumor immunology with a strong background in biology preferentially cellular immunology. The tumor immunology group in the laboratory is exploring mechanisms of improving vaccines and immunotherapy for cancer, especially by discovering new principles to enhance and steer T cell immune responses. The group is focusing on negative immunoregulatory mechanisms used for immune evasion by cancer cells. The postdoctoral fellow will work on a project to understand the negative regulatory mechanisms of tumor immunity especially the mechanisms initiated by NKT cells. Group members also have an opportunity to gain knowledge of HIV/mucosal immunology by interacting with the HIV research group in the lab.

  13. Prostate Cancer: Improving the Flow of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Colleen A F

    2018-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen. © RSNA, 2018.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 5-6, 2018 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. at the National Institutes of Health's Natcher Conference Center, Balcony C on the Bethesda Campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview on the general principles of statistical analysis of research data.  The first day will feature univariate data analysis, including descriptive statistics, probability distributions, one- and two-sample inferential statistics.

  15. In silico cancer research towards 3R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Quartier, Claire; Jeanquartier, Fleur; Jurisica, Igor; Holzinger, Andreas

    2018-04-12

    Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments. However, modeling systems and the comparison of cellular processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes help to understand specific aspects of uncontrolled cell growth, eventually leading to improved planning of future experiments. According to the principles for humane techniques milestones in alternative animal testing involve in vitro methods such as cell-based models and microfluidic chips, as well as clinical tests of microdosing and imaging. Up-to-date, the range of alternative methods has expanded towards computational approaches, based on the use of information from past in vitro and in vivo experiments. In fact, in silico techniques are often underrated but can be vital to understanding fundamental processes in cancer. They can rival accuracy of biological assays, and they can provide essential focus and direction to reduce experimental cost. We give an overview on in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods used in cancer research. Common models as cell-lines, xenografts, or genetically modified rodents reflect relevant pathological processes to a different degree, but can not replicate the full spectrum of human disease. There is an increasing importance of computational biology, advancing from the task of assisting biological analysis with network biology approaches as the basis for understanding a cell's functional organization up to model building for predictive systems. Underlining and extending the in silico approach with respect to the 3Rs for replacement, reduction and

  16. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  17. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  18. Electron Microscopy-Data Analysis Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for

  19. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  20. Dreaming with a sense of reality. Winner of the 2004 Royal Shell Award for biofuels research professor Wim van Swaaij; Dromen met realiteitszin. Prof. Wim van Swaaij wint Koninklijke/Shell prijs voor biobrandstoffen-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P. (ed.)

    2004-12-01

    According to the winner of the 2004 Royal Shell Award for Sustainable Development biofuels will play a very important role in the world energy supply. However, the cultivation of energy crops may not be at the expense of the cultivation of crops for food. [Dutch] Biobrandstoffen gaan een zeer belangrijke rol spelen in de wereldenergievoorziening, stelt prof. Wim van Swaaij. Deze winnaar van de Koninklijke/Shell Prijs voor duurzame ontwikkeling 2004 vindt wel dat de teelt van energiegewassen niet ten nadele mag gaan van de teelt van voedingsgewassen.

  1. Recovering the royal cuisine in Chosun Dynasty and its esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Kyung Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We believe that researching the cuisine consumed by the royal family, in particular the king, during the 500-year long Chosun Dynasty is an interesting and meaningful endeavor. This task is an important part of unraveling the cultural significance of Korean cuisine in the 21st century, a new age of gastronomy. Until now, research has largely focused on recreating Chosun royal cuisine based on oral statements from staff in the last royal kitchen or the Uikwe (儀軌, the Royal Protocols which recorded food consumed at banquets. However, little research has been conducted on ordinary royal cuisine consumed by the king, mainly because of a lack of materials to study. This article aims to shed light on this topic and recreate what every day royal cuisine looked like in the late stages of the Chosun Dynasty by examining joseoksangsikbalgi (朝夕上食撥記, memos of morning and evening ancestral rites table and judaryebalgi (晝茶禮撥記, memos of daytime tea ceremonies. The memos are similar to the chanpumdanja (饌品單子, literally meaning “a list of dishes served on the table” that recorded national banquets and therefore do not contain records of ordinary royal cuisine. However, the memos of morning and evening ancestral rites table still remain. These documents describe food offered to the deceased, which was the same as the meals they regularly ate while alive. Accordingly, we attempted to reproduce the traditional table setting for ordinary royal cuisine served to King Kojong (高宗 by analyzing these memos. King Kojong (1852–1919 was the 26th king of the Chosun Dynasty, and a detailed description of the sangsik (上食, ancestral rites table prepared following his death in January 1919 is present in the morning and evening sangsik memos and daytime tea ceremony memos from October 11, 1919. After analyzing the memos from after King Kojong's death in 1919, we were able to determine that the cuisine consisted of rice as bap (a

  2. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than

  3. Antibody Characterization Lab | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Antibody Characterization Lab (ACL), an intramural reference laboratory located at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Frederick, Maryland, thoroughly characterizes monoclonal antibodies or other renewable affinity binding reagents for use in cancer related research.

  4. A Seat at the Table: Culturally based cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI supports research to address cancer disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native populations. In this video, two researchers advocate for more culturally sensitive practices to help people who are most disproportionately affected by cancer disparities.

  5. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership

  7. Control of fruit flies by sterile insect technique. I. Population fluctuation studies of oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus Saunders) and micro climates at Royal Ang Khang Highland Research Station Chiang Mai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiravathanapong, S.

    1984-12-01

    The studies of population fluctuation of male oriental fruit fly, (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and [Dacus zontanus (Saunders)] and micro climate at Royal Ang Khang Highland Research Station Chiang Mai in 1983 were conducted. It was found that population of Dacus zonatus was rather high and almost seemed equal to that of Dacus dorsalis. Population of these two species increased at the beginning of February. Population of Dacus zonatus increased rapidly and reached the peak in the middle of May and of June. The number at peaks were 103 males and 87 males/trap/day respectively. However, the population of Dacus dorsalis increased slowly and followed the pattern of Dacus zonatus until the beginning of June, after that, the population increased rapidly and reached the peak in the middle of July. The number at peak was 240 males/trap/day. Later on they dropped rapidly in the middle of August, then the population of the two species fluctuated together. Finally they decreased down to near zero in November, December and January of the following year. In summary, population density of the said two species adult flies were rather high from the end of winter (the beginning of February) to the middle of raining season (July) and this period coincided with the time of fruit development in many introduced varieties (peach, persimmon, apple, pear and plum)

  8. Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaging has enormous untapped potential to improve cancer research through software to extract and process morphometric and functional biomarkers. In the era of non-cytotoxic treatment agents, multi- modality image-guided ablative therapies and rapidly evolving computational resources, quantitative imaging software can be transformative in enabling minimally invasive, objective and reproducible evaluation of cancer treatment response. Post-processing algorithms are integral to high-throughput analysis and fine- grained differentiation of multiple molecular targets.

  9. Evidence and research in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Beets-Tan, Regina; Borras, Josep M.; Krivokapic, Zoran; Leer, Jan Willem; Pahlman, Lars; Roedel, Claus; Schmoll, Hans Joachim; Scott, Nigel; Velde, Cornelius Van de; Verfaillie, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists involved in the design and management of the multidisciplinary ESTRO Teaching Course on Rectal Cancer. The scenario of ongoing research is also addressed. In this time of changing treatments, it clearly appears that a common standard for large heterogeneous patient groups have to be substituted by more individualised therapies based on clinical-pathological features and very soon on molecular and genetic markers. Only trained multidisciplinary teams can face this new challenge and tailor the treatments according to the best scientific evidence for each patient

  10. Original Research Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the fact that many cancers may go unrecorded and that ... International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC) ... All patients with a new diagnosis of cervical cancer presenting to QECH between ..... A specialist cervical cancer nurse could be appointed to ... Zuma, T., et al., The role of traditional health practitioners in.

  11. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  12. Royal Society Scientific Meeting: Extracellular vesicles in the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ryan Charles; Elmusrati, Areeg A; Lambert, Daniel; Carter, David Raul Francisco

    2018-01-05

    Cancer cells do not grow as an isolated homogeneous mass; tumours are, in fact, complex and heterogeneous collections of cancer and surrounding stromal cells, collectively termed the tumour microenvironment. The interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment has emerged as a key concept in the regulation of cancer progression. Understanding the intercellular dialogue in the tumour microenvironment is therefore an important goal. One aspect of this dialogue that has not been appreciated until recently is the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are small vesicles released by cells under both normal and pathological conditions; they can transfer biological molecules between cells leading to changes in phenotype. EVs have emerged as important regulators of biological processes and can be dysregulated in diseases such as cancer; rapidly growing interest in their biology and therapeutic potential led to the Royal Society hosting a Scientific Meeting to explore the roles of EVs in the tumour microenvironment. This cross-disciplinary meeting explored examples of how aberrant crosstalk between tumour and stromal cells can promote cancer progression, and how such signalling can be targeted for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic benefit. In this review, and the special edition of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that follows, we will provide an overview of the content and outcomes of this exciting meeting.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'Extracellular vesicles and the tumour microenvironment'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  14. Research Summaries: The 11th Biennial Rivkin Center Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah K

    2017-11-01

    In September 2016, the 11th biennial ovarian cancer research symposium was presented by the Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer and the American Association for Cancer Research. The 2016 symposium focused on 4 broad areas of research: Mechanisms of Initiation and Progression of Ovarian Cancer, Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, Detection and Prevention of Ovarian Cancer, and Novel Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer. The presentations and abstracts from each of these areas are reviewed in this supplement to the International Journal of Gynecologic Oncology.

  15. Published Research - NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has published much exciting and impactful research over the years. Find here a list of all of these listed in PubMed and others across the field of Cancer Nanotechnology.

  16. Training Program in Biostatistics for Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Roderick

    1998-01-01

    The current training program terminates in the summer of 1998. We had originally planned to develop a training program in biostatistics for cancer research for submission to the National Cancer Institute (Task 9...

  17. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  18. Reflections of an historical researcher on mining, industry, the docks and the Royal Institute of Asturias. Consideraciones de un investigador de temas historicos: sobre mineria, industria, obras portuarias y Real Instituto de Asturias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro Ruiz-Falco, L.

    1988-01-01

    Inaugural treatise by Luis Adaro Ruiz Falco on his taking the office of full academic member of the Royal Academy of Doctors. The treatise is corroborated by Juan Manuel Lopez de Arcona and deals with historical documentation which has been found on Asturias concerning mines and coal mining, in particular.

  19. An overview of cancer research in South African academic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Based on the most recent. South African .... health system research, environmental and occupational ... Research activity in the five most commonly diagnosed male .... that there were no costing or costeffectiveness cancer research projects.

  20. Current cancer research. Reports from the German Cancer Research Center 1998; Krebsforschung heute. Berichte aus dem Deutschen Krebsforschungszentrum 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Krebsbekaempfung in Deutschland - kritische Ueberlegungen. Forschungsbedingungen und -strukturen. Forschung ohne Tierversuche. Familiaerer Brustkrebs - eine Risikoabschaetzung. Krebspraevention. Neue Therapieansaetze. Laser-Neurochirurgie bei Hirntumoren. Das Genomprojekt. Gene, Chromosomen und Krebs. (orig.)

  1. Out-FOXing Pancreatic Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancer types worldwide with increasing incidence and mortality rates in the United States. Consequently, it is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2020. Poor patient outcomes are due to a combination of diagnosis at an advanced stage and a lack of effective treatments. However, a better understanding of the molecular pathways at work in pancreatic cancers may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  2. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery,

  3. Patient Care Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  4. DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Possible: DOE Advanced Biomedical Technology Research, page 10 Over the time span of many years, DOE's research has made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron Neutron

  5. Developmental Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  6. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  7. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  8. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  9. Understanding coping with cancer: how can qualitative research help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittem, Mahati

    2014-01-01

    Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients' psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding of the reasons, processes and types of strategies that patients use to deal with cancer, qualitative study designs are necessary. Few studies have used qualitative designs such as semi-structured interviews to explore coping with cancer. The current paper aims to review the suitability and benefits of using qualitative research designs to understand coping with cancer with the help of some key literature in psycho-oncology research.

  10. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  11. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each

  12. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help and strengthen the technological development of the Brazilian beekeeping industry increasing its consumption in the national market. This research presents values of royal jelly a little different from those established by the Brazilian legislation. This fact shows that is important to discuss or change the official method for royal jelly analysis. The characterization of physicochemical and microbiological parameters is important in order to standardize fresh, frozen, and lyophilized royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees.

  13. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  14. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  15. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  16. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  17. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  18. Staff Scientist - RNA Bioinformatics | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly established RNA Biology Laboratory (RBL) at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Frederick, Maryland is recruiting a Staff Scientist with strong expertise in RNA bioinformatics to join the Intramural Research Program’s mission of high impact, high reward science. The RBL is the equivalent of an

  19. Senior Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  20. Scientist, Single Cell Analysis Facility | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR).  The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and nextGen sequencing. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).  CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES We are seeking a highly motivated Scientist II to join the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at NCI. The SCAF will house state of the art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. The Scientist: Will interact with close to 200 laboratories within the CCR to design and carry out single cell experiments for cancer research Will work on single cell isolation/preparation from various tissues and cells and related NexGen sequencing library preparation Is expected to author publications in peer reviewed scientific journals

  1. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  2. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...... that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27...

  3. The Effects of Royal Jelly on In-Vitro Cytotoxicity of K562 Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Hosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Royal jelly, secreted by worker bees, has different biological activities on cells and tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of royal jelly on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and on the tumor category of K562 cell line. Methods: In the present experimental study, three subjects were selected separately with three repetitions. K562 (104 cells and PBMC (105 cells with different concentrations of royal jelly (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were cultured under standard conditions for 48 and 72 h separately. The fatality rate on PBMC cells and K562 cancer cells was evaluated by using MTT (Tetrazolium Dye-Reduction Assay. The number of viable cells in PBMC that were exposed for 48 hours with Royal Jelly was evaluated by trypan blue staining. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: The royal jelly had no cytotoxicity effect on PBMC cells but at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/mL the cytotoxicity effect were observed on k562 cells whereas, at 10 and 25 mg/ml the number of PBMC viable cells increased. Conclusion: Due to the lack of lethality of royal jelly on PBMC cells and PBMC cell viability and an increase in the fatality rate of cancer cells in the future, royal jelly can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of leukemia. Keywords: Royal jelly, K562, peripheral blood mononuclear cell

  4. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  5. Veterinary Oncologist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI is implementing a program intended to connect and closely coordinate the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis’ (DCTD’s) immunotherapeutics and other drug development activities with the translational oriented clinical trials of the Center for Cancer Research’s (CCR’s) Comparative Oncology Program (COP), especially the treatment of dogs with natural occurring

  6. Eliminating cancer stem cells: an interview with CCR’s Steven Hou | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Hou, Ph.D., senior investigator in the Basic Research Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research describes his latest research that has uncovered potential ways to eliminate cancer stem cells and may offer hope to patients with reoccurring tumors.  Learn more...

  7. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  8. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  9. Research priorities in cancer cachexia: The University of Rochester Cancer Center NCI Community Oncology Research Program Research Base Symposium on Cancer Cachexia and Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Richard F; Mustian, Karen M; Garcia, Jose M; Dale, William; Hayward, Reid; Roussel, Breton; Buschmann, Mary M; Caan, Bette J; Cole, Calvin L; Fleming, Fergal J; Chakkalakal, Joe V; Linehan, David C; Hezel, Aram F; Mohile, Supriya G

    2017-12-01

    Cancer cachexia remains understudied and there are no standard treatments available despite the publication of an international consensus definition and the completion of several large phase III intervention trials in the past 6 years. In September 2015, The University of Rochester Cancer Center NCORP Research Base led a Symposium on Cancer Cachexia and Sarcopenia with goals of reviewing the state of the science, identifying knowledge gaps, and formulating research priorities in cancer cachexia through active discussion and consensus. Research priorities that emerged from the discussion included the implementation of morphometrics into clinical decision making, establishing specific diagnostic criteria for the stages of cachexia, expanding patient selection in intervention trials, identifying clinically meaningful trial endpoints, and the investigation of exercise as an intervention for cancer cachexia. Standardizing how we define and measure cancer cachexia, targeting its complex biologic mechanisms, enrolling patients early in their disease course, and evaluating exercise, either alone or in combination, were proposed as initiatives that may ultimately result in the improved design of cancer cachexia therapeutic trials.

  10. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  11. Cancer prevention strategies: use of cancer prevention research registries.

    OpenAIRE

    Anton-Culver, H

    1995-01-01

    We present a model to plan a rational strategy for cancer prevention that has two main functions--assessment and intervention. The assessment function includes three main components: to identify populations at high cancer risk, which may be due to their ethnic group, occupational and environmental exposures, family history, cigarette smoking, or other risk factors; to assess exposure to known carcinogens through the general and occupational environments, lifestyle factors, and the home as wel...

  12. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bütof, Rebecca; Baumann, Michael; Dubrovska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  13. Manufacturing/Cell Therapy Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  14. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R

    2007-01-01

    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  15. Royal Dutch Petroleum Company annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company has no operations of its own and virtually the whole of its income derives from its 60% interest in the companies known collectively as the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies; the other 40% is owned by the Shell Transport and Trading Company, p.l.c. The company is engaged in the oil, natural gas, chemicals, coal and metals businesses throughout the world. The annual report summarises the year's results and analyses earnings in each industry segment. Financial statements for the year ended 31 December 1992 are presented. The Group companies' estimated net quantities of crude oil, natural gas and coal are given

  16. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  17. Cellular Imaging | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative imaging methods developed and refined within CCR revealed atomic-level structures of biological molecules and unveiled dynamic views of a cell’s interior that are driving the design of new treatments and diagnostics for cancer.

  18. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    .... Methyl and ethyl forms of omega-3 lipids failed to induce apoptosis. Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese mushroom, was found to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and decrease EGF receptor phosphorylation...

  19. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's immune cells to attack the skin ... journal Pediatrics . The biggest increase was among adolescent girls, ages 15 to 19, according to the study ...

  20. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources | CDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Diagnosis Program strives to improve the diagnosis and assessment of cancer by effectively moving new scientific knowledge into clinical practice. This national program stimulates, coordinates and funds resources and research for the development of innovative in vitro diagnostics, novel diagnostic technologies and appropriate human specimens in order to better characterize cancers and allow improved medical decision making and evaluation of response to treatment.

  2. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina

    2005-01-01

    , promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...

  3. Antibody Portal | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central to reproducibility in biomedical research is being able to use well-characterized and defined reagents. The CPTAC Antibody Portal serves as a National Cancer Institute (NCI) community resource that provides access to a large number of standardized renewable affinity reagents (to cancer-associated targets) and accompanying characterization data.

  4. Opportunities for Cancer-relevant Innovative Technologies with Transformative Potential | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking input from the community on identifying priorities with regards to supporting innovative technology development for cancer-relevant research. While the NCI provides support for technology development through a variety of mechanisms, it is important to understand whether or not these are sufficient for catalyzing and supporting the development of tools with significant potential for advancing important fields of cancer research or clinical care.

  5. Patient-centered prioritization of bladder cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angela B; Chisolm, Stephanie; Deal, Allison; Spangler, Alejandra; Quale, Diane Z; Bangs, Rick; Jones, J Michael; Gore, John L

    2018-05-04

    Patient-centered research requires the meaningful involvement of patients and caregivers throughout the research process. The objective of this study was to create a process for sustainable engagement for research prioritization within oncology. From December 2014 to 2016, a network of engaged patients for research prioritization was created in partnership with the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN): the BCAN Patient Survey Network (PSN). The PSN leveraged an online bladder cancer community with additional recruitment through print advertisements and social media campaigns. Prioritized research questions were developed through a modified Delphi process and were iterated through multidisciplinary working groups and a repeat survey. In year 1 of the PSN, 354 patients and caregivers responded to the research prioritization survey; the number of responses increased to 1034 in year 2. The majority of respondents had non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and the mean time since diagnosis was 5 years. Stakeholder-identified questions for noninvasive, invasive, and metastatic disease were prioritized by the PSN. Free-text questions were sorted with thematic mapping. Several questions submitted by respondents were among the prioritized research questions. A final prioritized list of research questions was disseminated to various funding agencies, and a highly ranked NMIBC research question was included as a priority area in the 2017 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute announcement of pragmatic trial funding. Patient engagement is needed to identify high-priority research questions in oncology. The BCAN PSN provides a successful example of an engagement infrastructure for annual research prioritization in bladder cancer. The creation of an engagement network sets the groundwork for additional phases of engagement, including design, conduct, and dissemination. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  6. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attendee Testimonial Plenty of Food for Thought Served Up at the John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum by Julia Tobacyk Media Folder: research_groupView the Testimonial (PDF, 790 KB) Date: March 12-16, 2018 |

  7. Adoptive Cell Therapies: One Cancer at a Time | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    After completing medical school and a general surgery residency at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, Christian Hinrichs, M.D., planned on doing cancer research at the start of his fellowship at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in 1996. However, a detour sent him into surgical oncology, and Hinrichs only returned to his research interests through a subsequent surgical

  8. Lipid Biomarkers Identified for Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer of the liver with poor prognosis and growing incidence in developed countries. Pathology and genetic profiles of HCC are heterogeneous, suggesting that it can begin growing in different cell types. Although human tumors such as HCC have been profiled in-depth by genomics-based studies, not much is known about their overall

  9. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yoon Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Won, Hyuk; Kim, Kee Hwa

    1991-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included on this study 7,787 cases(10.4%) among 74,928 cases for 2 years. On sex, females with 57.6% were much more than males with 42.4%. The highest proportion of cancer 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 36.2%, followed by liver(12.3%), lung(12.2%), esophagus(15.5%) and larynx(4.9%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 47.3%, followed most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(39.0%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(56.2%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 4.6% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 76.3% for patients with localized involvement, 11.6% for patients with regional involvement and 7.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among,the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 19.0% for surgery, 27.7 for radiotherapy and 24.2% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 11.2% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  10. Royal Ahold: A Failure Of Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); D.V. DeJong; G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRoyal Ahold (Koninklijke Ahold NV) was one of the major success stories in the 1990s and is one of the major failures in corporate governance, suffering a complete meltdown in 2003. This clinical study analyzes Ahold’s growth strategy through acquisitions and isolates the cause of the

  11. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint. Biman Nath. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 6-7. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0006-0007 ...

  12. Royal Naval nursing: 'testing but worth it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    2014-08-19

    Inga Kennedy is the most senior nurse in the Royal Navy. She enjoys the commitment and discipline required by a career in the armed forces and says the work offers great opportunities for nurses. Her career highlights have included checking that injured personnel in Afghanistan were receiving the best care possible.

  13. A historical vignette (20). A royal otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainmont, J

    2010-01-01

    A royal otitis. The young king of France, Francis II, the eldest son of Henry II and Catherine de Medici, died in Orleans from the effects of the complications of a chronic otitis on 6 December 1560. Based on texts of the time, the paper discusses the nature of the illness, the treatment, and the medical and political entourage of the king.

  14. Sociomateriality at the Royal Court of IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    understanding of the notion of sociomateriality and its use in the IS discipline. We invite the reader to attend a prolonged monologue – characterized by honesty, frank observations and wit – at the royal court of IS. The monologue is delivered by the court jester and directed to the two sovereigns who, based...

  15. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  16. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  17. Cancer as a Social Dysfunction - Why Cancer Research Needs New Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienta, Kenneth J; Axelrod, Robert

    2018-05-21

    The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example. Importantly, this endeavor will require infusion of ideas from other fields such as physics, computational medicine, complexity science, agent-based modeling, sociology, and ecology all of which have the capacity to drive new insights into cancer biology and clinical medicine. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels.

  19. Global Impact | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Laboratory activities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, E

  20. Philanthropic partnerships and the future of cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murciano-Goroff, Yonina R

    2015-02-01

    Complementing government and industry funding, philanthropies have made distinct contributions to altering the trajectory of cancer research, often in ways that reflect both the business training of their donors and their close ties to the lay public.

  1. Technical Service Agreement (TSA) | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) scientists provide services and solutions to collaborators through the Technical Services Program, whose portfolio includes more than 200 collaborations with more than 80 partners. The Frederi

  2. Clinical research on cancer treatment with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Eriko; Koyama, Kazuyuki; Morita, Kozo

    1993-01-01

    There are two purposes of using combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancers. One is to suppress distant metastasis, especially micrometastasis; the other is to improve localized control. As a trial of the utility of the former, systemic chemotherapy with CDDP and 5 FU was given successively with radiotherapy to treat nasopharyngeal cancer. The survival rate was significantly improved compared with historical control cases. The main reason for this effectiveness was the improvement of localized control. The suppression of distant metastasis is the subject of future research. As a trial of the utility of the latter, a super-selective intraarterial chemotherapy with CBDCA combined with radiotherapy was used to head and neck localized progressive cancers. The control of localized cancer was remarkably effective. This treatment is considered to be especially suitable for locally advanced tongue cancer and cancer of the root of the tongue. (author)

  3. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  4. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  5. Advancing Prostate Cancer Research by Providing Summer Research Opportunities for HBCU Students at the Cancer Center at UTHSCSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    encouraging the students to attend the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) meeting in Chicago in April 2018. The abstracts for this...Updates: Elucidating the Effects of Obesity on Bladder Cancer Progression - completed CTRC at UTHSCSA: Genomics Shared Resource; reduced from

  6. Using Mechanical Turk for research on cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Carr, Alaina L

    2017-10-01

    The successful recruitment and study of cancer survivors within psycho-oncology research can be challenging, time-consuming, and expensive, particularly for key subgroups such as young adult cancer survivors. Online crowdsourcing platforms offer a potential solution that has not yet been investigated with regard to cancer populations. The current study assessed the presence of cancer survivors on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and the feasibility of using MTurk as an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable psycho-oncology recruitment and research platform. During a <4-month period, cancer survivors living in the United States were recruited on MTurk to complete two assessments, spaced 1 week apart, relating to psychosocial and cancer-related functioning. The reliability and validity of responses were investigated. Within a <4-month period, 464 self-identified cancer survivors on MTurk consented to and completed an online assessment. The vast majority (79.09%) provided reliable and valid study data according to multiple indices. The sample was highly diverse in terms of U.S. geography, socioeconomic status, and cancer type, and reflected a particularly strong presence of distressed and young adult cancer survivors (median age = 36 years). A majority of participants (58.19%) responded to a second survey sent one week later. Online crowdsourcing represents a feasible, efficient, and cost-effective recruitment and research platform for cancer survivors, particularly for young adult cancer survivors and those with significant distress. We discuss remaining challenges and future recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  8. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  9. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    colleagues, Dr. Henry Pitot , an expert in hepatocarcinogenesis, and Dr. Michael Gould, an expert in breast cancer. Through our initial attempts at...974-978. 29. Dragan, Y.P. and H.C. Pitot . 1992. The role of the stages of initiation and promotion in phenotypic diversity during hepatocarcinogenesis

  10. Cancer in Africa: opportunities for collaborative research and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Akarolo-Anthony, S

    2009-06-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem causing increasing morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Underlying trends are changing the pattern of cancer and this is also being influenced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Even though the pattern of cancer varies across Africa, there are identifiable trends. Breast and cervical cancers, and Kaposi sarcoma are the commonest cancers in women, while Kaposi sarcoma, liver and prostate cancers are the commonest in men. Cancer causes more morbidity and mortality in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Infections account for a disproportionate amount of cancers in Africa. The HIV epidemic is contributing to increased prevalence of many cancers particularly those associated with Herpes and Papilloma viruses. Tobacco use, another major carcinogen, is increasing, particularly among the young. Dietary factors, alcohol use, physical inactivity and environmental pollution are also important aetiological factors of cancer in Africa. In developing countries, poverty, limited government health budget and poor health care systems complicate cancer prevention, treatment and outcomes. Coordinated response by international agencies and NGOs is needed to help developing countries and several successful models exist. More action is also needed on ensuring safety and quality of chemotherapy and the price needs to be reduced. Responses advocated for cancer control in Africa include banning tobacco use, better regulation of alcohol sale, better environmental planning and immunization against cancer associated viruses. Training of health care workers to diagnose cancer and treat it effectively within limited budgets is needed. Research to develop these new treatments and others, particularly from natural products is urgently needed and this can be done safely within established health research ethics regulatory frameworks. Several opportunities for collaborative research and

  11. Understanding participation by African Americans in cancer genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.

  12. A Review of Lung Cancer Research in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C S; Chan, K M J

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on lung cancer in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 89 papers were identified, of which 64 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance to the review. The epidemiology, risk factors, cell types, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, prevention, and the social impact of lung cancer in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  13. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yun Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    1993-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FRESH AND PRESERVED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinka Maksimović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of the fresh royal jelly, royal jelly stored at 4 °C and -40 °C for a period of 12 months against reference and isolated bacterial strains from the different clinical samples, were tested and compared by the diffusion test. Royal jelly shows antibacterial effects against both tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Fresh royal jelly has the most effective antibacterial activity. Storage temperature at -40 oC slightly affects antibacterial activity of royal jelly, while storage temperature at 4 oC decreases its antibacterial activity.Key words: royal jelly, antibacterial effects, storage temperature, storage duration

  15. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-11-01

    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to receptors...museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application...there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with

  17. MBCP - Approach - Immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus.

  18. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    CBCP) Breast Center is the Army-recognized and Military-recognized specialty referral center for t r i - se rv ice active duty personnel from around...development of customized treatment options in patients with HER2+ breast cancer. Objective 1 Evaluate differences in the molecular profiles of...2014CBCP & CCBB Analysis of Errors & Corrections 11/7/2014Customer Satisfaction Results Analysis 1/7/2015Audit of signed-out tissue samples in -80 freezer

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  20. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  1. Contributions of 3D Cell Cultures for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maddaly; Ramesh, Aarthi; Pattabhi, Aishwarya

    2017-10-01

    Cancer cell lines have contributed immensely in understanding the complex physiology of cancers. They are excellent material for studies as they offer homogenous samples without individual variations and can be utilised with ease and flexibility. Also, the number of assays and end-points one can study is almost limitless; with the advantage of improvising, modifying or altering several variables and methods. Literally, a new dimension to cancer research has been achieved by the advent of 3Dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques. This approach increased many folds the ways in which cancer cell lines can be utilised for understanding complex cancer biology. 3D cell culture techniques are now the preferred way of using cancer cell lines to bridge the gap between the 'absolute in vitro' and 'true in vivo'. The aspects of cancer biology that 3D cell culture systems have contributed include morphology, microenvironment, gene and protein expression, invasion/migration/metastasis, angiogenesis, tumour metabolism and drug discovery, testing chemotherapeutic agents, adaptive responses and cancer stem cells. We present here, a comprehensive review on the applications of 3D cell culture systems for these aspects of cancers. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2679-2697, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Wnt Inactivation for Liver Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third most deadly type of cancer in the world. The majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa, resulting in most cases being diagnosed only at advanced stages of the disease when drug resistance is high. HCC typically follows damage to the liver such as cirrhosis, making radiation and chemotherapy a more challenging prospect. Surgery is also not a very viable option because less than one in four carcinomas can be completely removed. The limitations in these treatment modalities create the need for alternative therapeutic approaches.

  3. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care.

  4. Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    counseling within the boundaries of his/her specialty area of education and clinical preparation (pediatrics, adults, urologic, surgical, etc.). Review assigned patient resident reports and carry and answer the resident pager. Provide coverage for the post-call resident’s patients, while working closely with the Inpatient/Fellowship staff.  Support in-patient and out-patient care of subjects enrolled in experimental protocols and clinical trials. Work as a member of a multidisciplinary clinical team to provide comprehensive care to patients in a research environment. Write prescriptions. Explain the care management/discharge plan to all members of the covering team (inpatient NPs, attendings) at signout. This position is located in Bethesda, Maryland in support of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  5. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Deodutta

    2008-01-01

    This research proposal has two primary objectives which are to (1) increase FIU investigators' research expertise and competitive ability to succeed as independent breast cancer researchers; and (2...

  6. Obesity-Linked Mouse Models of Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy Stauffer, Ph.D., and colleagues working with Robert  Wiltrout, Ph.D., in CCR’s Cancer and Inflammation Program, along with collaborators in the Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, have developed a novel mouse model that demonstrates how fat-producing phenotypes can influence the development of hepatic cancer.   The team recently reported their findings in Cancer Research.

  7. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  8. Application of single-cell technology in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Fu, Li-Wu

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena. We believe that the clinical application of single-cell technology will be beneficial in cancer diagnostics and treatment, and ultimately improve survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inca Royal Estates in the Sacred Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    The royal estates lying between Cusco and Machu Picchu illustrate the remarkable variety by which the sun was honored and worshipped in the Inca Empire. The terraced basins of Moray combine the sun at both solstices and, perhaps, the zenith sun, with flowing water and offerings to Pachamama. The complex astronomy at Urubamba involves the palace of Quespiwanka, horizon pillars, solstices, and mountain worship. Ollantaytambo contains horizontal shadow-casting gnomons with a major water shrine.

  10. Brachyury Protein: A Potential Target in Lung Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that Brachyury protein plays a role in initiating the processes that lead to the growth and spread of cancer. Now CCR scientists have for the first time demonstrated the expression of Brachyury protein in lung cancer tumors, as well as a correlation between the overexpression of Brachyury protein and drug resistance.

  11. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Caldas, C.; van Luenen, H.; Saghatchian, M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in

  12. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of KSHV in 1994 was a historical landmark in tumor virology and human cancer research. KSHV's subsequent identification as a cause of Kaposi sarcoma and its association with primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease soon attracted the attention of hundreds of research laboratories and motivated thousands of virologists and oncologists to switch

  13. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field.

  14. Empowering Promotores de Salud as partners in cancer education and research in rural southwest Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, Ana Paula; Saint-Elin, Mercedes; de Los Rios, Johana Bravo; Engelman, Kimberly K; Greiner, K Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Nápoles, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    To describe community-based participatory processes used to develop promotore training on cancer research, and to assess the feasibility of training promotores from rural communities to disseminate cancer research information. Prospective, cohort design. Rural communities in the state of Kansas. 34 Spanish-speaking promotores attended an information session; 27 enrolled and 22 completed training. With input from a community advisory board, the authors developed a leadership and cancer curriculum and trained Spanish-speaking promotores to disseminate information on cancer research. Promotores completed pretraining and post-training surveys in Spanish to assess demographic characteristics and changes in knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment and cancer research studies, and intent to participate in cancer research. Cancer knowledge, awareness of cancer clinical trials, interest in participating in cancer clinical research studies. Compared to pretraining, after training, promotores were more likely to correctly define cancer, identify biopsies, describe cancer stages, and report ever having heard of cancer research studies. Completion rates of the training and willingness to participate in cancer research were high, supporting the feasibility of training promotores to deliver community-based education to promote cancer research participation. Nursing professionals and researchers can collaborate with promotores to disseminate cancer education and research among underserved rural Latino communities in Kansas and elsewhere. Members of these communities appear willing and interested in improving their knowledge of cancer and cancer clinical trials.

  15. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  16. The geologic story of Isle Royale National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, N. King

    1975-01-01

    Isle Royale is an outstanding example of relatively undisturbed northwoods lake wilderness. But more than simple preservation of such an environment is involved in its inclusion in our National Park System. Its isolation from the mainland provides an almost untouched laboratory for research in the natural sciences, especially those studies whose very nature depends upon such isolation. One excellent example of such research is the intensive study of the predator-prey relationship of the timber wolf and moose, long sponsored by the National Park Service and Purdue University. In probably no other place in North America are the necessary ecological conditions for such a study so admirably fulfilled as on Isle Royale. The development of a natural laboratory with such conditions is ultimately dependent upon geologic processes and events that although not unique in themselves, produced in their interplay a unique result, the island archipelago as we know it today, with its hills and valleys, swamps and bogs the ecological framework of the plant and animal world. Even the most casual visitor can hardly fail to be struck by the fiordlike nature of many of the bays, the chains of fringing islands, the ridge-and-valley topography, and the linear nature of all these features. The distinctive topography of the archipelago is, of course, only the latest manifestation of geologic processes in operation since time immemorial. Fragments of geologic history going back over a billion years can be read from the rocks of the island, and with additional data from other parts of the Lake Superior region, we can fill in some of the story of Isle Royale. After more than a hundred years of study by man, the story is still incomplete. But then, geologic stories are seldom complete, and what we do know allows a deeper appreciation of one of our most naturally preserved parks and whets our curiosity about the missing fragments.

  17. Multimorbidity and cancer outcomes: a need for more research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen HT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Toft Sørensen Editor in Chief Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkCancer incidence increases with age, and about 43% of men and 30% of women aged 65 will develop cancer in their remaining lifetimes.1 The global population is rapidly aging, and by 2030 about 70% of cancer in, for example, the US, will be diagnosed in older patients.2 Fortunately, cancer survival has improved and 5-year survival exceeds 80% for many common cancers.3 As a result of these two complementary trends, the population of cancer survivors is growing at a rate of almost 2% per year.4As comorbidities accumulate with age, the number of patients with multimorbidity, ie, the coexistence of several chronic diseases, is increasing dramatically.5 In the US, about 80% of Medicare funds are spent on patients with four or more chronic conditions. Multimorbidity is associated with mortality, disability, low functional status, and risks of adverse drug events.6,7Clinical and epidemiological research on cancer prognosis has mainly focused on cancers in isolation, ignoring the impact of comorbidity and co-medication on the risk of complications and mortality. Comorbidity is a medical condition that exists at the time of diagnosis of the cancer or later, but which is not a consequence of the cancer itself.8Comorbidity is common in cancer patients, who often have adverse lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, obesity, and smoking, which cause other chronic diseases. Thus, many cancer patients have chronic disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis.9–13 With the growing population of elderly patients with cancer and other chronic diseases, modern medicine will need to address multiple medical problems at once, focusing on mortality, treatment complications, quality of life, and implications for screening.7,14 In this issue of Clinical Epidemiology

  18. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  19. The flat‐funding years and the National Cancer Institute: Consequences for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Hitt, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), the principal federal agency for cancer research and training in the US, has contended with a flat budget since 2004, which according to the institute's director is preventing the organisation from keeping pace with the increasing costs of biomedical research. Although the impact of these budget shortfalls are still being debated, Niederhuber believes these so‐called “flat‐funding years” may pave the way for worrying future trends, resulting in a paucity o...

  20. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  1. Team Members | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Team Members The Foregut Team includes experts in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases listed below. Our clinical experience and active research offers patients the highest quality care in the setting of groundbreaking clinical trials.

  2. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    FACS, COL MC USA CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine 6720-A Rockledge Drive Bethesda...reported to other officials or ethically requires action, e.g., child or spouse abuse ii. When will you destroy the research source documents, data file...requires to be reported to other officials or ethically requires action, e.g., child or spouse abuse When will you destroy the research source documents

  3. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As developing economies[1] around the world become more socially affluent in the coming decades, the incidence of cancer-related mortality is expected rise significantly owing to a combination of lifestyle changes and multiple environmental factors (Figure 1. Based on statistics from the World Health Organization, developing countries accounted for nearly 72% of cancer mortality in 2008 even though the average disease incidence in these countries is lower compared to that of high-income nations[3]It has been projected that up to 60% (ca. 15–20 million of new cancer cases will occur in developing countries by the year 2020[4-6], causing more deaths than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined. In the past, cancer management in developing countries has focused heavily on disease prevention, general awareness improvement, and early detection, while deprioritizing treatment and research efforts as a result of limited resources[7]. However, given the severity of the situation, it is now necessary to recalibrate our focus and reprioritize the investment of valuable resources in the fight against cancer.With respect to cancer research in developing countries, a major challenge faced by international researchers is the lack of reliable data[6], along with a limited research output from the developing world, which hampers our general understanding of the capability of these countries in dealing with the cancer pandemic. From 2011 to 2015, the average combined research output from developing countries constituted only 20% of the total publication output of the world’s top 100 most published countries in the field of oncology (Figure 2. Nonetheless, developing countries have recorded an impressive 20% average year-on-year increase in terms of their publication output during this period, and five of these countries contributed to more than three quarter of the total number of papers published (Figure 3.In contrast, developed nations only registered a 4

  4. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ioana Bărnuţiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the literature data regarding the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of RoyalJelly. Royal Jelly is a secretion from the hypofaringeal glands of worker bees which serves as a food for queen beeand to the growing up larvae. Having biological properties already proven, Royal Jelly has considerable commercialappeal and is today used in many sectors (pharmaceutical, food industries and cosmetic products. Thephysicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins,vitamins,aminoacids, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; RJ is the key substance in the antimicrobial function of the system Apismellifera. The intact Royal Jelly exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  5. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  7. XMRV Discovery and Prostate Cancer-Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was first reported in 2006 in a study of human prostate cancer patients with genetic variants of the antiviral enzyme, RNase L. Subsequent investigations in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa have either observed or failed to detect XMRV in patients (prostate cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome-myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS-ME, and immunosuppressed with respiratory tract infections or normal, healthy, control individuals. The principal confounding factors are the near ubiquitous presence of mouse-derived reagents, antibodies and cells, and often XMRV itself, in laboratories. XMRV infects and replicates well in many human cell lines, but especially in certain prostate cancer cell lines. XMRV also traffics to prostate in a nonhuman primate model of infection. Here, we will review the discovery of XMRV and then focus on prostate cancer-related research involving this intriguing virus.

  8. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  9. Writing Essentials | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    To effectively communicate research results, the manuscript should be carefully structured to tell a compelling story. As a rule, the introduction should bring the reader from a broad understanding of the topic to the specific question being addressed. In contrast, the discussion should transition the reader from the specific results to their broader implications.

  10. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Office:

  11. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  12. Screening for psychological distress in cancer: renewing the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Clark, Louise; McGrath, Elly; Fisher, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Although health policy for cancer care promotes screening of patients for emotional distress, the utility and validity of screening have been questioned. Continued research to refine detection of distress or to evaluate outcomes of screening programmes is unlikely to end this controversy. Instead, we need to identify more fundamental research questions that address the validity or utility of screening in this context. We critically and selectively review research and policy literature on psychological screening in cancer care, drawing also from research literature about the nature of psychological needs in cancer care and from relevant literature on psychological screening in mental health. We identify three broad research questions: (i) Apart from intensity of distress, what further information should screening seek about the context of distress, psychological processes that promote distress and patients' own perspective on their needs? (ii) What are the implications of the contextual dependence of disclosure of emotional feelings, given that screening questions can be asked in contexts ranging from an impersonal questionnaire to dialogue with a trusted practitioner? (iii) How should a screen be responded to, given the inherent uncertainty associated with screening results and given that distress in a cancer context can indicate instrumental as well as psychological needs? Examining these questions will mean exchanging a diagnostic framework for screening, in which health need is indicated by the presence of a psychological disorder, for a public health framework, in which health need is identified from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Jackson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of ‘non-animal human tissue’ models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models.

  14. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Samuel J; Thomas, Gareth J

    2017-08-01

    Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of 'non-animal human tissue' models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  17. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    for preeclampsia in twin pregnancies: a population-based cohort study. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:645-50. 17. Gu Y , He S, Shi L, Li 0, Zhu Kr, Yin Z, Wang...Gestational Diabetes, Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...California RESEARCH EXPERIENCE: Sickle Cell Anemia Infant Neurodevelopment and language acquisistion Deviant sexual behavior and group therapy

  18. Chest wall resection for local recurrence of breast cancer. Presented at the 99th Meeting of the Royal Belgium Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brussels May 9th 1998, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, W; Van Schil, P; Verbist, A M; Buytaert, P; van Dam, P

    1999-05-01

    We present three cases of chest wall resection for locally recurrent breast cancer and a Medline review of the current literature. In selected cases full thickness resection of the chest wall may be used as a salvage procedure to improve the quality of life and prolong the survival at low morbidity and mortality.

  19. Mapping cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents performance indicators for the Brazilian cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research areas from 1981 to 1995. The data show an increasing number of papers since 1981 and author numbers indicate a continuous growth of the scientific community and suggest an expected impact of scientific activity on biomedical education. The data also characterize cardiovascular research as a well-established area and cancer research as a faster growing consolidating field. The 1989-1994 share of Brazilian articles among world publications shows a growing trend for the cancer (1.61 and cardiovascular (1.59 areas, and a decrease for the malaria area (0.89. The burden of the three diseases on society is contrasted by the small number of consolidated Brazilian research groups, and a questionable balance of thematic activity, especially with regard to malaria. Brazilian periodicals play an important role in increasing the international visibility of science produced in the country. Cancer and cardiovascular research is strongly concentrated in the Southeastern and in Southern regions of Brazil, especially in São Paulo (at least one address from São Paulo in 64.5% of the 962 cancer articles and in 66.9% of the 2250 cardiovascular articles, the second state being Rio de Janeiro with at least one address in 14.1 and 11% of those articles, respectively. Malaria research (468 articles is more evenly distributed across the country, following the pattern of the endemic distribution of the disease. Surveying these national indicator trends can be useful to establish policies in the decision process about health sciences, medical education and public health.

  20. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  1. Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Jose Luis Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz

    2013-01-01

    The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

  2. NCI RNA Biology 2017 symposium recap | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent discovery of new classes of RNAs and the demonstration that alterations in RNA metabolism underlie numerous human cancers have resulted in enormous interest among CCR investigators in RNA biology. In order to share the latest research in this exciting field, the CCR Initiative in RNA Biology held its second international symposium April 23-24, 2017, in Natcher Auditorium. Learn more...

  3. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's

  4. Software Tools | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CPTAC program develops new approaches to elucidate aspects of the molecular complexity of cancer made from large-scale proteogenomic datasets, and advance them toward precision medicine.  Part of the CPTAC mission is to make data and tools available and accessible to the greater research community to accelerate the discovery process.

  5. What's New in Vulvar Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with cancer that has spread to lymph nodes benefit from chemotherapy or pelvic radiation therapy. The use of internal radiation therapy, called brachytherapy, along with external beam radiation is ... vulvar tumors might benefit from it, too. More research is needed to ...

  6. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  7. NCI RNA Biology 2017 symposium recap | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent discovery of new classes of RNAs and the demonstration that alterations in RNA metabolism underlie numerous human cancers have resulted in enormous interest among CCR investigators in RNA biology. In order to share the latest research in this exciting field, the CCR Initiative in RNA Biology held its second international symposium April 23-24, 2017, in Natcher

  8. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  9. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using `paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of `paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the `paradigm shift' method in cancer research ...

  10. Dimitrie Gusti and the Royal Cultural Foundations (1922-1948. Archive Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD Student Laura-Rodica Hîmpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to emphasize the activity of The "Prince Carol" Royal Cultural Foundation created in 1921 in order to lead to the emancipation especially of villages, but also the Romanian culture in a more general perspective. Overall, we may say that the period between the two world wars was marked, also due to the help of the Royal Cultural Foundation, by substantial progress in various fields of education, science and culture in general and thus contributed to changing Romania into a state with a high level of culture and the creation of an image and prestige that commanded worldwide respect. The research was done on the basis of the documents studied at the Service of the National Central Historical Archives, the Stock of the "Prince Carol" Royal Cultural Foundation and at the Library of the Romanian Academy.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tianzuo; Rindtorff, Niklas; Betge, Johannes; Ebert, Matthias P; Boutros, Michael

    2018-04-16

    CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful method for making changes to the genome of many organisms. First discovered in bacteria as part of an adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 and modified versions have found a widespread use to engineer genomes and to activate or to repress the expression of genes. As such, CRISPR/Cas9 promises to accelerate cancer research by providing an efficient technology to dissect mechanisms of tumorigenesis, identify targets for drug development, and possibly arm cells for cell-based therapies. Here, we review current applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for cancer research and therapy. We describe novel Cas9 variants and how they are used in functional genomics to discover novel cancer-specific vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we highlight the impact of CRISPR/Cas9 in generating organoid and mouse models of cancer. Finally, we provide an overview of the first clinical trials that apply CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapeutic approach against cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.; Li Ying; Liu Gaung; Chen, Hongmin; Zhang Junjie; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2006-01-01

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 μm depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages

  13. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  14. Moving beyond the prostate: benefits in broadening the scope of research on men and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Oliffe, John L

    2013-03-01

    As researchers recognize the value in considering gender dynamics within the cancer experience, a majority of the masculinities work has centered on men with prostate cancer. This focus has positioned prostate cancer as the flagship of men's cancer (and perhaps men's health). There is value in this research. However, as 78% of men experience cancers of a different type, a narrow focus on prostate cancer does not necessarily account for broader intersections of cancer and masculinity. Argued here are the benefits to expanding the focus of research on men's cancer experiences. As researchers consider patterns and diversities among men managing an array of cancers, there is opportunity to broaden understanding of the challenges "cancer" can present for men, disrupt assumptions that the study of men's gendered experience of cancer must be tethered to male sex-specific biology, and enhance the relevance and impact of psychosocial interventions for men living with cancer.

  15. Challenges in cancer research and multifaceted approaches for cancer biomarker quest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Jiřina; Gadher, S. J.; Hajduch, M.; Kovářová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 583, - (2009), s. 1772-1784 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cancer research * proteomics * genomics Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2009

  16. VIDEO: Dr. Henry Rodriguez - Proteogenomics in Cancer Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Henry Rodriguez, director of the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at NCI, speaks with ecancer television at WIN 2017 about the translation of the proteins expressed in a patient's tumor into a map for druggable targets. By combining genomic and proteomic information (proteogenomics), leading scientists are gaining new insights into ways to detect and treat cancer due to a more complete and unified understanding of complex biological processes.

  17. Research activities: magic bullet and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basten, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology is the brain-child of the University of Sydney and its campus teaching hospital, Royal Prince Alfred. At present its research portfolio includes studies of cancer, autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis (in which white cells or antibodies attack our own tissues), and certain infections diseases, including leprosy and AIDS. Experiments involving radioactively labelled monoclonal antibodies in immunological and molecular biology studies are briefly presented. ills

  18. Voice work at the Royal Shakespeare Company

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    En tant que responsable du département de la voix de la Royal Shakespeare Company, je me dois de démystifier la façon dont nous travaillons avec les acteurs. Il me semble également essentiel de mettre en lumière l’histoire et les objectifs du travail de la RSC sur la voix. Ceci devrait encore clarifier ce que nous entendons par « la voix de Shakespeare ». Depuis de nombreuses années les besoins d’un travail spécifique sur la voix n’ont cessé de grandir avec la compagnie. Cette pratique fait m...

  19. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  20. Oral Allergy Syndrome in a Child Provoked by Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantini Paola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly has been demonstrated to have several physiological activities. However, in the literature, different reactions induced by royal jelly are reported. We describe a case of seven-year-old child that was referred to our observation for two episodes of oral allergy syndrome (OAS that appeared ten minutes after ingestion of royal jelly. Skin prick test with standard panel of inhalant and food allergens, a prick-to-prick test using the royal jelly’s extract responsible for patient’s reactions, and royal jelly patch test with extemporaneous preparation were performed. The specific IgE by ImmunoCAP System method versus Hymenoptera venom, inhalant allergens, food allergens, and lipid transfer proteins was dosed. According to the positive reactions to royal jelly both by prick-by-prick test and by a first reading patch test, royal jelly immediate hypersensitivity was diagnosed. According to the positive response for almond in both in vivo and in vitro tests we can think of the royal jelly contamination with almond pollen as possible cause of patient’s reaction. Moreover, from the results of specific IgE titers versus Compositae pollens, we have argued the possibility that this case of royal jelly allergy could be explained also by the mechanism of cross-reaction with Compositae pollens.

  1. Can cancer researchers accurately judge whether preclinical reports will reproduce?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is vigorous debate about the reproducibility of research findings in cancer biology. Whether scientists can accurately assess which experiments will reproduce original findings is important to determining the pace at which science self-corrects. We collected forecasts from basic and preclinical cancer researchers on the first 6 replication studies conducted by the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology (RP:CB to assess the accuracy of expert judgments on specific replication outcomes. On average, researchers forecasted a 75% probability of replicating the statistical significance and a 50% probability of replicating the effect size, yet none of these studies successfully replicated on either criterion (for the 5 studies with results reported. Accuracy was related to expertise: experts with higher h-indices were more accurate, whereas experts with more topic-specific expertise were less accurate. Our findings suggest that experts, especially those with specialized knowledge, were overconfident about the RP:CB replicating individual experiments within published reports; researcher optimism likely reflects a combination of overestimating the validity of original studies and underestimating the difficulties of repeating their methodologies.

  2. The Role of the Royal Navy in Counter-Insurgency Campaigns since 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Guoth, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prove that a navy can play an important role during a counter-insurgency campaign and be involved in many different tasks both at sea and from sea, particularly due to its flexibility, mobility and versatility. The main research question of the thesis is: what role can a navy play in a counter-insurgency campaign? The decision to focus on the role of the Royal Navy is based on the fact, that the Royal Navy is probably the most experienced navy in the world in the fi...

  3. A bibliometric analysis of diets and breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research publications in the field of diets and breast cancer. The impact of economic outcome on national academic productivity was also investigated. Data were retrieved using Pubmed for English-language publications. The search included all research for which articles included words relating to "diets and breast cancer". Population and national income data were obtained from publicly available databases. Impact factors for journals were obtained from Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Scientific). There were 2,396 publications from 60 countries in 384 journals with an impact factor. Among them, 1,652 (68.94%) publications were Original articles. The United States had the highest quantity (51% of total) and highest of mean impact factor (8.852) for publication. Sweden had the highest productivity of publication when adjusted for number of population (6 publications per million population). Publications from the Asian nation increased from 5.3% in 2006 to 14.6% in 2012. The Original article type was also associated with geography (pincrease annually worldwide including publications from Asian countries. Although the United States produced the most publications, European nations per capita were higher in publication output.

  4. A research on the enhancement of research management efficiency for the division of research, Korea cancer center hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Ma, K. H.; Kim, J. R.; Lee, D. C.; Lee, J. H.

    1999-06-01

    The research activities of Korea Cancer Center Hospital have increased for the past a few years just in proportion to the increase of research budget, but the assisting manpower of the office of research management has never been increased and the indications are that the internal and external circumstances will not allow the recruitment for a fairly long time. It has, therefore, become inevitable to enhance the work efficiency of the office by analyzing the administrative research assistance system, finding out problems and inefficiency factors, and suggesting possible answers to them. The office of research management and international cooperation has conducted this research to suggest possible ways to facilitate the administrative support for the research activities of Korea Cancer Center Hospital By analyzing the change of research budget, organization of the division of research and administrative support, manpower, and the administrative research supporting system of other institutes, we suggested possible ways to enhance the work efficiency for administrative research support and developed a relative database program. The research report will serve as a data for the organization of research support division when the Radiation Medicine Research Center is established. The database program has already been used for research budget management

  5. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in

  6. NanoParticle Ontology for Cancer Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from cancer nanotechnology research are so diverse and large in volume that it is difficult to share and efficiently use them without informatics tools. In particular, ontologies that provide a unifying knowledge framework for annotating the data are required to facilitate the semantic integration, knowledge-based searching, unambiguous interpretation, mining and inferencing of the data using informatics methods. In this paper, we discuss the design and development of NanoParticle Ontology (NPO), which is developed within the framework of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and implemented in the Ontology Web Language (OWL) using well-defined ontology design principles. The NPO was developed to represent knowledge underlying the preparation, chemical composition, and characterization of nanomaterials involved in cancer research. Public releases of the NPO are available through BioPortal website, maintained by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Mechanisms for editorial and governance processes are being developed for the maintenance, review, and growth of the NPO. PMID:20211274

  7. A review of breast cancer research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C H; Bhoo Pathy, N; Teo, S H

    2014-08-01

    Four hundred and nineteen articles related to breast cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred and fifty four articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Overall, Malaysian women have poor survival from breast cancer and it is estimated that half of the deaths due to breast cancer could be prevented. Five-year survival in Malaysia was low and varies among different institutions even within the same disease stage, suggesting an inequity of access to optimal treatment or a lack of compliance to optimal treatment. Malaysian women have poor knowledge of the risk factors, symptoms and methods for early detection of breast cancer, leading to late presentation. Moreover, Malaysian women experience cancer fatalism, belief in alternative medicine, and lack of autonomy in decision making resulting in delays in seeking or avoidance of evidence-based medicine. There are ethnic differences in estrogen receptor status, HER2 overexpression and incidence of triple negative breast cancer which warrant further investigation. Malay women present with larger tumours and at later stages, and even after adjustment for these and other prognostic factors (stage, pathology and treatment), Malay women have a poorer survival. Although the factors responsible for these ethnic differences have not been elucidated, it is thought that pharmacogenomics, lifestyle factors (such as weight-gain, diet and exercise), and psychosocial factors (such as acceptance of 2nd or 3rd line chemotherapy) may be responsible for the difference in survival. Notably, survivorship studies show self-management programmes and exercise improve quality of life, highlighting the need to evaluate the psychosocial impact of breast cancer on Malaysian women, and to design culturally-, religiously- and linguistically-appropriate psycho

  8. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  9. Latest discoveries and trends in translational cancer research: highlights of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, William C S

    2008-08-01

    The Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is the world's largest and most comprehensive gathering of cancer researchers. At the 2008 AACR Annual Meeting, innovative research approaches, novel technologies, potentially life-saving therapies in the pipeline, late-breaking clinical trial findings, and new approaches to cancer prevention were presented by top scientists. Reflecting the global state of cancer research with an eye toward future trends, several areas of great science and discovery in the cancer field were shared in this report, which include cancer biomarkers, the role of microRNAs in cancer research, cancer stem cells, tumor microenvironment, targeted therapy, and cancer prevention. This article presents an overview of hot topics discussed at the 2008 AACR Annual Meeting and recapitulates some scientific sessions geared toward new technologies, recent progress, and current challenges reported by cancer researchers. For those who did not attend the meeting, this report may serve as a highlight of this important international cancer research meeting.

  10. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership Development Lead (TPDL) who will work closely with the Office of Translational Resources (OTR) within the Office of the Director (OD) of NCI’s Center for Cancer Research (CCR) to facilitate the successful translation of CCR’s basic and preclinical research advances into new therapeutics and diagnostics. The TPDL with be strategically aligned within FNLCR’s Partnership Development Office (PDO), to maximally leverage the critical mass of expertise available within the PDO. CCR comprises the basic and clinical components of the NCI’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and consists of ~230 basic and clinical Investigators located at either the NIH main campus in Bethesda or the NCI-Frederick campus. CCR Investigators are focused primarily on cancer and HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the most challenging and important high-risk/high-reward problems driving the fields. (See https://ccr.cancer.gov for a full delineation of CCR Investigators and their research activities.) The process of developing research findings into new clinical applications is high risk, complex, variable, and requires multiple areas of expertise seldom available within the confines of a single Investigator’s laboratory. To accelerate this process, OTR serves as a unifying force within CCR for all aspects of translational activities required to achieve success and maintain timely progress. A key aspect of OTR’s function is to develop and strengthen essential communications and collaborations within NIH, with extramural partners and with industry to bring together experts in chemistry, human subjects research

  11. The ICT-Integrated Pedagogy in the Colleges of Royal University of Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choeda, Par-Ola Zander; Penjor, Tandin; Dukpa, Dorji

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a research study on the integration of ICT and pedagogy in the colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan. It investigates whether ICT is integrated into the pedagogy, and if so, in what way. The samples (Faculty members) of the study were picked up randomly from ten colleges u...

  12. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Physics of Cancer Metabolism This application seeks to put together a multidiscipline team of experts in various institutions in USA to assemble and...of this project is to build a research cohort of engaged volunteers that reflects the racial , ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity of New York City...assessed in a randomized, phase III clinical trial. Conflict of interest: Advisory Board: Joe O’Sullivan holds consulting/ advisory roles with Bayer

  13. Recombination Origin of Retrovirus XMRV | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus (XMRV) was first reported in samples from a human prostate tumor in 2006, and, at that time, claims were made that XMRV infection rates ranged from 6 to 27 percent of human prostate cancers.  Later research reported XMRV in the blood of 67 percent of people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). When follow-up studies failed to

  14. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Rachel F; Barratt, Alexandra L; Crossing, Sally; Butow, Phyllis N; Hanson, Susan; Tattersall, Martin Hn

    2011-06-26

    The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO) was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  15. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  16. The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training’s Role in Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Moon S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the content for the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness Research and Training (AANCART) with respect to Asian American demographic characteristics and their cancer burden, highlights of accomplishments in various AANCART regions, aspirations for AANCART, and an interim assessment of AANCART’s activities to date. Methods The author compiled literature and other data references to describe the context for Asian American demographic characteristics and their cancer burden. As the AANCART Principal Investigator, he collected data from internal AANCART reports to depict highlights of accomplishments in various AANCART regions and offer evidence that AANCART’s first two specific aims have been attained. Principal Findings With respect to our first specific aim, we have built an infrastructure for cancer awareness, research and training operationally at a Network-wide basis through program directors for biostatistics, community, clinical, and research and in our four original AANCART regions: New York, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. With respect to our second specific aim, we have established partnerships as exemplified by working collaboratively with New York’s Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in securing external funding with them for a tobacco control initiative and nationally with the American Cancer Society. With respect to our third specific aim, we have been fortunate to assist at least eight junior investigators in receiving NCI-funded pilot studies. The most notable change was the transfer of AANCART’s national headquarters from Columbus, Ohio to Sacramento, California along with potentially an increased diversification of Asian American ethnic groups as well as an expansion to Hawaii and Houston. Conclusion As of the end of year 2 of AANCART, AANCART’s two specific aims have been achieved. We are focusing on our third specific aim. PMID:15352772

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health ...

  19. The Royal pilgrimage of the Goddess Nanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Sax

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Once every twelve years, when it is thought that some calamity has taken place because of the curse of the goddess Nanda Devi, a four-horned ram is born in the fields of the former king of Garhwal, an erstwhile Central Himalayan kingdom in north India (see map of Garhwal. This four-horned ram leads a procession of priests and pilgrims on the most dangerous and spectacular pilgrimage in all of India: a three-week, barefoot journey of one-hundred and sixty-four miles, during some of the worst weather of the year, at the end of the rainy season. The procession reaches Rupkund, a small pond located at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, which is surrounded by human­ skeletons, and from there it goes yet further, to Homkund, the ‘Lake of the Fire Sacrifice’. According to the faithful, the four-horned ram leaves the procession at that point and finds its way, unaided, to the summit of Mount Trishul. As its name suggests, the Royal Procession is closely associated with the ruler of this erstwhile Himalayan kingdom: he attends its inaugural rituals, the bones that litter the shores of Rupkund are believed to be those of one of his ancestors, and the chief sponsor of the event is a local ‘Prince’ who is thought to be descended from the first kings of Garhwal. This Prince traverses the domain of his ancestors and thereby lays claim to it in the name of the goddess Nanda, who is not only his lineage goddess but was also the royal goddess of the neighbouring kingdom of Kumaon, in pre-colonial times. Although the Royal Procession ideally fosters social integration, it was disrupted in 1987 by a quarrel between two factions of priests. The goddess’s itinerary, the culminating date of the pilgrimage, the type of sacrifice to be performed, the order of procession, the participation of previously excluded persons, and the competency of certain ritual specialists—all were subjects of heated dispute between the rival groups. What was the reason for

  20. Enrolling Minority and Underserved Populations in Cancer Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie F; Dash, Chiranjeev; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Goode, Tawara D; Oppong, Bridget A; Dodson, Everett E; Hamilton, Rhonda N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that community involvement is integral to solving public health problems, including involvement in clinical trials-a gold standard. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the accrual of participants for clinical trials. Location and cultural aspects of clinical trials influence recruitment and accrual to clinical trials. It is increasingly necessary to be aware of defining characteristics, such as location and culture of the populations from which research participants are enrolled. Little research has examined the effect of location and cultural competency in adapting clinical trial research for minority and underserved communities on accrual for clinical trials. Utilizing embedded community academic sites, the authors applied cultural competency frameworks to adapt clinical trial research in order to increase minority participation in nontherapeutic cancer clinical trials. This strategy resulted in successful accrual of participants to new clinical research trials, specifically targeting participation from minority and underserved communities in metropolitan Washington, DC. From 2012 to 2014, a total of 559 participants enrolled across six nontherapeutic clinical trials, representing a 62% increase in the enrollment of blacks in clinical research. Embedding cancer prevention programs and research in the community was shown to be yet another important strategy in the arsenal of approaches that can potentially enhance clinical research enrollment and capacity. The analyses showed that the capacity to acquire cultural knowledge about patients-their physical locales, cultural values, and environments in which they live-is essential to recruiting culturally and ethnically diverse population samples. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  3. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-01-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Slim 198gold-grain implanter loaded with standard royal marsden 14-grain magazines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delclos, L.; Moore, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    We designed a slim gold-grain implanter with adaptable lengths to implant areas accessible only through long, narrow, examining instruments, such as a suspension laryngoscope. The implanter is loaded with the same 14-grain magazine designed for and supplied with the Royal Marsden gun. The simplicity of the loading mechanism with a minimum of moving parts makes the instrument practically trouble free. Although it is designed to be used along narrow examining instruments, it can also be used in any situation in which a permanent implant is required, for instance, prostatic cancer and pelvic recurrences in cancer of the uterine cervix previously treated by external and intracavitary irradiation

  5. NKS-R ExCoolSe mid-term report KTH severe accidents research relevant to the NKS-ExCoolSe project[KTH = Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun Sun Park; Truc-Nam Dinh [Royal Inst. of Technology (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present mid-term progress report is prepared on the recent results from the KTH severe accident research program relevant to the objective of the ExCoolSe project sponsored by the NKS-R program. The previous PRE-MELT-DEL project at KTH sponsored by NKS provided an extensive assessment on the remaining issues of severe accidents in general and suggested the key issues to be resolved such as coolability and steam explosion energetics in ex-vessel which became a backbone of the ExCoolSe project in NKS. The EXCOOLSE project has been integrated with, and leveraged on, parallel research program at KTH on severe accident phenomena the MSWI project which is funded by the APRI program, SKI in Sweden and HSK in Switzerland and produced more understanding of the key remaining issues. During last year, the critical assessment of the existing knowledge and current SAMG and designs of Nordic BWRs identified the research focus and initiated the new series of research activities toward the resolution of the key remaining issues specifically pertaining to the Nordic BWRs.(au)

  6. A New Phase in Cancer Research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first meeting of the ENLIGHT network, set up to co-ordinate the development of light ion cancer therapy projects in Europe, took place at CERN last week. This is a form of therapy ideally suited to the treatment of deep-seated tumours and those near critical organs. Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology transfer and scientific computing, and Director General Luciano Maiani during the opening of the first meeting of the ENLIGHT network that was held at CERN last week. The fruit of several years of work, this meeting offers new hope for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Around 70 specialists, including radiotherapists, oncologists, physicists and engineers, got together at CERN for the first meeting of a European cancer therapy research network named ENLIGHT (European Network for research in LIGHt ion Therapy(1)). This initiative, headed by oncologists and funded by the European Commission, aims to promote the development of light ion (hadron) therapy projects. The choice of CERN as a venue for ...

  7. Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, F C; Alvarez, G

    2013-08-01

    The European royal dynasties of the Early Modern Age provide a useful framework for human inbreeding research. In this article, consanguineous marriage, inbreeding depression and the purging of deleterious alleles within a consanguineous population are investigated in the Habsburgs, a royal dynasty with a long history of consanguinity over generations. Genealogical information from a number of historical sources was used to compute kinship and inbreeding coefficients for the Habsburgs. The marriages contracted by the Habsburgs from 1450 to 1750 presented an extremely high mean kinship (0.0628±0.009), which was the result of the matrimonial policy conducted by the dynasty to establish political alliances through marriage. A strong inbreeding depression for both infant and child survival was detected in the progeny of 71 Habsburg marriages in the period 1450-1800. The inbreeding load for child survival experienced a pronounced decrease from 3.98±0.87 in the period 1450-1600 to 0.93±0.62 in the period 1600-1800, but temporal changes in the inbreeding depression for infant survival were not detected. Such a reduction of inbreeding depression for child survival in a relatively small number of generations could be caused by elimination of deleterious alleles of a large effect according with predictions from purging models. The differential purging of the infant and child inbreeding loads suggest that the genetic basis of inbreeding depression was probably very different for infant and child survival in the Habsburg lineage. Our findings provide empirical support that human inbreeding depression for some fitness components might be purged by selection within consanguineous populations.

  8. The first royal appendix abscess drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2015-05-01

    On January 22nd 1901, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, Queen Victoria, nearing her 82nd birthday and having ruled for 64 years, drew her last breath. Edward Prince of Wales, 59 years of age, was now King Edward VII. A year of mourning was proclaimed and his coronation scheduled for June 26th. It was unexpectedly delayed by an attack of royal appendicitis. On Saturday June 14th 1902, less than two weeks before the coronation, Edward travelled to Aldershot to attend a military review. It was a cold, rainy day and the King did not feel well. That night, his abdominal discomfort was getting worse and by five next morning the King's personal physician, Sir Francis Laking, was called to see him. Laking asked Sir Thomas Barlow, Physician-Extraordinary to the King, for a second opinion. By now there was fever, rigor and distinct tenderness in the right iliac fossa of the very obese abdomen. Under heavy sedation, the King was transferred to Windsor Castle, leaving his Queen, Alexandra, to review the parade of 30,000 soldiers gathered at Aldershot.

  9. Extremity dosimetry trial: Devonport royal dockyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, R.; Collison, R.

    2008-01-01

    This trial was undertaken to assess extremity dosemeters, which were made available to Devonport Royal Dockyard and determine the most suitable to the site. The trial included operational and laboratory-based exposures. Operational exposures were within a submarine reactor compartment and a waste storage area. Laboratory exposures were undertaken using 241 Am, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources to compare and contrast the dosemeters energy response. In addition, the low dose response and the response if placed in the incorrect orientation were also assessed. Ten passive and two active dosemeters were tested, with three highlighted as the most technically suitable, DSTL Harshaw DXT-RAD, HPA Harshaw EXT-RAD and the AMEC Panasonic UD-807A. The most technically suitable dosemeter was the DSTL Harshaw DXT-RAD, due to good responses within all aspects of the trial and the user's preference for the ring type design. The John Caunt ED2 electronic dosemeter 2 (ED2) also performed well, but suffered radio frequency interference. (authors)

  10. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  11. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  12. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  13. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  14. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer

  15. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Rectal Cancer: Treatment, Research and Quality of Life, Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute hosted a Facebook Live to discuss rectal cancer treatment, research, and quality of life. The event featured subject matter experts Carmen Allegra, MD, of the National Cancer Institute and University of Florida Health, Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and moderator

  17. Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, CA; Consent Agreement and Final Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consent Agreement and Final Order (Proposed CA/FO), between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 (EPA or Complainant), and Royal Wine Corporation, d/b/a Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars or Respondent). Docket Number CWA-09-2018-0004.

  18. Mapping the networks of cancer research in Portugal: first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, O.R.; Cointet, J.P.; Nunes, J.A.; David, L.; Cambrosio, A.

    2016-07-01

    Social studies of cancer research at the international level have contributed to a better understanding of the developmental dynamics – both organizational and epistemic – of this field (Keating & Cambrosio, 2012). In contrast, despite its robust development, oncology research in Portugal has been the subject of only few studies. Most of them have a strong focus on the first half of the 20th century (Raposo, 2004; Costa, 2010, 2012a; 2012b), while a few focus on more contemporary events (Nunes, 2001). Consequently, we do not have a clear picture of recent trends in oncology research in Portugal, and how it integrates into the international landscape. This hinders public accountability of oncology research while also limiting the analysis of how this research relates to health care delivery, health outcomes, and health policy formulations. This paper presents the first results of an ongoing research project on the organizational and epistemic development of oncology research in Portugal, covering the period from the end of the 20th century to 2015. Among other issues, we intend to explore the extent to which oncology research in Portugal mirrors the international dynamics at a smaller scale, and the extent to which it presents features of its own. The study draws upon computer-based analysis of publications using the platform CorText (http://www.cortext.net/) of IFRIS (Institut Francilien Recherche, Innovation, Société), along with interviews with Portuguese oncologists and related practitioners. (Author)

  19. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H; Efstathiou, Jason A; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2016-04-27

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts.

  20. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  1. Measuring research impact: a large cancer research funding programme in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Sargent, Nicole; Wesselingh, Steve; Size, Lincoln; Donovan, Claire; Miller, Caroline L

    2018-05-09

    Measuring research impact is of critical interest to philanthropic and government funding agencies interested in ensuring that the research they fund is both scientifically excellent and has meaningful impact into health and other outcomes. The Beat Cancer Project (BCP) is a AUD $34 m cancer research funding scheme that commenced in 2011. It was initiated by an Australian charity (Cancer Council SA), and supported by the South Australian Government and the state's major universities. This study applied Buxton and Hanney's Payback Framework to assess research impact generated from the BCP after 3 years of funding. Data sources were an audit of peer-reviewed publications from January 2011 to September 2014 from Web of Knowledge and a self-report survey of investigators awarded BCP research funding during its first 3 years of implementation (2011-2013). Of the 104 surveys, 92 (88%) were completed. The BCP performed well across all five categories of the Payback Framework. In terms of knowledge production, 1257 peer-reviewed publications were generated and the mean impact factor of publishing journals increased annually. There were many benefits to future research with 21 respondents (23%) reporting career advancement, and 110 higher degrees obtained or expected (including 84 PhDs). Overall, 52% of funded projects generated tools for future research. The funded research attracted substantial further income yielding a very high rate of leverage. For every AUD $1 that the cancer charity invested, the BCP gained an additional AUD $6.06. Five projects (5%) had informed policy and 5 (5%) informed product development, with an additional 31 (34%) and 35 (38%) projects, respectively, anticipating doing so. In terms of health and sector and broader economic benefits, 8 (9%) projects had influenced practice or behaviour of health staff and 32 (34%) would reportedly to do so in the future. Research impact was a priority of charity and government funders and led to a deliberate

  2. Cancer research in Brazil - stuck in second gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lepique

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main issues regarding clinical cancer research in Brazil, including both the opportunities and the hurdles. Scientists and clinicians in this field had the opportunity to talk to regulatory agencies and to the Health Ministry representative at a meeting held in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2014. Our conclusions are that we do indeed have opportunities; however, we need to move forward regarding partnerships between academia and industry, increase the availability of funding, and provide easier navigation through the regulatory processes.

  3. Second annual report of cancer research at the University of Chicago, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkin, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    Brief summaries are presented of research projects in the following areas: virology, cell biology, tumor immunology, carcinogenesis, clinical research, radiotherapy, radiation physics, nuclear medicine, and care facilities. Descriptions are given of the cancer control center, the clinical cancer training program, and tumor clinics. Cancer-related conferences held at the University of Chicago during the period June, 1974 to June, 1975, are listed

  4. 76 FR 66728 - Government-Owned Inventions; Licensing and Collaborative Research Opportunity for PANVAC-Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... identification of molecular targets associated with cancer, the focus of drug development has shifted from... Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI. The CRADA partner will (a) generate and characterize...; Licensing and Collaborative Research Opportunity for PANVAC--Cancer Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment...

  5. Impact of biospecimens handling on biomarker research in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callari Maurizio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is moving from the research setting to the practical clinical use. Gene signatures able to correctly identify high risk breast cancer patients as well as to predict response to treatment are currently under intense investigation. While technical issues dealing with RNA preparation, choice of array platforms, statistical analytical tools are taken into account, the tissue collection process is seldom considered. The time elapsed between surgical tissue removal and freezing of samples for biological characterizations is rarely well defined and/or recorded even for recently stored samples, despite the publications of standard operating procedures for biological sample collection for tissue banks. Methods Breast cancer samples from 11 patients were collected immediately after surgical removal and subdivided into aliquots. One was immediately frozen and the others were maintained at room temperature for respectively 2, 6 and 24 hrs. RNA was extracted and gene expression profile was determined using cDNA arrays. Phosphoprotein profiles were studied in parallel. Results Delayed freezing affected the RNA quality only in 3 samples, which were not subjected to gene profiling. In the 8 breast cancer cases with apparently intact RNA also in sample aliquots frozen at delayed times, 461 genes were modulated simply as a function of freezing timing. Some of these genes were included in gene signatures biologically and clinically relevant for breast cancer. Delayed freezing also affected detection of phosphoproteins, whose pattern may be crucial for clinical decision on target-directed drugs. Conclusion Time elapsed between surgery and freezing of samples appears to have a strong impact and should be considered as a mandatory variable to control for clinical implications of inadequate tissue handling.

  6. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  7. Women's royal holiness as the church-historical phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article under the topic of the Royal Holiness examines its specific subtype, the righteousness of the Royal women. Among the saint queens, empresses and princesses the authors distinguish the independent rulers, the widows, and wives of monarchs. The Holy Byzantine Empress and canonized European Queen, the Queen of the Georgian and the Russian Princess defended the Christian statehood brightened by feats of patience, mercy, by building the temples. In the conclusion of the article briefly tells about the Royal martyrs and Confessors of the 20th century.

  8. Top 100 Cited Classic Articles in Breast Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Erdal

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 100 most cited articles in breast cancer research. The data in this study were obtained by a search conducted on the Web of Science (WOS). In brief, the term "breast cancer" was typed in the search box of WOS basic research including all the years and the data. The analysis was carried out by compiling the top 100 cited articles in the shortlist as sorted by the journals, categories of the studies, the countries, the centers, the authors and the publication date. No statistical methods were used in the study. All data were reported as percentages, numbers and bar charts on tables. Our findings showed that the most frequently cited article received 7609 citations to date. Most articles were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. 81% of the studies originated from the USA. The National Institutes of Health (NIH USA) was ranked the first with 21% and it was followed by Harvard University in terms of number of published articles. 42% of the articles were published under the category of medicine and general internal medicine. Top 100 most cited articles originated from the United States. The highest number of articles among the top 100 articles were published in New England Journal of Medicine and National Institutes of Health NIH USA was the leading institutes published the most articles.

  9. Nuclear training facilities at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, J.L.; Lowther, C.A.; Marsh, J.R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes some of the nuclear training facilities at the Royal Naval College and the way the facilities are used in the training of personnel for the Naval nuclear propulsion programme. (author)

  10. Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Garcia-Amoedo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly as well as of some adulterated samples was analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, nitrogen/proteins, carbohydrates, starch and 10- HDA (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid. The solubility in alkaline medium was used to detect the main frauds for adulterating royal jelly which comprise addition of yogurt, water, egg white, sweet condensed milk mixed with propolis, unripe banana and corn starch slurry.

  11. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000–2013: a systematic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000–2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Design Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Setting and participants Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000–2013. Main outcome measures Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Results We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded—the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Conclusions Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies

  12. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    prostate cancer . Cancer Res 70: 7992-8002, 2010 8. Nelson PS: Molecular states underlying an- drogen receptor activation: A framework for thera- peutics...targeting androgen signaling in prostate cancer . J Clin Oncol 30:644-646, 2012 9. Thadani-Mulero M, Nanus DM, Giannakakou P: Androgen receptor on the... prostate cancer . Clin Cancer Res 21:795-807, 2015 17. van Soest RJ, de Morrée ES, Kweldam CF, et al: Targeting the androgen receptor confers in vivo

  13. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  14. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  15. Advances in mass spectrometry-based cancer research and analysis: from cancer proteomics to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, John F; Hale, Oliver J; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The last 20 years have seen significant improvements in the analytical capabilities of biological mass spectrometry (MS). Studies using advanced MS have resulted in new insights into cell biology and the etiology of diseases as well as its use in clinical applications. This review discusses recent developments in MS-based technologies and their cancer-related applications with a focus on proteomics. It also discusses the issues around translating the research findings to the clinic and provides an outline of where the field is moving. Expert commentary: Proteomics has been problematic to adapt for the clinical setting. However, MS-based techniques continue to demonstrate potential in novel clinical uses beyond classical cancer proteomics.

  16. Need for global partnership in cancer care: perceptions of cancer care researchers attending the 2010 australia and Asia pacific clinical oncology research development workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, H Kim; Abernethy, Amy P; Stockler, Martin R; Koczwara, Bogda; Aziz, Zeba; Nair, Reena; Seymour, Lesley

    2011-09-01

    To understand the diversity of issues and the breadth of growing clinical care, professional education, and clinical research needs of developing countries, not typically represented in Western or European surveys of cancer care and research. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of the attendees at the 2010 Australia and Asia Pacific Clinical Oncology Research Development workshop (Queensland, Australia) about the most important health care questions facing the participant's home countries, especially concerning cancer. Early-career oncologists and advanced oncology trainees from a region of the world containing significant low- and middle-income countries reported that cancer is an emerging health priority as a result of aging of the population, the impact of diet and lifestyle, and environmental pollution. There was concern about the capacity of health care workers and treatment facilities to provide cancer care and access to the latest cancer therapies and technologies. Although improving health care delivery was seen as a critical local agenda priority, focusing on improved cancer research activities in this select population was seen as the best way that others outside the country could improve outcomes for all. The burden of cancer will increase dramatically over the next 20 years, particularly in countries with developing and middle-income economies. Cancer research globally faces significant barriers, many of which are magnified in the developing country setting. Overcoming these barriers will require partnerships sensitive and responsive to both local and global needs.

  17. Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  18. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  19. Contribution of Arab countries to breast cancer research: comparison with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancers affecting women worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess and compare research activity in breast cancer in Arab countries with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Publications about "breast cancer" as a research topic were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Analysis was confined to original research and review articles. Research productivity was assessed by assessing number of publications and time trend of these publications, names of journals, citation analysis, top 10 active institutions as well as country contribution to breast cancer research. The quantity and quality of publications from Arab countries in addition to 3 other Middle East countries (Turkey, Iran and Israel) were assessed and compared using the h-index tool. A total of 1658 original research and review articles about "breast cancer" were published from Arab countries. Annual research productivity from Arab countries in the field of "breast cancer" was negligible but showed a significant increase in the last decade. Retrieved documents had relatively high citation parameters as measured by h-index of 61 and average citations of 17.46 per document. The highest research productivity was from Egypt with a total publication of 582 (35.10%). Cairo University with a total of 149 (8.99%) publications had the highest research productivity among institutions in Arab world. Forty four documents (2.65%) of breast cancer documents were published in Saudi Medical Journal. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from the United States of America (305; 18.40%) in breast cancer research. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, Arab countries had higher research productivity than some countries and lower than others, particularly Israel. The present data reveals a good contribution of some Arab countries to the field of "breast cancer" research. There is a gap between Arab countries and Israel in

  20. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B.; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety o...

  1. The Sigiriya Royal Gardens. Analysis of the Landscape Architectonic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Nilan Cooray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides the efforts that are of descriptive and celebrative nature, studies related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage are largely to view material remains in historical, sociological, socio-historical and semiological perspectives. But there is hardly any serious attempt to view such material remains from a technical-analytical approach to understand the compositional aspects of their designs. The 5th century AC royal complex at Sigiriya is no exception in this regard. The enormous wealth of information and the unearthed material remains during more than hundred years of field-based research by several generations of archaeologists at Sigiriya provide ideal opportunity for such an analysis. The present study is, therefore, to fill the gap in research related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage in general and to Sigiriya in particular. Therefore the present research attempts to read Sigiriya as a landscape architectonic design to expose its architectonic composition and design instruments. The study which is approached from a technical-analytical point of view follows a methodological framework that is developed at the Landscape Design Department of the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. The study reveals that the architectonic design of Sigiriya constitutes multiple design layers and multiple layers of significance with material-spatial-metaphorical-functional coherence, and that it has both general and unique landscape architectonic elements, aspects, characteristics and qualities. The richness of its composition also enables to identify the landscape architectural value of the Sigiriya, which will help re-shape the policies related to conservation and presentation of Sigiriya as a heritage site as well as the protection and management as a green monument. The positive results of the study also underline that the methodology adapted in this research has devised a framework for the study of other examples

  2. Vaccines 2.0 | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1974, Jay A. Berzofsky, M.D., Ph.D., now Chief of CCR’s Vaccine Branch, came to NIH to study protein folding. His curious mind and collaborative spirit quickly led him into the intertwined fields of immunology and vaccine development. With close to 500 publications to his name, Berzofsky has pioneered the characterization of B- and T-cell epitopes and their modification to make vaccines directed against cancer and chronic infectious diseases. He has also characterized and taken advantage of the cellular and molecular regulators of immune responses in order to enhance tumor immunity and vaccine efficacy. In the last several years, he has translated many of these strategies into promising clinical trials. From the microcosm of his laboratory, he brings the same spirit of cross-fertilizing, bench-to-bedside research to leading the Vaccine Branch as a whole.

  3. Cancer patient and survivor research from the cancer information service research consortium: a preview of three large randomized trials and initial lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alfred C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L; Miller, Suzanne M; Fleisher, Linda; Raich, Peter C; Morra, Marion E; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Tran, Zung Vu; Bright, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe 3 large randomized trials from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium. Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 also tests a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the 2-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1: n =208; Project 2: n =340; Project 3: n =792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52%, and 67% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most, or some) was 90%, 85%, and 83% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium interventions, perceived usefulness and benefit was high, and more than 90% reported that they would recommend them to other cancer patients. The authors present 5 initial lessons learned that may help inform future cancer communications research.

  4. Making public ahead of print: Meetings and publications at the Royal Society, 1752?1892

    OpenAIRE

    Fyfe, Aileen; Moxham, Noah

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines the interplay between the meetings and publications of learned scientific societies during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when journals were an established but not yet dominant form of scholarly communication. The practice of ‘making public’ research at meetings, long before actual ‘publication’ in society periodicals, enabled a complex of more-or-less formal sites of communication and discussion ahead of print. Using two case studies from the Royal Society of Lo...

  5. Informing Royal Navy People Strategy: Understanding Career Aspirations and Behaviours of Naval Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Bewley, Elizabeth Emma; Royal Navy (Great Britain); Ministry of Defence (Great Britain)

    2016-01-01

    Following a series of imposed redundancies in the Royal Navy (RN) there was a need to understand the career desires of remaining personnel and how these interact with important organisational behaviours and turnover. Taking a social psychology perspective, this thesis addresses criticisms over the high use of non-working populations in research and provides the first empirical evidence for the utility, applicability and relevance of specific psychological theories to the RN. Chapter 2 explore...

  6. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  7. Center for Cancer Research plays key role in first FDA-approved drug for treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research’s ability to rapidly deploy integrated basic and clinical research teams at a single site facilitated the rapid FDA approval of the immunotherapy drug avelumab for metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer. Learn more...  

  8. Original Research Risk factors for common cancers among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Age, smoking, and HIV are important risk factors for the 3 commonest cancer types (oesophageal, KS, and cervical) at this teaching .... cancer (95%) patients had no history of smoking or alcohol ..... Africa: a current perspective.

  9. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  11. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  12. The factors that influence job satisfaction among royal Malaysian customs department employee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar Shafi, Muhammad; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Nor, Maria Elena; Khamis, Azme; Nabilah Syuhada Abdullah, Siti; Syafiq Azmi, Mohd; Sakinah Zainal Abidin, Munirah; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to spot the factors that influence job satisfaction among Royal Malaysian Customs Department employees. Primary data was used in this research and it was collected from the employees who work in five different departments at Royal Malaysian Customs Department Tower Johor. Those departments were customs department, Internal Taxes, Technical Services, Management and Prevention. The research used stratified random sampling to collect the sample and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to measure the relationship between variables using AMOS software. About 127 employees are selected as the respondents from five departments to represent the sample. The result showed that ‘Organizational Commitment’ (p-value = 0.001) has significant and direct effect toward job satisfaction compared to the ‘Stress Condition’ (p-value = 0.819) and ‘Motivation’ factor (p-value = 0.978). It was also concluded that ‘Organizational Commitment’ was the most influential factor toward job satisfaction among Royal Malaysian Customs Department employees at Tower Custom Johor, Johor Bahru.

  13. Computational Omics Funding Opportunity | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) and the NVIDIA Foundation are pleased to announce funding opportunities in the fight against cancer. Each organization has launched a request for proposals (RFP) that will collectively fund up to $2 million to help to develop a new generation of data-intensive scientific tools to find new ways to treat cancer.

  14. From the Activity of ‘Prince Carol’Royal Cultural Foundation 1922-1948 Archive Documents (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rodica Hîmpă

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to emphasize the activity of the ‘Prince Carol’ Royal Cultural Foundation created in 1921 in order to lead to the emancipation of villages in particular and of the Romanian culture in a more general perspective. Overall, we may say that the period between the two world wars was marked, also due to the help of the Royal Cultural Foundation, by substantial progress in various fields of education, science and culture in general, and thus contributed to changing Romania into a state with a high level of culture and to creating an image and a prestige of the country that commanded worldwide respect. The research was done on the basis of the documents studied at the Service of the Central National Historical Archives (SANIC, the Stock of the ‘Prince Carol’ Royal Cultural Foundation and at the Library of the Romanian Academy.

  15. A Novel Model for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S. lung cancer remains the most deadly cancer type with less than one in five patients alive five years after diagnosis. The majority of lung cancer deaths are due to tobacco smoke, and the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) subtype of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking. Researchers have identified a number of mutations in lung SCC tumors but have failed to

  16. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  17. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede R; Kuljanic Vlasic, Karin; Waldenstrom, Ann-Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report on the development and validation of a cervical cancer module for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life (QoL) questionnaire (QLQ), which was designed to assess disease-specific and treatment-specific aspects of Qo......L in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: The cervical cancer module (EORTC QLQ-CX24) was developed in a multicultural, multidisciplinary setting to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30 core questionnaire. The QLQ-C30 and the cervical cancer module were administered to 346 patients with cervical cancer who underwent...... compliance with questionnaires (65%). CONCLUSIONS: The current psychometric analyses supported the content and construct validity and the reliability...

  18. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood. © 2013.

  19. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  20. Capacity for Cancer Care Delivery Research in National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Community Practices: Availability of Radiology and Primary Care Research Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ruth C; Sicks, JoRean D; Chang, George J; Lyss, Alan P; Stewart, Teresa L; Sung, Lillian; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2017-12-01

    Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices. The NCORP includes 34 community and 12 minority and underserved community sites. The Landscape Capacity Assessment was conducted in 2015 across these 46 sites, composed of the 401 components and subcomponents designated to conduct CCDR. Each respondent had the opportunity to designate an operational practice group, defined as a group of components and subcomponents with common care practices and resources. The primary outcomes were the proportion of adult oncology practice groups with affiliated radiology and primary care practices. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of those affiliated radiology and primary care groups that participate in research. Eighty-seven percent of components and subcomponents responded to at least some portion of the assessment, representing 230 practice groups. Analyzing the 201 adult oncology practice groups, 85% had affiliated radiologists, 69% of whom participate in research. Seventy-nine percent had affiliated primary care practitioners, 31% of whom participate in research. Institutional size, multidisciplinary group practice, and ownership by large regional or multistate health systems was associated with research participation by affiliated radiology and primary care groups. Research participation by these affiliated specialists was not significantly

  1. Action Stations! 100 years of trauma care on maritime and amphibious operations in the Royal Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M; Smith, J E

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century trauma care within the Royal Navy (RN) has evolved; wartime experiences and military medical research have combined to allow significant improvement in the care of casualties. This article describes the key maritime and amphibious operations that have seen the Royal Navy Medical Service (RNMS) deliver high levels of support to wherever the Naval Service has deployed in the last 100 years. Key advancements in which progress has led to improved outcomes for injured personnel are highlighted--the control and treatment of blood loss, wound care, and the prevention and management of organ failure with optimal resuscitation. Historians often point out how slowly military medicine progressed for the first few thousand years of its recorded history, and how quickly it has progressed in the last century. This reflective article will show how the RNMS has been an integral part of that story, and how the lessons learnt by our predecessors have shaped our modern day doctrine surrounding trauma care.

  2. International Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research: basic and translational research recognition : Mary-Claire King received the 2016 Prize for her pioneering research that demonstrated the first evidence of genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hali; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2017-11-21

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award sponsored by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that supports innovative cancer research globally with the ultimate goal to cure cancer. The coveted Szent-Györgyi Prize annually honors a scientist whose seminal discovery or body of work has resulted in, or led toward, notable contributions to cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment; and the discovery has had a high direct impact of saving people's lives. In addition, the prize promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. In 2016, NFCR's Szent-Györgyi Prize Selection Committee was unanimous in its decision to recognize an icon in human disease genetics, Dr. Mary-Claire King, for her pioneering research that demonstrated the first evidence of genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Her proof of existence of BRCA1 gene and its location has made genetic screening for breast and ovarian cancers possible, saving lives of many people who are at high risk with inherited BRCA1 mutations.

  3. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide.

  4. Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, CA; Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Notice of Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment In the Matter of Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, California.

  5. Evaluation and review of the safety management system implementation in the Royal Thai Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwan, Sakkarin

    This study was designed to determine situation and effectiveness of the safety management system currently implemented in the Royal Thai Air Force. Reviewing the ICAO's SMS and the RTAF's SMS was conducted to identify similarities and differences between the two safety management systems. Later, the researcher acquired safety statistics from the RTAF Safety Center to investigate effectiveness of its safety system. The researcher also collected data to identify other factors affecting effectiveness of the safety system during conducting in-depth interviews. Findings and Conclusions: The study shows that the Royal Thai Air Force has never applied the International Civil Aviation Organization's Safety management System to its safety system. However, the RTAF's SMS and the ICAO's SMS have been developed based on the same concepts. These concepts are from Richard H. Woods's book, Aviation safety programs: A management handbook. However, the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Air Force's safety system is in good stance. An accident rate has been decreasing regularly but there are no known factors to describe the increasing rate, according to the participants' opinion. The participants have informed that there are many issues to be resolved to improve the RTAF's safety system. Those issues are cooperation among safety center's staffs, attitude toward safety of the RTAF senior commanders, and safety standards.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had

  7. Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in cancer research and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisola, Giuseppe; Sorio, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Since the middle of 20th century infrared (IR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR microspectroscopy) has been recognized as a non destructive, label free, highly sensitive and specific analytical method with many potential useful applications in different fields of biomedical research and in particular cancer research and diagnosis. Although many technological improvements have been made to facilitate biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, it has not yet properly come into the scientific background of many potential end users. Therefore, to achieve those fundamental objectives an interdisciplinary approach is needed with basic scientists, spectroscopists, biologists and clinicians who must effectively communicate and understand each other's requirements and challenges. In this review we aim at illustrating some principles of Fourier transform (FT) Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy and microscopy (microFT-IR) as a useful method to interrogate molecules in specimen by mid-IR radiation. Penetrating into basics of molecular vibrations might help us to understand whether, when and how complementary information obtained by microFT-IR could become useful in our research and/or diagnostic activities. MicroFT-IR techniques allowing to acquire information about the molecular composition and structure of a sample within a micrometric scale in a matter of seconds will be illustrated as well as some limitations will be discussed. How biochemical, structural, and dynamical information about the systems can be obtained by bench top microFT-IR instrumentation will be also presented together with some methods to treat and interpret IR spectral data and applicative examples. The mid-IR absorbance spectrum is one of the most information-rich and concise way to represent the whole “… omics” of a cell and, as such, fits all the characteristics for the development of a clinically useful biomarker. PMID:22206042

  8. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  9. The Accounting Register of a Royal Secretary in Aragonese Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the crucial years of the succession war that involved the Kingdom of Naples after Alfonso the Magnanimous’death (1459-1464, a secretary of the new king Ferrante I of Aragon, Antonello Petrucci, was entrusted with royal financial charges. He therefore compiled an account book, where receipts and payments of the royal finances were carefully recorded. It has been recently discovered: this paper aims at examining its actual framework as well as the relative volume of the state budget. Because of its new and comprehensive body of evidence, Petrucci’s account book is a very useful source, which may provide additional informations not only on the bulk of the state funds and expenditure but also on the structure of the king’s household and on the system of the royal financial administration, which appears now as characterized by a more complex organization than it was supposed to be in the past.

  10. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.

  11. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  12. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  13. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National

  14. Dr. Stefan Ambs: Increasing Diversity in Cancer Research: One Lab at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the series “Increasing Diversity in Cancer Research,” CRCHD interviewed Dr. Stefan Ambs, an investigator at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research, who is using novel approaches to discover gene differences in the tumors of African American patients.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types ...

  16. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  17. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  18. Royal Order of 5 December 1975 amending the Royal Order of 11 May 1971 embodying the general Military Regulations for Protection Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Royal Order amends the Royal Order on general Military Regulations for Protection against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations to bring it into line with the Royal Order of 23 December 1970, amending the general Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations of 28 February 1963, subject to certain adaptations specific to military activities. (NEA) [fr

  19. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  20. Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity After Dose-Escalated Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Prostate Cancer: Results From the UK Medical Research Council RT01 Trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syndikus, Isabel; Morgan, Rachel C.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Graham, John D.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In men with localized prostate cancer, dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) improves efficacy outcomes at the cost of increased toxicity. We present a detailed analysis to provide further information about the incidence and prevalence of late gastrointestinal side effects. Methods and Materials: The UK Medical Research Council RT01 trial included 843 men with localized prostate cancer, who were treated for 6 months with neoadjuvant radiotherapy and were randomly assigned to either 64-Gy or 74-Gy CFRT. Toxicity was evaluated before CFRT and during long-term follow-up using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading, the Late Effects on Normal Tissue: Subjective, Objective, Management (LENT/SOM) scale, and Royal Marsden Hospital assessment scores. Patients regularly completed Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--Prostate (FACT-P) and University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) questionnaires. Results: In the dose-escalated group, the hazard ratio (HR) for rectal bleeding (LENT/SOM grade ≥2) was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17-2.04); for diarrhea (LENT/SOM grade ≥2), the HR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.10-2.94); and for proctitis (RTOG grade ≥2), the HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.20-2.25). Compared to baseline scores, the prevalence of moderate and severe toxicities generally increased up to 3 years and than lessened. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of patient-reported severe bowel problems was 6% vs. 8% (standard vs. escalated, respectively) and severe distress was 4% vs. 5%, respectively. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increased risk of various adverse gastrointestinal events with dose-escalated CFRT. This remains at clinically acceptable levels, and overall prevalence ultimately decreases with duration of follow-up.

  1. Animal models of pancreatic cancer for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    The operative and conservative results of therapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remain appallingly poor. This underlines the demand for further research for effective anticancer drugs. The various animal models remain the essential method for the determination of efficacy of substances during preclinical phase. Unfortunately, most of these tested substances showed a good efficacy in pancreatic carcinoma in the animal model but were not confirmed during the clinical phase. The available literature in PubMed, Medline, Ovid and secondary literature was searched regarding the available animal models for drug testing against pancreatic cancer. The models were analyzed regarding their pros and cons in anticancer drug testing. The different modifications of the orthotopic model (especially in mice) seem at present to be the best model for anticancer testing in pancreatic carcinoma. The value of genetically engineered animal model (GEM) and syngeneic models is on debate. A good selection of the model concerning the questions supposed to be clarified may improve the comparability of the results of animal experiments compared to clinical trials.

  2. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  4. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements

  5. The 2011-2016 Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Colditz, Graham A; Hu, Frank B; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahima, Rexford S; Brownson, Ross C; Carson, Kenneth R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Chodosh, Lewis A; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M; Hovmand, Peter S; Irwin, Melinda L; Jacobs, Linda A; James, Aimee S; Jones, Lee W; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S; King, Irena B; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Proctor, Enola K; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B; Schwartz, J Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Subramanian, S V; Taveras, Elsie M; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Thornquist, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a center grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity, referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the centers. Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes three animal studies, three cohort studies, four randomized clinical trials, one cross-sectional study, and two modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk of cancer as well as cancer survivors.

  6. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN: Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita eSuneja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN, a subsidiary of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG, is a multi-national, multi-institutional consortium of physicians and scientists focused on improving cervical cancer outcomes worldwide by making cancer clinical trials available in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Standard operating procedures for participation in CCRN include a pre-qualifying questionnaire to evaluate clinical activities and research infrastructure, followed by a site visit. Once a site is approved, they may choose to participate in one of four currently accruing clinical trials.Results: To date, 13 different CCRN site visits have been performed. Of these 13 sites visited, 10 have been approved as CCRN sites including Tata Memorial Hospital, India; Bangalore, India; Trivandrum, India; Ramathibodi, Thailand; Siriaj, Thailand; Pramongkutklao, Thailand; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center; the Hertzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute; and the Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. The four currently accruing clinical trials are TACO, OUTBACK, INTERLACE, and SHAPE.Discussion: The CCRN has successfully enrolled 10 sites in developing countries to participate in four randomized clinical trials. The primary objectives are to provide novel therapeutics to regions with the greatest need and to improve the validity and generalizability of clinical trial results by enrolling a diverse sample of patients.

  7. Original Research Characterising cancer burden and quality of care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer burden at two palliative care clinics in Malawi 130 ... Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. ... Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as an .... period, patients aged 15 years ..... GLOBOCAN 2012 ... Young People: A Case Series of 109 Cases and Review of the Literature.

  8. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  9. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie; Swain, Shurlee; McPhillips, Kathleen

    2017-12-01

    The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is the largest royal commission in Australia's history and one of the largest public inquiries into institutional child abuse internationally. With an investment from the Australian government of half a billion dollars, it examined how institutions with a responsibility for children, both historically and in the present, have responded to allegations of child sexual abuse. Announced in the wake of previous Australian and international inquiries, public scandals and lobbying by survivor groups, its establishment reflected increasing recognition of the often lifelong and intergenerational damage caused by childhood sexual abuse and a strong political commitment to improving child safety and wellbeing in Australia. This article outlines the background, key features and innovations of this landmark public inquiry, focusing in particular on its extensive research program. It considers its international significance and also serves as an introduction to this special edition on the Australian Royal Commission, exploring its implications for better understanding institutional child sexual abuse and its impacts, and for making institutions safer places for children in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutant HABP2 Causes Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies at the base of the throat in front of the windpipe. A member of the endocrine system, the thyroid secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and metabolism. Cancer of the thyroid is the most common endocrine cancer and the eighth most common cancer in the U.S. An estimated 63,450 Americans will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer this year. The vast majority is of follicular cell origin, and the remaining cancer originates from parafollicular cells, so called medullary thyroid cancer.

  11. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.

  12. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s ...

  14. The British Royal Family’s Circumcision Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Darby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The birth of Prince William’s son in July 2013 was the occasion for an outpouring of media speculation about the fate of the royal baby’s foreskin. The possibility that he might be circumcised was connected to a purported tradition of circumcision within the British royal family, said to be have been initiated either by Queen Victoria or by George I. In this article, we trace the origins and evolution of these stories and assess their validity. Our conclusion is that belief in a royal circumcision tradition derives from the reported circumcision of Prince Charles by the mohel Jacob Snowman in 1948, and the efforts of the British Israelite movement to concoct a “lost tribes of Israel” origin for the British race. These elements merged into a fully developed narrative that was widely disseminated from the late 1990s. The initially separate claim that the tradition was imported from Hanover by George I can be sourced precisely to 2012. We further show that these stories are inventions, and that the royal family circumcision tradition should be regarded as a classic instance of a contemporary legend or urban myth.

  15. Re-engineering production systems: the Royal Netherlands Naval Dockyard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Reengineering production systems in an attempt to meet tight cost, quality and leadtime standards has received considerable attention in the last decade. In this paper, we discuss the reengineering process at the Royal Netherlands Naval Dockyard. The process starts with a characterisation and a

  16. Royal Numico N.V. : Resurrecting shareholder value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachotzki, F.; Olson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This case presents the extraordinary turn-around engineered at Royal Numico (a specialized nutrition company, previously covered in another Nyenrode case under its old name Nutricia) by a team of managers formed and led by Jan Bennink. Company fortunes were at a low ebb by the beginning of 2002, as

  17. Efficacy of royal jelly on methotrexate-induced systemic oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this present study is to investigate the mucositis caused by methotrexate (MTX), as well as whether the application of royal jelly (RJ) has a protective effect on oxidative stress. This present study included six groups each consisted of 12 Wistar rats. Distilled water (po: peroral) was given to the 1st group as placebo ...

  18. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of royal jelly during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Galhardo Borguini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a creamy substance produced by young nurse worker bees, which has a color that ranges from white to slightly yellow, and is secreted by the hypopharingeal and mandibular glands of the bees. The objective of this work was to assess the in vitro antioxidant potential of royal jelly while in storage. The physical-chemical parameters analyzed were moisture, ascorbic acid and total phenolic content. Alcohol extracts were made and used to evaluate the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. The ascorbic acid (to 0.75 from 1.31mg.100g-1wet base and total phenolic content (to 14.26 from 28.30mg GAE.100g-1 wet base of the royal jelly were low. The percentages of DPPH discoloration of the samples were above 50%, except for the samples stored for 90 days. Considering the reduced ascorbic acid and total phenolic content, and the low alcohol DPPH scavenging activity of the samples, it can be concluded that royal jelly presents relatively low antioxidant potential. The storage time did not determine the changes found.

  19. The role of Clinical Geneticists in Hereditary Cancer Management and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Meijers Heijboer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary cancer refers to cancers caused by germline mutations in cancer predisposing genes. These mutations confer a significantly increased risk of cancer, are rare, and are in the majority of cases autosomal dominantly inherited.  Since the eighties of last century more than 115 cancer predisposing genes have been identified. In many Western countries genetic testing of patients and families with clustering of cancers started early, and was often performed by clinical geneticists (MDs performed the counselling and pedigree analyses and by molecular biologists (in laboratories within departments of clinical genetics.  It turned out to be a long path to fully realize the promise of cancer predisposing genes. The clinical utility of many cancer genetic tests and subsequent risk reducing interventions has not yet been validated and pitfalls in e.g. misinterpretation of genetic variants showed up. However, without doubt genetic testing for mutations will eventually turn out as a strong tool to save lives from early cancer death and will become part of standard cancer care throughout the developed world.  Apart from primary surgical prevention, major progress is to be expected in earlier diagnoses, tailored therapies, and possibly chemoprevention.  Ideally researchers, clinical geneticists, molecular biologists, surgeons, oncologists, gynaecologists and other professionals will work together to reach this goal. Keywords : clinical genetics, germline, hereditary cancers, cancer predisposing genes

  20. The JASON reactor at the Royal Naval College: Silver Jubilee 6th November 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.; Roust, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The 10 kW Research and Training Reactor Jason has been used at the Royal Naval College for 25 years in support of the Naval Nuclear Submarine Propulsion Programme. The principal features of Jason, relevant to its training role are given, along with the specifications of Jason, instrumentation, maintenance and operational experience. The educational role of the reactor is described with respect to the Nuclear Reactor Course, Nuclear Advanced Course, and the Nuclear Radiation Protection Course. Future developments in operator training, advantages of the low power reactor, quality control of education and training, and research and development, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Royal-Dutch Shell in Russia and Western Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kurilev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research based on three crucial aspects of the current global economic situation. First is the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in establishing and constructing international cooperation at the supranational level. Second is the policy of sanctions against Russia in connection with the situation in Ukraine. And third is the cooperation of Royal Dutch Shell with Russia’s Gazprom despite the political, economic and technological sanctions imposed on Russian companies and economic sectors.Analyzing Shell’s policy on the Russian energy market should reveal some kind of the managing principle that not only Shell but most TNCs follow in taking the political atmosphere into consideration, while striving to avoid any related restrictions. The research methodology uses analytical, ultimate analysis and functional methods. The analytical method helped to lay the theoretical foundation of the research. Modern TNCs are deeply engaged in the process of economic globalization. To expand their influence, such companies create economic conditions for organizing international production with local markets and for international markets for capital, labour, and scientific and consulting services. The ultimate analysis method revealed the following pattern: in struggling for the global market, TNCs raise the level of competition, which creates a permanent need for technical innovations and scientific progress. The functional analysis method demonstrated a casual relationship in modern economic development: by assisting capital turnover and labour and transport mobility, TNCs contribute significantly to economic growth and development. The first part of the article focuses on the history and methodology of the genesis and development of TNCs as actors in global economic relations. It also reviews the current role of TNCs in the global economy. The second part of the article examines the cooperation between Shell and Gazprom

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  3. Focusing on function to mine cancer genome data | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR scientists have devised a strategy to sift through the tens of thousands of mutations in cancer genome data to find mutations that actually drive the disease. They have used the method to discover that the JNK signaling pathway, which in different contexts can either spur cancerous growth or rein it in, acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancers

  4. Ethical aspect of the clinical research. Informed consent in the clinical research for heavy ion radiotherapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    The research center for heavy ion therapy of cancer was decided to be built in 1984 as a part of the national 10-year anticancer campaign, and construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) was completed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in 1993. The HIMAC is the first heavy ion accelerator for only medical use in the world, and the clinical research of cancer radiotherapy was begun in 1994 using carbon ion generated by HIMAC. The purposes of the clinical research are to evaluate the safety and usefulness of carbon ion for cancer treatment, and to establish carbon ion therapy as a new and valuable tool for cancer therapy. Therefore, to obtain exact data in ethical aspect as well as scientific aspect of the clinical research, many special committees have been organized like as the committees of protocol planning for each organ, clinical study groups for each organ, evaluating committee of clinical data, and the ethical committee. Each clinical research is performed according to the research protocol of each organ, in which study purpose, rationale, patient condition, end-point of the study, adverse reaction are described. The document of informed consent (IC) contains study purpose, patient condition, method, predicted effect and demerit, protection of privacy, etc.. IC to each patient is done precisely by the doctor, and the freely-given IC of the patient is obtained. After the IC was completed, judgement of propriety for carbon ion therapy is done by the ethical committee for IC of each patient. Since 1994 carbon ion therapy has been performed over 1300 patients with cancer in various organs, and its safety and usefulness for cancer treatment has been clarified gradually. The carbon ion therapy is thought to be a new and promising tool for cancer treatment near future. (authors)

  5. Molecular markers in bladder cancer: Novel research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cormio, Antonella; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease encompassing distinct biologic features that lead to extremely different clinical behaviors. In the last 20 years, great efforts have been made to predict disease outcome and response to treatment by developing risk assessment calculators based on multiple standard clinical-pathological factors, as well as by testing several molecular markers. Unfortunately, risk assessment calculators alone fail to accurately assess a single patient's prognosis and response to different treatment options. Several molecular markers easily assessable by routine immunohistochemical techniques hold promise for becoming widely available and cost-effective tools for a more reliable risk assessment, but none have yet entered routine clinical practice. Current research is therefore moving towards (i) identifying novel molecular markers; (ii) testing old and new markers in homogeneous patients' populations receiving homogeneous treatments; (iii) generating a multimarker panel that could be easily, and thus routinely, used in clinical practice; (iv) developing novel risk assessment tools, possibly combining standard clinical-pathological factors with molecular markers. This review analyses the emerging body of literature concerning novel biomarkers, ranging from genetic changes to altered expression of a huge variety of molecules, potentially involved in BC outcome and response to treatment. Findings suggest that some of these indicators, such as serum circulating tumor cells and tissue mitochondrial DNA, seem to be easily assessable and provide reliable information. Other markers, such as the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT (serine-threonine kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway and epigenetic changes in DNA methylation seem to not only have prognostic/predictive value but also, most importantly, represent valuable therapeutic targets. Finally, there is increasing evidence that the development of novel risk assessment tools

  6. Challenges and opportunities in cancer control in Africa: a perspective from the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morhason-Bello, Imran O; Odedina, Folakemi; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Harford, Joe; Dangou, Jean-Marie; Denny, Lynette; Adewole, Isaac F

    2013-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a disproportionate burden of disease and faces a major public-health challenge from non-communicable diseases. Although infectious diseases continue to afflict Africa, the proportion of the overall disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa attributable to cancer is rising. The region is predicted to have a greater than 85% increase in cancer burden by 2030. Approaches to minimise the burden of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa in the past few years have had little success because of low awareness of the cancer burden and a poor understanding of the potential for cancer prevention. Success will not be easy, and will need partnerships and bridges to be built across countries, economies, and professions. A strategic approach to cancer control in sub-Saharan Africa is needed to build on what works there and what is unique to the region. It should ideally be situated within strong, robust, and sustainable health-care systems that offer quality health care to all people, irrespective of their social or economic standing. However, to achieve this will need new leadership, critical thinking, investment, and understanding. We discuss the present situation in sub-Saharan Africa and propose ideas to advance cancer control in the region, including the areas of cancer awareness, advocacy, research, workforce, care, training, and funding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research methods to change clinical practice for patients with rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Lucinda; Malottki, Kinga; Steven, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are a growing group as a result of reclassification of common cancers by molecular markers. There is therefore an increasing need to identify methods to assess interventions that are sufficiently robust to potentially affect clinical practice in this setting. Methods advocated for clinical trials in rare diseases are not necessarily applicable in rare cancers. This Series paper describes research methods that are relevant for rare cancers in relation to the range of incidence levels. Strategies that maximise recruitment, minimise sample size, or maximise the usefulness of the evidence could enable the application of conventional clinical trial design to rare cancer populations. Alternative designs that address specific challenges for rare cancers with the aim of potentially changing clinical practice include Bayesian designs, uncontrolled n-of-1 trials, and umbrella and basket trials. Pragmatic solutions must be sought to enable some level of evidence-based health care for patients with rare cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. NCI Releases Video: Proteogenomics Research - On the Frontier of Precision Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of an educational video titled “Proteogenomics Research: On the Frontier of Precision Medicine."  Launched at the HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala Dinner, catalyzed in part by the Cancer Moonshot initiative and featuring as keynote speaker the 47th Vice President of the United States of America Joseph R.

  10. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S I; Williams, C K; Ndom, P; Holland, J F

    2012-10-01

    The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (aortic) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes support of research and training;provision of relevant and accurate information on the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer;promotion of public awareness about cancer and reduction of the stigma associated with it.In seeking to achieve its goal of cancer control in Africa, aortic strives to unite the continent and to make a positive impact throughout the region by collaboration with health ministries and global cancer organizations. The organization's key objectives are to further research relating to cancers prevalent in Africa, to support training programs in oncology for health care workers, to deal with the challenges of creating cancer control and prevention programs, and to raise public awareness of cancer in Africa. It also plans to organize symposia, workshops, meetings, and conferences that support its mission.Founded in September 1982, aortic was active only between 1983 (when its inaugural conference was held in the City of Lome, Togo, West Africa) and the late 1980s. The organization subsequently became inactive and moribund. In 2000, a group of expatriate African physicians and scientists joined in an effort with their non-African friends and colleagues to reactivate the dormant organization. Since its reactivation, aortic has succeeded in putting cancer on the public health agenda in many African countries by highlighting Africa's urgent need for cancer control and by holding meetings every two years in various African cities. National and international cancer control organizations worldwide have recognized the challenges facing Africa and have joined in aortic's mission.

  11. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  12. Original Research Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis of presentation, management, and outcomes. Pandora Rudd1,2, Dermot ... Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Edinburgh, United Kingdom .... assessment'='7' .... abdominal pain (n = 3, 1.0%), vomiting and weight loss (n = .... A Practical Tool.

  13. Development of Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A

    2008-01-01

    .... Ukoli has recruited 105 participants into the lycopene study sent 192 stored plasma samples for lycopene analysis and received a DHHS 2-year funding for prostate cancer education intervention among low-income AAs. Dr...

  14. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    to the Profession of Nursing 1995-1996 Albert Schweitzer Fellowship 1995-1997 Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina...cancer prevention and early detection in African Americans; and Using the Albert Schweitzer fellowship program to foster cross-cultural experiences for...In North Carolina for Outstanding Contributions to the Profession of Nursing 1995-1996 Albert Schweitzer Fellowship 1995-1997 Lineberger

  15. NCCU/BBRI-Duke/Urology Partnership In Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    UNC-CH Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies (“Mechanisms of alcohol pathology”, NIH/NIAAA U54AA019765). 2. “Pig Model of Gastroesophageal Reflux ...lines have also been adapted to the principal investigators laboratories for in vitro studies . Our collaboration has also led to the submission of...cause of cancer death in men. While one man in six will get prostate cancer during his lifetime, only one man in 35 will die of this disease

  16. Royal Order of 23 November 1977 amending the Royal order of 12 December 1975 setting up a National Energy Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Royal Order of 23 November 1977 modified the composition of the National Energy Committee. Members of delegations are appointed by the Minister for Economic Affairs for a 5-year period which is renewable. The Secretariat includes members recognised for their technical, economic or social competence in the energy field. (NEA) [fr

  17. The multi-role nature of the SLOWPOKE-2 facility at the Royal Military College of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.G.I.; Beeley, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    After up to a decade of successful operation of seven SLOWPOKE-2 reactors within Canada and in Jamaica, an eighth SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor was installed at the Royal Military College of Canada in 1985. Its open pool was one factor that allowed the authors to develop a variety of research capabilities beyond those being established for NAA. A description of the research projects to date will serve to indicate the diversity of this facility. (author) 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Validation of intermediate end points in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A; Freedman, L S; Schiffman, M H; Dawsey, S M

    1990-11-21

    Investigations using intermediate end points as cancer surrogates are quicker, smaller, and less expensive than studies that use malignancy as the end point. We present a strategy for determining whether a given biomarker is a valid intermediate end point between an exposure and incidence of cancer. Candidate intermediate end points may be selected from case series, ecologic studies, and animal experiments. Prospective cohort and sometimes case-control studies may be used to quantify the intermediate end point-cancer association. The most appropriate measure of this association is the attributable proportion. The intermediate end point is a valid cancer surrogate if the attributable proportion is close to 1.0, but not if it is close to 0. Usually, the attributable proportion is close to neither 1.0 nor 0; in this case, valid surrogacy requires that the intermediate end point mediate an established exposure-cancer relation. This would in turn imply that the exposure effect would vanish if adjusted for the intermediate end point. We discuss the relative advantages of intervention and observational studies for the validation of intermediate end points. This validation strategy also may be applied to intermediate end points for adverse reproductive outcomes and chronic diseases other than cancer.

  19. Does bigger mean better? British perspectives on American cancer treatment and research, 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Elizabeth

    2007-12-20

    In the summer of 1948, a delegation representing the British Empire Cancer Campaign (BECC) toured North American cancer treatment and research facilities, and reported their observations back to their organization's executive board. This historical article contextualizes the British delegation's observations of US treatment and research, and discusses what the delegation made of the United States' new, "bigger" approaches to cancer surgery and chemotherapeutic research. I argue that the BECC delegation used their observations of US practice to reinforce a positive sense of British distinctiveness, thus reassuring themselves and their colleagues that Britain could still be a leader in the increasingly international field we now call oncology.

  20. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanidi, Anouar; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Ortega, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population. Population-based case-control study. Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited. In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations. No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4-Q1=0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.92, P trend=0.03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4-Q1=0.60 (95% CI 0.39, 0.94, P trend=0.03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.42, 0.76, P trend <0.01) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.31, 0.73, P trend<0.01), respectively. Physical activity level was inversely associated with BC risk. The WCRF/AICR index was not related with BC risk in the CAMA study. A combination of six components excluding BMI showed strong protective associations, particularly in postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  2. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syse, A.; Syse, A.; Geller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from non modifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  4. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  5. NIH Research: Cancers: A "Constellation" of Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the control of cancer has required new knowledge from the many fields of research that the NCI supports. As ... to solve our most difficult problems. Funding for many kinds of medical ... must balance our knowledge about the public health burden of each cancer ...

  6. Leininger's Ethnonursing Research Methodology and Studies of Cancer Survivors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Arlene T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a literature review regarding the use of Leininger's ethnonursing research methodology (ENRM) in studies addressing adult cancer survivors. It is important to learn about differences and similarities among cancer survivors' experiences so that patient-centered, culturally congruent care can be provided. A review of the literature was conducted using databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE. Search terms included variations on ENRM and cancer survivors. The results were a small number of published studies that used the ENRM examining breast cancer survivors' perceptions and experiences. A review instrument was developed to estimate study quality based on established criteria. The studies are critiqued in relation to the theory-based methodology, evaluation criteria for qualitative research, and study findings are summarized. The author concludes that although there is a paucity of research using ENRM with adult cancer survivors, the preliminary findings of the included studies contribute to what is known about breast cancer survivors. Implications for research include recommendations to increase the use of ENRM to discover the universal and diverse experiences of care practices in adult cancer survivors and use the evidence to develop patient-centered, culturally congruent, quality care for cancer survivors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. [Clinical research activity of the French cancer cooperative network: Overview and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Claire; Morin, Franck; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Langlais, Alexandra; Seitz, Jean-François; Girault, Cécile; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Deschaseaux, Pascal; Casassus, Philippe; Mathiot, Claire; Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Votan, Bénédicte; Louvet, Christophe; Delpeut, Christine; Bardet, Étienne; Vintonenko, Nadejda; Hoang Xuan, Khê; Vo, Maryline; Michon, Jean; Milleron, Bernard

    The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 stresses the importance of strengthening collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the fight against cancer, including cancer cooperative groups and intergroups. This survey aimed to describe the basics characteristics and clinical research activity among the Cancer Cooperative Groups (Groupes coopérateurs en oncologie). The second objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to their research activity. A questionnaire was sent to all the clinicians involved in 2014 as investigators in a clinical trial sponsored by one of the ten members of the Cancer Cooperative Groups network. The questions were related to their profile, research activity and the infrastructure existing within their healthcare center to support clinical research and related compliance activities. In total, 366 investigators responded to our survey. The academic clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Cooperative Groups represented an important part of the research activity of the investigators in France in 2014. These academic groups contributed to the opening of many research sites throughout all regions in France. Factors associated with a higher participation of investigators (more than 10 patients enrolled in a trial over a year) include the existing support of healthcare professionals (more than 2 clinical research associate (CRA) OR=11.16 [3.82-32.6] compared to none) and the practice of their research activity in a University Hospital Center (CHU) rather than a Hospital Center (CH) (OR=2.15 [1.20-3.83]). This study highlighted factors that can strengthen investigator clinical research activities and subsequently improve patient access to evidence-based new cancer therapies in France. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer Nursing Research Output in Africa 2005 to 2014: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Johanna Elizabeth; Herbert, Vivien; Huiskamp, Agnes Alice

    This study is the first review of African cancer nursing research as only 1 review focusing on South Africa was conducted in the past decade. The aim of this study was to identify, summarize, and synthesize the findings from previous independent studies conducted by nurses in Africa. The terms cancer nursing and oncology nursing and Africa were used to search PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SA e-publications, and Scopus. Studies reporting research conducted in an African setting, coauthored by a nurse affiliated with an African institution and published between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, in English were included. A data extraction sheet captured the data. A potential 536 articles for possible inclusion were identified. Fifty met the inclusion requirements. Cancer in women (78%; n = 39) and prevention and early detection (62%; n = 31) were most commonly investigated. The work was primarily quantitative and collected data on some knowledge aspect from women in the community. Most of the studies (96%; n = 48) did not meet the criteria of high-quality work. Africa's nurses have improved their research output in the field of cancer nursing considerably. Research focusing on the most prevalent cancers, the treatment, the patient living with cancer, the family, extended family, and community is lacking, as is work focusing on pain and other symptoms. Nurses in practice should assist nurse researchers to address the identified knowledge gaps to develop cancer nursing science and practice tailored to meet the unique needs of Africa.

  9. BMI1 and H-RAS Cooperate to Drive Breast Cancer Metastasis | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been significant improvements in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages of the disease. However, even when patients are identified early, there is a 30 percent chance of recurrence after apparently successful treatment of the initial tumor. The major cause of death for breast cancer patients is metastasis of the tumor to other organs but, unfortunately, the mechanisms of metastatic progression and cancer recurrence are poorly understood.

  10. Novel Antibody Targets Glypican-3 in Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for patients with liver cancer, the third most common cause of cancer-related death, are desperately needed. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, and HCC tumors are particularly insensitive to chemotherapy. Surgery is the standard treatment for HCCs caught early, but only about a third of cases are identified at this stage. Antibody therapy offers a potential alternative for treating later-stage tumors.

  11. [Current topics on cancer biology and research strategies for anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-ping; Tang, Zheng-hai; Shi, Zhe; Lu, Jin-jian; Su, Huan-xing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yi-tao

    2015-09-01

    Cancer, an abnormal cell proliferation resulted from multi-factors,has the highest morbidity and mortality among all the serious diseases. Considerable progress has been made in cancer biology in recent years. Tumor immunology, cancer stem cells (CSCs), autophagy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have become hot topics of interests in this area. Detailed dissection of these biological processes will provide novel directions, targets, and strategies for the pharmacological evaluation, mechanism elucidation, and new drug development of traditional Chinese medicine.

  12. At the United Nation Foundation's Social Good Summit, Vice President Biden Announces New Cancer Moonshot International Cooperation and Investments | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This week, Vice President Joe Biden announced progress on his global vision for the Cancer Moonshot.  Announced were 10 new Memoranda of Understanding or Memoranda of Cooperation for international cancer research and care, as well as new efforts in the emerging scientific areas of precision oncology, the funding of collaborative research centers to address cancer disparities in low- and middle- income (LMIC) countries, and a strengthening of existing U.S. bilateral science and technology engagements around cancer.  

  13. Integrating Research on Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl — the Chernobyl Tissue Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.A.; Bethel, J.A.; Galpine, A.; Krznaric, M.; Unger, K.

    2011-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated cooperation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. PMID:21345659

  14. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorIties, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  15. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented southwester minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  16. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2005-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  17. MicroRNA in oral cancer research: future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Patil, Shankargouda

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and related therapeutic approaches hold great promise in the field of cancer managements. Various studies on epithelial malignancies have shown encouraging results on various fronts. Its association with invasion, tumor growth, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, cancer stem cells (CSCs), metastasis and refects the diversified role of miRNA. Moreover, miRNA plays an important role in determining the prognosis of the patients. MicroRNAs interactions with each other and with external factors [human papilloma virus (HPV) (like oncoproteins)] intrigue us to explore more deep into this fascinating world.(1.)

  18. CCR 20th Anniversary Commentary: From Regulatory T Cells to Checkpoint Monoclonal Antibodies--Immuno-oncology Advances Clinical Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dominik; Wolf, Anna Maria

    2015-06-15

    Immune escape is a hallmark of cancer development and metastasis. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are potent inhibitors of cancer immune surveillance but also prevent inflammation-driven tumorigenesis. The study by Wolf and colleagues, which was published in the February 2003 issue of Clinical Cancer Research, showed the expansion of Treg in solid cancer patients, providing a deeper understanding of cancer immune escape mechanisms that later set the stage for the development of scientific breakthroughs in cancer immunotherapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. [In the era of the Royal Society of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramain, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    In the May 2013 issue of medecine/sciences, the Rob Laffecteur complained about the constraints imposed by the Société Royale de Médecine in 1779, bearing on the labelling of remedies. Though, he did take advantage of the evaluation from an advertising point of view; though in this prospect he diverted his evaluation's report, in order to present it in a flattering manner. The Société Royale de Médecine was founded in 1778; its mission was to cover everything that had to do with public healthcare. Active, age-old and competent, it was submitted to many of contemporary issues that we are facing nowadays in the matter of medicines' evaluation, which is based on a rigorous scientific evaluation, itself based on knowledge's state-of-the-art. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  20. The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John

    2004-01-01

    The Royal College of Psychiatrists recently issued a revised statement on its position concerning capital punishment. The College proposes to support psychiatrists who refuse to be involved in the capital process, but accepts that some may take up limited involvement in the manner set out in the document. The Royal College is the professional body for psychiatric practitioners in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Almost no public statements are issued from the College without first being deliberated on within at least two of its three major committees. The new document on capital punishment remains in the spirit of the previous ones. The topic of capital punishment is noncontroversial within the British medical profession. In all European countries, capital punishment is against the law, because there is an overarching directive from the Council of Europe (a wide group of nations, wider than the European Union) insisting that it be abolished.

  1. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaiteye Sam M

    2011-10-01

    merits for integrating cancer research in established HIV programs to obtain timely data about the incidence and burden of cancer in HIV-infected persons in Africa.

  2. Cancer risks near nuclear facilities: the importance of research design and explicit study hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    In April 2010, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked the National Academy of Sciences to update a 1990 study of cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Prior research on this topic has suffered from problems in hypothesis formulation and research design. We review epidemiologic principles used in studies of generic exposure-response associations and in studies of specific sources of exposure. We then describe logical problems with assumptions, formation of testable hypotheses, and interpretation of evidence in previous research on cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Advancement of knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities depends on testing specific hypotheses grounded in physical and biological mechanisms of exposure and susceptibility while considering sample size and ability to adequately quantify exposure, ascertain cancer cases, and evaluate plausible confounders. Next steps in advancing knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities require studies of childhood cancer incidence, focus on in utero and early childhood exposures, use of specific geographic information, and consideration of pathways for transport and uptake of radionuclides. Studies of cancer mortality among adults, cancers with long latencies, large geographic zones, and populations that reside at large distances from nuclear facilities are better suited for public relations than for scientific purposes.

  3. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  4. The Ursula Faince Dinnerware Series by Royal Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    This working paper is a case study about the development of a faience product line in Royal Copenhagen and illustrates several aspects of how, at what stages of development, and by whom, cultural products in general are evaluated. Three theoretical issues emerge. One concerns the constraints impo...... of a particular cultural product had to be negotiated within a particular organizational world embracing both management and workers, with differentiated skills. These issues lead to a more general discussion of craftsmanship and storytelling....

  5. Je Maintiendrai: The Royal Netherlands Army Within the Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    CHAPTER I Combat History of the Dutch Army The Kir.ngdom of the Netherlands has tended to favor neutrality or abstentionism over involvement in...a small power and the Dutch increasingly favored abstentionism from European conflicts. Subsequently, the wartime organization of the Royal Army was...Netherlands abandoned its traditional policy of abstentionism and became a founding member of the Brussels Treaty (1948) and the North Atlantic

  6. Gender representation of cancer patients in medical treatment and psychosocial survivorship research: changes over three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Rubin, Lisa R

    2012-10-01

    Prior studies raise concern about gender bias in cancer research, including insufficient inclusion of women or men, or studying women and men differently. The 1993 National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act aimed to eliminate gender bias in medicine. To examine changes in medical and psychological literature, this study reviews gender representation in biomedical treatment studies and psychosocial survivorship studies published in a single year. Research published in Cancer in 2007, and all empirical psychological studies about cancer published that year, provided a 15-year update to findings reported by Meyerowitz and Hart. The gender distribution and context of included articles were coded and compared with findings from 1983 and 1992. Across biomedical studies, 34.3% of subjects were women (vs 47% of new cancers and 48% of cancer deaths). Among men, 41.3% had sex-specific cancers (vs 12.5% [1983] and 12.3% [1992]). Among women, 46.1% had sex-specific cancers (vs 69.1% [1983] and 64.6% [1992]). Fewer women (36.8%) were represented in sex-nonspecific cancer studies (vs 41.4% [1983] and 42.5% [1992]); however, fewer studies had a significant (>20%) gender disparity. Across psychosocial studies, representation of men increased to 47.9% (vs 30.4% [1983] and 29.9% [1992]). The proportion of men in studies of feelings/relationships increased to 47% (vs 22.9% [1992]); the proportion of women in studies assessing physical/functional ability increased to 58.3% (vs 45.4%). Women remain under-represented in sex-nonspecific biomedical research, whereas men's representation in sex-specific research increased substantially. Psychosocial research trends suggest movement from research questions supporting traditional stereotypes that women feel and men act. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  7. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative research: reflections from an interview-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witty, Karl; Branney, Peter; Bullen, Kate; White, Alan; Evans, Julie; Eardley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To explore the challenges of engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview research. Qualitative interviewing offers an ideal tool for exploring men's experiences of illness, complementing and providing context to gendered health inequalities identified in epidemiological research on men. But conducting interviews with men can be challenging and embarking on a qualitative interview study with males can feel like a daunting task, given the limited amount of practical, gender-sensitive guidance for researchers. Reflecting on a researcher's experience of conducting qualitative research on men with penile cancer, this paper explores the potential challenges of interviewing this group, but also documents how engagement and data collection were achieved. This is a reflective paper, informed by the experiences of a male researcher (KW) with no nurse training, who conducted 28 interviews with men who had been treated for penile cancer. The researcher's experiences are reported in chronological order, from the methodological challenges of recruitment to those of conducting the interview. The paper offers a resource for the novice researcher, highlighting some advantages and disadvantages of conducting qualitative interview research as a nurse researcher, as well as recommendations on how to overcome challenges. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview raises practical, methodological, ethical and emotional challenges for the researcher. However, when these challenges are met, men will talk about their health. Methodological procedures must enable an open and ongoing dialogue with clinical gatekeepers and potential participants to promote engagement. Support from colleagues is essential for any interviewer, no matter how experienced the researcher is.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  9. The Art of Interpreting Epigenetic Activity | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though all the cells of the human body share a common genomic blueprint, epigenetic activity such as DNA methylation, introduces molecular diversity that results in functionally and biologically different cellular constituents. In cancers, this ability of epigenetic activity to introduce molecular diversity is emerging as a powerful classifier of biological aggressiveness.

  10. Finding the Right Care | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trained as a registered nurse and with a doctoral degree in public health, Jane D. is no stranger to the U.S. health care system. But, when she found herself facing a diagnosis of anal cancer in 2013, she felt adrift.

  11. U.S. and Peru Formalize Alliance in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Global Health (CGH) had the pleasure of welcoming a delegation of health officials from the Government of Peru for the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the U.S. and Peru.

  12. Examining the Origins of Myeloid Leukemia | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia or AML, a cancer of the white blood cells, is the most common type of rapidly-growing leukemia in adults. The over-production of white blood cells in the bone marrow inhibits the development of other necessary blood components including red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body, and platelets, which are required for clot formation. The

  13. Gambling in revolutionary Paris - The Palais Royal: 1789-1838.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, R T

    1992-06-01

    By the revolution of 1789, the four-story, quadrangular Palais Royal in Paris had become the most glittering tourist center of Europe, with 180 shops and cafes in its ground floor arcades. By 1791, its basement and secondary story contained over 100 separate, illicit gambling operations featuring the most popular dice and card games. The mania for gambling had been transferred from defunct, monarchical Versailles to the thriving, bourgeois Palais Royal, where the five main gaming clubs throbbed from noon till midnight. During the Revolution, Prince Talleyrand won 30,000 francs at one club, and after Waterloo in 1815, Marshal Blucher lost 1,500,000 francs in one night at another. To bring the situation under control and raise taxes for the state, in 1806 Napoleon legalized the main clubs, which from 1819 to 1837 grossed an enormous 137 million francs. When the anti-gambling forces triumphed in 1837 and the clubs were closed down, the National Guard had to be called out to evict the mobs of gamblers who refused to leave the tables. Dramatic reports from Revolutionary police raids, and quotations from the memoirs of humorous French gamblers and shocked foreign visitors, provide anecdotal illustrations of the 49 years during which the Palais Royal was the most intriguing and picturesque gambling mecca of Europe-and probably of the world.

  14. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  15. Modulating Cancer Risk: The Gut Takes Control | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer risk is influenced by a number of factors, including exposure to chemicals in food and drugs and other molecules in the environment. Some of these chemicals may increase risk of developing cancer, while others, including many chemicals in vegetables, may confer protection.

  16. Cancer Slide Digital Archive (CDSA) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CDSA is a web-based platform to support the sharing, managment and analysis of digital pathology data. The Emory Instance currently hosts over 23,000 images from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and the software is being developed within the ITCR grant to be deployable as a digital pathology platform for other labs and Cancer Institutes.

  17. Foregut cancers get new attention at CCR | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly formed NIH Foregut Team will focus on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, bile ducts and part of the small intestine. Although these tumors are not the most common types of cancers, they are among the deadliest. Learn more...

  18. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank: integrating research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G A

    2012-03-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. Cancer is a complicated disease and it is unclear whether the mechanism by which radiation gives rise to cancer differs from that involved in the generation of cancers of the same type by other environmental stimuli. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established in response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl to address this question. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 23 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  19. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank: integrating research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G A

    2012-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. Cancer is a complicated disease and it is unclear whether the mechanism by which radiation gives rise to cancer differs from that involved in the generation of cancers of the same type by other environmental stimuli. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established in response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl to address this question. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 23 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. (note)

  20. State of the science in ovarian cancer quality of life research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lisa M; Stehman, Frederick B

    2012-09-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an increasingly important focus of outcomes in cancer care with the movement toward more patient-oriented research. Quality-of-life outcomes are important in ovarian cancer, which has not yet benefitted from improved survival outcomes as have other diseases. This study was designed to systematically assess and summarize HRQOL in ovarian cancer. A systematic search strategy was initiated to identify published literature measuring HRQOL of women with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC). Data were synthesized to evaluate HRQOL and patient-reported outcome data at various time points: before, during, and after chemotherapy. Data were pooled and summary statistics compared across published studies. Comparisons of means were conducted using analysis of variance. There were 170 publications meeting all eligibility criteria, representing 139 unique studies of patients with ovarian cancer, where QOL data were collected. Within this literature, more than 90 different patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments were administered. The most common HRQOL instruments included the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. Few studies alone demonstrated significant differences in QOL between the experimental and comparison arm or throughout the treatment period. Pooled data, however, show that baseline QOL may significantly improve, particularly after completion of chemotherapy treatment. Despite the increase in assessment and reporting of QOL in ovarian cancer research studies during the past 15 years, there remains little consistency in the types and format of data collected. There is a need to enhance the standardized collection and reporting of HRQOL data from research involving women with ovarian cancer so that research can build on the cumulative knowledge base to improve outcomes in this patient population.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  5. Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, P; Aboagye, E O; Balkwill, F; Balmain, A; Bruder, G; Chaplin, D J; Double, J A; Everitt, J; Farningham, D A H; Glennie, M J; Kelland, L R; Robinson, V; Stratford, I J; Tozer, G M; Watson, S; Wedge, S R; Eccles, S A

    2010-01-01

    Animal experiments remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms underpinning malignancy and to discover improved methods to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer. Excellent standards of animal care are fully consistent with the conduct of high quality cancer research. Here we provide updated guidelines on the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. All experiments should incorporate the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Focusing on animal welfare, we present recommendations on all aspects of cancer research, including: study design, statistics and pilot studies; choice of tumour models (e.g., genetically engineered, orthotopic and metastatic); therapy (including drugs and radiation); imaging (covering techniques, anaesthesia and restraint); humane endpoints (including tumour burden and site); and publication of best practice. PMID:20502460

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  7. Heterogeneous Biomedical Database Integration Using a Hybrid Strategy: A p53 Cancer Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Y. Bichutskiy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex problems in life science research give rise to multidisciplinary collaboration, and hence, to the need for heterogeneous database integration. The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in close to 50% of human cancers, and a small drug-like molecule with the ability to restore native function to cancerous p53 mutants is a long-held medical goal of cancer treatment. The Cancer Research DataBase (CRDB was designed in support of a project to find such small molecules. As a cancer informatics project, the CRDB involved small molecule data, computational docking results, functional assays, and protein structure data. As an example of the hybrid strategy for data integration, it combined the mediation and data warehousing approaches. This paper uses the CRDB to illustrate the hybrid strategy as a viable approach to heterogeneous data integration in biomedicine, and provides a design method for those considering similar systems. More efficient data sharing implies increased productivity, and, hopefully, improved chances of success in cancer research. (Code and database schemas are freely downloadable, http://www.igb.uci.edu/research/research.html.

  8. Male Oncology Research and Education program for men at high risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, J; Liu, S K; Vesprini, D

    2018-04-01

    Three groups of men are at high risk of developing prostate cancer: men with a strong family history of prostate cancer, men of West African or Caribbean ancestry, and men with a germline pathogenic variant in a prostate cancer-associated gene. Despite the fact that those men constitute a significant portion of the male population in North America, few recommendations for prostate cancer screening specific to them have been developed. For men at general population risk for prostate cancer, screening based on prostate-specific antigen (psa) has remained controversial despite the abundance of literature on the topic. As a result, recommendations made by major screening authorities are inconsistent (ranging from no psa screening to baseline psa screening at age 45), allowing physicians to pick and choose how to screen their patients. The Male Oncology Research and Education (more) program is an observational research program that serves as an academic platform for multiple research foci. For its participants, serum and dna are biobanked, medical information is collected, and contact for relevant research-related opportunities is maintained. This research program is paired with a specialized clinic called the more clinic, where men at high risk are regularly screened for prostate cancer in a standard approach that includes physical examination and serum psa measurement. In this article, we describe the goals, participant accrual to date, and projects specific to this unique program.

  9. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  10. The future workforce in cancer prevention: advancing discovery, research, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Scheurer, Michael E; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Clague, Jessica; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Woods, Kendra V

    2012-05-01

    As part of a 2-day conference on October 15 and 16, 2009, a nine-member task force composed of scientists, clinicians, educators, administrators, and students from across the USA was formed to discuss research, discovery, and technology obstacles to progress in cancer prevention and control, specifically those related to the cancer prevention workforce. This article summarizes the task force's findings on the current state of the cancer prevention workforce in this area and its needs for the future. The task force identified two types of barriers impeding the current cancer prevention workforce in research, discovery, and technology from reaching its fullest potential: (1) limited cross-disciplinary research opportunities with underutilization of some disciplines is hampering discovery and research in cancer prevention, and (2) new research avenues are not being investigated because technology development and implementation are lagging. Examples of impediments and desired outcomes are provided in each of these areas. Recommended solutions to these problems are based on the goals of enhancing the current cancer prevention workforce and accelerating the pace of discovery and clinical translation.

  11. Cancer Center Clinic and Research Team Perceptions of Identity and Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Torsten; Lee, Simon J Craddock; Garcia, Sandra; Gill, Mary; Duncan, Tobi; Williams, Erin L; Gerber, David E

    2017-12-01

    Conduct of cancer clinical trials requires coordination and cooperation among research and clinic teams. Diffusion of and confusion about responsibility may occur if team members' perceptions of roles and objectives do not align. These factors are critical to the success of cancer centers but are poorly studied. We developed a survey adapting components of the Adapted Team Climate Inventory, Measure of Team Identification, and Measure of In-Group Bias. Surveys were administered to research and clinic staff at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance. Responses were received from 105 staff (clinic, n = 55; research, n = 50; 61% response rate). Compared with clinic staff, research staff identified more strongly with their own group ( P teams, we also identified key differences, including perceptions of goal clarity and sharing, understanding and alignment with cancer center goals, and importance of outcomes. Future studies should examine how variation in perceptions and group dynamics between clinic and research teams may impact function and processes of cancer care.

  12. Overview of CDK9 as a target in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fatima; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    CDK9 is a protein in constant development in cancer therapy. Herein we present an overview of the enzyme as a target for cancer therapy. We provide data on its characteristics and mechanism of action. In recent years, CDK9 inhibitors that have been designed with molecular modeling have demonstrated good antitumoral activity in vitro. Clinical studies of the drugs flavopiridol, dinaciclib, seliciclib, SNS-032 and RGB-286638 used as CDK9 inhibitors are also reviewed, with their additional targets and their relative IC50 values. Unfortunately, treatment with these drugs remains unsuccessful and involves many adverse effects. We could conclude that there are many small molecules that bind to CDK9, but their lack of selectivity against other CDKs do not allow them to get to the clinical use. However, drug designers currently have the tools needed to improve the selectivity of CDK9 inhibitors and to make successful treatment available to patients.

  13. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  14. Cancer-related aspects of regeneration research: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.J.; Mason, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Tissue regeneration is simply the replacement of lost cells of a tissue by those remaining. Epimorphic regeneration involves dedifferentiation of many tissues and their organization into a blastema which eventually differentiates into the missing part, usually an appendage. A detailed comparison of the cell membrane changes occurring in epimorphic regeneration, tissue regeneration and cancer can contribute to greater understanding of the differences between normal and tumor cells. Further, there is evidence that epimorphic regeneration fields may in some instances suppress tumor induction and control existing tumors. This influence may be mediated by bioelectric fields, which are ubiquitous in nature and appear to control many cellular events. Disruption of these bioelectric fields suppresses epimorphic regeneration and may lead to cancer in mammals, while applied electric fields alter regenerative events and cause tumor regression. Studies on x-radioinduced regeneration suppression in relation to mutagenesis are also reviewed

  15. Development of Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Not Funded/Not Scored. To be revised 5. Community prostate cancer outreach, education, and health fairs i). Egbe Omo Yoruba Health Fair...ation pr ogram. T hese m en m ay volunteer to participate in this s tudy if invi ted in a culturally appropriate manner. A non-cost extension period...plasma fatty acid concentrations among culturally distinct populations of African Americans and Nigerians in a case-control design, using the lower

  16. Training Program in the Molecular Basis of Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    the pathogenesis of these cancers. In concert decidua were immunostained with an anti-BrdU monoclonal with Knudson’s "two- hit " theory of...12618-12622ical homogeneity from bovine testes. The high level of DNA 32. Higashitani, A., Tabata , S., Endo, H., and Hotta, Y. (1990) Cell Struct. Funct...separate enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 250:8438-8444. 21. Higashitani, A., S. Tabata , H. Endo, and Y. Hotta. 1990. Purification of DNA 51. Stubbs, L., and H

  17. Summer Undergraduate Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    of bovine papilloma - with steroid receptors, Am. J. Pathol. 148 (1996) 549-558. virus type 1 and human papillomavirus type 16, J. Virol. 65 [9] J.M...test did indeed have a peak at the desired molecular weight, but it wasn’t the most prevalent peak in the sample. Nothing more was done with this...in approximately 30% of all human cancers and thus present themselves as a possible target for anticancer agent development. Mutated ras lacks normal

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  20. NORDCAN--a Nordic tool for cancer information, planning, quality control and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Gerda; Ferlay, Jacques; Christensen, Niels; Bray, Freddie; Gjerstorff, Marianne L; Klint, Asa; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Olafsdóttir, Elínborg; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H

    2010-06-01

    The NORDCAN database and program ( www.ancr.nu ) include detailed information and results on cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence in each of the Nordic countries over five decades and has lately been supplemented with predictions of cancer incidence and mortality; future extensions include the incorporation of cancer survival estimates. The data originates from the national cancer registries and causes of death registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Faroe Islands and is regularly updated. Presently 41 cancer entities are included in the common dataset, and conversions of the original national data according to international rules ensure comparability. With 25 million inhabitants in the Nordic countries, 130 000 incident cancers are reported yearly, alongside nearly 60 000 cancer deaths, with almost a million persons living with a cancer diagnosis. This web-based application is available in English and in each of the five Nordic national languages. It includes comprehensive and easy-to-use descriptive epidemiology tools that provide tabulations and graphs, with further user-specified options available. The NORDCAN database aims to provide comparable and timely data to serve the varying needs of policy makers, cancer societies, the public, and journalists, as well as the clinical and research community.

  1. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Banerjee, Subham; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  2. Potential of cancer cell-derived exosomes in clinical application: a review of recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Exosomes are 30- to 100-nm, membrane-bound vesicles that are released by most types of cells, including tumor cells. Exosomes contain a great variety of bioactive molecules, including signal peptides, microRNA, lipids, and DNA. In cancer, tumor cells aberrantly secrete large quantities of exosomes to transport paracrine signals or to contribute to tumor-environment interaction at a distance. The goal of this review was to discuss the recent advances on the mechanism of cancer-derived exosomes in tumor regulation. Pertinent articles and abstracts were identified through searches of PubMed for literature published from 1983 to December 2013. Search terms included exosome, tumor, cancer, diagnosis, and therapy. All of the exposed evidence points to communication between cancer cells and their surroundings, either mediated by cancer cell-derived exosomes or by stromal cell-derived exosomes. This communication probably supports tumor proliferation, motility, invasion, angiogenesis, and premetastatic niche preparation. In addition, recent research implies that cancer cell-derived exosomes play a suppressive role in cancer-directed immune response. The biomarkers detected in bodily fluid-derived exosomes imply a potential for exosomes in cancer diagnosis. Also, exosomes could be used as a vehicle to selectively deliver therapeutic nucleic-acid drugs or conventional drugs for tumor therapy. The tolerability and feasibility of cancer exosomes in diagnosis and therapy need to be further evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Finding cancer driver mutations in the era of big data research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Rebecca C; Wong, Jason W H

    2018-04-02

    In the last decade, the costs of genome sequencing have decreased considerably. The commencement of large-scale cancer sequencing projects has enabled cancer genomics to join the big data revolution. One of the challenges still facing cancer genomics research is determining which are the driver mutations in an individual cancer, as these contribute only a small subset of the overall mutation profile of a tumour. Focusing primarily on somatic single nucleotide mutations in this review, we consider both coding and non-coding driver mutations, and discuss how such mutations might be identified from cancer sequencing datasets. We describe some of the tools and database that are available for the annotation of somatic variants and the identification of cancer driver genes. We also address the use of genome-wide variation in mutation load to establish background mutation rates from which to identify driver mutations under positive selection. Finally, we describe the ways in which mutational signatures can act as clues for the identification of cancer drivers, as these mutations may cause, or arise from, certain mutational processes. By defining the molecular changes responsible for driving cancer development, new cancer treatment strategies may be developed or novel preventative measures proposed.

  4. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  5. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  6. Conducting Biobehavioral Research in Patients With Advanced Cancer: Recruitment Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson-White, Stephanie; Bohr, Nicole; Wickersham, Karen E

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and symptom management interventions over the last decade, patients continue to struggle with cancer-related symptoms. Adequate baseline and longitudinal data are crucial for designing interventions to improve patient quality of life and reduce symptom burden; however, recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in longitudinal research is difficult. Our purpose is to describe challenges and solutions to recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in two biobehavioral research studies examining cancer-related symptoms. Study 1: Symptom data and peripheral blood for markers of inflammation were collected from newly diagnosed patients receiving chemotherapy on the first day of therapy and every 3-4 weeks for up to 6 months. Study 2: Symptom data, blood, and skin biopsies were collected from cancer patients taking epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors at specific time points over 4 months. Screening and recruitment results for both studies are summarized. Timing informed consent with baseline data collection prior to treatment initiation was a significant recruitment challenge for both the studies. Possible solutions include tailoring recruitment to fit clinic needs, increasing research staff availability during clinic hours, and adding recruitment sites. Identifying solutions to these challenges will permit the conduct of studies that may lead to identification of factors contributing to variability in symptoms and development of tailored patient interventions for patients with advanced cancer.

  7. The statistical research relatating to the treatment of cancer and the boundary of radiological therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kook

    1990-01-01

    The paper is based on the record of researching the patients with cancer in the Chun-nam National University Hospital from September 1985 to December 1988. The results are the as follows ; 1. Among the total O.P.D. 921, 028, the patients of Therapeutic Radiology (Opening the Therapeutic Radiology in September) are classified into 27, 159 (2.95%), (186 in 1985, 2,388 in 1986, 10,511 in 1987, and 14,074 in 1988) 2. Among the 4,925 cancer patients, cervix and uterus cancer patients are 1, 138(23.10%), stomach cancer patients are 592(12.02%), brain and thyroid cancer patients are 565(11.47%), liver cancer patients are 400(8 .12%), lung cancer patients are 355 (7.20%) and sexual ratio appeared 1 : 1.13. Therefore, female patients are a slightly more than the male patients. 3. The age distribution of cancer was that of 45∼54 ages are 1,244(25.26%), 55∼64 ages are 1,119(22.72%) and 35∼44 ages are 773(15.70%) and the half of all the cancer patients are 45∼64 ages. 4. Among the 2,519 cancer patients, 742(29.46%) are in the uterus system, 620 (24.62%) are in the brain and thyroid part, 402(15.96%) are in the lungs. Therefore, these three kinds of cancer consist of 70%. 5. The occupational distribution of 3,067 cancer patients(87∼88 year) house wives are 636(20.73%), orderly farmers are 622(20.28%) public service personnells are 193(6.29%), salarymen are 162 (5.28%) and businessmen are 159 (5.18%)

  8. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Laboratory for research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  9. NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution. Submissions will be accepted through July 11, 2014.

  10. Mig6 Puts the Brakes on Mutant EGFR-Driven Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. These cancers are often induced by mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), resulting in constitutive activation of the protein’s tyrosine kinase domain. Lung cancers expressing these EGFR mutants are initially sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, but often become resistant by developing compensatory mutations in EGFR or other growth-promoting pathways. To better understand how mutant EGFR initiates and maintains tumor growth in the hopes of identifying novel targets for drug development, Udayan Guha, M.D., Ph.D., of CCR’s Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Branch, and his colleagues examined the landscape of proteins phosphorylated in EGFR wild type and mutant cells. One protein hyper-phosphorylated in mutant EGFR cells was Mig6, a putative tumor suppressor.

  11. Selective CD4+ T Cell Loss Promotes Liver Cancer Development | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, commonly develops in patients with underlying chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis B or C virus infection or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  12. [Brief Report on the 69th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association - Conquering Cancer with Collective Wisdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Shigeru

    2010-11-01

    The 69th Annual Meeting was held from September 22nd through 24th, at Osaka International Convention Center and RIHGA ROYAL HOTEL Osaka. The president of this meeting was professor Morito Monden, Osaka University Medical School. In this meeting, there were many scientific meetings including Special Remarks, symposiums, workshops, international sessions, oral and poster sessions and others, English workshops, morning lectures. Especially, as a special session, Now, what are the elements expected to cancer research ? - Special proposals for cancer research, was one of the most impressive session among many.

  13. Developing a Philippine Cancer Grid. Part 1: Building a Prototype for a Data Retrieval System for Breast Cancer Research Using Medical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Andrei D.; Saldana, Rafael P.

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. Developed within the context of a Philippine Cancer Grid, the present study used web development technologies such as PHP, MySQL, and Apache server to build a prototype data retrieval system for breast cancer research that incorporates medical ontologies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

  14. New immunotherapy approach leads to remission in patients with the most common type of childhood cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment for pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the most common type of childhood cancer. B-ALL is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts. In a trial led by Center for Cancer Research investigators, around 70 to 90 percent of patients whose B-ALL has relapsed or developed resistance to chemotherapy entered remission after CAR T-cell therapy targeting CD19. Read more…

  15. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-02-03

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  16. Consumer attitudes towards the establishment of a national Australian familial cancer research database by the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Laura; Mitchell, Gillian; Thrupp, Letitia; Petelin, Lara; Richardson, Kate; Mascarenhas, Lyon; Young, Mary-Anne

    2018-01-01

    Clinical genetics units hold large amounts of information which could be utilised to benefit patients and their families. In Australia, a national research database, the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) database, is being established that comprises clinical genetic data held for all carriers of mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Consumer input was sought to establish the acceptability of the inclusion of clinical genetic data into a research database. A qualitative approach using a modified nominal group technique was used to collect data through consumer forums conducted in three Australian states. Individuals who had previously received care from Familial Cancer Centres were invited to participate. Twenty-four consumers participated in three forums. Participants expressed positive attitudes about the establishment of the ICCon database, which were informed by the perceived benefits of the database including improved health outcomes for individuals with inherited cancer syndromes. Most participants were comfortable to waive consent for their clinical information to be included in the research database in a de-identified format. As major stakeholders, consumers have an integral role in contributing to the development and conduct of the ICCon database. As an initial step in the development of the ICCon database, the forums demonstrated consumers' acceptance of important aspects of the database including waiver of consent.

  17. Lab Plays Central Role in Groundbreaking National Clinical Trial in Precision Medicine | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Molecular Characterization Laboratory at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research lies at the heart of an ambitious new approach for testing cancer drugs that will use the newest tools of precision medicine to select the best treatme

  18. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung Cancer Screening Participation: Developing a Conceptual Model to Guide Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Davis, Lorie L; Rawl, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    To describe the development of a conceptual model to guide research focused on lung cancer screening participation from the perspective of the individual in the decision-making process. Based on a comprehensive review of empirical and theoretical literature, a conceptual model was developed linking key psychological variables (stigma, medical mistrust, fatalism, worry, and fear) to the health belief model and precaution adoption process model. Proposed model concepts have been examined in prior research of either lung or other cancer screening behavior. To date, a few studies have explored a limited number of variables that influence screening behavior in lung cancer specifically. Therefore, relationships among concepts in the model have been proposed and future research directions presented. This proposed model is an initial step to support theoretically based research. As lung cancer screening becomes more widely implemented, it is critical to theoretically guide research to understand variables that may be associated with lung cancer screening participation. Findings from future research guided by the proposed conceptual model can be used to refine the model and inform tailored intervention development.

  20. [Nahabed Roussignan, the first professor of deontology at the Royal School of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N

    1995-01-01

    This study based on researches utilizing the American and Ottoman sources, deals with the claim upon the lectures given by Roussignan (Rusinyan Efendi), especially at the Royal School of Medicine and describes his medical career as follows. Nahabed Roussignan who graduated from Paris School of Medicine in 1849, returned to Istanbul in 1851 and was appointed as the private physician to Fuad Pasha, upon the request of Dr. Serviçen. In the meantime he worked at the Bab-i Seraskeri Hastanesi (the Hospital of the Military Ministry) until 1860 and also started to work at the Military High School as a doctor of medicine. As to the Royal School of Medicine, he taught pathological anatomy between 1864-1872. There are not any records to prove his being a faculty member during this year. He was probably in financial shortage because of unemployment during that year, as stated by Artin Mezbour. The following year he was employed at in the School of Medicine again, through his friends' support. this time he taught logic and French composition between 1874-1876 and instructed deontology for a little while in 1876. He collected his lectures on logic as a Textbook of Philosophy. He passed away in the same week, so this book was published posthumously (Istanbul 1879). Since he died on November 29th 1876, at the end of the year, his name was included in the State Yearbook of 1877, but was misspelled as "Rüsteban". To sum up, deontology as an independant discipline at the Royal School of Medicine began to be lectured for the first time by N. Roussignan in 1876, and succeeding his death these lectures were taken over by Dr. Hovsep Nouridjan (Nurican Efendi). Istepan Arslanian, who was claimed to be the lecturer of these courses after Roussignan, was in Rumelie during 1875-1876 and employed in Austria in 1877; therefore he could never have taught deontology during this period.

  1. Current status of research on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Dongxu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis is a complicated process with multiple steps, and liver metastasis is the most common metastatic mode of colorectal cancer. Deep understanding and study of metastatic mechanism helps to find solutions for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Recent studies have shown that microRNA are involved in tumor metastasis and recurrence, and studies on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis can provide new thoughts for the development and progression, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of the disease. This article summarizes the research advances in microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and reviews the biological function and molecular mechanism of microRNA, which suggests that microRNA have a vital significance in the field of tumor metastasis, especially colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  2. Fox Chase Cancer Center's Genitourinary Division: a national resource for research, innovation and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzo, Robert G; Horwitz, Eric M; Plimack, Elizabeth R

    2016-04-01

    Founded in 1904, Fox Chase Cancer Center remains committed to its mission. It is one of 41 centers in the country designated as a Comprehensive Cancer Center by the National Cancer Institute, is a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, holds the magnet designation for nursing excellence, is one of the first to establish a family cancer risk assessment program, and has achieved national distinction because of the scientific discoveries made there that have advanced clinical care. Two of its researchers have won Nobel prizes. The Genitourinary Division is nationally recognized and viewed as one of the top driving forces behind the growth of Fox Chase due to its commitment to initiating and participating in clinical trials, its prolific contributions to peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific meetings, its innovations in therapies and treatment strategies, and its commitment to bringing cutting-edge therapies to patients.

  3. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects of...... of the quality of life (QoL) of patients with endometrial cancer.......A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects...

  4. North Carolina Summer Undergraduate Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    W81XWH-16-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kounosuke Watabe, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: kwatabe@wakehealth.edu 5f...Achieved: Mentees attend all activities and prepare a poster /abstract for presentation. Specific Aim 3: To track and guide trainees on their progress...a mini-symposium where students presented their results. Friday, July 22, 2016 11:00 – 11:15 am Arrive at the Cancer Center with posters

  5. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  6. AACR Annual Meeting 2008: Autophagy in the forefront of cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantza, Vassiliki

    2008-07-01

    The 2008 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting was held in San Diego, CA, April 12-16, 2008 (http:// www.aacr.org/home/scientists/meetings--workshops/annual-meeting-2008.aspx). More than 17,000 scientists from 60 countries participated in this meeting that was organized by AACR, the oldest and largest organization in the world focused on cancer research. The scientific presentations included more than 6,000 abstracts and 500 invited talks on new and significant discoveries in basic, clinical, and translational cancer research. Autophagy, as pertaining to tumorigenesis and response to anticancer therapies, was undoubtedly a "hot topic" in this meeting. An educational session, a forum, a minisymposium and several other talks dispersed in different sessions had a strong focus on autophagy. All autophagy-related presentations were very well attended and stimulated lively discussions, clearly indicating that the scientific community is greatly interested in this rapidly-progressing area of research.

  7. Research advances in sorafenib-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in liver cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chaoya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sorafenib is the multi-target inhibitor for the treatment of advanced primary liver cancer, and can effectively prolong the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced primary liver cancer. The application of sorafenib in the targeted therapy for liver cancer has become a hot topic. Major targets or signaling pathways include Raf/Mek/Erk, Jak/Stat, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, VEGFR and PDGFR, STAT, microRNA, Wnt/β-catenin, autolysosome, and tumor-related proteins, and sorafenib can regulate the proliferation, differentiation, metastasis, and apoptosis of liver cancer cells through these targets. This article reviews the current research on the action of sorafenib on these targets or signaling pathways to provide useful references for further clinical research on sorafenib.

  8. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Martijn WH; Nijkamp, Maarten W; Rinkes, Inne HM Borel

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in East-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used, especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common type of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases. PMID:19058325

  9. Somatic Cells Become Cancer’s “Starter Dough” | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a term that sparks animated differences of opinions among researchers in the oncology community.  Much of the disagreement comes from the difficulty involved in isolating these cells and manipulating them ex vivo. When putative CSCs are isolated from clinical samples, researchers are unable to retrospectively identify the cell type that suffered the

  10. Connective tissue: cancer patients’ attitudes towards medical research using excised (tumour) tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Schmidt, M.K.; Cornel, M.C.; Knoppers, B.M.; van Leeuwen, F.E.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the views of Dutch cancer patients on the use of excised and stored (tumor) tissues in medical research. Excised tissues are routinely stored in hospitals for future diagnostic use. They are also important for scientific research. This article discusses

  11. Radiobiological research for improving cancer therapy in India: rationale, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, Vijay K.; Shobha, A.G.; KaIia, Anita; Saxena, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is emerging as a very important health hazard in India. According to recent studies by the Indian Council of Medical Research, about 2.25 million patients are presently suffering from different types of cancer in India. Approximately one million new cases are diagnosed, and nearly 0.3 million deaths occur every year on account of this disease. About 2/3rd of the cancers are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. However, the allocation of funds for healthcare in India to support the research efforts for developing more potent radio-chemotherapy protocols for cancer treatment is too little. Studies by the W.H.O. have estimated that less developed countries including India use less than 5% of world resources destined for cancer control. It follows from the above discussions that it is imperative to further encourage and diversify the radiobiological research in India. This can be achieved by creating radiobiological research facilities, mainly in all the cancer centers and post graduate medical institutions, and further expanding the upcoming laboratories in the universities such as Bikaner. Collaborative research programs between laboratories at different centers could facilitate systematic evaluation of various pharmacological agents and neutraceuticals for potential application for treatment of different cancers. Our studies on combination of radiation with temozolomide and certain adjuvants with selective effects on brain tumour cells will be very briefly discussed in this presentation. Finally the possible administrative set up and multi dimensional collaborations for cost effective utilization of existing resources to further augment radiation biology research will also be discussed

  12. Development and Pilot Evaluation of Native CREST – a Cancer Research Experience and Student Training Program for Navajo Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine A.; Bauer, Mark C.; Horazdovsky, Bruce F.; Garrison, Edward R.; Patten, Christi A.; Petersen, Wesley O.; Bowman, Clarissa N.; Vierkant, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates’ interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience & Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (5 females, 2 males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008 - 2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people. PMID:23001889

  13. Development and pilot evaluation of Native CREST-a Cancer Research Experience and Student Training program for Navajo undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine A; Bauer, Mark C; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Garrison, Edward R; Patten, Christi A; Petersen, Wesley O; Bowman, Clarissa N; Vierkant, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates' interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing, and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience and Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (five females, two males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008-2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people.

  14. Yoga into cancer care: A review of the evidence-based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P Agarwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cope with cancer and its treatment-related side effects and toxicities, people are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Consequently, integrative oncology, which combines conventional therapies and evidence-based CAM practices, is an emerging discipline in cancer care. The use of yoga as a CAM is proving to be beneficial and increasingly gaining popularity. An electronic database search (PubMed, through December 15, 2016, revealed 138 relevant clinical trials (single-armed, nonrandomized, and randomized controlled trials on the use of yoga in cancer patients. A total of 10,660 cancer patients from 20 countries were recruited in these studies. Regardless of some methodological deficiencies, most of the studies reported that yoga improved the physical and psychological symptoms, quality of life, and markers of immunity of the patients, providing a strong support for yoga's integration into conventional cancer care. This review article presents the published clinical research on the prevalence of yoga's use in cancer patients so that oncologists, researchers, and the patients are aware of the evidence supporting the use of this relatively safe modality in cancer care.

  15. Analysis of cancer mortality risk among workers of a research uranium metallurgy division in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jejati, H.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Giraud, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This cohort study has been undertaken in response to a suspected cluster of cancers mentioned by workers involved in research activities concerning the metallurgy of uranium. The studied population included all persons having worked between 1950 and 1968 at the Metallurgy Division of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Exposures were registered on an individual annual basis. For analysis, they were grouped in three categories: use of chemicals agents (Benzene, beryllium, alcohols, solvents ...), manipulation of radioactive materials (uranium, thorium, fission decay products), and exposure to external radiation. This relatively small cohort included 356 workers followed up to December 1990. Out of observed deaths, 21 were from cancer. Total mortality from cancer was less than expected from national rates (Standardised Mortality Ratio = 0.73). Cancer mortality did not increase with duration of exposure to external radiation or with duration of manipulation of radioactive materials. Risk of cancer was increasing with the number of years of exposure to chemicals. The small size of this cohort limits the conclusion of the observed results. The purpose, despite this lack of power, was to answer a worry of the workers, more than to estimate a clear dose-response relationship linked to a specific cancer site. The effect studied here is ''all cancers'', a distinction of the different sites being uninformative because of the very small number of cases observed. Nevertheless, this study suggests some routes for further research: it highlights the importance of considering concomitant exposures like chemical ones in studies of nuclear workers. (author)

  16. The role of organizational affiliations and research networks in the diffusion of breast cancer treatment innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, William R; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Bainbridge, John; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Amos, Keith D; Weiner, Bryan J; Godley, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) sees provider-based research networks and other organizational linkages between academic researchers and community practitioners as promising vehicles for accelerating the translation of research into practice. This study examines whether organizational research affiliations and teaching affiliations are associated with accelerated diffusion of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), an innovation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data were used to examine the diffusion of SLNB for treatment of early-stage breast cancer among women aged 65 years and older diagnosed between 2000 and 2002, shortly after Medicare approved and began reimbursing for the procedure. In this population, patients treated at an organization affiliated with a research network--the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) or other National Cancer Institute (NCI) cooperative groups--were more likely to receive the innovative treatment (SLNB) than patients treated at unaffiliated organizations (odds ratio: 2.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.77-4.12; odds ratio: 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.69, respectively). Neither hospital teaching status nor surgical volume was significantly associated with differences in SLNB use. Patients who receive cancer treatment at organizations affiliated with cancer research networks have an enhanced probability of receiving SLNB, an innovative procedure that offers the promise of improved patient outcomes. Study findings support the NIH Roadmap and programs such as the NCI's Community Clinical Oncology Program, as they seek to accelerate the translation of research into practice by simultaneously accelerating and broadening cancer research in the community.

  17. Hospital-Based Cancer Profile at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badar, F.; Mahmood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine a frequency distribution of the type and clinical profile of cancer cases registered at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH and RC). Study Design: A retrospective, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The SKMCH and RC, Lahore, from December 1994 to December 2012. Methodology: The time period taken into consideration for the three most common diagnoses was December 1994 - December 2012. Summaries were obtained for gender, age-group, and cancer type on: (i) all age-groups, both genders combined; (ii) adults (> 18 years); (iii) adult males (> 18 years); (iv) adult females (> 18 years); and (v) children (18 years). For a subset of cases registered between January 2004 to December 31, 2012 (9 years), summaries on cancers, age, addiction, family history, disease stage, and grade were obtained for the above groups. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 19, was used to analyze the data. Results: The most common malignancies, for the 18-year time period, among adults, were those of breast (11,848/ 49,765, 23.81%), lip and oral cavity (3, 291/49, 765, 6.61%), and liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (2, 836/49, 765, 5.70%). Conclusion: Hospital-based results obtained from various oncology hospital and departments, can be considered as an effective way forward in getting a preview of cancer burden in the region. (author)

  18. Visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Thailand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (left) visiting DELPHI with Spokesman, Tiziano Camporesi, and Prapol Assavavirulhakarn, Pattaratorn Chirapravati, Claude Détraz, CERN Director for Fixed Target andFuture Programmes and Richard Breedon, University of California. No. 05: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Daniel Treille, former spokesman of Delphi. No. 31: in Delphi experiment. No. 35: H.E. Mr. Virasakdi Futrakul, Ambassador, Permanent Representative ofThailand, Geneva with H.E. Dr. Ronarong Nopakun, Ambassador of the Thai Embassy in Bern

  19. Mycelium characterization of the Amauroderma sp collected from Royal Belum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mat Rasol Awang; Fauzi Daud; Rosnani Rashid; Meswan Maskom; Arfah Sumeri

    2010-01-01

    Etnobotanical study carried on the native community in the Royal Belum Forest areas had identified many potentially valuable spices that could be further explored for its medicinal and health purposes. The mushrooms, Amauroderma sp. was one of the resources that had been screened and collected for further investigation. In this works, the mycelium characterization of the mushroom was carried out in order to develop suitable seed or spawn for cultivation. The Amauroderma sp. mycelium, cultured from the fruit body tissue was found to grow well on the PDA plate. While on the potato extract liquid medium the mushroom could grow and produce stalk like fruit body. (author)

  20. Background submission to the Royal Commission on Nuclear Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The Royal Commission on Nuclear Power Generation in New Zealand is required to inquire into and report upon the likely consequences of a nuclear power programme. The New Zealand Electricity Department would have prime responsibilty for implementing the construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants should the need be established and should this be acceptable to the Government. In this submission the Department has attempted to present the issues raised by the introduction of nuclear power in relatively simple terms on the assumption that elaboration can be provided later if necessary