WorldWideScience

Sample records for research proposals involving

  1. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  2. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  3. Antiviral Drug Research Proposal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Injaian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antiviral drugs provides an excellent example of how basic and clinical research must be used together in order to achieve the final goal of treating disease. A Research Oriented Learning Activity was designed to help students to better understand how basic and clinical research can be combined toward a common goal. Through this project students gained a better understanding of the process of scientific research and increased their information literacy in the field of virology. The students worked as teams to research the many aspects involved in the antiviral drug design process, with each student becoming an "expert" in one aspect of the project. The Antiviral Drug Research Proposal (ADRP culminated with students presenting their proposals to their peers and local virologists in a poster session. Assessment data showed increased student awareness and knowledge of the research process and the steps involved in the development of antiviral drugs as a result of this activity.

  4. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  5. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  6. Call for Outline Research Proposals

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2013-07-25

    Jul 25, 2013 ... The program will support high quality research involving local .... to minimize such risk: the materiality of the investment, the management capacity of the ... The total contribution of IDRC towards the budget of the project will be.

  7. Writing a Research Proposal to The Research Council of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    Writing a research proposal can be a challenging task for young researchers. This article explains how to write a strong research proposal to apply for funding, specifically, a proposal for The Research Council (TRC) of Oman. Three different research proposal application forms are currently used in TRC, including Open Research Grant (ORG), Graduate Research Support Program (GRSP), and Faculty-mentored Undergraduate Research Award Program (FURAP). The application forms are filled and submitted electronically on TRC website. Each of the proposals submitted to TRC is selected through a rigorous reviewing and screening process. Novelty and originality of the research idea is the most crucial element in writing a research proposal. Performing an in-depth review of the literature will assist you to compose a good researchable question and generate a strong hypothesis. The development of a good hypothesis will offer insight into the specific objectives of a study. Research objectives should be focused, measurable, and achievable by a specific time using the most appropriate methodology. Moreover, it is essential to select a proper study design in-line with the purpose of the study and the hypothesis. Furthermore, social/economic impact and reasonable budget of proposed research are important criteria in research proposal evaluation by TRC. Finally, ethical principles should be observed before writing a research proposal involving human or animal subjects.

  8. Writing a Research Proposal to The Research Council of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Shukaili

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Writing a research proposal can be a challenging task for young researchers. This article explains how to write a strong research proposal to apply for funding, specifically, a proposal for The Research Council (TRC of Oman. Three different research proposal application forms are currently used in TRC, including Open Research Grant (ORG, Graduate Research Support Program (GRSP, and Faculty-mentored Undergraduate Research Award Program (FURAP. The application forms are filled and submitted electronically on TRC website. Each of the proposals submitted to TRC is selected through a rigorous reviewing and screening process. Novelty and originality of the research idea is the most crucial element in writing a research proposal. Performing an in-depth review of the literature will assist you to compose a good researchable question and generate a strong hypothesis. The development of a good hypothesis will offer insight into the specific objectives of a study. Research objectives should be focused, measurable, and achievable by a specific time using the most appropriate methodology. Moreover, it is essential to select a proper study design in-line with the purpose of the study and the hypothesis. Furthermore, social/economic impact and reasonable budget of proposed research are important criteria in research proposal evaluation by TRC. Finally, ethical principles should be observed before writing a research proposal involving human or animal subjects.

  9. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  10. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  11. Writing a Research Proposal to The Research Council of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Writing a research proposal can be a challenging task for young researchers. This article explains how to write a strong research proposal to apply for funding, specifically, a proposal for The Research Council (TRC) of Oman. Three different research proposal application forms are currently used in TRC, including Open Research Grant (ORG), Graduate Research Support Program (GRSP), and Faculty-mentored Undergraduate Research Award Program (FURAP). The application forms are filled and submitted...

  12. How to write a research proposal?

    OpenAIRE

    K Sudheesh; Devika Rani Duggappa; S S Nethra

    2016-01-01

    Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or ?blueprint? for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search...

  13. Progress report and research proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Research carried out includes: interpretation of mean-free-paths of projectile fragments from relativistic heavy-ion collisions; inelastic excitation and spin-flip in heavy ion reactions; inelastic scattering and the optical potential for 16 O + 28 Si; elastic scattering of protons by 6 Li; scattering of light ions by 6 Li; specific distortion effects in 3 H + α and 3 He + α systems; specific distortion effects in the d + α system and charge form factor of 6 Li; detailed investigation of exchange effects in 3 He + α and α + 16 O scattering; study of the n + 6 Li system with flexible cluster wave function; core-exchange effects in like-ion scattering; reaction cross-section for collision of nuclei at high energy; study of 46 48 Ca(α,p) reactions; the proximity potential for heavy-ion reactions on deformed nuclei; quasi-bound state resonances for a particle in a two-dimensional well; time evolution kernels, uniform asymptotic expansions; and a generator coordinate theory of normalization kernels of cluster systems, application of Gel'fand polynomials to permutation and SU 4 symmetries of cluster wave functions

  14. How to write a research proposal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sudheesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or ′blueprint′ for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal.

  15. How to write a research proposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheesh, K; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Nethra, S S

    2016-09-01

    Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or 'blueprint' for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal.

  16. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  17. A proposed programme for energy risk research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report consists of two parts. Part I presents an overview of technological risk management, noting major contributions and current research needs. Part II details a proposed program of energy research, including discussions of some seven recommended projects. The proposed energy risk research program addresses two basic problem areas: improving the management of energy risks and energy risk communication and public response. Specific recommended projects are given for each. (Auth.)

  18. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy...... between what patients with cancer and their relatives experience as important unanswered questions and those which are actually researched. This study aims to challenge the conventional research process by inviting patients with life-threatening cancer (primary malignant brain tumours or acute leukaemia......), relatives and patient organisations to join forces with clinical specialists and researchers to identify, discuss and prioritise supportive care and rehabilitation issues in future research. Methods and analysis: This is an exploratory qualitative study comprising two sets of three focus group interviews...

  19. New research reactor proposed for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A new research reactor has been proposed for construction within the next ten years, to replace the HIFAR reactor which operating capabilities have been over taken by later designs. This paper outlines the main research applications of the new reactor design and briefly examines issues related to its cost, economic benefits, safety and location

  20. The art of writing good research proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ekelenburg, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Whilst scientists are by default motivated by intellectual challenges linked to the area of their interest rather than have an interest in the financial component related to their work, the reality of today is that funding for their work does not come automatically More and more governments provide project-related funding rather than multipurpose funding that covers the total annual costs of a research performing entity (such as a university department). So, like it or not, researchers have to present their research ideas and convince funding bodies about the usefulness and importance of their intended research work. Writing the research proposal is not simply typing words and punctuation. It requires succinctly and clearly chronicling the facts, as well as crafting a convincing line of reasoning for funding the project. For the best result, both the logical, verbal left side of the brain and the intuitive, creative right side of the brain need to work as a team. This article covers the process of writing a proposal, from research idea to submission to the funding body. The key to good writing is linking the text into a logical project flow. Therefore, in the early stage of writing an RTD proposal, developing the chain of reasoning and creating a flow chart is recommended to get a clear overview of the entire project and to visualise how the many work packages are connected.

  1. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  2. A proposal of neutron science research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Tone, T.; Mizumoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    A conception of Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) has been proposed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1994 as a future big project. The NSRP aims at exploring new basic science and nuclear energy science by a high-intensity proton accelerator. It is a complex composed of a proton linac and seven research facilities with each different target system. The proton linac is required to supply the high-intensity proton beam with energy up to 1.5 GeV and current 10 mA on average. The scientific research facilities proposed, are as follows: Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility for the neutron scattering experiments, Neutron Irradiation Facility for materials science, Neutron Physics Facility for nuclear data measurement, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility for nuclear waste transmutation and fuel breeding, Spallation RI Beam Facility for nuclear physics, Meson/Muon Facility for meson and muon physics and their applications and Medium Energy Beam Facility for accelerator technology development, medical use, etc. Research and development have been carried out for the components of the injector system of the proton linac; an ion source, an RFQ linac and a part of DTL linac. The conceptual design work and research and development activities for NSRP have been started in the fiscal year, 1996. Construction term will be divided into two phases; the completion of the first phase is expected in 2003, when the proton linac will produce 1.5 GeV, 1 mA beam by reflecting the successful technology developments. (author)

  3. Public Engagement in Prioritizing Research Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobi Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia has reflected an international shift toward public participation in governance and science. Researchers have critiqued this shift as insufficient. Meanwhile, studies of how research funds are allocated also found room for improvement. This experiment tested a way to add value to the effort researchers put into research proposals by using them for deliberative public engagement. Three Australian events tested a model of deliberative participation in decision-making about science funding. These events were shorter than most deliberative processes, based on a model tested in the United Kingdom. Although recruitment was aimed at broad representation, participants had more formal education than Australia’s average. Voting decisions were most influenced by potential benefits to society of the planned research, as well as participants’ understanding of plans presented. Some reported that their decisions were influenced by whether benefits would happen locally. Results suggested that participants’ voting decisions were more influenced by the research plans than who presented them. However, unconscious biases cannot be ruled out as factors in decision-making. Participants reported they would be keen to participate in such a process again; however, this enthusiasm was linked to a meal incentive. The impact of brevity on deliberative decision-making is discussed, along with potential modifications for future experiments.

  4. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Today principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot waste treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200 liter concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey, in 1990. The PRESTO - II (Prediction of Radiation Effects From Shallow Trench Operations) computer code was applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is non-site specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this codes takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  5. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  6. Reporting Research for Practitioners: Proposed Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Daniel J.; Tarr, James E.; Hollebrands, Karen F.; Walker, Erica N.; Berry, Robert Q., III; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Rasmussen, Chris L.; King, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    The NCTM Research Committee developed this article to address a distinctly important activity that links research and practice: writing research-based articles for practitioner journals. Six guiding principles are described. (Contains 6 figures.)

  7. Research Proposal for Distributed Deep Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien

    2010-01-01

    This proposal identifies two main problems related to deep web search, and proposes a step by step solution for each of them. The first problem is about searching deep web content by means of a simple free-text interface (with just one input field, instead of a complex interface with many input

  8. Examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into assisted living: A sample funding proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ashleigh Leah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project presents a conceptually grounded, methodologically appropriate and logistically feasible Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding proposal. By examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into an assisted living facility (ALF), the proposed study will provide insight into and a rich description of the decision making process as it unfolds. Presented in the format of a CIHR pilot study grant, the proposal details a qualita...

  9. Electronics engineering research proposals for FY78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, L.L.; Ekstrom, M.P.; Miller, E.K.

    1977-01-01

    Since most of the Electronics Engineering Research expenditures are in the Engineering Research Division (ERD), the two are inseparable when discussing plans. A reorganization of ERD aimed at further expanding LLL capabilities and being more responsive to LLL needs is now complete. Six discipline related groups constitute the research elements in ERD. Three groups remained unchanged, one group was modified slightly, two groups were added, and one group was dissolved. The technical activities of each of the six research-oriented groups within ERD are reported

  10. INVOLVING CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS IN RESEARCH DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Suzannah

    2016-09-01

    Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, states that children should be involved in decisions that directly affect them.1 Research involving children should ensure that the opinions and assistance of children and young people is sought at the beginning of the project as their perspectives may influence all aspects of the research design. To describe the challenges recruiting paediatric patients and members of the public to consult on the design of a research project. Posters were put up around the Children's Hospital including pharmacy to recruit paediatric patients and parents to review a research proposal involving children with long-term conditions. There were two responses to the poster, a father and his 15 year old daughter, and a father with a 2 year old child. The father of the 15 year old attended the initial planning meeting, unfortunately the 15 year old and the father of the 2 year old were unable to attend on the day although both agreed to participate in the project. The meeting gave the opportunity to explain the research proposal and answer questions. It was established that the lay team would review the lay summary, participant information leaflet (PIL), and questionnaires that would be sent to the participants. It was arranged that all further contact would be via email due to travel constraints.Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research requires the individuals to be reimbursed for their time. The National Institute for Health Research rate is £18.75 per hour. The lay team members were informed of this and were reimbursed for attending the planning meeting. The use of posters to recruit PPI into the research design had limited success. Since recruitment, the Children's Hospital has launched a youth partnership which may be able to assist in recruitment of lay team members in the future.The logistics of how to pay the lay team members needed to be resolved before their recruitment to ensure timely payment. A form has been

  11. Research waste management program - An action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Ramos, A.; Esposito, I.

    1997-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission planned prepared and established a Research Waste Management Program, started in 1996, in order to map, to analyze and to solve the common problems in the research field. The specific study done included a large number of academic institutions. The procedures, results and operational methodology used by the Team linked to the Program, in one of the research institutions studied where corrective actions were implemented to avoid unnecessary dose to the public, will be discussed in this article. (author)

  12. Committee on Military Nutrition Research Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poos, Mary

    1999-01-01

    This publication, Military Sfrategies for Sustainment of Nufrition and Immune Function in the Field, is the latest in a series of reports based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR...

  13. UH - USA Agreement - A Telemedicine Research Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the University of Hawaii Telemedicine Curriculum Research Project is to develop an effective web-based curriculum for training military health care personnel in the use of contemporary...

  14. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  15. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical proposals in bullying research: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Postigo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecological levels and different stages of the process, may describe it in terms of the relational dynamics of power. It is concluded that research needs to take this integrative framework into account, that is to say to consider multi-causal and holistic approaches to bullying. For the intervention, regardless of the format or the target population, the empowerment of the individuals, and the social awareness of the use and abuse of personal power are suggested.

  17. Theoretical proposals in bullying research: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Postigo, Silvia; González, Remedios; Montoya, Inmaculada; Ordoñez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecolog...

  18. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  19. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  20. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  1. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification to... protection of human subjects of research that apply to third parties who conduct or support research for...

  2. Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  3. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  4. Impact of proposed research reactor standards on reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringle, J C; Johnson, A G; Anderson, T V [Oregon State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    A Standards Committee on Operation of Research Reactors, (ANS-15), sponsored by the American Nuclear Society, was organized in June 1971. Its purpose is to develop, prepare, and maintain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training. Of the 15 original members, six were directly associated with operating TRIGA facilities. This committee developed a standard for the Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors (ANS-15.1), the revised draft of which was submitted to ANSI for review in May of 1973. The Committee then identified 10 other critical areas for standards development. Nine of these, along with ANS-15.1, are of direct interest to TRIGA owners and operators. The Committee was divided into subcommittees to work on these areas. These nine areas involve proposed standards for research reactors concerning: 1. Records and Reports (ANS-15.3) 2. Selection and Training of Personnel (ANS-15.4) 3. Effluent Monitoring (ANS-15.5) 4. Review of Experiments (ANS-15.6) 5. Siting (ANS-15.7) 6. Quality Assurance Program Guidance and Requirements (ANS-15.8) 7. Restrictions on Radioactive Effluents (ANS-15.9) 8. Decommissioning (ANS-15.10) 9. Radiological Control and Safety (ANS-15.11). The present status of each of these standards will be presented, along with their potential impact on TRIGA reactor operation. (author)

  5. Impact of proposed research reactor standards on reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringle, J.C.; Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.

    1974-01-01

    A Standards Committee on Operation of Research Reactors, (ANS-15), sponsored by the American Nuclear Society, was organized in June 1971. Its purpose is to develop, prepare, and maintain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training. Of the 15 original members, six were directly associated with operating TRIGA facilities. This committee developed a standard for the Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors (ANS-15.1), the revised draft of which was submitted to ANSI for review in May of 1973. The Committee then identified 10 other critical areas for standards development. Nine of these, along with ANS-15.1, are of direct interest to TRIGA owners and operators. The Committee was divided into subcommittees to work on these areas. These nine areas involve proposed standards for research reactors concerning: 1. Records and Reports (ANS-15.3) 2. Selection and Training of Personnel (ANS-15.4) 3. Effluent Monitoring (ANS-15.5) 4. Review of Experiments (ANS-15.6) 5. Siting (ANS-15.7) 6. Quality Assurance Program Guidance and Requirements (ANS-15.8) 7. Restrictions on Radioactive Effluents (ANS-15.9) 8. Decommissioning (ANS-15.10) 9. Radiological Control and Safety (ANS-15.11). The present status of each of these standards will be presented, along with their potential impact on TRIGA reactor operation. (author)

  6. Salutogenic service user involvement in nursing research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Vinje, Hege Forbech; Eriksson, Monica; Haaland-Øverby, Mette; Jensen, Sven Liang; Kjus, Solveig; Norheim, Irene; Portaasen, Inger-Lill; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2018-05-12

    The aim was to explore the process of involving mental healthcare service users in a mental health promotion research project as research advisors and to articulate features of the collaboration which encouraged and empowered the advisors to make significant contributions to the research process and outcome. There is an increasing interest in evaluating aspects of service user involvement in nursing research. Few descriptions exist of features that enable meaningful service user involvement. We draw on experiences from conducting research which used the methodology interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore how persons with mental disorders perceived mental health. Aside from the participants in the project, five research advisors with service user experience were involved in the entire research process. We applied a case study design to explore the ongoing processes of service user involvement. Documents and texts produced while conducting the project (2012-2016), as well as transcripts from multistage focus group discussions with the research advisors, were analysed. The level of involvement was dynamic and varied throughout the different stages of the research process. Six features: leadership, meeting structure, role clarification, being members of a team, a focus on possibilities and being seen and treated as holistic individuals, were guiding principles for a salutogenic service user involvement. These features strengthened the advisors' perception of themselves as valuable and competent contributors. Significant contributions from research advisors were promoted by facilitating the process of involvement. A supporting structure and atmosphere were consistent with a salutogenic service user involvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Writing Abstracts for MLIS Research Proposals Using Worked Examples: An Innovative Approach to Teaching the Elements of Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusek, Anita L.; Thiele, Harold E.; Yang, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined abstracts written by graduate students for their research proposals as a requirement for a course in research methods in a distance learning MLIS program. The students learned under three instructional conditions that involved varying levels of access to worked examples created from abstracts representing research in the LIS…

  8. Ethical considerations in malaria research proposal review: empirical evidence from 114 proposals submitted to an Ethics Committee in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Pornpimon; Prakobtham, Sukanya; Limphattharacharoen, Chanthima; Vutikes, Pitchapa; Khusmith, Srisin; Pengsaa, Krisana; Wilairatana, Polrat; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2015-09-14

    Malaria research is typically conducted in developing countries in areas of endemic disease. This raises specific ethical issues, including those related to local cultural concepts of health and disease, the educational background of study subjects, and principles of justice at the community and country level. Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are responsible for regulating the ethical conduct of research, but questions have been raised whether RECs facilitate or impede research, and about the quality of REC review itself. This study examines the review process for malaria research proposals submitted to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine at Mahidol University, Thailand. Proposals for all studies submitted for review from January 2010 to December 2014 were included. Individual REC members' reviewing forms were evaluated. Ethical issues (e.g., scientific merit, risk-benefit, sample size, or informed-consent) raised in the forms were counted and analysed according to characteristics, including study classification/design, use of specimens, study site, and study population. All 114 proposals submitted during the study period were analysed, comprising biomedical studies (17 %), drug trials (13 %), laboratory studies (24 %) and epidemiological studies (46 %). They included multi-site (13 %) and international studies (4 %), and those involving minority populations (28 %), children (17 %) and pregnant women (7 %). Drug trials had the highest proportion of questions raised for most ethical issues, while issues concerning privacy and confidentiality tended to be highest for laboratory and epidemiology studies. Clarifications on ethical issues were requested by the ethics committee more for proposals involving new specimen collection. Studies involving stored data and specimens tended to attract more issues around privacy and confidentiality. Proposals involving minority populations were more likely to raise issues than those that did not

  9. The grant writer's handbook how to write a research proposal and succeed

    CERN Document Server

    Crawley, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    The Grant Writer's Handbook: How to Write a Research Proposal and Succeed provides useful and practical advice on all aspects of proposal writing, including developing proposal ideas, drafting the proposal, dealing with referees, and budgeting. The authors base their advice on many years of experience writing and reviewing proposals in many different countries at various levels of scientific maturity. The book describes the numerous kinds of awards available from funding agencies, in particular large collaborative grants involving a number of investigators, and addresses the practical impact of a grant, which is often required of proposals. In addition, information is provided about selection of reviewers and the mechanics of organizing a research grant competition to give the proposal writer the necessary background information. The book includes key comments from a number of experts and is essential reading for anyone writing a research grant proposal.The Grant Writer's Handbook's companion website, featuri...

  10. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scally, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  11. Trends in Large Proposal Development at Major Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfinger, Lorraine M.; Dressler, Kevin A.; James, L. Eric; Page, Niki; Serrano, Eduardo; Vazquez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research administrator interest in large research proposal development and submission support is high, arguably in response to the bleak funding landscape for research and federal agency trends toward making more frequent larger awards. In response, a team from Penn State University and Huron Consulting Group initiated a baseline study to…

  12. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research with pesticides, drawn..., which suggest ethical considerations relevant to evaluation of human studies. Third, Petitioners argued... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY...

  13. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  14. Involving lay People in Research and Professional Development Through Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    a systematic mapping review methodology, the focus was to map and examine research in these types of games or game environments, and to identify potentials and gaps in the field to inform future research. 89 studies were identified through iterative searching and identification processes applying keywords......Due to the increasing significance of games where lay people are involved in generating knowledge for research or development, the current paper presents a mapping review of status and trends in research of games designed for citizen science, crowdsourcing or community driven research. Using...... they were involved and studies where participants develop knowledge for professional use. The 32 studies were selected for a grounded theory inspired qualitative review and six themes were identified: 1. Motivation; 2. Quality of participant contribution; 3. Learning/education; 4. System/task analysis; 5...

  15. Committees for Ethics in Research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossne, William Saad; Vieira, Sonia; De Freitas, Corina Bontempo Duca

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil since October 1996 there have been guidelines for research involving human subjects. Now human subjects know when their treatment is part of research. Deceit is no longer tolerated. But is not enough to say we offer an explanation to the potential subject and we offer a choice before he or she is confronted with an informed consent form. As in all professional activity, scientific investigation needs social controls. In Brazil, the ultimate responsibility of an investigation lies on the investigator, but in every institution where research is carried out there is a Committee for Ethics in Research. All Committees are subordinated to the National Commission of Ethics in Research, which is submitted to the Brazilian Institute of Health. During 2005 around 17,000 protocols involving 700,000 human subjects were revised by 475 Committees distributed all over the country. Approximately 7,000 people are now working in these Committees.

  16. Request for Proposals Eliciting and Applying Local Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    In addition to these criteria, as is outlined in the concept note, each proposal will be subject to IDRC's risk management process that assesses the ability of IDRC to support programming in those countries or territories according to Canadian law, knowledge of the research setting, and the ability to monitor research activities.

  17. GRI proposes to hold the line on research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Gas Research Institute has proposed a 1993 US research and development program totaling $201.8 million, the same level as the 1991 but down from $212.9 million this year. GRI filed the 1993 proposal and its 1993-97 R and D plan with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. If FERC approves the plan, interstate gas pipeline companies would support the GRI research by collecting a surcharge of 1.51 cents/Mcf on nondiscounted gas transactions and 8 cents/Mcf/month on uniform demand or reservations. The proposed budget is based on a revised funding mechanism FERC is considering for GRI. The research agency's general expanses and capital budget would remain at the 1992 level of $9.8 million

  18. Alzheimer Europe's position on involving people with dementia in research through PPI (patient and public involvement)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gove, Dianne; Diaz-Ponce, Ana; Georges, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This paper reflects Alzheimer Europe's position on PPI (patient and public involvement) in the context of dementia research and highlights some of the challenges and potential risks and benefits associated with such meaningful involvement. The paper was drafted by Alzheimer Europe in collaboration...... with members of INTERDEM and the European Working Group of People with Dementia. It has been formally adopted by the Board of Alzheimer Europe and endorsed by the Board of INTERDEM and by the JPND working group 'Dementia Outcome Measures - Charting New Territory'. Alzheimer Europe is keen to promote...

  19. The benefits of patient involvement for translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Garcia, Elisa; van der Laan, A.L.; van der Burg, Simone; Boenink, Marianne

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement (‘translation’) of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  20. The Benefits of Patient Involvement for Translational Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, L. van der; Garcia, E.; Laan, A.L. van der; Burg, S. van der; Boenink, M.

    2017-01-01

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement ('translation') of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  1. Student involvement and research for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear engineering is one of the modern and rapidly advancing technologies. Those already involved in it are continually updating their knowledge to keep abreast of the developments. Of course the sound basic principles of engineering still apply but the scene of application can be transformed in a few years. In fact, because of this, many engineers from more traditional industries often express the view that presently the total range of nuclear engineering is research and development. How can students be trained for such a rapidly advancing technology. Is not the answer early involvement. Effective early involvement for students can only come about by the close co-operation and involvement of the staff of universities and industry. The theme is developed. (author)

  2. Thoughts about the research process. A proposal from decolonial feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Cubillos Almendra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I share some concerns and decisions arisen during my doctoral research process which seeks to integrate decolonial feminist theory as epistemic key for analysis on sexual and reproductive health public policy in Chile, between years 2000 and 2015, based on Coloniality of Gender concept proposed by Maria Lugones. Here I present the most significant aspects in the research process —including theoretical framework and methodological design— that led to the approach of my current research project.

  3. Evaluation of legal aspects of activities involving radiations: proposal for a new legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jose C.

    1997-01-01

    The present brazilian legislation status concerning activities in which occurs or may occur any exposure to ionizing radiations, involves several incoherencies and privileges, as a consequence of legal rights generated from labor principles which have no social or scientific base. In this study, several legal labor topics are analysed and a new doctrine context is proposed, based mainly on a equal treatment for all insalubrious and dangerous activities done by workers of both private and public sectors (author). 8 refs

  4. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  5. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans..., or contracts are submitted to departments or agencies with the knowledge that subjects may be...

  6. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... teaching careers to spend a year or two at NSF and then return to research and teaching, usually at the... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE AND STATUTORY CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST EXEMPTIONS Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF...

  7. A proposed clinical research support career pathway for noninvestigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheree; Gullick, Janice; Ballard, Jacqueline; Perry, Lin

    2018-03-08

    To discuss the international experience of clinical research support for noninvestigator roles and to propose a new pathway for Australia, to promote a sustainable research support workforce capable of delivering high-quality clinical research. Noninvestigator research support roles are currently characterized by an ad hoc approach to training, with limited role delineation and perceived professional isolation with implications for study completion rates and participant safety. A focused approach to developing and implementing research support pathways has improved patient recruitment, study completion, job satisfaction, and research governance. The Queensland and New South Wales state-based Nurses' Awards, the Australian Qualifications Framework, and a University Professional (Research) Staff Award. Research nurses in the clinical environment improve study coordination, adherence to study protocol, patient safety, and clinical care. A career pathway that guides education and outlines position descriptions and skill sets would enhance development of the research support workforce. This pathway could contribute to changing the patient outcomes through coordination and study completion of high-quality research. A wide consultative approach is required to determine a cost-effective and feasible approach to implementation and evaluation of the proposed pathway. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Power to the people: To what extent has public involvement in applied health research achieved this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill

    2016-01-01

    models of public involvement and examines the development of public involvement in applied health research. It identifies public involvement in a range of decision-making: identifying priority areas for commissioning research; making decisions about which projects are funded; decisions about details of research design. Whilst there is evidence that the public voice is present in the composition of research proposals submitted to NIHR and in the decision-making about which projects are funded and how they are carried out, there is less evidence of a change in the power dynamic manifest in social relations between the scientific research community and the public. As a result the biomedical model remains dominant and largely unchallenged in research decision-making.

  9. Participatory action research: involving students in parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome

    2014-01-01

    Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulating hematology/oncology research involving human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2002-12-01

    The conduct of hematology/oncology research, particularly clinical trials involving human participants, is an extensively regulated enterprise. Professionals in the specialty of hematology/oncology have important stakes in the success of biomedical research endeavors. Knowledge about and compliance strategies regarding the pertinent regulatory parameters are essential for avoiding negative legal repercussions for involved professionals. At the same time, there is a need to be aware of and actively resist the danger that strong [legal] protectionism might inadvertently result in undermining physician investigators' sense of personal moral responsibility in the conduct of human experiments. For all the limitations of that virtue in the protection of human subjects, it is surely not one that we would want medical scientists to be without [47]. Members of the potential participant pool, financial sponsors, and the general public must be convinced that everyone involved in the research enterprise is committed to operating within acceptable legal and ethical boundaries if the atmosphere of confidence and trust that is indispensable to the continued process and progress of investigation aimed at extending and improving quality of life for all of us in the future is to continue and flourish [48].

  11. Strategies for involving undergraduates in mentored research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Early engagement in research can transform the undergraduate experience and has a positive effect on minority student recruitment to graduate school. Multiple strategies used to involve undergraduates in research at a large R1 university are presented. During my first four years as an assistant professor, my lab has hosted 14 undergraduates, 9 of them women and 4 of them Hispanic. Institutional support has been critical for undergraduate student involvement. UW supports a research program for incoming underrepresented students. An advantage of this program is very early research participation, with the opportunity for long-term training. One disadvantage is that many first year students have not yet identified their interests. The Biology major also requires students to complete an independent project, which culminates in a research symposium. Competitive research fellowships and grants are available for students to conduct work under faculty mentorship. We have been successful at keeping students on even when their majors are very different from our research discipline, mainly by providing flexibility and a welcoming lab environment. This mentoring culture is strongly fostered by graduate student interest and involvement with all undergraduates as well as active mentor training. By offering multiple pathways for involvement, we can accommodate students' changing schedules and priorities as well as changing lab needs. Students can volunteer, receive course credit, conduct an independent project or honors thesis, contribute to an existing project, do lab work or write a literature review, work with one mentor or on multiple projects. We often provide employment over the summer and subsequent semesters for continuing students. Some will increase their commitment over time and work more closely with me. Others reduce down to a few hours a week as they gain experience elsewhere. Most students stay multiple semesters and multiple years because they 'enjoy being in the

  12. 7 CFR 3406.18 - Content of a research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for publications. Identify target audiences and explain methods of communication. (iv) Partnerships... complete understanding of a proposal or to illustrate the integrity of the design or a main thesis of the... approve the research plan before CSREES will release grant funds. (2) Protection of human subjects...

  13. Proposal to Establish an International Solar Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1974-01-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and it is about a proposal to establish an international solar research institute. Broda emphasizes solar energy as the most important energy source alternatively to nuclear energy and he points out the advantages of solar energy over nuclear energy. This report was written for a symposium for science and peace in February 1974. (nowak)

  14. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  15. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...... at the point of decision need, when motivation is highest. Some basic distinctions, such as those between science and non-science, research and practice, community and individual, and lay and professional become somewhat blurred and may need to be rethought in light of this approach....... to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. METHODS: Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific...

  16. Summary and synthesis: How to present a research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This concluding module attempts to synthesize the key learning points discussed during the course of the previous ten sets of modules on methodology and biostatistics. The objective of this module is to discuss how to present a model research proposal, based on whatever was discussed in the preceding modules. The lynchpin of a research proposal is the protocol, and the key component of a protocol is the study design. However, one must not neglect the other areas, be it the project summary through which one catches the eyes of the reviewer of the proposal, or the background and the literature review, or the aims and objectives of the study. Two critical areas in the “methods” section that cannot be emphasized more are the sampling strategy and a formal estimation of sample size. Without a legitimate sample size, none of the conclusions based on the statistical analysis would be valid. Finally, the ethical parameters of the study should be well understood by the researchers, and that should get reflected in the proposal.

  17. Summary and Synthesis: How to Present a Research Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Panda, Saumya

    2017-01-01

    This concluding module attempts to synthesize the key learning points discussed during the course of the previous ten sets of modules on methodology and biostatistics. The objective of this module is to discuss how to present a model research proposal, based on whatever was discussed in the preceding modules. The lynchpin of a research proposal is the protocol, and the key component of a protocol is the study design. However, one must not neglect the other areas, be it the project summary through which one catches the eyes of the reviewer of the proposal, or the background and the literature review, or the aims and objectives of the study. Two critical areas in the "methods" section that cannot be emphasized more are the sampling strategy and a formal estimation of sample size. Without a legitimate sample size, none of the conclusions based on the statistical analysis would be valid. Finally, the ethical parameters of the study should be well understood by the researchers, and that should get reflected in the proposal.

  18. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  19. Principles, Methods of Participatory Research: Proposal for Draft Animal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of researchers, who question themselves on the efficiency of their actions when they accompany stakeholders during change processes, provides the opportunity to ponder on the research methods to develop when working together with the stakeholders: participative research, research-action, research-intervention… The author proposes to present the research-action approach as new. If the three phases of research-action are important, the negotiation phase is essential, because it enables contract formalization among partners (ethical aspect, development of a common language, and formalization of structuring efforts between researchers with various specialties and stakeholders. In the research-action approach, the managing set-ups (scientific committees… play a major role: they guarantee at the same time a solution to problems, production, and the legitimacy of the scientific knowledge produced. In conclusion, the author suggests ways to develop research-action in the field of animal traction in order to conceive new socio-technical and organizational innovations that will make the use of this technique easier.

  20. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research. PMID:22972972

  1. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research.

  2. People involved in radiation research and protection - an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The lives of selected people involved in radiation research are covered in two parts: 1. history of radiation and radioactivity; and 2. historical aspects of radiation and radiation protection in Western Australia. History of radiation/radioactivity: The background of some of the key people involved in early radiation research is discussed. These include Rontgen and Becqucrel who undertook early research into X-rays and radioactivity respectively. As well as the radiation hazards which early radiation scientists faced, there were also social pressures, as exemplified by the life of women such as Marie Curie, particularly after the death of her husband Pierre. Despite this being the time of the so-called 'beautiful years' in Europe, where there was a friendly exchange of ideas between scientists from various countries, there were also protracted disagreements. Some of the scientific findings of the Curies' daughter (Irene Joliot-Curie) and husband (Frederic Joliot-Curie) were vigorously disputed by Lisa Meitner (and colleague Otto Hahn) in Vienna. The 'beautiful years' came to an end when politics intruded and scientists such as Lisa Meitner had to flee from persecution. The splitting of the atom and realisation (by Leo Szilard) that a chain reaction was possible, led to political barriers being erected around scientists. With Europe poised for war, the implication of this science for warfare application was cause for concern among many of the normally free thinking and co-operative scientists. Secrecy now prevailed.

  3. 40 CFR 26.1125 - Prior submission of proposed human research for EPA review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior submission of proposed human research for EPA review. 26.1125 Section 26.1125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1125 Prior submission of...

  4. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eccard da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1 the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2 the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1 the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP and 2 Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC. Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011. Type 2 diabetes (26.0% and breast cancer (20.5%-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1 a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2 good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3 a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  5. A Research Proposal to Examine Entrepreneurship in Family Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Durán-Encalada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on existing theoretical and empirical studies in the areas of family business and entrepreneurship. It uses Dubin´s theory building framework to propose a model for conducting research of family businesses and its linkage to entrepreneurial activities in Mexico. This works starts by describing the concepts of family business and explains the importance that these definitions can have on the variables to be included in the research. After that, the paper explains how the concept of “familiness” relates to the essence definition of family business. Using the resource-based view (RBV, agency theory, and social capital theories we describe how social capital resources are the basis for building firm capabilities and competitive advantages that influence firm’s performances. Based on this perspective, a theoretical model, laws of interaction, a set of propositions and suggestions for further research are provided.

  6. Clinical Research Environment in India: Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tal; Sharma, Pooja; Dhillon, Savita; Manchanda, Mukul; Mittal, Sanjay; Trehan, Naresh

    2014-11-01

    India has compelling need and keen aspirations for indigenous clinical research. Notwithstanding this need and previously reported growth the expected expansion of Indian clinical research has not materialized. We reviewed the scientific literature, lay press reports, and ClinicalTrials.gov data for information and commentary on projections, progress, and impediments associated with clinical trials in India. We also propose targeted solutions to identified challenges. The Indian clinical trial sector grew by (+) 20.3% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) between 2005 and 2010 and contracted by (-) 14.6% CAGR between 2010 and 2013. Phase-1 trials grew by (+) 43.5% CAGR from 2005-2013, phase-2 trials grew by (+) 19.8% CAGR from 2005-2009 and contracted by (-) 12.6% CAGR from 2009-2013, and phase-3 trials grew by (+) 13.0% CAGR from 2005-2010 and contracted by (-) 28.8% CAGR from 2010-2013. This was associated with a slowing of the regulatory approval process, increased media coverage and activist engagement, and accelerated development of regulatory guidelines and recuperative initiatives. We propose the following as potential targets for restorative interventions: Regulatory overhaul (leadership and enforcement of regulations, resolution of ambiguity in regulations, staffing, training, guidelines, and ethical principles [e.g., compensation]).Education and training of research professionals, clinicians, and regulators.Public awareness and empowerment. After a peak in 2009-2010, the clinical research sector in India appears to be experiencing a contraction. There are indications of challenges in regulatory enforcement of guidelines; training of clinical research professionals; and awareness, participation, partnership, and the general image amongst the non-professional media and public. Preventative and corrective principles and interventions are outlined with the goal of realizing the clinical research potential in India.

  7. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  8. Conflicts of interest in research involving human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Dirceu; Diniz, Nilza Maria

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts of interest are inherent to the majority of relationships among individuals and of these with companies and institutions and, certainly, research involving human beings is no exception. In relation to clinical research, the main focus of this manuscript, conflicts of interest occur at different levels and usually permeate among them: In the pharmaceutical industry in their decisions to invest to develop new products, especially vaccines and drugs, and also in relation to marketing of these products; Among the investigators the conflicts may be related to the financial gains to participate in pharma sponsored trials, or to the expected academic career boost attained with the publication of the results of the trials and also to personal interests such as the financial support for trips to international conferences. Often the participation of host country investigators is restricted to performing phase III or IV protocols developed abroad, many times with low scientific relevance, and even lower relevance to public health; Universities or research institutes themselves also have conflicts of interest, as the sponsored projects may help increase their budgets, both directly (taxes) and indirectly (e.g., improvement of physical infrastructure of laboratories or out patient clinics); For the trial volunteers in developing countries, and Brazil is no exception despite free and universal access to its health system, participation in clinical trials is many times seen as, and can really be, an unique opportunity of receiving better health care, better treatment by the health professionals, easier access to costly lab exams and also to receiving certain medications which would otherwise be difficult to have access to. In order to handle these conflicts of interest, Brazil has a well-established and respected legal support and ethical normatization. The latter is represented by Resolution 196/96 of the Brazilian National Research Ethics Committee (CONEP). This

  9. Researcher Self-Care in Emotionally Demanding Research: A Proposed Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Smita; Cavallaro, Liz

    2018-03-01

    Researchers are emotionally and psychologically affected by emotionally demanding research that demands a tremendous amount of mental, emotional, or physical energy and potentially affects or depletes the researcher's well-being. Little attention has been given to preparing doctoral students and novice researchers engaged in such studies. Four possible types of emotionally demanding research experiences are presented: sensitive issues, personal trauma previously experienced, experience of traumatic life events during research, and unexpected events that arise during research in what was previously not identified as a sensitive issue. The need for self-care is highly relevant to each type, despite their different impacts on researcher well-being. This conceptual article furthers conversation in the field about how researchers and educators can address the need for self-care to prepare novice researchers and proposes a conceptual framework for researcher self-care in emotionally demanding research, with an aim for future empirical study.

  10. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H C; Sohns, H W; Dinneen, G U [Laramie Petroleum Research Center, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  11. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, H.C.; Sohns, H.W.; Dinneen, G.U.

    1970-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  12. The impact of consumer involvement in research: an evaluation of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Katrina; Carter, Mary; Mahtani, Vinita; Barnard, Angela; Hawton, Annie; Britten, Nicky

    2008-06-01

    The value of consumer involvement in health services research is widely recognized. While there is a growing body of evidence about the principles of good consumer involvement, there is little research about the effect that involvement can have on the research. This evaluation assessed the level and impact of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme (LPCSP), all of whose individual projects had to demonstrate substantial involvement as a condition of funding. To evaluate consumer involvement in the LPSCP and understand what impact consumers had on the research process and outcomes. A multi-method case study approach was undertaken, using survey techniques, interviews, focus groups, observation and scrutiny of written documents. The overall data set comprised 61 questionnaires, 44 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups and 15 hours of observation of meetings. Eleven primary care-based research projects which together made up the LPCSP. An in-depth description of consumer involvement in the Programme was produced. Nine projects had consumers as co-applicants, four projects had been completed before the evaluation began and one was still ongoing at the time of the evaluation. Of the eight projects which have produced final reports, all met their aims and objectives. Consumers had had an additional impact in the research, in the initial design of the study, in recruitment of the research subjects, in developing data collection tools, in collecting the data, in analysis and disseminating the findings. Consumer involvement in National Health Service research is a relatively recent policy development and while there is an increasing amount of literature about how and why consumers should be involved in research, there is less evidence about the impact of such involvement. This evaluation provides evidence about the impact that consumers have not only on the research process but also on the outcomes of the research.

  13. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-12

    On 17 February 1999, the House of Representatives referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works for consideration and report the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. The Committee received a written submission from ANSTO and took evidence from ANSTO officials at public hearings held at Parliament House. It has also received submissions and took evidence from a number of organisations and individuals. Prior to the first day of public hearings, the Committee undertook an extensive inspection of the facilities at Lucas Heights. The Committee's main conclusion and recommendations are as follows: (1) A need exists to replace HIFAR with a modern research reactor. The need for the replacement of HIFAR arises as a consequence of national interest considerations, research and development requirements and the need to sustain the local production of radiopharmaceuticals. The comparative costs of locating the replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights or a green fields site favour the former by a considerable margin. The refurbishing HIFAR of would not provide an enhancement of its research and operational capabilities which are considered by the scientific community to be limited. Such limitations have led to a reduction in national research and development opportunities. It is estimated that the new national research reactor must be operational some time before HIFAR is decommissioned. Provided all recommendations and commitments contained in the Environment Assessment Report are implemented during construction and commissioning and for the expected life of the research reactor, the Committee believes, based on the evidence, that all known risks have been identified and their impact on public safety will be as low as technically possible. It is recommended that during the licensing, construction and commissioning phases ANSTO should provide the Committee with six-monthly reports on progress and that removal of

  14. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 17 February 1999, the House of Representatives referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works for consideration and report the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. The Committee received a written submission from ANSTO and took evidence from ANSTO officials at public hearings held at Parliament House. It has also received submissions and took evidence from a number of organisations and individuals. Prior to the first day of public hearings, the Committee undertook an extensive inspection of the facilities at Lucas Heights. The Committee's main conclusion and recommendations are as follows: 1) A need exists to replace HIFAR with a modern research reactor. The need for the replacement of HIFAR arises as a consequence of national interest considerations, research and development requirements and the need to sustain the local production of radiopharmaceuticals.The comparative costs of locating the replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights or a green fields site favour the former by a considerable margin. The refurbishing HIFAR of would not provide an enhancement of its research and operational capabilities which are considered by the scientific community to be limited. Such limitations have led to a reduction in national research and development opportunities. It is estimated that the new national research reactor must be operational some time before HIFAR is decommissioned. Provided all recommendations and commitments contained in the Environment Assessment Report are implemented during construction and commissioning and for the expected life of the research reactor, the Committee believes, based on the evidence, that all known risks have been identified and their impact on public safety will be as low as technically possible. It is recommended that during the licensing, construction and commissioning phases ANSTO should provide the Committee with six-monthly reports on progress and that removal of

  15. 75 FR 17966 - Application No. and Proposed Exemption involving D-11565, Citizens Bank Wealth Management, N.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Application No. and Proposed Exemption involving D-11565, Citizens Bank Wealth Management, N.A. AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security...) should be sent to the Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA), Office of Exemption...

  16. Involving Latina/o parents in patient-centered outcomes research: Contributions to research study design, implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Jolles, Mónica; Martinez, Maria; Garcia, San Juanita; Stein, Gabriela L; Thomas, Kathleen C

    2017-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is supported by policymakers as a way to provide service providers and patients with evidence-based information to make better health-care decisions and ultimately improve services for patients. However, Latina/o patients are rarely involved as study advisors, and there is a lack of documentation on how their voices contribute to the research process when they are included as collaborators. The purpose of this article was to contribute to the literature by presenting concrete contributions of Latina/o parent involvement to study design, implementation and outcomes in the context of a CER study called Padres Efectivos (Parent Activation). Researchers facilitated a collaborative relationship with parents by establishing a mentor parent group. The contributions of parent involvement in the following stages of the research process are described: (i) proposal development, (ii) implementation of protocols, (iii) analysis plan and (iv) dissemination of results. Mentor parents' contributions helped tailor the content of the intervention to their needs during proposal, increased recruitment, validated the main outcome measure and added two important outcome measures, emphasized the importance of controlling for novice treatment status and developed innovative dissemination strategies. Mentor parents' guidance to the researchers has contributed to reaching recruitment goals, strengthened the study protocol, expanded findings, supported broad ownership of study implications and enriched the overall study data collection efforts. These findings can inform future research efforts seeking an active Latino parent collaboration and the timely incorporation of parent voices in each phase of the research process. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Research in theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report and research proposal, 1980-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayman, B.F.; Ellis, P.J.; Tang, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    Research performed during 1980 (and proposed for 1981) is summarized briefly in this administrative report. The main theme of the research is the mechanisms of light- and heavy-ion nuclear reactions and the relation between microscopic theories and phenomenological models. A publication list and budget are included

  18. Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Ford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

  19. A systematic literature review of resilience engineering: Research areas and a research agenda proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, Angela Weber; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Wachs, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) has been advocated as a new safety management paradigm, compatible with the nature of complex socio-technical systems. This study aims to identify the research areas and to propose a research agenda for RE, based on a systematic literature review that encompasses 237 studies from 2006 to 2014. Six research areas are identified: theory of RE; identification and classification of resilience; safety management tools; analysis of accidents; risk assessment; and training. The area “theory of RE” accounted for 52% of the studies, and it indicates that research has emphasized the description of how resilient performance occurs. The proposal for a research agenda is focused on: refining key constructs; positioning RE in relation to other theories; exploring other research strategies in addition to case-based studies; investigating barriers for implementing RE; and balancing the importance on describing and understanding resilience with the emphasis on the design of resilient systems, and the evaluation of these designs. - Highlights: • Six research areas on RE are identified. • A research agenda for RE is proposed. • RE research is mostly descriptive and based on case studies. • Design science is suggested as a research strategy for RE. • Five domains account for 75% of the reviewed studies

  20. 76 FR 14074 - Notice of Proposed Amendment to Prohibited Transaction Exemption (PTE) 2010-08 Involving Ford...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Proposed Amendment to Prohibited Transaction Exemption (PTE) 2010-08 Involving Ford Motor Company, Located... Security Act of 1974 (the Act or ERISA). The transactions involve the UAW Ford Retirees Medical Benefits Plan (the Ford VEBA Plan) and its funding vehicle, the UAW Retiree Medical Benefits Trust (the VEBA...

  1. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    important to first gain a thorough understanding of low and middle income countries’ current capability (i.e., knowledge and infrastructure in handling the disease. Therefore, the curation of a special issue incorporating all relevant cancer-related studies, focusing on developing countries, will be an essential step in realizing the long-term plan of reducing cancer burden in much of the developing world.For this proposed special issue, we welcome submissions in the forms of original research articles, case studies, and reviews, as well as editorials and perspective articles on:(i Clinical studies focusing on the diagnoses and treatments of common/rare cancers in developing countries, particularly those that present novel or innovative methods in a localized setting.(ii Basic science research that highlights the development of emerging or improved therapeutics and drugs.(iii Innovative cancer/oncology treatment modalities used in developing countries that have been adapted from conventional approaches.(iv Analysis of clinical data collected from developing countries on cancer-related incidence.(v Health policies and guidelines on managing cancers in a resource-constrained setting.

  2. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  3. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  4. 75 FR 68529 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Christmas trees, Promotion...-0008-PR] RIN 0581-AD00 Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum... or continuation of the proposed Christmas Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order...

  5. Institutional ethical review and ethnographic research involving injection drug users: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators' responses to the committee's concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork, and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Outline of research proposals selected in the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Usui, Shuji

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a new R and D program called Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI)' in FY 1999 with the appropriation of $19 million. The major objectives of the NERI program is to preserve the nuclear science and engineering infrastructure in the U.S. and to maintain a competitive position in the global nuclear market in the 21st century. In may, 1999, the DOE selected 45 research proposals for the first year of the NERI program. The proposals are classified into the following five R and D areas: Proliferation Resistant Reactors and/or Fuel Cycles, New Reactor Designs, Advanced Nuclear Fuel, New Technology for Management of Nuclear Waste, Fundamental Nuclear Science. Since the NERI is a very epoch-making and strategic nuclear research program sponsored by the U.S. government, the trend of the NERI is considered to affect the future R and D programs in Japanese nuclear industries and research institutes including JAERI. The present report summarizes the analyzed results of the selected 45 research proposals. Staffs comments are made on each proposal in connection with the R and D activities in JAERI. (author)

  7. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelMalik Philip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals, including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  8. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Curtis, Andrew J; Abdelmalik, Philip

    2009-07-20

    This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic) of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association) workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals), including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  9. Farming Systems Involving Fruit Crops Production And Research In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research interventions to expand the scope of the farmers have shown that greater efficiency of land utilization is exhibited. New areas of research for the evaluation, as well as suggests consideration for intercropping with fruit trees are suggested. The current challenges to fruit production were also identified, while the ...

  10. Managing Ethical Problems in Qualitative Research Involving Vulnerable Populations, Using a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk RN, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the researcher's study was to examine the meaning that intimate partners of female rape victims attached to their lived experiences after the rape. The conduct of qualitative research concerning non-offending partners of female rape victims, however, often involves multifaceted ethical and practical challenges, which can be managed through the use of pilot studies. The pilot study described in this report had three objectives. The first was to pretest and refine the proposed method for locating, accessing, and recruiting intimate partners of female rape victims, within the first two weeks after the rape, for participation in a six-month longitudinal study. The second objective was to identify and prevent all possible risk factors in the proposed recruitment and data collection methods that could harm the participants' safety during the main study. The third objective was to determine the feasibility of the main study, in terms of the limited financial and human resources available. The pilot phase was valuable in identifying ethical and methodological problems during the recruitment of participants and collection of data. It allowed for methodological adjustments prior to the main study and confirmed the feasibility of the overall research design. A pilot, pretesting phase is therefore seen as an essential component of a qualitative study involving a vulnerable population.

  11. 7 CFR 3406.16 - Scope of a research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... initiative(s) for which they have prepared their proposals. (a) Studies and experimentation in food and... constituents from or adding desirable ones to food products. (iii) Propose and evaluate ways to enhance... development (e.g., exploitation of new technologies by small rural businesses). (iv) Identify control factors...

  12. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  13. 76 FR 5614 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... against cyber attacks up to and including the design basis threat. Part one of the proposed change is... of adequate protection against cyber attacks, up to and including the design basis threat. The... you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are problems in accessing the documents located in ADAMS...

  14. 76 FR 62862 - Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... proposed reload design or safety analysis limits for each cycle reload core. The associated margin of... limits are unaffected, and cycle specific analyses will show that the analysis limits are met, the change... and resolve requests for access to SUNSI, and motions for protective orders, in a timely fashion in...

  15. Ethical issues in Alzheimer's disease research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2017-12-01

    As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer's disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research recruits and others. These challenges are (1) the necessity of very large cohorts of research subjects, recruited for lengthy studies, probably ending only in the subjects' death; (2) the creation of cohorts of 'study ready' volunteers, many of whom will be competent to consent at the beginning of the process, but move into cognitive impairment later; (3) reliance on adaptive trial design, creating challenges for informed consent, equipoise and justice; (4) the use of biomarkers and predictive tests that describe risk rather than certainty, and that can threaten participants' welfare if the information is obtained by insurance companies or long-term care providers; (5) the use of study partners that creates unique risks of harm to the relationship of subject and study partner. We need greater attention, at all levels, to these complex ethical issues. Work on these issues should be included in research plans, from the federal to the local, and should be supported through NIH in the same way that it supported work on the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Clinical research involving minors in international and serbian regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planojević, Nina; Zivojinović, Dragica

    2013-07-01

    Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be - it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor. Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative's consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors' position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative's consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone's health, including a minor in which those are conducted - this is an acceptable (secondary) motive of participation in the research. Expression of humanity on other's behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors' participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model.

  17. Effective public involvement in the HoST-D Programme for dementia home care support: From proposal and design to methods of data collection (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa; Roe, Brenda; Hodgson, Anthony; Britt, David; Clarkson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Public involvement is an important element in health and social care research. However, it is little evaluated in research. This paper discusses the utility and impact of public involvement of carers and people with dementia in a five-year programme on effective home support in dementia, from proposal and design to methods of data collection, and provides a useful guide for future research on how to effectively involve the public. The Home SupporT in Dementia (HoST-D) Programme comprises two elements of public involvement, a small reference group and a virtual lay advisory group. Involving carers and people with dementia is based on the six key values of involvement - respect, support, transparency, responsiveness, fairness of opportunity, and accountability. Carers and people with dementia gave opinions on study information, methods of data collection, an economic model, case vignettes, and a memory aid booklet, which were all taken into account. Public involvement has provided benefits to the programme whilst being considerate of the time constraints and geographical locations of members.

  18. Involvement and emancipation of the worker. Action research in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    The present action research article is linked to an ergonomics project in a university hospital. The author's proposal is to focus action on the effective worker involvement required for the creation of spaces/mechanisms within organizations where people can enhance cooperation and deliberation on matters relating to work. For this purpose, a committee was introduced to assist in finding problems and solutions directly in work situations, so that workers could experience relative autonomy allowing them to develop procedures and choose tools appropriate to their own real needs. Based on this organizational implementation and on subsequent interviews, the practical results are analyzed and related to employee involvement. One can conclude that workers in all areas of the organization can be active elements for improving working conditions and productivity in companies.

  19. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...

  20. Evaluating public involvement in research design and grant development: Using a qualitative document analysis method to analyse an award scheme for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Muir, Delia; Brereton, Louise; Allmark, Christine; Barber, Rosemary; Harris, Lydia; Hodges, Brian; Khan, Samaira; Baird, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS) for Yorkshire and Humber has been running a public involvement funding scheme since 2008. This scheme awards researchers a small amount of money to help them get involvement from patients and/or the public. Involvement activities take place at the time when researchers are planning studies, and when they are completing application forms to request funding for a proposed research project. After the public involvement activities researchers are asked to write a report for the RDS describing what they did with the public involvement funding. This study analysed those reports using an approach which included members of a public involvement panel in the data analysis process. The aim of the work was to see what the views and experiences of researchers who received funding were, and what might be learned for the future of the scheme. Twenty five reports were analysed. Four main themes were identified, these described: the added value of public involvement; aspects to consider when planning and designing public involvement; different roles of public contributors; and aspects of valuing public member contributions. The group approach to analysis was successful in enabling involvement of a variety of individuals in the process. The findings of the study provide evidence of the value of public involvement during the development of applications for research funding. The results also indicate that researchers recognise the variety in potential roles for the public in research, and acknowledge how involvement adds value to studies. Background A regional Research Design Service, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, introduced a small grant in 2008, to support public involvement (often known as patient and public involvement [PPI]) activities during the development of applications for research funding. Successful applicants are requested to submit a report detailing how the grant

  1. Barter System for Researchers: A Proposal. Opinion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, Arthur V.

    1970-01-01

    The barter system for researchers consists of two parts: a list linking various research areas with researchers willing to entertain collegial inquiriies, and a clerk to note the number of hours that participants give and receive in the information exchange. (MF)

  2. A Proposed Framework of Institutional Research Development Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Anita; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Globally, research has become a key driver for the achievement of status and the procurement of funding for higher education institutions. Although there is mounting pressure on institutions to become research active, many institutions are rooted in a strong tradition of teaching. These institutions find it challenging to develop research capacity…

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  4. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy

    2015-01-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders’ attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework. PMID:26297748

  5. Proposed Grand Challenges in Geoscience Education Research: Articulating a Community Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S. C.; St John, K. K.; Teasdale, R.; Ryker, K.; Riggs, E. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Petcovic, H. L.; McNeal, K.; McDaris, J. R.; Macdonald, H.; Kastens, K.; Cervato, C.

    2017-12-01

    Fourteen ago the Wingspread Project helped establish geoscience education research (GER) as an important research field and highlighted major research questions for GER at the time. More recently, the growth and interest in GER is evident from the increase in geoscience education research articles, the establishment of the NAGT GER Division, the creation of the GER Toolbox, an increase in GER graduate programs, and the growth of tenure-eligible GER faculty positions. As an emerging STEM education research field, the GER community is examining the current state of their research and considering the best course forward so that it can have the greatest collective impact on advancing teaching and learning in the geosciences. As part of an NSF-funded effort to meet this need, 45 researchers drafted priority research questions, or "Grand Challenges", that span 10 geoscience education research themes. These include research on: students' conceptual understanding of the solid and the fluid Earth, K-12 teacher preparation, teaching about Earth in the context of societal problems, access and success of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, spatial and temporal reasoning, quantitative reasoning and use of models, instructional strategies to improve geoscience learning, students' self-regulated learning, and faculty professional development and institutional change. For each theme, several Grand Challenges have been proposed; these have undergone one round of peer-review and are now ready for the AGU community to critically examine the proposed Grand Challenges and make suggestions on strategies for addressing them: http://nagt.org/nagt/geoedresearch/grand_challenges/feedback.html. We seek perspectives from geoscience education researchers, scholars, and reflective educators. It is our vision that the final outcomes of this community-grounded process will be a published guiding framework to (1) focus future GER on questions of high interest to the geoscience education

  6. Qualitative methods in radiography research: a proposed framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Smith, T.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career

  7. A proposal for ethical research conduct in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low and adopt common principles, framing social science ap- proaches, ecological surveys .... the potential negative impacts of research are avoided or minimi- zed, while the .... experiments, applied behavioral research) should conform to established .... The changing nature of science; can scientist rise to the chal- lenge?

  8. Proposal for a telehealth concept in the translational research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de

    2014-04-01

    To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.

  9. Proposing application of results in sport and exercise research reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane; Elliott, Bruce; Hamill, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    The application of sport and exercise research findings to practice requires careful interpretation and integration of evidence. This paper reviews principles of evidence-based practice and the application of research in sports and exercise, in order to provide recommendations on developing appropriate application sections in research reports for sport and exercise journals. The strength of recommendations for application fall into one of four levels, with potential applications qualified as strong, limited, preliminary, or hypothesized. Specific limitations that should be discussed in framing recommendations for practice are also noted for each of these levels that should be useful for authors, and for practitioners and clinicians in interpreting these recommendations.

  10. UH-USA Agreement - A Telemedicine Research Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Lawrence P; Birkmire-Peters, Deborah P

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the University of Hawaii Telemedicine Curriculum Research Project is to develop an effective web-based curriculum for training military healthcare personnel in the use of contemporary...

  11. GPS Technology and Human Psychological Research: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. A. Wolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74

  12. Ex-ante participatory research proposal assessment conducted in Southern Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Deffo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to showcase a participatory method for assessing technical options in Southern Togo. The aim was to address farmers’ needs with respect to soil fertility problems in situations involving mixed crop-livestock farming systems. In collaboration with various stakeholders, the scientists thus assessed the potential for adopting a crop association involving maize for food (seed and fodder (straw, i.e. a mixed function plant, and Mucuna pruriens, i.e. a long-cycle legume that is cropped to produce fodder and enhance soil fertility. The chemically fertilized crop association is here referred to as MME. Participatory action research (PAR analytical tools were implemented in the four-phase method used. The first phase included an overall description of the entire study region to identify representative sites based on published information and exploratory interviews. In the second phase, the diversity of farmers was characterized through interviews with resource people at the selected sites. The third phase involved participatory selection of a range of technical options that included the MME association as well as local practices with features similar to this association, and alternative research proposals to enhance soil fertility and ensure the production of sufficient fodder to feed livestock. This selection was carried out by farmers chosen as being representative of their diversity. They were asked to rank—using notes, or pebbles because of the high illiteracy level—the different technical options presented during visits to the test plots or using visual aids. The fourth phase included an assessment of farmers’ comments on the perceived effects of the different options on agropastoral resource management (water, soil, biodiversity, their acceptability or cost-effectiveness relative to the labor cost. This method was applied in three villages in southern Togo. Six main farmer categories were identified in these

  13. Proposal for a seismic facility for reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.A.; Dove, R.C.; Rhorer, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    Certain problem areas in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear reactors are enumerated and the way in which an experimental program might contribute to each area is examined. The use of seismic simulation testing receives particular attention, especially with regard to the verification of structural response analysis. The importance of scale modeling used in conjunction with seismic simulation is also stressed. The capabilities of existing seismic simulators are summarized, and a proposed facility is described which would considerably extend the ability to conduct, with confidence, confirmatory experiments on the behavior of reactor components when subjected to seismic excitation. Particular applications to gas-cooled and other reactor types are described

  14. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists

  15. Proposal and Research Direction of Soil Mass Organic Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Han, Jichang

    2018-01-01

    Land engineering as a new discipline has been temporarily outrageous. The proposition of soil body organic reorganization undoubtedly enriches the research content for the construction of land engineering disciplines. Soil body organic reconstruction is designed to study how to realize the ecological ecology of the land by studying the external force of nature, to study the influence of sunlight, wind and water on soil body, how to improve the soil physical structure, to further strengthen the research of biological enzymes and microbes, and promote the release and utilization of beneficial inert elements in soil body. The emerging of frontier scientific research issues with soil body organic reorganization to indicate directions for the future development of soil engineering.

  16. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Proposed Development of NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Network Research Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wargo, Chris A.; Kocin, Michael J.; Garcia, Manuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate knowledge and understanding of data link traffic loads that will have an impact on the underlying communications infrastructure within the National Airspace System (NAS) is of paramount importance for planning, development and fielding of future airborne and ground-based communications systems. Attempting to better understand this impact, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), through its contractor Computer Networks & Software, Inc. (CNS, Inc.), has developed an emulation and test facility known as the Virtual Aircraft and Controller (VAC) to study data link interactions and the capacity of the NAS to support Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) traffic. The drawback of the current VAC test bed is that it does not allow the test personnel and researchers to present a real world RF environment to a complex airborne or ground system. Fortunately, the United States Air Force and Navy Avionics Test Commands, through its contractor ViaSat, Inc., have developed the Joint Communications Simulator (JCS) to provide communications band test and simulation capability for the RF spectrum through 18 GHz including Communications, Navigation, and Identification and Surveillance functions. In this paper, we are proposing the development of a new and robust test bed that will leverage on the existing NASA GRC's VAC and the Air Force and Navy Commands JCS systems capabilities and functionalities. The proposed NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Networks Research Simulator (ANRS) will combine current Air Traffic Control applications and physical RF stimulation into an integrated system capable of emulating data transmission behaviors including propagation delay, physical protocol delay, transmission failure and channel interference. The ANRS will provide a simulation/stimulation tool and test bed environment that allow the researcher to predict the performance of various aeronautical network protocol standards and their associated waveforms under varying

  18. 7 CFR 3406.20 - Evaluation criteria for research proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environment, state-of-the-art equipment, or supplies; enhance library collections related to the area of research; or enable the institution to provide efficacious organizational structures and reward systems to...) Innovation—Are significant aspects of the project based on an innovative or a non-traditional approach? Does...

  19. Geothermal energy. A national proposal for geothermal resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.C. (ed.)

    1972-01-01

    Discussions are given for each of the following topics: (1) importance to the Nation of geothermal resources, (2) budget recommendations, (3) overview of geothermal resources, (4) resource exploration, (5) resource assessment, (6) resource development and production, (7) utilization technology and economics, (8) environmental effects, (9) institutional considerations, and (10) summary of research needs.

  20. 77 FR 22334 - Authority To Accept Unsolicited Research Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... how HUD assistance can be used to improve educational outcomes and early learning and development... housing providers are increasingly using housing technology to improve energy efficiency or to introduce..., or (4) housing technology. In accordance with statutory requirements, the research projects must be...

  1. Advanced laser fusion target fabrication research and development proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Fries, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    A research and development program is described that will enable the fabrication of 10 6 targets/day for a laser fusion prototype power reactor in 2007. We give personnel and cost estimates for a generalized laser fusion target that requires the development of several new technologies. The total cost of the program between 1979 and 2007 is $362 million in today's dollars

  2. Essentials of protocol development in human research proposals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine Vol. 1 (1) 2003: pp. 31-36. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aipm.v1i1.39098 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  3. Involving disabled children and young people as partners in research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather

  4. Proposed plan for a JAEA internationalization initiative (JII) (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Paul R; Kawanishi, Shunichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Photo-Medical Research Center, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan); Mizuki, Jun' ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Concepts for a JAEA Internationalization Initiative, JII are presented. Following a general discussion of issues and recommendations for JII, a 'fast startup JII' is proposed in the form of fast start action items (FSAI). The FSAI represent a clear set of action items that can be implemented at the KPSI/PMRC site which would serve as a seed site for test and evaluation. A JAEA Internationalization Initiative that is guided by evaluation and tailored for JAEA as a whole can be established with appropriate oversight and tracking at each JAEA site by local JII teams. In addition to recommendations for the KPSI/PMRC seed site, the roles of the Quantum Beam Science Directorate (QuBS) leadership and the International Affairs Department (IAD) of JAEA are also discussed. Current KPSI/PMRC activities that are consistent with a JII are briefly presented. (author)

  5. Proposed plan for a JAEA internationalization initiative (JII) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Paul R.; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a JAEA Internationalization Initiative, JII are presented. Following a general discussion of issues and recommendations for JII, a 'fast startup JII' is proposed in the form of fast start action items (FSAI). The FSAI represent a clear set of action items that can be implemented at the KPSI/PMRC site which would serve as a seed site for test and evaluation. A JAEA Internationalization Initiative that is guided by evaluation and tailored for JAEA as a whole can be established with appropriate oversight and tracking at each JAEA site by local JII teams. In addition to recommendations for the KPSI/PMRC seed site, the roles of the Quantum Beam Science Directorate (QuBS) leadership and the International Affairs Department (IAD) of JAEA are also discussed. Current KPSI/PMRC activities that are consistent with a JII are briefly presented. (author)

  6. The energy amplifier: An analysis and a research proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, Roberto; Atzeni, Stefano; De Marco, Francesco; Valli, Giulio [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Pierazzi, Luigi [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-05-01

    The fast neutron Energy Amplifier (f-EA) proposed by C. Rubbia et al. [CERN/AT/95-44(ET) and CERN/LHC/96-11(EET)] is viewed in the context of the activities aimed at increasing the public acceptability of nuclear power. A few crucial architectural, technological, and reactor physics issues are pointed out. Areas to which ENEA Fusion Division (ENEA-ERG-FUS) could contribute with its expertise and facilities are identified. Comments are also presented with reference to the comparison between the safety characteristics of the f-EA and of the magnetic fusion reactor concept, published by C. Rubbia in a recent report [CERN/AT/95-58(ET)].

  7. The energy amplifier: An analysis and a research proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, Roberto; Atzeni, Stefano; De Marco, Francesco; Valli, Giulio; Pierazzi, Luigi

    1997-05-01

    The fast neutron Energy Amplifier (f-EA) proposed by C. Rubbia et al. [CERN/AT/95-44(ET) and CERN/LHC/96-11(EET)] is viewed in the context of the activities aimed at increasing the public acceptability of nuclear power. A few crucial architectural, technological, and reactor physics issues are pointed out. Areas to which ENEA Fusion Division (ENEA-ERG-FUS) could contribute with its expertise and facilities are identified. Comments are also presented with reference to the comparison between the safety characteristics of the f-EA and of the magnetic fusion reactor concept, published by C. Rubbia in a recent report [CERN/AT/95-58(ET)

  8. Research proposal: Industry convergence - Driving forces, factors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Industry convergence – the merger of hitherto separate industries – is a phenomenon that has had a profound effect on several industries and received considerable interest among practitioners and business press over the past decades. Despite this, industry con- vergence has only received limited attention from the academic management field, al- though an emergent discussion on convergence can be identified. Prior research is limited by a lack of coherent theoretical definitions of convergence...

  9. Governance and Institutions: Proposals for a Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Valdés Ugalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the difference between the concepts of governability and governance in economics and political science. The main focus is to address basic principles of neoclassical theory in order to explore alternative research approaches for the analysis of governance in institutional building and agent relationships to rules. With this purpose, the article assesses the adequacy of explanations of citizens decision making in democracies with sharp inequalities and heterogeneous preferences.

  10. Proposed activity - Budget for research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Camerini, U.; Carlsmith, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains task reports on the following topics: Hadron physics at Fermilab; Lepton hadron scattering; Electroweak and weak interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Hyperon beam program/hadroproduction of heavy flavors at Fermilab; High energy physics colliding beam detector facility at Fermilab; Data analysis facility; Institute for Elementary Particle Physics research; Study of weak and electromagnetic interactions at Desy and Cern; Theoretical high energy physics; Dumand; and Ultra high energy gamma rays

  11. [Conceptual and methodological issues involved in the research field of diagnostic reasoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persia, Francisco N

    2016-05-01

    The psychopathological field is crossed by dilemmas that put in question its methodological, conceptual and philosophical filiations. Since the early works of Ey and Jaspers until recent work of Berrios it has been in question the position psychopathology has in the field of medicine in general, and in the field of psychiatry in particular, especially if it should follow the principles of natural science or if it has an autonomous position between them. This debate has led to two opposing positions facing two different models of psychopathology: the biomedical model and the socio-constructionist model. In this work it is proposed to review the scope and difficulties involved in each model following two central axes: diagnostic reasoning and mental illness conceptual problem. Later, as a synthesis of the analysis proposed they are identified central concepts of each model that could allow the development of a hybrid model in psychopathology; in between them the comprehensive framework employed in symptoms recognition and the social component that characterizes it are highlighted. As a conclusion, these concepts are proposed as central aspects for conceptual and methodological clarification of the research field of diagnostic reasoning in psychopathology.

  12. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    propose this reproducible methodology as an important, enjoyable, and novel way of involving patients in research and a welcome alternative to researcher-developed acronyms. Ideally this should be carried out prior to engaging with healthcare professionals to prevent confusion around study identity.

  13. Research proposal on : amplitude modulated reflectometry system for JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, T.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la.

    1992-01-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been presented in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps' in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2 pi. The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad-band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for ionospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasma. the main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts (approx 2 pi). (author)

  14. Status, challenges and facilitators of consumer involvement in Australian health and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergent international practice of involving consumers in health research is driven, in part, by the growing share of health research that can only be applied in and emerge from knowledge that is shaped by human values and societal contexts. This is the first investigation of its kind to identify the current prevalence, challenges, enabling factors and range of approaches to consumer involvement in health and medical research in Australia. Methods A nation-wide survey of research funding organisations and organisations that conduct research was performed during 2008-2009. Results Marked variation in consumer involvement experience and perceptions exists between research funders and researchers. Research funders were over eight times more likely than organisations conducting research to involve consumers in identifying research needs and prioritising research topics. Across both groups, practical and time constraints were reported as key challenges to involving consumers, while guidelines on consumer involvement and evidence of effect were the most important potential enablers. More than a third of research organisations indicated that when consumer involvement was a condition of research funding, it was an important facilitator of involvement. Conclusion It is no longer simply enough to keep society informed of important scientific breakthroughs. If Australian health research is to take into account important social contexts and consequences, it must involve consumers. A set of minimum consumer involvement standards and associated guidelines, that are agreed and routinely adopted, could ensure that consumers and the Australian community they represent, are given an opportunity to shed light on experiences and local circumstance, and express views and concerns relevant to health research.

  15. [Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP).

  16. (Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP).

  17. [Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP)

  18. Patient involvement in research programming and implementation: a responsive evaluation of the Dialogue Model for research agenda setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, T.A.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; Visse, M.; Elberse, J.E.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dialogue Model for research agenda-setting, involving multiple stakeholders including patients, was developed and validated in the Netherlands. However, there is little insight into whether and how patient involvement is sustained during the programming and implementation of research

  19. Essential Ingredients of a Good Research Proposal for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Talinbe Abdulai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the requirements for the award of degrees in higher education institutions, students at undergraduate and postgraduate levels normally carry out research, which they report in the form of dissertations or theses. The research journey commences with the selection of a research topic and the preparation of a proposal on the selected topic. Experience has shown that students tend to encounter difficulties in writing research proposals for their supervisors because they do not fully comprehend what constitutes a research proposal. The purpose of this article is to take students through a step-by-step process of writing good research proposals by discussing the essential ingredients of a good research proposal. Thus, it is not a didactic piece—the aim is to guide students in research proposal writing. In discussing these ingredients, relevant examples are provided where necessary for ease of understanding. It is expected that on reading this article, students should be able to: (a demonstrate knowledge and understanding of what research is all about and its challenging nature; (b display an enlarged comprehension of research gap(s, problem or question(s, aim, objectives, and hypotheses as well as their distinguishing characteristics; (c demonstrate a good understanding of the relevant elements to be considered in the constituent sections of a good research proposal; and (d comprehend the elements of a research proposal that should feature in the final written dissertation or thesis.

  20. E-Learning: A Means to Increase Learner Involvement in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marie; Mason, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a method for increasing the involvement of marketing fourth year learners in academic research, by encouraging greater participation in, and commitment to, their research project in the Applied Marketing IV subject. It is assumed that greater involvement will result in a greater pass rate. The main reasons for this lack of…

  1. Pharmacists' views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carol; Brillant, Martha; Krass, Ines

    2007-01-01

    In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted. Three themes emerged around pharmacists' attitudes towards research: pharmacists' perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists' motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists' desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists' mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff), and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested. Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research projects.

  2. Pharmacists’ views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. Objectives: To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted.Results: Three themes emerged around pharmacists’ attitudes towards research: pharmacists’ perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists’ motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists’ desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists’ mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff, and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested.Conclusions: Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research

  3. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to consumer and community involvement. They were also asked about changes in their behaviour when it came to the involvement of consumers and the community in their work. The study found that, for people who answered the survey, more than double the number found consumer and community involvement very relevant after attending a workshop, compared with the number who thought that before attending one. Also, amongst those who answered the survey, 94 % thought that the workshop increased their understanding about involvement. Background There is limited evidence of the benefits of providing training workshops for researchers on how to involve consumers (patients) and the community (public) in health and medical research. Australian training workshops were evaluated to contribute to the evidence base. The key objective was to evaluate the impact of the workshops in increasing awareness of consumer and community involvement; changing attitudes to future implementation of involvement activities and influencing behaviour in the methods of involvement used. A secondary objective was to use a formal evaluation survey to build on the anecdotal feedback received from researchers about changes in awareness, attitudes and behaviours. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, online survey of researchers, students, clinicians, administrators and members of non-government organisations who attended Consumer and Community Involvement Program training workshops between 2009 and 2012 to ascertain changes to awareness

  4. Involving users with learning difficulties in health improvement: lessons from inclusive learning disability research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Jan

    2004-03-01

    In this paper the author considers the lessons to be drawn from what is termed "inclusive" learning disability research for user involvement around health improvement. Inclusive learning disability research refers to research where people with learning difficulties (intellectual disability) are involved as active participants, as opposed to passive subjects. There is by now a considerable body of such research, developed over the past 25 years. From the review, the author draws attention to areas which can inform practice in involvement of users in a way that adds value.

  5. Methods for Involving Older People in Health Research-A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Imke; Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2017-11-29

    Demographic change has increased the need for research on healthcare for older people. Recently there has been a growing awareness that research might benefit from actively involving patients and the public in study design and conduct. Besides empowering patients and democratizing research, involvement enhances the quality of research and the development of equitable healthcare solutions. Little is known about how to involve older people. This review aims to support scientists intending to involve older people in health research by systematically identifying and describing studies involving older people and analyzing associated facilitators and challenges. Old people were operationalized as people living with old-age-related conditions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Cochrane library for the period 2007 to July 2017 and also manually searched reference lists of the nine retrieved articles and other relevant sources. While involvement of older people in research is feasible, specific challenges related to this group need be taken into account. Strategies to enhance effective involvement comprise a thoughtful choice of location, use of visualization and accessible communication, building good relationships and flexible approaches. Further research is needed on the involvement of people in care homes or with vision, hearing or mobility limitations.

  6. 76 FR 38191 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Biospecimen and Physical Measures Formative Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...; Comment Request; Biospecimen and Physical Measures Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National... comment. Proposed Collection: Title: Biospecimen and Physical Measures Formative Research Methodology... Development* to conduct a national longitudinal study of environmental influences (including physical...

  7. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  8. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Sarah J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-02-18

    There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and

  9. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for

  10. Lay involvement in the analysis of qualitative data in health services research: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, S; Jheeta, S; Husson, F; Jacklin, A; Bischler, A; Norton, C; Franklin, B D

    2016-01-01

    There is a consensus that patients and the public should be involved in research in a meaningful way. However, to date, lay people have been mostly involved in developing research ideas and commenting on patient information.We previously published a paper describing our experience with lay partners conducting observations in a study of how patients in hospital are involved with their medicines. In a later part of the same study, lay partners were also involved in analysing interviews that a researcher had conducted with patients, carers and healthcare professionals about patient and carer involvement with medicines in hospital. We therefore wanted to build on our previous paper and report on our experiences with lay partners helping to conduct data analysis. We therefore interviewed the lay members and researchers involved in the analysis to find out their views.Both lay members and researchers reported that lay partners added value to the study by bringing their own perspectives and identifying further areas for the researcher to look for in the interviews. In this way researchers and lay partners were able to work together to produce a richer analysis than would have been possible from either alone. Background It is recognised that involving lay people in research in a meaningful rather than tokenistic way is both important and challenging. In this paper, we contribute to this debate by describing our experiences of lay involvement in data analysis. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with the lay partners and researchers involved in qualitative data analysis in a wider study of inpatient involvement in medication safety. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using open thematic analysis. Results We interviewed three lay partners and the three researchers involved. These interviews demonstrated that the lay members added value to the analysis by bringing their own perspectives; these were systematically integrated into the analysis by the

  11. Engaging patients and stakeholders in research proposal review: the patient-centered outcomes research institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Forsythe, Laura P; Lauer, Michael; Rotter, Jason; Ioannidis, John P A; Beal, Anne; Frank, Lori; Selby, Joseph V

    2014-07-15

    The inaugural round of merit review for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in November 2012 included patients and other stakeholders, as well as scientists. This article examines relationships among scores of the 3 reviewer types, changes in scoring after in-person discussion, and the effect of inclusion of patient and stakeholder reviewers on the review process. In the first phase, 363 scientists scored 480 applications. In the second phase, 59 scientists, 21 patients, and 31 stakeholders provided a "prediscussion" score and a final "postdiscussion" score after an in-person meeting for applications. Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize levels of agreement among and within reviewer types before and after discussion. Before discussion, there was little agreement among average scores given by the 4 lead scientific reviewers and patient and stakeholder reviewers. After discussion, the 4 primary reviewers showed mild convergence in their scores, and the 21-member panel came to a much stronger agreement. Of the 25 awards with the best (and lowest) scores after phase 2, only 13 had ranked in the top 25 after the phase 1 review by scientists. Five percent of the 480 proposals submitted were funded. The authors conclude that patient and stakeholder reviewers brought different perspectives to the review process but that in-person discussion led to closer agreement among reviewer types. It is not yet known whether these conclusions are generalizable to future rounds of peer review. Future work would benefit from additional data collection for evaluation purposes and from long-term evaluation of the effect on the funded research.

  12. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2012-09-01

      Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement.   To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research.   Mixed methods including a two-round Delphi study with pre-specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow-up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self-selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed.   Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement.   This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. PMID:21324054

  14. Cultivating Advanced Technical Writing Skills through a Graduate-Level Course on Writing Research Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian D.; Dempsey, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    A graduate-level course focused on original research proposals is introduced to address the uneven preparation in technical writing of new chemistry graduate students. This course focuses on writing original research proposals. The general course structure features extensive group discussions, small-group activities, and regular in-class…

  15. Patently controversial: markets, morals, and the President's proposal for embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Schachter, Madeleine

    2002-09-01

    This essay considers the implications of President George W. Bush's proposal for human embryonic stem cell research. Through the perspective of patent law, privacy, and informed consent, we elucidate the ongoing controversy about the moral standing of human embryonic stem cells and their derivatives and consider how the inconsistencies in the president's proposal will affect clinical practice and research.

  16. Research Attitudes and Involvement among Medical Students and Students of Allied Health Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Catherine R.

    1994-01-01

    Medicine has a long research tradition, whereas allied health areas have only recently become involved in research. A questionnaire study was conducted to investigate the attitudes to research of a total of 314 students of medicine, dentistry, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and nursing courses on the city campuses of two South Australian…

  17. Co-researching with people with learning disabilities: an experience of involvement in qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Butler, Gary

    2010-06-01

    People with learning disabilities have been included in research as co-researchers since the 1990s. However, there is limited literature about the processes of involving people with learning disabilities in the more intellectual and analytical stages of the research process. To examine the potential contribution of people with learning disabilities to data analysis in qualitative research. This article is a reflection on one research experience. The two authors include one researcher with and one without learning disabilities. They each describe their experience and understanding of user involvement in analysing the data of an ethnographic study of people with learning disabilities who had cancer. The researcher with learning disabilities was given extensive vignettes and extracts from the research field notes, and was supported to extract themes, which were cross-compared with the analysis of other members of the research team. The researcher with learning disabilities coped well with the emotive content of the data and with the additional support provided, he was able to extract themes that added validity to the overall analysis. His contribution complemented those of the other members of the research team. There were unexpected benefits, in particular, in terms of a more reciprocal and supportive relationship between the two researchers. It is possible and valuable to extend involvement to data analysis, but to avoid tokenism and maintain academic rigour, there must be a clear rationale for such involvement. Extra support, time and costs must be planned for.

  18. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    Plain English Summary In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to con...

  19. Forced migrants involved in setting the agenda and designing research to reduce impacts of complex emergencies: combining Swarm with patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Julii Suzanne; Al Assaf, Enana; Omasete, Judith; Leach, Steve; Hammer, Charlotte C; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    were identified as a potential priority topic area, two representatives of forced migrant communities were recruited to explore possible research ideas. These representatives helped set the specific research objectives and advised on aspects of implementation, still within the swarm framework for project development. Over ten months, many research ideas were considered by the collaborative working group in a series of six group meetings, supplemented by email contact in between. Up to four possible research ideas were scrutinised at any one meeting, with a focus on identifying practical or desirable aspects of each proposed project. Interest settled on a study to solicit original data about successful strategies that forced migrants use to adapt to life in the UK, with an emphasis on successfully promoting resilience and minimizing emotional distress. "Success in resettlement" was identified to be a more novel theme than "barriers to adaption" research. A success approach encourages participation when individuals may find discussion of mental illness stigmatising. The patient representatives helped with design of patient-facing and interview training materials, interviewer training (mock interviews), and aspects of the recruitment. Using patient and public involvement (PPI) within an early failure development approach that itself arises from theory on complex adaptive systems, we successfully implemented a dynamic development process to determine research topic and study design. The PPI representatives were closely involved in setting research objectives and aspects of implementation.

  20. Ethical issues when involving people newly diagnosed with dementia in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Suzanne; Kydd, Angela

    2015-03-01

    To discuss the methodological and ethical review challenges encountered by researchers who want to enable people with dementia to be involved in research. There has been increasing recognition of the importance of involving people with dementia in research. However, an argument has centred on the protection of these vulnerable clients versus their freedom to be involved as participants in research. People with dementia do have the right to have their experiences explored. Involving this client group in research is essential to gain a true understanding of their needs. The lead author's experience of conducting a study in which people newly diagnosed with dementia were recruited as research participants. An interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted during this qualitative study, with data collected by means of one to one interviews with people newly diagnosed with dementia. This study was completed within the set timeframe, but a large part of the work was spent gaining ethical approval. This meant that the timeframe of the study period was reduced and as a result, it was only possible to recruit three participants. However, people with dementia are perhaps one of the most vulnerable client groups and it is only right that they should not be subjected to harm. Ethical review is an important part of research. Meeting the ethical requirements of research involving people with dementia requires time and careful preparation to ensure that researchers safeguard the interests of this vulnerable client group, while also allowing the participants the opportunity to exercise their autonomy to their fullest potential. Conducting research that involves people with dementia may be time consuming, but it is only fair that this client group are afforded the freedom to be involved in research. This small time-limited study points to the need for larger pilot studies to hear from individuals what needs they have following a diagnosis of dementia.

  1. Proposed training program for construction personnel involved in remedial action work at sites contaminated by naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Schiager, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Many sites used during the early days of the US atomic energy program are contaminated with radionuclides of the primordial decay chains (uranium, thorium, and actinium series). This contamination consists of residues resulting from refining and processing uranium and thorium. Preparation of these sites for release to unrestricted private use will involve the assistance of construction workers, many of whom have limited knowledge of the hazards associated with radioactive materials. Therefore, there is a need to educate these workers in the fundamentals of radioactive material handling to minimize exposures and possible spread of contamination. This training should disseminate relevant information at an appropriate educational level and should instill a cautious, common-sense attitude toward the handling of radioactive materials. The training should emphasize basic information concerning environmental radiation within a context of relative risk. A multi-media format, including colorful visual aids, demonstration, and discussion, should be used to maximize motivation and retention. A detailed, proposed training program design is presented

  2. Proposal for the classification of closed indoor spaces according to concentration of 222Rn and the possible doses involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Marco; Leon, Kety; Martinez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Radon causes more than 50 % of total dose from natural background radiation per year. It is widely demonstrated the capacity of radon to induce lung cancer in people exposed to this radioactive gas for long periods. Radon emerges continuously from materials that constitute soils, building materials and minerals present in our natural environment, all over the world. In our country, it is necessary to get better regulations to control the exposition of people to this gas inside buildings, dwellings and facilities where people spend their time. Our country has very simple and scarce regulations on this respect. At present, national regulations about radon are adaptations of recommendations and guides published for international organizations but without national studies or statistics to give realistic support to those rules. This work propose a classification for closed spaces where people live and work in this country taking into consideration their 222 Rn concentration and probable doses involved. (authors).

  3. Review of the research proposal for the steam generator retired from Kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Han, Joung Ho; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Seong Sik; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The tubes of the steam generator retired form Kori unit 1 have many different kinds of failures, such as denting pitting, wastage, ODSCC, PWSCC.Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) submitted a research proposal for the steam generator to the Korea Institute S and T Evaluation and Planning (KSITEP). The KISTEP requested Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to review the proposal by organizing a committee which should be composed of the specialists of the related domestic research institutes. Opinions of the committee on the objectives, research fields, economic benefit and validity in the research proposal were reviewed and suggested optimal research fields to be fulfilled successfully for the retired steam generator. Also, the rolls for the participants in the research works were allocated, which is critical in order to do the project effectively. 6 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  4. Pediatric oncologists' attitudes towards involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.C. de; Wit, J.M.; Engberts, D.P.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various regulations and guidelines stipulate the importance of involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation. Several studies have shown that in the context of pediatric oncology this involvement is difficult to achieve due to emotional stress, the complexity

  5. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... involving intentional exposure of children or of pregnant or nursing women, unless relying on the data is crucial to a decision that would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve... itself to conduct or support any research involving intentional exposure of pregnant or nursing women or...

  6. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, J.E.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products

  7. The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rick; Marshall, David W

    2003-06-01

    The construct of involvement has been found to influence brand loyalty, product information search processing, responses to advertising communications, diffusion of innovations, and ultimately, product choice decisions. Traditionally, involvement has been defined as being a characteristic of either a product or of an individual. In the present research, we make an assumption that an individual's 'food involvement' is a somewhat stable characteristic and we hypothesized that involvement with foods would vary between individuals, that individuals who are more highly involved with food would be better able to discriminate between a set of food samples than would less food involved individuals, and that this discrimination would operate both in affective and perceptive relative judgments. Using standard scale construction techniques, we developed a measure of the characteristic of food involvement, based on activities relating to food acquisition, preparation, cooking, eating and disposal. After several iterations, a final 12-item measure was found to have good test-retest reliability and internal consistency within two subscales. A behavioral validation study demonstrated that measures of food involvement were associated with discrimination and hedonic ratings for a range of foods in a laboratory setting. These findings suggest that food involvement, as measured by the Food Involvement Scale, may be an important mediator to consider when undertaking research with food and food habits.

  8. Facilitating the Involvement of People with Aphasia in Stroke Research by Developing Communicatively Accessible Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Gill; Cruice, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    People with aphasia can be marginalized by a communicatively inaccessible society. Compounding this problem, routinized exclusion from stroke research leads to bias in the evidence base and subsequent inequalities in service provision. Within the United Kingdom, the Clinical Research Network of the National Institute of Health identified this…

  9. A clash of paradigms? Western and indigenous views on health research involving Aboriginal peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Theresa Diane

    2014-07-01

    To explore the issues of data management and data ownership with regard to health research conducted in aboriginal or indigenous populations in Canada. Research with aboriginal communities in Canada has often been conducted by researchers who had little or no understanding of the community in which the research was taking place. This led to 'helicopter' research, which benefitted the researcher but not the community. National aboriginal leadership developed the ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) principles, which outline how to manage research data regarding aboriginal people and to counteract disrespectful methodologies. However, these principles present their own set of challenges to those who would conduct research with aboriginal populations. Documents from the Assembly of First Nations, the Government of Canada, Aboriginal writers and researchers, and Nursing theorists and researchers. This is a methodology paper that reviews the issues of data ownership when conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The authors explore indigenous and Western views of knowledge development, outline and discuss the OCAP principles, and present the Canadian Institute of Health Research's guidelines for health research involving aboriginal people as a guide for those who want to carry out ethical and culturally competent research, do no harm and produce research that can benefit aboriginal peoples. There are special considerations associated with conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The Assembly of First Nations wants researchers to use the Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP) principles with First Nations data. These principles are restrictive and need to be discussed with stakeholders before research is undertaken. In Canada, it is imperative that researchers use the Canadian Institute of Health Research Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People to ensure culturally sensitive and ethical conduct during the course of

  10. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and Clinical Research SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2... approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the...

  11. 78 FR 31568 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis SUMMARY: In compliance with the.... Proposed Collection: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Research Portfolio Analysis, 0925--NEW--National... Collection: The purpose of the ASD portfolio analysis is to collect research funding data from U.S. and...

  12. Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C; Holt, J

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK health policy is clear that researchers should involve the public throughout the research process. The public, including patients, carers and/or local citizens can bring a different and valuable perspective to the research process and improve the quality of research undertaken. Conducting health research is demanding with tight deadlines and scarce resources. This can make involving the public in research very challenging. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first time the attitudes of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services towards PPI have been investigated. The principles of service user involvement in mental health and learning disability services may support PPI in research as a tool of collaboration and empowerment. This article extends our understanding of the cultural and attitudinal barriers to implementing PPI guidelines in mental health and learning disability services. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Researchers in mental health and learning disability services need to champion, share and publish effective involvement work. Structural barriers to PPI work should be addressed locally and successful strategies shared nationally and internationally. Where PPI guidelines are being developed, attention needs to be paid to cultural factors in the research community to win "hearts and minds" and support the effective integration of PPI across the whole research process. Introduction Patient and public involvement (PPI) is integral to UK health research guidance; however, implementation is inconsistent. There is little research into the attitudes of NHS health researchers towards PPI. Aim This study explored the attitude of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services in the UK towards PPI in health research. Method Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight researchers. A

  13. Framing the Undergraduate Research Experience: Discovery Involvement in Retailing Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternquist, Brenda; Huddleston, Patricia; Fairhurst, Ann

    2018-01-01

    We provide an overview of ways to involve undergraduate business and retailing students in faculty research projects and discuss advantages of these student-faculty collaborations. We use Kolb's experiential learning cycle to provide a framework for creating an effective and engaging undergraduate research experience and use it to classify types…

  14. ORGANIC RESEARCH AND STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT: THE IFOAM EU REGIONAL GROUP CONTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalvez, Mr V; Schlueter, Mr M; Slabe, Ms A; Schmid, Mr O

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the concepts, criteria, procedures and some methodologies to increase stakeholders involvement and participatioin in organic research Projects in the European Union, based on the experiencie and practise of the IFOAM EU Regional Group (IFOAM-EURG), in transnational Organic research Projects, enfatising in achivements, dificulties and trends for the future

  15. The power of symbolic capital in patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Snow, Rosamund; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Policy-makers and health research funders increasingly require researchers to demonstrate that they have involved patients in the design and conduct of research. However, the extent to which patients and public have the power to get involved on an equal footing is dependent on their economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. To explore power relations in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, particularly how patients may wield symbolic capital to develop a more equal relationship. Narrative interviews with a maximum variation sample of 38 people involved as patients, carers or public in health research, analysed thematically. Symbolic capital may be demonstrated in a range of ways (sometimes alongside or in the absence of other forms of capital): illness experience, technical illness knowledge and the challenging outsider. Symbolic capital is unstable and dependent on others for recognition and legitimacy. Nonetheless, participants identify a gradual shift in power relations over time. Research into PPI has been conceptually and theoretically poor, limiting our understanding of its mechanisms and wider contextual elements. Our findings demonstrate the importance of reflecting on the forms of power and capital wielded by the health research community, and of acknowledging the way in which PPI is challenging the status quo. As one of the first papers to conceptualize how different forms of symbolic capital operate and their critical role in challenging the balance of power, our findings may help researchers better plan their PPI activities and reflect on their own power. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  17. Involving People with Lived Experience of Homelessness in Electronic Health Records Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Luchenski

    2017-04-01

    Using a participatory and dynamic approach to involve people with lived experience of homelessness and exclusion is an effective public engagement methodology for complex topics such as EHR research and data linkage. Information provided in the workshop was useful for interpreting findings, identifying strengths and gaps in health and social services, and developing research and practice recommendations.

  18. Undergraduate Research Involving Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Interdisciplinary Science Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Pagano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific undergraduate research in higher education often yields positive outcomes for student and faculty member participants alike, with underrepresented students often showing even more substantial gains (academic, professional, and personal as a result of the experience. Significant success can be realized when involving deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/hh undergraduate students, who are also vastly underrepresented in the sciences, in interdisciplinary research projects. Even d/hh Associate degree level students and those in the first two years of their postsecondary careers can contribute to, and benefit from, the research process when faculty mentors properly plan/design projects. We discuss strategies, including the dissemination/communication of research results, for involving these students in research groups with different communication dynamics and share both findings of our research program and examples of successful chemical and biological research projects that have involved d/hh undergraduate students. We hope to stimulate a renewed interest in encouraging diversity and involving students with disabilities into higher education research experiences globally and across multiple scientific disciplines, thus strengthening the education and career pipeline of these students.

  19. Pediatric oncologists' attitudes towards involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Martine C; Wit, Jan M; Engberts, Dirk P; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2010-07-15

    Various regulations and guidelines stipulate the importance of involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation. Several studies have shown that in the context of pediatric oncology this involvement is difficult to achieve due to emotional stress, the complexity of research protocols and limited time. Still, up to 80% of adolescents with cancer enter onto a trial during their illness. The aim of this study was to determine clinicians' views and attitudes towards enrolling adolescents in research, considering the difficulties surrounding their involvement in decision-making. A qualitative multicenter study was performed, using in-depth semi-structured interviews on the informed consent process with 15 pediatric hemato-oncologists. Four central themes emerged that characterize clinicians' attitudes towards involving adolescents in the decision-making process: (1) clinicians regard most adolescents as not capable of participating meaningfully in discussions regarding research; (2) clinicians do not always provide adolescents with all information; (3) proxy consent from parents is obtained and is deemed sufficient; (4) clinician-investigator integrity: clinicians judge research protocols as not being harmful and even in the best interest of the adolescent. Clinicians justify not involving adolescents in research discussions by referring to best interest arguments (adolescents' incompetence, proxy consent, and investigator integrity), although this is not in line with legal regulations and ethical guidelines.

  20. Community perspectives on research consent involving vulnerable children in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

    2012-10-01

    Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent.

  1. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  2. Do Research Intermediaries Reduce Perceived Coercion to Enter Research Trials Among Criminally Involved Substance Abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Croft, Jason R; Arabia, Patricia L; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2011-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of including a research intermediary (RI) during the consent process in reducing participants' perceptions of coercion to enroll in a research study. Eighty-four drug court clients being recruited into an ongoing study were randomized to receive a standard informed consent process alone (standard condition) or with an RI (intermediary condition). Before obtaining consent, RIs met with clients individually to discuss remaining concerns. Findings provided preliminary evidence that RIs reduced client perceptions that their participation might influence how clinical and judicial staff view them. This suggests that using RIs may improve participant autonomy in clinical studies.

  3. 75 FR 51439 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  4. 75 FR 27789 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Application for the Pharmacology Research Associate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be... develop leaders in pharmacological research for key positions in academic, industrial, and Federal...

  5. Leveraging ISI Multi-Model Prediction for Navy Operations: Proposal to the Office of Naval Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Operations: Proposal to the Office of Naval Research” PI: Benjamin Kirtman University of Miami – RSMAS Meteorology and Physical Oceanography...Prediction for Navy Operations: Proposal to the Office of Naval Research 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. 77 FR 13131 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request Post-Award Reporting Requirements Including New Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title... Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ... information technology. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: To request more information on the proposed project...

  7. Partners in projects: preparing for public involvement in health and social care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jacqueline H; Pyer, Michelle; Wray, Paula; Taylor, Jane

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, several UK and, international funders of health and social care related research have adopted the policy of requiring explicit evidence of the 'public' voice in all aspects of project design. For many academic researchers engaged within research, evaluations or audit projects, this formal requirement to actively engage members of the public will present them with both benefits and challenges to securing knowledgeable, skilled, and confident lay representation onto project teams. This could potentially lead to the exploitation of those individuals who are available, appropriately informed, and adequately prepared for such activities. Currently, much of the preparation of patients or members of the public for research involvement tends to be aligned to specific projects; however, with the call for greater active and meaningful involvement of lay representatives in future national and international funding applications, there is clearly a growing need to 'train' sufficient numbers of confident and competent representatives to meet this growing demand. This paper describes the development of a specifically designed research awareness training programme and underpinning theoretical model, which has been specifically designed to support active and meaningful lay involvement in research, evaluations and audit projects. Developed over a four year period, the course is a culmination of learning extracted from a series of four completed research projects, which have incorporated an element of public and patient involvement (PPI) training in their overall design. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Public involvement in research within care homes: benefits and challenges in the APPROACH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Katherine; Goodman, Claire; Morbey, Hazel; Davies, Sue L; Masey, Helen; Dickinson, Angela; Martin, Wendy; Victor, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Public involvement in research (PIR) can improve research design and recruitment. Less is known about how PIR enhances the experience of participation and enriches the data collection process. In a study to evaluate how UK care homes and primary health-care services achieve integrated working to promote older people's health, PIR was integrated throughout the research processes. This paper aims to present one way in which PIR has been integrated into the design and delivery of a multisite research study based in care homes. A prospective case study design, with an embedded qualitative evaluation of PIR activity. Data collection was undertaken in six care homes in three sites in England. Six PIR members participated: all had prior personal or work experience in care homes. Qualitative data collection involved discussion groups, and site-specific meetings to review experiences of participation, benefits and challenges, and completion of structured fieldwork notes after each care home visit. PIR members supported recruitment, resident and staff interviews and participated in data interpretation. Benefits of PIR work were resident engagement that minimized distress and made best use of limited research resources. Challenges concerned communication and scheduling. Researcher support for PIR involvement was resource intensive. Clearly defined roles with identified training and support facilitated involvement in different aspects of the data collection process. This can also ensure that vulnerable older people who participate in research have a positive experience that reinforces the value of their views. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Timothy M; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Husson, Fran; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Ahmad, Raheelah

    2018-02-01

    Public sources fund the majority of UK infection research, but citizens currently have no formal role in resource allocation. To explore the feasibility and willingness of citizens to engage in strategic decision making, we developed and tested a practical tool to capture public priorities for research. A scenario including six infection themes for funding was developed to assess citizen priorities for research funding. This was tested over two days at a university public festival. Votes were cast anonymously along with rationale for selection. The scenario was then implemented during a three-hour focus group exploring views on engagement in strategic decisions and in-depth evaluation of the tool. 188/491(38%) prioritized funding research into drug-resistant infections followed by emerging infections(18%). Results were similar between both days. Focus groups contained a total of 20 citizens with an equal gender split, range of ethnicities and ages ranging from 18 to >70 years. The tool was perceived as clear with participants able to make informed comparisons. Rationale for funding choices provided by voters and focus group participants are grouped into three major themes: (i) Information processing; (ii) Knowledge of the problem; (iii) Responsibility; and a unique theme within the focus groups (iv) The potential role of citizens in decision making. Divergent perceptions of relevance and confidence of "non-experts" as decision makers were expressed. Voting scenarios can be used to collect, en-masse, citizens' choices and rationale for research priorities. Ensuring adequate levels of citizen information and confidence is important to allow deployment in other formats. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  11. An Observational Study of Children's Involvement in Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Werner-Lin, Allison; Walser, Sarah A; Biswas, Sawona; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine children's involvement in consent sessions for exome sequencing research and associations of involvement with provider and parent communication. Participants included 44 children (8-17 years) from five cohorts who were offered participation in an exome sequencing study. The consent sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded. Providers attempted to facilitate the child's involvement in the majority (73%) of sessions, and most (75%) children also verbally participated. Provider facilitation was strongly associated with likelihood of child participation. These findings underscore that strategies such as asking for children's opinions and soliciting their questions show respect for children and may increase the likelihood that they are engaged and involved in decisions about research participation.

  12. How to write a competitive proposal for Horizon 2020 a research manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1: An Overview of Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 2: How the Research Priorities were Selected (How to Lobby) ; Chapter 3: The Research Priorities in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 4: How Proposals are Evaluated ; Chapter 5: How to Write the ‘Impact’ of the project ; Chapter 6: The One Page Proposal ; Chapter 7: How to Streamline Proposal Writing ; Chapter 8: How to Find the Best Partners ; Chapter 9: How to Write the ‘Implementation' of the project ; Chapter 10: Legal and Financial Rules in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 11: What is your Strategy for Horizon 2020?

  13. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  14. Children's Decision-Making Involvement About Research Participation: Associations With Perceived Fairness and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris; Jawad, Abbas F

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the associations of children's involvement in decisions about research participation with their perceptions of the decision-making process and self-efficacy. Participants were children (ages 8-17) who enrolled in research studies in the prior 2 months. Children completed a questionnaire that yielded three decision-making involvement subscales: Researcher Engages Child, Researcher Supports Autonomy, and Child Participates. Children reported on fairness of the decision-making process and health-related decision self-efficacy. After adjusting for age, higher scores on Researcher Engages Child were associated with greater self-efficacy, and higher scores on Researcher Supports Autonomy were associated with greater perceived fairness. These data underscore the potential importance of researcher-child interactions about research participation when assent is sought, including proactively involving children in the decision by asking for their opinions and communicating their central role in the decision, which are likely to be more meaningful to children than receiving information or signing a form.

  15. Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) Year 2 Report and Year 3 Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, Geroge; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    2003-01-01

    The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL): a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, contributes to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL enables Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during the second year of implementation. The AERIAL Year 3 proposal is also included.

  16. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ..., advertising, and promotion of highbush blueberries in the marketplace. The Council recommended increasing the...-09-0021; FV-09-704] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed... amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the assessment rate...

  17. Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

  18. Data collection using open access technology in multicentre operational research involving patient interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, H D; Chadha, S S; Gupta, V; Tripathy, J P; Satyanarayana, S; Sagili, K; Mohanty, S; Bera, O P; Pandey, P; Rajeswaran, P; Jayaraman, G; Santhappan, A; Bajpai, U N; Mamatha, A M; Maiser, R; Naqvi, A J; Pandurangan, S; Nath, S; Ghule, V H; Das, A; Prasad, B M; Biswas, M; Singh, G; Mallick, G; Jeyakumar Jaisingh, A J; Rao, R; Kumar, A M V

    2017-03-21

    Conducting multicentre operational research is challenging due to issues related to the logistics of travel, training, supervision, monitoring and troubleshooting support. This is even more burdensome in resource-constrained settings and if the research includes patient interviews. In this article, we describe an innovative model that uses open access tools such as Dropbox, TeamViewer and CamScanner for efficient, quality-assured data collection in an ongoing multicentre operational research study involving record review and patient interviews. The tools used for data collection have been shared for adaptation and use by other researchers.

  19. A devolved model for public involvement in the field of mental health research: case study learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Davies, Rosie

    2016-12-01

    Patient and public involvement in all aspects of research is espoused and there is a continued interest in understanding its wider impact. Existing investigations have identified both beneficial outcomes and remaining issues. This paper presents the impact of public involvement in one case study led by a mental health charity conducted as part of a larger research project. The case study used a devolved model of working, contracting with service user-led organizations to maximize the benefits of local knowledge on the implementation of personalized budgets, support recruitment and local user-led organizations. To understand the processes and impact of public involvement in a devolved model of working with user-led organizations. Multiple data collection methods were employed throughout 2012. These included interviews with the researchers (n = 10) and research partners (n = 5), observation of two case study meetings and the review of key case study documentation. Analysis was conducted in NVivo10 using a coding framework developed following a literature review. Five key themes emerged from the data; Devolved model, Nature of involvement, Enabling factors, Implementation challenges and Impact. While there were some challenges of implementing the devolved model it is clear that our findings add to the growing understanding of the positive benefits research partners can bring to complex research. A devolved model can support the involvement of user-led organizations in research if there is a clear understanding of the underpinning philosophy and support mechanisms are in place. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sodium cooled research thermal reactor - a proposal to the Brazilian nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear community can contribute to the society in two ways: assuring reactor technologies for electric power supply and contributing to developments in other areas by application of radiations. Industrialized countries maintain intensive activities in the two senses, while in Brazil nuclear policy is not clear and opportunities of research with radiations are quite limited. It is proposed, as a way out of this situations, that the nuclear community concentrate its activities in the sense of proposing the construction of a low-power research reactor that can satisfy a majority of demands (radioisotopes, research, fast reactor) and avoid the problems of experimental fast reactors (high cost, use of Pu and HEU). (author)

  1. The Significance of Benefit Perceptions for the Ethics of HIV Research Involving Adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Stuart; Groves, Allison K; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J; Odongo, Fredrick S; Luseno, Winnie K

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of benefits is traditionally regarded as crucial to the ethical evaluation of research involving human participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with health and other professionals engaged with adolescents, caregivers/parents, and adolescents in Siaya County, Kenya, to solicit opinions about appropriate ways of conducting HIV research with adolescents. Our data revealed that many focus group participants have a profoundly positive conception of participation in health research, including studies conferring seemingly few benefits. In this article, we identify and analyze five different but interrelated types of benefits as perceived by Kenyan adolescent and adult stakeholders in HIV research, and discuss their ethical significance. Our findings suggest that future empirical and conceptual research should concentrate on factors that may trigger researcher obligations to improve benefit perceptions among research participants.

  2. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino involvement in clinical research opportunities: qualitative findings from Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Lisa X; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Calderón, José L; Perez, John; Easa, David

    2005-01-01

    Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.

  3. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A genre analysis of English language research grant proposal abstracts in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Matzler, Pascal P

    2014-01-01

    The writing of English-language research genres represent a challenging task for non-native-speaker researchers. Grant proposals, in particular, are a high-stakes genre that will greatly influence a researcher’s career development opportunities; however, novice researchers are faced with an urgent lack of publicly available exemplars or teaching materials for this genre. The present study attempts to address this issue by means of Swalesian genre analysis. First, a move system analysis is app...

  5. Patient and public involvement in primary care research - an example of ensuring its sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Clare; Carter, Pam; Rhodes, Carol; Taylor, Robert; Beech, Roger; Dziedzic, Krysia; Blackburn, Steven; Hughes, Rhian; Ong, Bie Nio

    2016-01-01

    The international literature on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research covers a wide range of issues, including active lay involvement throughout the research cycle; roles that patients/public can play; assessing impact of PPI and recommendations for good PPI practice. One area of investigation that is less developed is the sustainability and impact of PPI beyond involvement in time-limited research projects. This paper focuses on the issues of sustainability, the importance of institutional leadership and the creation of a robust infrastructure in order to achieve long-term and wide-ranging PPI in research strategy and programmes. We use the case of a Primary Care Research Centre to provide a historical account of the evolution of PPI in the Centre and identified a number of key conceptual issues regarding infrastructure, resource allocation, working methods, roles and relationships. The paper concludes about the more general applicability of the Centre's model for the long-term sustainability of PPI in research.

  6. Ethical practice in internet research involving vulnerable people: lessons from a self-harm discussion forum study (SharpTalk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Siobhan; Jones, Ray; Smithson, Janet; Hewis, Elaine; Emmens, Tobit; Ford, Tamsin; Owens, Christabel

    2011-12-01

    The internet is widely used for health information and support, often by vulnerable people. Internet-based research raises both familiar and new ethical problems for researchers and ethics committees. While guidelines for internet-based research are available, it is unclear to what extent ethics committees use these. Experience of gaining research ethics approval for a UK study (SharpTalk), involving internet-based discussion groups with young people who self-harm and health professionals is described. During ethical review, unsurprisingly, concerns were raised about the vulnerability of potential participants. These were dominated by the issue of anonymity, which also affected participant safety and consent. These ethical problems are discussed, and our solutions, which included: participant usernames specific to the study, a closed website, private messaging facilities, a direct contact email to researchers, information about forum rules displayed on the website, a 'report' button for participants, links to online support, and a discussion room for forum moderators. This experience with SharpTalk suggests that an approach to ethics, which recognises the relational aspects of research with vulnerable people, is particularly useful for internet-based health research. The solutions presented here can act as guidance for researchers developing proposals and for ethics committees reviewing them.

  7. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, J. M.; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-05-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R&D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described.

  8. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Salvi, O; Hazebrouck, B; Jovanovic, A; Carre, F; Saamanen, A; Brouwer, D; Schmitt, M; Martin, S

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21 st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R and D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described. (paper)

  9. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-06-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards. This article will review responsibilities for institutional oversight of occupational health and safety for research involving biologic hazards.

  10. How embedded is public involvement in mainstream health research in England a decade after policy implementation? A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patricia; Mathie, Elspeth; Poland, Fiona; Keenan, Julia; Howe, Amanda; Munday, Diane; Kendall, Sally; Cowe, Marion; Staniszewska, Sophie; Goodman, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To explore how embedded patient and public involvement is within mainstream health research following two decades of policy-driven work to underpin health research with patient and public involvement in England. Methods Realist evaluation using Normalization Process Theory as a programme theory to understand what enabled patient and public involvement to be embedded as normal practice. Data were collected through a national scoping and survey, and qualitative methods to track patient and public involvement processes and impact over time within 22 nationally funded research projects. Results In research studies that were able to create reciprocal working relationships and to embed patient and public involvement this was contingent on: the purpose of patient and public involvement being clear; public contributors reflecting research end-beneficiaries; researchers understanding the value of patient and public involvement; patient and public involvement opportunities being provided throughout the research and ongoing evaluation of patient and public involvement. Key contested areas included: whether to measure patient and public involvement impact; seeking public contributors to maintain a balance between being research-aware and an outsider standpoint seen as 'authentically' lay; scaling-up patient and public involvement embedded within a research infrastructure rather than risk token presence and whether patient and public involvement can have a place within basic science. Conclusions While patient and public involvement can be well-integrated within all types of research, policy makers should take account of tensions that must be navigated in balancing moral and methodological imperatives.

  11. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  12. Research involving subjects with Alzheimer's disease in Italy: the possible role of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Corinna; Petrini, Carlo

    2015-03-04

    Alzheimer's disease is a very common, progressive and still incurable disease. Future possibilities for its cure lie in the promotion of research that will increase our knowledge of the disorder's causes and lead to the discovery of effective remedies. Such research will necessarily involve individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This raises the controversial issue of whether patients with Alzheimer's disease are competent to give their consent for research participation. We discuss the case of subjects with Alzheimer's disease who may have impaired decision-making capacity and who could be involved in research protocols, taking into consideration aspects of the Italian normative framework, which requires a court-appointed legal representative for patients who are not able to give consent and does not recognise the legal value of advance directives. We show that this normative framework risks preventing individuals with Alzheimer's disease from taking part in research and that a new policy that favours research while promoting respect for patients' well-being and rights needs to be implemented. We believe that concerns about the difficulty of obtaining fully valid consent of patients with Alzheimer's disease should not prevent them from participating in clinical trials and benefiting from scientific progress. Therefore, we argue that the requirement for patients to have a legal representative may not be the best solution in all countries and clinical situations, and suggest promoting the role of patients' family members in the decision-making process. In addition, we outline the possible role of advance directives and ethics committees.

  13. [The strategic research areas of a University Hospital: proposal of a quali-quantitative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, Elisa; Ardissino, Diego; Ferrari, Carlo; Vitale, Marco; Caminiti, Caterina

    2018-02-01

    This work aimed to objectively identify the main research areas at the University Hospital of Parma. To this end, a multidisciplinary working group, comprising clinicians, researchers, and hospital management, was formed to develop a shared quali-quantitative method. Easily retrievable performance indicators were selected from the literature (concerning bibliometric data and grant acquisition), and a scoring system developed to assign weights to each indicator. Subsequently, Research Team Leaders were identified from the hospital's "Research Plan", a document produced every three years which contains information on the main research themes carried out at each Department, involved staff and available resources, provided by health care professionals themselves. The selected performance indicators were measured for each Team Leader, and scores assigned, thus creating a ranking list. Through the analyses of the research themes of top Team Leaders, the Working Group identified the following five strategic research areas: (a) personalized treatment in oncology and hematology; (b) chronicization mechanisms in immunomediate diseases; (c) old and new risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; (d) nutritional disorders, metabolic and chronic-degenerative diseases; (e) molecular diagnostic and predictive markers. We have developed an objective method to identify a hospital's main research areas. Its application can guide resource allocation and can offer ways to value the work of professionals involved in research.

  14. A Proposal for Research and Development of an Explosive Drilling Technique for Geothermal Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-10-01

    In order to make large scale use of the geothermal energy available it will be necessary to drill many thousands of holes deep into the earth. The objective of the proposed research is to greatly decrease drilling time and cost. Studies made of a new explosive drilling technique indicate that savings in time of from 70 to 80 percent. The research plan is to utilize explosive in the form of multiple-faced shaped charge capsules. [DJE-2005

  15. A Proposal to Build an Education Research and Development Program: The Kamehameha Early Education Project Proposal. Technical Report #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report summarizes the programmatic features of a proposal for the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP), a program aimed at the development, demonstration, and dissemination of methods for improving the education of Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian children. A brief description of the proposed project goals, structure, organization, and…

  16. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others.

  17. 45 CFR 46.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of applications and proposals. 46.123 Section 46.123 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human... rights and welfare of human subjects (whether or not the research was subject to federal regulation). ...

  18. 75 FR 21008 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Biotechnology Activities (OBA) published a proposal to revise the NIH Guidelines for Research with Recombinant... by fax to 301-496-9839 or mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of...

  19. Making Sense of Undergraduate Students' Reflections as They Learn through Writing an Action Research Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoto, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores learning opportunities offered by students' written reflections as they learn through writing an action research proposal. From tapping into students' reported struggles, I analysed data using three stages of qualitative data analysis: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman 1994). It emerged…

  20. An action research proposal to enhance the ideation practices among shopfloor level employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paalanen, Anne; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    proposes an inter-unit solution to activate the shopfloor level employees to give innovation ideas and to share the ideas between different units. The methodology used in this paper is action research. The results suggest that the bottom-up approach to create new active roles to harvest innovation ideas...

  1. Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 nov. 2017 ... Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition ... developmental neurobiology; neuro-immunology; neuroendocrinology; regenerative medicine in brain disease; cellular and molecular basis of cognition; modeling brain function; imaging of neural processes ...

  2. 76 FR 9695 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 [Document No. AMS-FV-10... of Comment Period on Proposed Establishment of a Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov or to the Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...

  3. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy: how to involve and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide. Furthermore, the collective process makes the decision-making procedures relatively complex.

  4. Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Shah, Seema

    2015-10-01

    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against this possibility, the present manuscript argues that involving host communities in this process helps to promote four important goals: (1) protecting host communities, (2) respecting host communities, (3) promoting transparency, and (4) enhancing social value. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Inc. 2015.

  5. Involving healthcare professionals and family carers in setting research priorities for end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffin, Janet; Spence, Michael; Spencer, Rebecca; Mellor, Peter; Grande, Gunn

    2017-02-02

    It is important to ensure regional variances are considered when setting future end-of-life research priorities, given the differing demographics and service provision. This project sought to identify end-of-life research priorities within Greater Manchester (United Kingdom). Following an initial scoping exercise, six topics within the 10 national priorities outlined by The Palliative and end-of-life care Priority Setting Partnership were selected for exploration. A workshop involving 32 healthcare professionals and a consultation process with 26 family carers was conducted. Healthcare professionals and carers selected and discussed the topics important to them. The topics selected most frequently by both healthcare professionals and carers were 'Access to 24 hour care', 'Planning end-of-life care in advance' and 'Staff and carer education'. Healthcare professionals also developed research questions for their topics of choice which were refined to incorporate carers' views. These questions are an important starting point for future end-of-life research within Greater Manchester.

  6. Involving mental health service users in suicide-related research: a qualitative inquiry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, David; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise; Handley, Christine

    2016-03-01

    To describe the research model developed and successfully deployed as part of a multi-method qualitative study investigating suicidal service-users' experiences of mental health nursing care. Quality mental health care is essential to limiting the occurrence and burden of suicide, however there is a lack of relevant research informing practice in this context. Research utilising first-person accounts of suicidality is of particular importance to expanding the existing evidence base. However, conducting ethical research to support this imperative is challenging. The model discussed here illustrates specific and more generally applicable principles for qualitative research regarding sensitive topics and involving potentially vulnerable service-users. Researching into mental health service users with first-person experience of suicidality requires stakeholder and institutional support, researcher competency, and participant recruitment, consent, confidentiality, support and protection. Research with service users into their experiences of sensitive issues such as suicidality can result in rich and valuable data, and may also provide positive experiences of collaboration and inclusivity. If challenges are not met, objectification and marginalisation of service-users may be reinforced, and limitations in the evidence base and service provision may be perpetuated.

  7. Neutronics analysis of the proposed 25-MW leu TRIGA Multipurpose Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    More than two years ago the government of Indonesia announced plans to purchase a research reactor for the Puspiptek Research Center in Serpong Indonesia to be used for isotope production, materials testing, neutron physics measurements, and reactor operator training. Reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) plate-type and rod-type fuel elements were considered. This paper deals with the neutronic evaluation of the rod-type 25-MW LEU TRIGA Multipurpose Research Reactor (MPRR) proposed by the General Atomic Company of the United States of America

  8. Clinician researcher career pathway for registered nurses and midwives: A proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheree; Gullick, Janice; Ballard, Jacqueline; Perry, Lin

    2018-06-01

    To consider clinician researcher career frameworks and propose a new pathway, integrating university and health service components to support research career progression within nursing and midwifery practice. Hospitals with research-active clinicians report fewer adverse events and better patient outcomes. Nursing clinician researcher career development is therefore an international priority, yet positions and expectations associated with this are not always well articulated, with nurses and midwives challenged to accommodate research and clinical careers. This discussion paper describes nurse/midwife clinician researcher career frameworks and a new pathway that aligns academic and nursing role descriptions. The new framework was informed by a brief literature search for international framework documents, three Australian state-based Nurses and Midwives Awards: the Australian Qualifications Framework, publically available University Academic (Research) Award schedules and academic staff descriptions, and state health department and health services publications. The implementation of research-based practice is a key element of nursing and midwifery roles and "advanced practice" position descriptions have well-defined research expectations. This paper considers structures to support their achievement. This paper provides a blueprint for clinician researcher career development. It elevates the research domain as an equal alongside clinical, managerial and educational clinical career development. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  10. 77 FR 52061 - Notice of Proposed Exemption Involving Sharp HealthCare Located in San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... independent certified public accountant each year, including its last completed taxable year. Therefore, the... will continue to be, examined by an independent certified public accountant annually. (f) The amount... public hearing on the proposed exemption should be submitted to the Department within 33 days from the...

  11. Canadian governance of health research involving human subjects: is anybody minding the store?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M

    2001-01-01

    From an ethical perspective, good governance involves the translation of collective moral intentions into effective and accountable institutional actions. With respect to the use of human subjects in Canadian health research, I contend that there have been many good intentions but very little in the way of appropriate governance arrangements. Hence, the question, "who minds the store?" is especially acute with respect to the protection of vulnerable individuals and groups that are typically recruited as subjects for health research in Canada. Beyond diagnosing failures in governance and their causes, I offer suggestions for significant reforms, including evidence-based ethics assessment, independent oversight, and greater participation of research subjects in governance. I will close with some more general reflections on ethics, law, and governance.

  12. Proposed Model for Translational Research at a Teaching-Intensive College of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Erin; Grady, Sarah; Vonderhaar, Jacqueline; Ruplin, Andrew

    2017-08-08

    Many American colleges of pharmacy are small, private, teaching institutions. Faculty are required to maintain a research agenda, although the publication quota is less compared with their publicly funded college of pharmacy peers. Faculty at these smaller schools conduct research with very little internal or external funding. This tends to lead to smaller, less impactful research findings. Translational research is becoming popular for research faculty as it bridges theory to practice. The Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) framework presents the steps to conduct translational research. To apply and determine if the KTA framework would be able to produce practice-impactful research at an institution that does not depend on grant funding as part of faculty research agendas. An interdisciplinary team was formed with providers at the clinical faculty's practice site. As the team moved through the KTA steps, authors documented the roles of each team member. It was clear that many different types of teams were formed throughout the KTA process. These teams were then categorized according to the Interdisciplinary Teamwork System. The final result is a proposed model of types of teams and required member roles that are necessary within each KTA step for faculty to conduct practice-impactful research at a small, private, teaching institution without substantial grant funding awards. Applying the KTA framework, two impactful original research manuscripts were developed over two academic years. Furthermore, the practitioners at the clinical faculty member's site were very pleased with the ease of conducting research, as they were never required to take a lead role. In addition, both faculty members alternated lead and support role allowing for a decreased burden of workload while producing theory-driven research. The KTA framework can create a model for translational research and may be particularly beneficial to small teaching institutions to conduct impactful research. Copyright

  13. What Researchers Should Know and be Able to do When Contemplating Involvement in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, R. W.

    2004-12-01

    At some point in their careers, many researchers are motivated to share what they have learned with a wider audience. As their studies mature, and national awareness for more effective integration of research and education intensifies, researchers are increasingly directing efforts toward informal and pre-college educational sectors. Each initiative comes with good intentions, but many fall short of intended benefit. Quality education and outreach programs develop from the same precepts that shape research programs of high professional standing. A researcher is most likely to make useful contributions when they are willing and able to implement familiar research principles to broader educational endeavors. As with research endeavors, principles of significance, literacy, design, feasibility, analysis and dissemination need to be regarded as essential indicators of education program quality. It is helpful to provide researchers who are contemplating more active educational involvement with more than casual understanding of the purposes underlying their pending contributions. Such understanding is premised on the tenet that education and research are always in the public service and therefore inextricably bound at all levels. Both research and education have, as their ultimate goal, enhanced scientific literacy of the citizenry. By example, it can be shown that the best-supported programs, within government and academia, recognize that the way they translate knowledge and make it available to scientific organizations and the public is critical to their intrinsic societal value and level of support. As education conjures up a host of operational meanings arising from one's own values and experiences, the knowledge researchers bring to pre-college and informal educational settings is often based on personal experience rather than on education research, practice and policy. Researchers may believe that because they spent 13 years in school, an additional 4 years at a

  14. Involving older people in research: practical considerations when using the authenticity criteria in constructivist inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christine Brown; Clissett, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this paper is to identify practical suggestions that could enable other researchers to consider how quality may be evidenced using constructivist principles including the perspectives of older people and their caregivers. Background Constructivism suggests that reality is part of a social construction, which holds different meanings for each person, in which people are active agents, making autonomous decisions. This approach to research has been identified as suitable for health and social care professionals because these underpinning principles reflect the values of these professions, facilitating the involvement of users and carers. The authenticity criteria have been developed to reflect these philosophical principles but have been criticized for their inaccessible language. To incorporate user and carer perspectives, the criteria have been revised into a more accessible model matrix known as the AldreVast Sjuharad criteria. Discussion This paper reports on two constructivist studies that explored relationships between older people, families and staff in different settings – the community and care homes. Examples from both settings demonstrate how the perspectives of users and carers were incorporated throughout the research process. Following the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix, practical guidance is provided on how the quality of constructivist research may be implemented in nursing research. Conclusions The different settings in this paper influenced how the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix was applied. Further work is needed in exploring how the perspective of users and carers may be incorporated into the quality process of constructivist research. PMID:21073505

  15. Public and patient involvement in quantitative health research: A statistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Ailish

    2018-06-19

    The majority of studies included in recent reviews of impact for public and patient involvement (PPI) in health research had a qualitative design. PPI in solely quantitative designs is underexplored, particularly its impact on statistical analysis. Statisticians in practice have a long history of working in both consultative (indirect) and collaborative (direct) roles in health research, yet their perspective on PPI in quantitative health research has never been explicitly examined. To explore the potential and challenges of PPI from a statistical perspective at distinct stages of quantitative research, that is sampling, measurement and statistical analysis, distinguishing between indirect and direct PPI. Statistical analysis is underpinned by having a representative sample, and a collaborative or direct approach to PPI may help achieve that by supporting access to and increasing participation of under-represented groups in the population. Acknowledging and valuing the role of lay knowledge of the context in statistical analysis and in deciding what variables to measure may support collective learning and advance scientific understanding, as evidenced by the use of participatory modelling in other disciplines. A recurring issue for quantitative researchers, which reflects quantitative sampling methods, is the selection and required number of PPI contributors, and this requires further methodological development. Direct approaches to PPI in quantitative health research may potentially increase its impact, but the facilitation and partnership skills required may require further training for all stakeholders, including statisticians. © 2018 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A proposal to address the governance of carbon capture and storage technologies in Spain: Trust, communication and public involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Gamero, N.

    2007-07-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a process consisting of the separation of CO{sub 2} from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers it an option in the portfolio of mitigation actions for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. But the widespread application of CCs would depend on different issues such as technical feasibility, regulatory aspects, environmental issues and public acceptability, CCS, in spite of being a very important and necessary technology for the mitigation of climate change, involves some risks that should be managed. When dealing with technologies that involve some kind of environmental or health risk, risk governance is a key part of the development and deployment process. (Author) 63 refs.

  17. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Judith

    researcher and recipient relationship, specific to technology transfer. In this research, the evaluation criteria of several research organizations were assessed to understand the extent to which the success attributes that were identified in literature were considered when reviewing research proposals. While some of the organizations included a few of the success attributes, none of the organizations considered all of the attributes. In addition, none of the organizations quantified the value of the success attributes. The effectiveness of the model relies extensively on expert judgments to complete the model validation and quantification. Subject matter experts ranging from senior executives with extensive experience in technology transfer to principal research investigators from national labs, universities, utilities, and non-profit research organizations were used to ensure a comprehensive and cross-functional validation and quantification of the decision model. The quantified model was validated using a case study involving demand response (DR) technology proposals in the Pacific Northwest. The DR technologies were selected based on their potential to solve some of the region's most prevalent issues. In addition, several sensitivity scenarios were developed to test the model's response to extreme case scenarios, impact of perturbations in expert responses, and if it can be applied to other than demand response technologies. In other words, is the model technology agnostic? In addition, the flexibility of the model to be used as a tool for communicating which success attributes in a research proposal are deficient and need strengthening and how improvements would increase the overall technology transfer score were assessed. The low scoring success attributes in the case study proposals (e.g. project meetings, etc.) were clearly identified as the areas to be improved for increasing the technology transfer score. As a communication tool, the model could help a research

  18. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  19. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs

  20. DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS

    OpenAIRE

    Vladu Alina Beattrice; Cuzdriorean Dan Dacian

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between...

  1. INVOLVING STUDENTS IN RESEARCH AS A FORM OF INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERING WITH MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M. Fedoseyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: questions of integration of mathematical with engineering training in educational process of higher education institution are explored. The existing technologies of the integrated training are analyzed, and the project-oriented direction is distinguished. Research involving students as an organisational and methodical form of training bachelors of the technical speciali sations is discussed. Materials and Methods: results of article are based on researches of tendencies of development of technical and mathematical education, works on the theory and methodology of pedagogical integration, methodology of mathematics and technical science. Methods of historical and pedagogical research, analytical, a method of mathematical modeling were used. Results: the main content of the paper is to make discussion of experience in developing and using integrated educational tasks in real educational process. Discussion is based on a specific technological assignment including a number of mathematical tasks used as a subject of research for students. In the assignment a special place is allocated to the questions reflecting the interplay of a technical task with a mathematical method of research highlighting the objective significance of mathematics as a method to solve engineering problems. Discussion and Conclusions: the paper gives reasons to conditions for using research work with students as an organisational and methodical form of integrated training in mathematics. In realisation of educational technology it is logical to apply the method of projects. It is necessary to formulate a task as an engineering project: to set an engineering objective of research, to formulate specifications; to differentiate between engineering and mathematical tasks of the project, to make actual interrelations between them; the mathematical part of the project has to be a body of research; assessment of the project must be carried out not only accounting for

  2. Why and How Political Science Can Contribute to Public Health? Proposals for Collaborative Research Avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal

    2017-04-05

    Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development

  4. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Claire L; Thompson, Lindsay C; Murphy, Claire; Forcat, Silvia; Hanley, Bec

    2012-01-13

    We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future

  5. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicative patients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001

  6. Librarian involvement in a nutrition undergraduate research course: preparing nutrition students for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan C; Penumetcha, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Given the foundational importance of literature searching skills to later stages of research and, ultimately, evidence-based practice, the authors wanted to assess a unique strategy for teaching such skills. This pilot study describes the results of an undergraduate nutrition research course in which a librarian lead several class sessions. The goal of this study was to assess students' perceptions, attitudes and use of research literature and resources before and after a course partially taught by a librarian. Twenty-seven students enrolled in an undergraduate Introduction to Research course at Georgia State University were given pre- and post-test questionnaires at the beginning and end of a course that included three librarian-led class sessions. Most of the results indicate that the repeated involvement of a librarian enriched this particular undergraduate research course. By the end of the course, students were more comfortable in libraries and with using library resources; they used the campus library more frequently; they were more confident in their ability to find high-quality information on nutrition-related topics and identify strengths and weaknesses of different information sources; and they felt they gained skills that will help them achieve their educational and career goals.

  7. Tea, talk and technology: patient and public involvement to improve connected health 'wearables' research in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Swarbrick, Caroline; Sanders, Caroline; Parker, Angela; Machin, Matt; Tully, Mary P; Ainsworth, John

    2017-01-01

    There are a growing number of mobile phones, watches and electronic devices which can be worn on the body to track aspects of health and well-being, such as daily steps, sleep and exercise. Dementia researchers think that these devices could potentially be used as part of future research projects, for example to help spot changes in daily activity that may signal the early symptoms of dementia. We asked a range of older people, including people living with dementia and their carers, to participate in interactive discussions about how future participants might find using these devices as part of research projects. We also invited volunteers to borrow a range of devices to test at home, giving them further insights. Discussions revealed that people were generally supportive of this type of research, provided they gave informed consent and that devices were discreet, comfortable and easy to use. They also valued technical support and regular feedback on study progress to encourage ongoing participation. These findings were used to develop a pool of devices for researchers, with computer software and written guidance to help plan, design and support studies. Our work shows that when given the right opportunities, people who are affected by dementia can provide valuable insights that can enhance the design, delivery and quality of future research. Background Increasingly, researchers are recognising the potential for connected health devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, to generate high resolution data about patterns of daily activity and health outcomes. One aim of the Dementias Platform UK (DPUK) project is to provide researchers with a secure means to collect, collate and link data generated by such devices, thereby accelerating this type of research in the field of dementia. We aimed to involve members of the public in discussions about the acceptability and feasibility of different devices and research designs to inform the development of a device pool

  8. African primary care research: Choosing a topic and developing a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a  research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.

  9. Classical table services in commercial catering: standardization proposal and clarifications for future researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Wendhausen Krause

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to synthesize the scientific knowledge with the empirical knowledge of the authors of this article on the four main types/styles of individual services in gastronomic full service establishments. In addition, it seeks to, as secondary objectives, to simplify and standardize the types of classic services in restaurants. These objectives were met through a positivist methodological approach. It had as research techniques a comparative analysis and synthesis of the state of the art on the typology of classical services with the empirical knowledge of the authors. Subsequently, the validation of standardization proposal was made by a panel of evaluators. We came to simplify the services into three basic categories: French Service; Direct English Service and Platted Service. It is understood that, because it is an exploratory study, the proposal is the beginning of scientific research on the subject. Therefore, it has to be investigated in greater depth in future studies. Therefore, the research field of the mise en place is the area that greater needs research of this nature.

  10. Priorities for methodological research on patient and public involvement in clinical trials: A modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather; Gamble, Carrol; Denegri, Simon; Muir, Delia; Simon, Natalie A; Thomas, Stephen; Elliot, Jim T; Bulbeck, Helen; Crocker, Joanna C; Planner, Claire; Vale, Claire; Clarke, Mike; Sprosen, Tim; Woolfall, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting. In total, 237 people registered of whom 219 (92%) completed the first round. One hundred and eighty-seven of 219 (85%) completed the second; 25 stakeholders attended the consensus meeting. Round 1 of the survey comprised 36 topics; 42 topics were considered in round 2 and at the consensus meeting. Approximately 96% of meeting participants rated the top three topics as equally important. These were as follows: developing strong and productive working relationships between researchers and PPI contributors; exploring PPI practices in selecting trial outcomes of importance to patients; and a systematic review of PPI activity to improve the accessibility and usefulness of trial information (eg participant information sheets) for participants. The prioritized methodological research topics indicate important areas of uncertainty about PPI in trials. Addressing these uncertainties will be critical to enhancing PPI. Our findings should be used in the planning and funding of PPI in clinical trials to help focus research efforts and minimize waste. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  12. Learning to work together - lessons from a reflective analysis of a research project on public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A; Mathie, E; Munday, D; Cowe, M; Goodman, C; Keenan, J; Kendall, S; Poland, F; Staniszewska, S; Wilson, P

    2017-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is very important, and funders and the NHS all expect this to happen. What this means in practice, and how to make it really successful, is therefore an important research question. This article analyses the experience of a research team using PPI, and makes recommendations on strengthening PPI in research. There were different PPI roles in our study - some people were part of the research team: some were on the advisory group; and there were patient groups who gave specific feedback on how to make research work better for their needs. We used minutes, other written documents, and structured individual and group reflections to learn from our own experiences over time. The main findings were:- for researchers and those in a PPI role to work in partnership, project structures must allow flexibility and responsiveness to different people's ideas and needs; a named link person can ensure support; PPI representatives need to feel fully included in the research; make clear what is expected for all roles; and ensure enough time and funding to allow meaningful involvement. Some roles brought more demands but also more rewards than others - highlighting that it is important that people giving up their time to help with research experience gains from doing so. Those contributing to PPI on a regular basis may want to learn new skills, rather than always doing the same things. Researchers and the public need to find ways to develop roles in PPI over time. We also found that, even for a team with expertise in PPI, there was a need both for understanding of different ways to contribute, and an evolving 'normalisation' of new ways of working together over time, which both enriched the process and the outputs. Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is now an expectation of research funders, in the UK, but there is relatively little published literature on what this means in practice - nor is there much evaluative research

  13. Proposing a Process-Oriented Systems Research for Systems Thinking Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eon Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses systems thinking development from Churchman’s systems ideas related to critical systems practice that appreciates the use of systems methods from sociolinguistic perspectives and poststructuralist thought. Systems research enabled us to understand and reinterpret Churchman’s philosophy and systems approach through the works of Deleuze and Foucault. Based upon the interpretation of Churchman’s philosophy and systems approach, I propose ‘process-oriented systems research’ developed from the use of social appreciative process and Churchman’s metasystem approach. By applying a metasystem approach into practice, I basically appreciate Deleuzian ethics and Foucault’s theory of discourse in order to deal with issues of power and knowledge, and metaethics or moral epistemology, where the meaning of good or bad is discussed. A detailed account of an application of process-oriented systems research is given to demonstrate how I use systems methods to examine the usefulness of the systems research in practice.

  14. School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sandoval-Hernandez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

  15. National Nuclear Power Plant Safety Research 2003-2006. Proposal for the Content and Organisation of a New Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    A country utilising nuclear energy is presumed to possess a sufficient infrastructure to cover the education and research in this field, besides the operating and supervisory organisations of the plants. The starting point of public nuclear safety research programmes is that they provide the necessary conditions for retaining the knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe and economic use of nuclear power, for development of new know-how and for participation in international cooperation. In fact, the Finnish organisations engaged in research in this sector have been an important resource which the various ministries, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the power companies have had at their disposal. The Steering Group to the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety (FINNUS), which was launched upon the assignment of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy, appointed in spring 2002 a group to plan the contents of the new programme. This report contains a proposal for the general outline of the programme, preliminarily entitled as SAFIR (SAfety of Nuclear Power Plants - Finnish National Research Programme). The plan has been made for the period 2003-2006, but it is based on safety challenges identified for a longer time span as well. The favourable decision-in-principle on a new nuclear power plant unit adopted by Parliament has also been taken into account in the plan. The safety challenges set by the existing plants and the new plant unit, as well as the ensuing research needs do, however, converge to a great extent. The construction of the new power plant unit will increase the need for experts in the field in Finland. At the same time, the retirement of the existing experts is continuing. These factors together will call for more education and training, in which active research activities play a key role. This situation also makes long-term safety research face a great challenge. The general plan aims to define the

  16. Stress, autonomic imbalance, and the prediction of metabolic risk: A model and a proposal for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson; Herman, James; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-01

    Devising novel prevention strategies for metabolic disorders will depend in part on the careful elucidation of the common pathways for developing metabolic risks. The neurovisceral integration model has proposed that autonomic imbalance plays an important role in the pathway from acute and chronic stress to cardiovascular disease. Though generally overlooked by clinicians, autonomic imbalance (sympathetic overactivity and/or parasympathetic underactivity) can be measured and modified by methods that are available in primary care. This review applies the neurovisceral integration concept to the clinical setting by proposing that autonomic imbalance plays a primary role in the development of metabolic risks. We present a testable model, a systematic review of the evidence in support of autonomic imbalance as a predictor for metabolic risks, and specific approaches to test this model as a guide to future research on the role of stress in metabolic disorders. We propose that autonomic imbalance deserves consideration by researchers, clinicians, and policymakers as a target for early interventions to prevent metabolic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Charities' response to the European Commission call of interest for their involvement in the European Research Area

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study to investigate what could be the role of the charities concerned with scientific research in the European Research Area (ERA). The analysis particularly concentrates on UK and Italy. The questions on which the exploratory study was developed are: 1. “In what specific areas of the ERA did the European Commission (EC) for the involvement of charities? And could there be other areas in which charities might participate?” 2. “Given the role and situation of charities in UK and Italy, what role, if any, could they be willing to play in the ERA? Is it the same as the one proposed by the Commission or not?” In order to answer these questions, the following discussion will focus at first on a short overview of the charity sector, both at the general level and at the national level in UK and Italy. Then a brief presentation of the European Research Area will be given. The hypotheses of the study will then be presented, followed by a methodological section. Results wi...

  18. The critical steps for successful research: The research proposal and scientific writing: (A report on the pre-conference workshop held in conjunction with the 64(th) annual conference of the Indian Pharmaceutical Congress-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jagadeesh, Gowraganahalli

    2013-04-01

    An interactive workshop on 'The Critical Steps for Successful Research: The Research Proposal and Scientific Writing' was conducted in conjunction with the 64(th) Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmaceutical Congress-2012 at Chennai, India. In essence, research is performed to enlighten our understanding of a contemporary issue relevant to the needs of society. To accomplish this, a researcher begins search for a novel topic based on purpose, creativity, critical thinking, and logic. This leads to the fundamental pieces of the research endeavor: Question, objective, hypothesis, experimental tools to test the hypothesis, methodology, and data analysis. When correctly performed, research should produce new knowledge. The four cornerstones of good research are the well-formulated protocol or proposal that is well executed, analyzed, discussed and concluded. This recent workshop educated researchers in the critical steps involved in the development of a scientific idea to its successful execution and eventual publication.

  19. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  20. Place of the adoption of technical proposals from research in farmers’ adaptation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pedelahore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical innovation is often presented as the main lever to improve economical performances and livelihoods of family farmers. It is thus a way to face the variability of the socio-economical environment. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of the adoption of technical proposals from research within the range of the adaptation strategies used by farmers to maintain or even improve their livelihoods and that of their descendants. Semi-structured and structured interviews carried out on a sample of representative family farmers of South Cameroon showed that migrations, off farm activities, increase of cultivated areas, and cash crop diversification were adaptation strategies more often used by farmers than the adoption of technical proposals. The study highlighted that improving crop management sequences and performances of family farming systems could not be the sole orientation of research and development policies. The increase of farmers spatial and professional mobility points the need to develop research and development policies that focus more closely on territorial and farmers’ management and on interactions between the different sectors of the national economy.

  1. Proposal for a new LEIR Slow Extraction Scheme dedicated to Biomedical Research

    CERN Document Server

    Garonna, A; Carli, C

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a proposal for a new slow extraction scheme for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in the context of the feasibility study for a biomedical research facility at CERN. LEIR has to be maintained as a heavy ion accumulator ring for LHC and for fixed-target experiments with the SPS. In parallel to this on-going operation for physics experiments, an additional secondary use of LEIR for a biomedical research facility was proposed [Dosanjh2013, Holzscheiter2012, PHE2010]. This facility would complement the existing research beam-time available at other laboratories for studies related to ion beam therapy. The new slow extraction [Abler2013] is based on the third-integer resonance. The reference beam is composed of fully stripped carbon ions with extraction energies of 20-440 MeV/u, transverse physical emittances of 5-25 µm and momentum spreads of ±2-9•10-4. Two resonance driving mechanisms have been studied: the quadrupole-driven method and the RF-knockout technique. Both were made compatible...

  2. International research laboratory on the moon: a proposal for a national commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Gelfand, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    To demonstrate its leadership in space, the US could focus its space program on an exciting and achievable goal: to establish a self-sustaining international research laboratory on the Moon before the year 2000. Scientists from all over the world would use the laboratory for basic and applied programs in natural and social sciences. The knowledge gained would benefit everyone. The lunar research facility would be built with a broadly based infrastructure of stations, vehicles, and programs that can be envisioned as a pyramid resting on the Earth and reaching to the Moon. The first element of the infrastructure is the reusable Space Shuttle; the second is a manned low-Earth-orbit platform. Next is an orbital transfer vehicle for hauling cargoes between low Earth orbit and low lunar orbit. The final element is the manned self-sustaining international research laboratory. A key feature of this proposal is that each element can be economically useful at the same time as it is promoting international cooperation on Earth. A vigorous civilian program like that proposed here is our best guarantee that outer space will be used to strengthen our economy and address basic problems on Earth.

  3. Undergraduate Student Involvement in International Research - The IRES Program at MAX-lab, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, William; O'Rielly, Grant; Fissum, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Undergraduate students associated with The George Washington University and UMass Dartmouth have had the opportunity to participate in nuclear physics research as a part of the PIONS@MAXLAB Collaboration performing experiments at MAX-lab at Lund University in Sweden. This project has supported thirteen undergraduate students during 2009 - 2011. The student researchers are involved with all aspects of the experiments performed at the laboratory, from set-up to analysis and presentation at national conferences. These experiments investigate the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon through the study of pion photoproduction off the nucleon and high-energy Compton scattering. Along with the US and Swedish project leaders, members of the collaboration (from four different countries) have contributed to the training and mentoring of these students. This program provides students with international research experiences that prepare them to operate successfully in a global environment and encourages them to stay in areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) that are crucial for our modern, technology-dependent society. We will present the history, goals and outcomes in both physics results and student success that have come from this program. This work supported by NSF OISE/IRES award 0553467.

  4. A Training Program to Enhance Postgraduate Students' Research Skills in Preparing a Research Proposal in the Field of Curriculum and Instruction Methods of Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfakih, Ahmed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the impact of a training program on enhancing postgraduate students' research skills in preparing a research proposal. The nature of the skills required to prepare a research proposal were first determined using a questionnaire. A training program for improving such skills was then constructed and seven postgraduate students in…

  5. Proposal for a new LEIR slow extraction scheme dedicated to biomedical research

    CERN Document Server

    Garonna, A; Abler, D

    2014-01-01

    A proposal is here presented for a new slow extraction scheme for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in the context of the feasibility study for a future biomedical research facility at CERN. The new slow extraction system is based on the third-integer resonance. Two resonance driving mechanisms have been studied: the quadrupole-driven method and the RF-knockout technique. Both were made compatible with the tight constraints imposed by parallel operation of LEIR as heavy ion accumulator and care was taken to maximize the use of the available hardware.

  6. Preliminary Geological Survey on the Proposed Sites for the New Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, In Cheol; Ha, J. J.; Oh, K. B.

    2010-12-01

    · Performing the preliminary geological survey on the proposed sites for the new research reactor through the technical service · Ordering a technical service from The Geological Society of Korea · Contents of the geological survey - Confirmation of active fault - Confirmation of a large-scale fracture zone or weak zone - Confirmation of inappropriate items related to the underground water - Confirmation of historical seismicity and instrumental earthquakes data · Synthesized analysis and holding a report meeting · Results of the geological survey - Confirmation of the geological characteristics of the sites and drawing the requirements for the precise geological survey in the future

  7. Research in experimental elementary particle physics. A proposal to the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Andrew P.; Kaushik De; Draper, Paul A.; Ransom Stephens

    1995-01-01

    We report on the activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington for the period 1994-95. We propose the continuation of the research program for 1996-98 with strong participation in the detector upgrade and physics analysis work for the D0 Experiment at Fermilab, prototyping and pre-production studies for the muon and calorimeter systems for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN, and detector development and simulation studies for the PP2PP Experiment at Brookhaven

  8. Do Public Involvement Activities in Biomedical Research and Innovation Recruit Representatively? A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Bossert, Sabine; Strech, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement activities (PIAs) may contribute to the governance of ethically challenging biomedical research and innovation by informing, consulting with and engaging the public in developments and decision-making processes. For PIAs to capture a population's preferences (e.g. on issues in whole genome sequencing, biobanks or genome editing), a central methodological requirement is to involve a sufficiently representative subgroup of the general public. While the existing literature focusses on theoretical and normative aspects of 'representation', this study assesses empirically how such considerations are implemented in practice. It evaluates how PIA reports describe representation objectives, the recruitment process and levels of representation achieved. PIA reports were included from a systematic literature search if they directly reported a PIA conducted in a relevant discipline such as genomics, biobanks, biotechnology or others. PIA reports were analyzed with thematic text analysis. The text analysis was guided by an assessment matrix based on PIA-specific guidelines and frameworks. We included 46 relevant reports, most focusing on issues in genomics. 27 reports (59%) explicitly described representation objectives, though mostly without adjusting eligibility criteria and recruiting methods to the specific objective. 11 reports (24%) explicitly reported to have achieved the intended representation; the rest either reported failure or were silent on this issue. Representation of study samples in PIAs in biomedical research and innovation is currently not reported systematically. Improved reporting on representation would not only improve the validity and value of PIAs, but could also contribute to PIA results being used more often in relevant policy and decision-making processes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a

  10. RO5: proposal of a relevant facility in nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzo, J.

    1987-01-01

    The RO5 project is a proposal of an experiment in nuclear fusion research based in a plasma focus device. The main research scopes of the experiment, with respect to the scaling law foundations and the identification of the main nuclear reaction mechanisms, are discussed. A practical aim of the experiment is to reach 10 14 - 10 15 neutrons/pulse from D-D reactions in the plasma focus using a 3 MJ capacitor bank. It represents an energy efficience of around a 5% when D-T mixture is used as filling gas in the reactor (RO5 = Reactor of 5% in energy efficience). A first RO5 design obtained with a 2D snowplow model and taken into account the operation limits recently found, is presented. (author) [pt

  11. The United States foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program: Proposal to modify the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. The policy was slated to expire in May 2009. However, in October 2003, a petition requesting a program extension was delivered to the United States Secretary of Energy from a group of research reactor operators from foreign countries. In April 2004, the Secretary directed DOE undertake an analysis, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to consider potential extension of the Program. On December 1, 2004, a Federal Register Notice was issued approving the program extension. This paper discusses the findings from the NEPA analysis and the potential changes in the program that may result from implementation of the proposed changes. (author)

  12. Constructing Meaning from Letterforms: Reflections on the Development of a Practice-Based Research Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Jones

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paradigms are only starting to emerge in relation to art and design practice. Consequently, research design in this domain often employs perspectives and methods developed in other disciplines. This paper traces the development of a proposal that combines theories from cognitive linguistics with graphic design practice. It describes the resulting challenges to and transformations of my long-held assumptions and understanding about graphic design and the communication process. It also outlines the way in which semantic analysis (a method from cognitive linguistics will be used in conjunction with different forms of visualisation--with visualisation used as a method to generate data for analysis as well as to present findings. Finally, it argues for an engagement by designers with conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual blending theory, as a way to facilitate reflection on design practice.

  13. Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies.

  14. Proposal for a research programme on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The present report sets out a tentative research program related to radiologic safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste, set against the background of present knowledge in this field. The final stage of this program has to lead to a definitive appraisal of the suitability of the site explored in that stage for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Subsequent stages of the research effort is outlined in a critical path diagram. Radiological safety figures as the central factor in making choices. The report indicates the state of the art in different specialisms involved in the study of both natural barriers (rheology, hydrology, radionuclide transport, radiation damage) and artificial barriers (mining engineering) for geological disposal. (G.J.P.)

  15. Proposal on application of Russian technical facilities for International Mars Research Program for 2009 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Georgy; Pichkhadze, Konstantin; Vorontsov, Victor; Pavel, Kazmerchuk

    2006-07-01

    Recently International Mars Research Program is widely discussed. Well-known initiative of President of the USA, recent progress of American and European scientists and engineers in implementation of “Mars Odyssey” and “Mars-Express” projects and Russian proposals on cooperation and participation in “Phobos Sample Return” mission declare every intention to join efforts in the ambitious Martian Program realization. The final goal of the program for nearly 15 20 years is landing of a man on the Martian surface. Before this event happens another critical stage will be Martian soil sample return. Within the next 10 years, apparently, a major task will be scale research by means of various types of technical facilities. A crucial issue for this research will be creation of research station network which would allow collecting information about planetary conditions at far-remote points. By this time within the frame of “Phobos Sample Return Program” to be launched in 2009 it is planned to deliver some meteorological mini-landers developed by the Russian and Finnish specialists on the Martian surface. From this point view it is also interesting to use balloons capable to cover considerable distance. Such proposals have been made by Russian side for “Scout” mission. European “Aurora” program also anticipates application of wide range of technical means to explore the Martian atmosphere and surface including inflatable devices. Thus, for the International Mars Exploration Program, it seems to be very prospective to use apart from launch vehicles, upper stages etc. such technical means as mini-stations, Mars rovers, penetrators, balloons, etc.

  16. 77 FR 28588 - Proposed Priorities-American Overseas Research Centers Program; CFDA Number 84.274A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    .... scholars conducting overseas research that is vital to understanding the history, culture, economy... facilitate networking and collaborations via conferences, teaching opportunities for visiting faculty, and... and teaching at their home institutions. Proposed Priority 2--Projects that Provide Research, Teaching...

  17. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research on support for nurses directly involved with women who chose to terminate their pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Gmeiner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses’ experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die metodologiese vraagstukke te beskryf rondom die uitvoer van kwalitatiewe navorsing waar verpleegkundiges se ervaring van hul direkte betrokkenheid by terminasie van swangerskap verken en beskryf is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  18. Heat-transfer analysis of the existing HEU and proposed LEU cores of Pakistan research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Nabbi, R.

    1987-02-01

    In connection with conversion of Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR) from the use of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of both existing HEU and proposed LEU cores has been carried out. Keeping in mind the possibility of power upgrading, the performance of proposed LEU core, under 10 MW operating conditions, has also been evaluated. Computer code HEATHYD has been used for this purpose. In order to verify the reliability of the code, IAEA benchmark 2 MW reactor was analyzed. The cooling parameters evaluated include: coolant velocity, critical velocity, pressure drop, temperature distribution in the core, heat fluxes at onset of nucleate boiling, flow instability and burnout and corresponding safety margins. From the results of the study it can be concluded that the conversion of the core to LEU fuel will result in higher safety margins, as compared to existing HEU core, mainly because the increased number of fuel plates in the proposed design will reduce the average heat flux significantly. Anyhow upgrading of the reactor power to 10 MW will need the flow rate to be adjusted between 850 to 900 m 3 /hr, to achieve reasonable safety margins, at least, comparable with the existing HEU core. (orig.)

  19. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  20. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  1. The intersection between Descriptivism and Meliorism in reasoning research: further proposals in support of 'soft normativism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupple, Edward J N; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    The rationality paradox centers on the observation that people are highly intelligent, yet show evidence of errors and biases in their thinking when measured against normative standards. Elqayam and Evans' (2011) reject normative standards in the psychological study of thinking, reasoning and deciding in favor of a 'value-free' descriptive approach to studying high-level cognition. In reviewing Elqayam and Evans' (2011) position, we defend an alternative to descriptivism in the form of 'soft normativism,' which allows for normative evaluations alongside the pursuit of descriptive research goals. We propose that normative theories have considerable value provided that researchers: (1) are alert to the philosophical quagmire of strong relativism; (2) are mindful of the biases that can arise from utilizing normative benchmarks; and (3) engage in a focused analysis of the processing approach adopted by individual reasoners. We address the controversial 'is-ought' inference in this context and appeal to a 'bridging solution' to this contested inference that is based on the concept of 'informal reflective equilibrium.' Furthermore, we draw on Elqayam and Evans' (2011) recognition of a role for normative benchmarks in research programs that are devised to enhance reasoning performance and we argue that such Meliorist research programs have a valuable reciprocal relationship with descriptivist accounts of reasoning. In sum, we believe that descriptions of reasoning processes are fundamentally enriched by evaluations of reasoning quality, and argue that if such standards are discarded altogether then our explanations and descriptions of reasoning processes are severely undermined.

  2. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. This is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

  3. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Strech, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1) uncertainty about outcomes, 2) diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3) the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs). The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%). The paper presents qualitative details. The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  4. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  5. Evaluating patient and public involvement in health research: from theoretical model to practical workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andy; Welsman, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing literature on evaluating aspects of patient and public involvement (PPI). We have suggested that at the core of successful PPI is the dynamic interaction of different forms of knowledge, notably lay and professional. We have developed a four-dimensional theoretical framework for understanding these interactions. We explore the practical utility of the theoretical framework as a tool for mapping and evaluating the experience of PPI in health services research. We conducted three workshops with different PPI groups in which participants were invited to map their PPI experiences on wall charts representing the four dimensions of our framework. The language used to describe the four dimensions was modified to make it more accessible to lay audiences. Participants were given sticky notes to indicate their own positions on the different dimensions and to write explanatory comments if they wished. Participants' responses were then discussed and analysed as a group. The three groups were distinctive in their mapped responses suggesting different experiences in relation to having a strong or weak voice in their organization, having few or many ways of getting involved, addressing organizational or public concerns and believing that the organization was willing to change or not. The framework has practical utility for mapping and evaluating PPI interactions and is sensitive to differences in PPI experiences within and between different organizations. The workshops enabled participants to reflect collaboratively on their experiences with a view to improving PPI experiences and planning for the future. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Alina Beattrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation

  7. "…Their Opinions Mean Something": Care Staff's Attitudes to Health Research Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie; Durand, Marie-Anne; Mengoni, Silvana E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite experiencing health inequalities, people with intellectual disabilities are under-represented in health research. Previous research has identified barriers but has typically focused on under-recruitment to specific studies. This study aimed to explore care staff's attitudes to health research involving people with intellectual…

  8. The rise of empirical research in medical ethics: a MacIntyrean critique and proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Curlin, Farr A

    2011-04-01

    Hume's is/ought distinction has long limited the role of empirical research in ethics, saying that data about what something is cannot yield conclusions about the way things ought to be. However, interest in empirical research in ethics has been growing despite this countervailing principle. We attribute some of this increased interest to a conceptual breakdown of the is/ought distinction. MacIntyre, in reviewing the history of the is/ought distinction, argues that is and ought are not strictly separate realms but exist in a close relationship that is clarified by adopting a teleological orientation. We propose that, instead of recovering a teleological orientation, society tends to generate its own goals via democratic methods like those described by Rousseau or adopt agnosticism about teleology such as described by Richard Rorty. In both latter scenarios, the distinction between is and ought is obscured, and the role for empirical research grows, but for controversial reasons. MacIntyre warns that the is/ought distinction should remain, but reminds ethicists to make careful arguments about when and why it is legitimate to move from is to ought.

  9. A Proposal for Critical-Pragmatic Pedagogical Approaches to English for Research Publication Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Corcoran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing demands on many multilingual scholars outside the centre(s of scientific knowledge production to publish their research in international scholarly journals, the support for such academic writing for publication is uneven at best. Existing English for research publication purposes (ERPP instruction typically aims to aid multilingual scholars in achieving genre-based expectations and/or navigating the submission and review process, but it often does not address the politics of English-language knowledge production. In this paper, informed by an empirical case study and a theory building perspective, we address the need for a sustained program of courses/workshops for multilingual scholars in the (semi- periphery and propose a means of operationalizing a critical-pragmatic approach to such course/workshop content. Our empirically-driven model is informed by the results of a recent case study investigation into an intensive ERPP intervention designed to address multilingual Spanish-speaking L1 scholars’ challenges with writing research articles for publication in indexed (Web of Science international scientific journals. Our model lays the groundwork for a more critical approach to ERPP pedagogy, one that attempts to attend more fully to the needs of multilingual scholars within an asymmetrical market of global knowledge production.

  10. Ethical evaluation of research proposals by ethics panels advising the European Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2004-06-01

    Ethical principles with regard to animal experimentation are referred to in European Union (EU) legislation and other official documents. Therefore, applications for funding of research under the EU's research programme may undergo an ethical review that is carried out by so-called ethics panels, consisting of experts chosen by the European Commission. The work of these panels differs substantially from that of other ethical committees, as they exist on the institutional, local, regional or national level. Their main purpose is not to decide whether a proposed research can be regarded legal, and therefore should be endorsed or licensed; instead, it is to help the Commission in prioritising its funding. The panels may examine other ethical aspects than those of animal experimentation or animal welfare alone, such as the use of human volunteers. This is reflected by the composition of the panels. Their decisions are normally based on consensus. Even though these decisions may refer to EU legislation, the criteria applied are not restricted to those provided by this legislation. Nevertheless, the various aspects of the Commission's ethical evaluation system (e.g. formal and practical basic conditions, information content of applications, type of decisions taken, lacking of any quality control) offers opportunities for improvement.

  11. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  12. The Journalism Agenda Guide (JAG: Proposal for Applied Research in Journalism (ARJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenildo Luiz Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the Journalism Agenda Guide (JAG, a technical tool for managing journalistic content. Developed from an Applied Research in Journalism (ARJ methodology, the Guide is based on articulating concepts of Agenda Setting, Journalistic Relevance (JR, organizational productivity and Semantic Resolution (SR. The basis of the Guide is the relation between the relevance of a theme and how much space it should occupy in the news, subject to a particular organization’s production capacity. Incorporating the Guide as a tool for editorial management means adopting practices of accountability which affect both the ethical conduct an organization and its professionals adhere to and the sustainability of companies, becoming an important ally in the efforts to consolidate the credibility in journalism.

  13. Involving the public in epidemiological public health research: a qualitative study of public and stakeholder involvement in evaluation of a population-wide natural policy experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel; Nylén, Lotta; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-04-20

    Public involvement in research is considered good practice by European funders; however, evidence of its research impact is sparse, particularly in relation to large-scale epidemiological research. To explore what difference public and stakeholder involvement made to the interpretation of findings from an evaluation of a natural policy experiment to influence the wider social determinants of health: 'Flexicurity'. Stockholm County, Sweden. Members of the public from different occupational groups represented by blue-collar and white-collar trade union representatives. Also, members of three stakeholder groups: the Swedish national employment agency; an employers' association and politicians sitting on a national labour market committee. Total: 17 participants. Qualitative study of process and outcomes of public and stakeholder participation in four focused workshops on the interpretation of initial findings from the flexicurity evaluation. New insights from participants benefiting the interpretation of our research findings or conceptualisation of future research. Participants sensed more drastic and nuanced change in the Swedish welfare system over recent decades than was evident from our literature reviews and policy analysis. They also elaborated hidden developments in the Swedish labour market that were increasingly leading to 'insiders' and 'outsiders', with differing experiences and consequences for financial and job security. Their explanation of the differential effects of the various collective agreements for different occupational groups was new and raised further potential research questions. Their first-hand experience provided new insights into how changes to the social protection system were contributing to the increasing trends in poverty among unemployed people with limiting long-standing illness. The politicians provided further reasoning behind some of the policy changes and their intended and unintended consequences. These insights fed into

  14. A proposal of new nuclear communication scheme based on qualitative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Ekou; Takahashi, Makoto; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2007-01-01

    An action research project called dialogue forum has been conducted in this study. The essential constituent of the project is a series of repetitive dialogue sessions carried out by lay citizens, nuclear experts, and a facilitator. One important feature of the project is that the study has been conducted based on the qualitative research methodology. The changes in opinions and attitude of the dialogue participants have been analyzed by an ethno-methodological approach. The observations are summarized as follows. The opinions of the citizen participants showed a significant shift from emotional to practical representations along with the progression of the dialogue sessions. Meanwhile, their attitude showed a marked tendency from problem-statement-oriented to problem-solving-oriented representation. On the other hand, the statements of the expert participants showed a significant shift from expert-based to citizen-based risk recognition and description, and their attitude showed a clear tendency from teaching-oriented to colearning-oriented thinking. These changes of opinions and attitude have been interpreted as a coevolving rather than a single process. It can be stressed that this type of change is most important for the reestablishment of mutual trust between the citizens and the nuclear experts. In this regard The Process Model of Coevolution of Risk Recognition' has been proposed as a guideline for developing a new scheme of public communication concerning nuclear technology. The proposed process model of coevolution of risk recognition is regarded to be essential for appropriate relationship management between nuclear technology and society in the near future. (author)

  15. Experience and Meaning in Qualitative Research: A Conceptual Review and a Methodological Device Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Daher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of experience and meaning in qualitative research is mostly accepted and is common ground for qualitative studies. However, there is an increasing trend towards trivializing the use of these notions. As a consequence, a mechanistic use of these terms has emerged within qualitative analysis, which has resulted in the loss of the original richness derived from the theoretical roots of these concepts. In this article, we aim to recover these origins by reviewing theoretical postulates from phenomenological and hermeneutic traditions and to propose their convergence in a holistic perspective. The challenge is to find the local source of meanings that will enlighten on how to understand people's experiences. This discussion is the basis for the encounter context themes (ECT methodological device, which emphasizes the importance of studying experience and meaning as part of a larger whole: the participants' life-world. Hence, ECT seeks to complement the available methodological tools for qualitatively-oriented studies, recovering—rather than re-creating—a theoretical discussion useful for current qualitative research practices.

  16. Proposal for coordinated health research in PFAS-contaminated communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Thomas A; Blum, Arlene

    2017-11-14

    The drinking water of more than six million Americans in numerous communities has been found to contain highly fluorinated chemicals at concentrations of concern. Certain of these chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative, and associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and animal models. The possible health impacts of exposure to highly fluorinated chemicals are of great concern to communities whose water has been impacted. Community members want information, and are asking for biomonitoring, exposure pathway analysis, and health studies. Governmental agencies are striving to deal with these multiple concerns in the face of information and resource constraints. We propose the development of a high-level research strategy to maximize what can be learned about health effects of highly fluorinated chemicals and methods to reduce or eliminate exposure. We suggest coordinating the research across multiple communities for greater statistical power. If implemented, such a strategy could help to generate information and evidence integration to enable regulatory decision making and contribute to reducing future exposures.

  17. Involving seldom-heard groups in a PPI process to inform the design of a proposed trial on the use of probiotics to prevent preterm birth: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayment, Juliet; Lanlehin, Rosemary; McCourt, Christine; Husain, Shahid M

    2017-01-01

    public consultation exercise in a socially disadvantaged and ethnically diverse community. The consultation aimed to meet and engage local service users in considering the acceptability of the proposed protocol, and to encourage their participation in future and ongoing patient and public involvement activities. Four discussion groups were held in the community with mothers of young children within the proposed trial region, using an inclusive approach that incorporated a modified version of the Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Bringing the consultation to the community supported the involvement of often seldom-heard participants, such as those from minority ethnic groups. Results The women involved expressed a number of concerns about the proposed protocol, including adherence to the probiotic supplement regimen and randomisation. The proposal for the RCT in itself was perceived as confirmation that probiotic supplements had potentially beneficial effects, but also that they had potentially harmful side-effects. The complexity of the women's responses provided greater insights into the challenges of even quite simple trial designs and enabled the research team to take these concerns into account while planning the pilot trial. Conclusions The use of the NGT method allowed for a consultation of a population traditionally less likely to participate in medical research. A carefully facilitated PPI exercise can allow members to express unanticipated concerns that may not have been elicited by a survey method. Findings from such exercises can be utilised to improve clinical trial design, provide insight into the feasibility of trials, and enable engagement of often excluded population groups.

  18. Developing Changes in Our Reading of the World: A Pedagogical Proposal from Participative Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Trovato-Apollaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted with the group Women of Theater from Alajuelita. The research intended to answer the question of how to develop changes in our reading of the world. The goal of our study was the co-researchers’ raising awareness process leading them, from themselves, and by means of the abovementioned group, to read, interpret and reconstruct the environment in order to yield transformations in their lives and community. Through reflection, the process was investigated on the basis of the pedagogical practices of Augusto Boal´s Theater of Oppressed (Boal, 1980, as they were applied at the theater workshop together with the group of Women of Theather, at the library of the Educative Center Los Pinos in Alajuelita. The main elements of the implemented methodology respond to the Participative Action Research (PAR, where the dialectical participative relationship and the collective discussion make it possible the creation of learning. We used audio recordings as data collection tools, which were later systematized for their analysis. The paradigmatic position assumed was inspired by an approach related to the concept of complexity. This concept proposes a holistic view of reality, life, and, so, of pedagogy. According to such a view, we all are one, and the multiplicity is interconnected with each one of its parts, in continuous entropy. Under this approach, where the world is a system of systems interconnected among themselves, the main finding was to perceive pedagogy as an instrument for humanization, a magical object capable of valuing diversity and transforming our thoughts, life styles and values, and, in consequence, our reading of the world. We considered that such an important finding might help to develop changes in human beings and might inspire us to assume an ecological perspective towards relationships. Such a perspective might give rise to deep transformations in our social, political and

  19. Does outcome feedback make you a better emergency physician? A systematic review and research framework proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Curtis F; Schachter, Howard; Stewart, Aviva T; McGowan, Jessie

    2009-11-01

    The organization of emergency medical care limits the ability of emergency physicians to know the outcomes of most of their patients after the patients leave the emergency department. This lack of outcome feedback may hinder the practice of emergency medicine (EM) by preventing "calibration" of the decision tools of practitioners. We sought to determine what is currently known about outcome feedback in EM, including its incidence, impact and modifiers. We searched the following databases: PreMEDLINE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, DARE, Health Technology Assessment Database and AMED. We performed manual searches on abstract databases, reference lists, various health information and research websites, and nonindexed journals. Selection entailed a 2-step screening pro cess to exclude articles not pertaining to outcome feedback in EM. Our search yielded 1128 bibliographic records, from which screening identified 7 relevant reports: 5 surveys, 1 system level evaluation and 1 intervention trial. All studies were found to have "inadequate" or "unable to assess" reporting and study quality. Systems for outcome feedback to EM residents have been increasingly available since 1984, though they are perceived to be inadequate. Commonly used mechanisms for outcome feedback include automatic routing of discharge summaries, case conferences for admitted patients and telephone calls to patients or families for discharged patients. With respect to attending emergency physicians, no conclusions or clinical recommendations can be made given the level of available evidence. The potential importance of outcome feedback remains, at this time, underevaluated. We propose a research framework, and hypothesize that increasing outcome feedback would increase emergency physician diagnostic accuracy, therapeutic outcomes, clinical efficiency and job satisfaction. Future research in this area should include surveys and focus groups, as well as simulated or real-world intervention

  20. Critical Entanglement: Research on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parental Involvement in Special Education 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cam

    2014-01-01

    If parental involvement in a child's education is generally viewed in positive terms, then it is important to understand what sorts of barriers might hinder it. This article reviews literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parental involvement in special education in the United States and Canada. In analyzing 20 articles published in…

  1. The Investigation of Research-Based Home Parental Involvement Practices, Parental Style, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Myron Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…

  2. Service user involvement enhanced the research quality in a study using interpretative phenomenological analysis - the power of multiple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Eriksson, Monica; Espnes, Geir Arild; Haaland-Øverby, Mette; Jensen, Sven Liang; Norheim, Irene; Kjus, Solveig Helene Høymork; Portaasen, Inger-Lill; Vinje, Hege Forbech

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how service user involvement can contribute to the development of interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology and enhance research quality. Interpretative phenomenological analysis is a qualitative methodology used in nursing research internationally to understand human experiences that are essential to the participants. Service user involvement is requested in nursing research. We share experiences from 4 years of collaboration (2012-2015) on a mental health promotion project, which involved an advisory team. Five research advisors either with a diagnosis or related to a person with severe mental illness constituted the team. They collaborated with the research fellow throughout the entire research process and have co-authored this article. We examined the joint process of analysing the empirical data from interviews. Our analytical discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and subsequently interpreted following the guidelines for good qualitative analysis in interpretative phenomenological analysis studies. The advisory team became 'the researcher's helping hand'. Multiple perspectives influenced the qualitative analysis, which gave more insightful interpretations of nuances, complexity, richness or ambiguity in the interviewed participants' accounts. The outcome of the service user involvement was increased breadth and depth in findings. Service user involvement improved the research quality in a nursing research project on mental health promotion. The interpretative element of interpretative phenomenological analysis was enhanced by the emergence of multiple perspectives in the qualitative analysis of the empirical data. We argue that service user involvement and interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology can mutually reinforce each other and strengthen qualitative methodology. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 56.110 Section 56.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  4. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  5. 78 FR 12334 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... Act of 1995, for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National... proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) The...

  6. 78 FR 44135 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Application for the Postdoctoral Research Associate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... comments in writing or request more information on the proposed project, contact Ms. Tammy Dean-Maxwell... public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to...

  7. 75 FR 68512 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... collection requirements by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the operation of the Proposed Order... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 [Document No. AMS-FV-10...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This proposed...

  8. A SHARED study-the benefits and costs of setting up a health research study involving lay co-researchers and how we overcame the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Carole; Murray, Matt; Seers, Kate; Oyebode, Jan; Grant, Richard; Boex, Sue; Staniszewska, Sophie; Diment, Yvonne; Leach, Jim; Sharma, Uma; Clarke, Rosemary; Suleman, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), official bodies such as the Department of Health and research funders such as the National Institute for Health Research support and encourage lay involvement in all stages of research studies. The SHARED study has had substantial patient and public involvement (PPI) from developing the idea to dissemination. The aim of the study has been to develop recommendations led by service users for health and social care professionals to use at hospital discharge and in care planning for people living with memory loss and their carers. This article is about how the study started and the benefits, costs and challenges we encountered as the lead and lay co-researchers. Once we were successful with the grant application, we had to recruit and train the lay co-researchers and obtain various approvals before we could start the project. We had various support from funders, the Research Ethics Committee, lay members of Alzheimer's Society and from the lay co-researchers. However, we encountered some challenges with paying the lay co-researchers and with getting the approval for the co-researchers to interview staff on NHS premises. The challenges were overcome eventually but some aspects of the study changed because of this. We suggest that some changes could be made to the research system which would lead to greater inclusion of the lay co-researchers in research studies and would make the process more straightforward for the research team. Background Involving patients and the public in all stages of research has been the focus of the SHARED study. Patient and public involvement (PPI) is an important strategic priority for the Department of Health and funders such as the National Institute for Health Research. The aim of this paper is to describe the benefits, challenges and costs involved in setting up the research study with lay members as part of the research team. The study focused on developing service user-led recommendations for people with

  9. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  10. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420 Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. ...

  11. Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

  12. 77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY... collection. Fishery regulations do not generally affect scientific research activities conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct such research are encouraged to submit a scientific...

  13. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Holleran, T.O.; Feng, X.; Kalb, P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy`s mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department`s MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW.

  14. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Holleran, T.O.; Feng, X.; Kalb, P.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy's mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department's MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A PROPOSED RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Matari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to propose a structure of the relationships between the internal audits characteristics (IAC; such as professional qualifications of the chief audit executive of the Internal Audit (IA, size, experience, and qualification; and firm performance. The presence of an internal audit department is significant as it is considered as the main element in employing accounting systems and this, in turn, assists in evaluating the department’s work. The internal audit is deemed as the core of business accounting as it is the section that keeps track of all businesses associated with the sector. The internal audit efficiency assists in developing the company’s work because the financial reports present the internal audit department’s quality. In addition, an internal audit is a crucial part of corporate governance structure in an organization and corporate governance (CG covers the activities of oversight conducted by the board of directors and audit committees to ensure credible financial reporting process (Public Oversight Board, 1994. Consistent with previous studies of the importance of internal audit, this study provides comprehensive oversights on the relationship between internal audit and firm performance. The past literature reveals there is a paucity of studies exploring the association between internal audit characteristics (IAC and firm performance whether conceptual or empirical. The main objective of this study is to fill up the gap in the literature and provide an opportunity for future research to deeply to investigate this relationship.

  16. HTGR reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion uncertainty analysis: a proposed IAEA coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyobeka, Bismark; Reitsma, Frederik; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2011-01-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis methods. In order to benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors recommended that the proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling be implemented. In the paper the current status and plan are presented. The CRP will also benefit from interactions with the currently ongoing OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) UAM benchmark activity by taking into consideration the peculiarities of HTGR designs and simulation requirements. (author)

  17. A Proposal for a Research-based Constructivist Physics-and-Pedagogy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Esther

    2006-12-01

    This poster proposes a research-based science-and-pedagogy course that will combine the learning of fundamental physics concepts with methods of how to teach these concepts. Entitled “Understanding the Cosmos: From Antiquity to the Modern Day,” the course will explore how people learn science concepts through the ages, and from childhood through adulthood. This course will use the historical-constructivist approach to illustrate how our understanding of scientific phenomena advanced as we progressed from simple 2-dimensional thinking (starting with the flat Earth concept) to 3-D thinking (learning about the structure of the solar system) to 4-D thinking (understanding space-time and theories about the Big Bang). While transitioning from Impetus to Aristotelian to Newtonian to Einsteinian thinking, students will learn the essence of scientific thinking and inquiry. The overall goal of this course is to excite students in the process of scientific discovery, help them develop scientific reasoning skills, and provide them with fulfilling experiences of truly understanding science concepts. This will be done by employing active engagement techniques (e.g., peer tutoring, Socratic dialogue, and think/pair/share methods) and by challenging students to articulate their thoughts clearly and persuasively. This course could be of value for anybody wanting to enter the teaching profession or simply for anybody who would like to deepen their science understanding.

  18. 77 FR 54584 - Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... changes. Human gene transfer also raises scientific, medical, social, and ethical considerations that... currently reviewed under Section III-B-1, Experiments Involving the Cloning of Toxin Molecules with LD50 of...

  19. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. Methods The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 – September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Conclusion Delays in the approval or non

  20. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted. PMID:28207882

  1. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted.

  2. Involving patient research partners has a significant impact on outcomes research: a responsive evaluation of the international OMERACT conferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.T.; Abma, T.A.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Collins, S.; Kirwan, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the inclusion of patients as international research partners in Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conferences and how this has influenced the scope and conduct of outcomes research in rheumatology. Design: A thematic content analysis of OMERACT internal documents,

  3. 78 FR 14480 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... and rehabilitation research; (2) foster an exchange of expertise, information, and training methods to... disabilities, as well as to build the research capacity of entities with close cultural and social connections... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Research...

  4. Experiences of service users involved in recruitment for nursing courses: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Katie; Bernal, Cathy; Devis, Kate; Southgate, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into service users' experiences of participating in recruitment for Adult, Mental Health and Child nursing studies at the authors' university; to establish potential motivations behind such participation; and to make suggestions for improved future practice. The involvement of service users in nurse education and recruitment has for some years been required by the Nursing and Midwifery Council, but there is a dearth of publications on the meaning of that involvement to participating service users. It is hoped that this study will contribute to this body of knowledge. A phenomenological approach was selected, field-specific focus groups of service users being facilitated using a semi-structured interview format; these were audio recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. Participation was subject to the service users having been involved in recruitment to nursing studies at the authors' university and the focus groups took place either at the university or at the child participants' school. Themes identified demonstrated largely positive experiences and a sense of meaningful involvement for all concerned. Findings indicated a close link between the values of the participants and those of the wider NHS, benefits to a sense of wellbeing and achievement, as well as the need for greater ownership of the recruitment process by service users. Potential lessons for academics wishing to promote greater service user involvement in student recruitment are articulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 23609 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Biospecimen and Physical Measures Formative Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Biospecimen and Physical Measures Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National... Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study (NCS) Type of Information Collection Request... clearance to conduct formative research featuring biospecimen and physical measurement collections. The NCS...

  6. 78 FR 65452 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans, Researchers, and IRB Members Experiences With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... qualitative research methods to understand Veterans' preferences on research recruitment methods. The data... research study subjects and to explore Veterans views on recruitment procedures. DATES: Written comments... Members Experiences with Recruitment Restrictions). Type of Review: New collection. Abstracts: The VHA...

  7. Ethics challenges and guidance related to research involving adolescent post-abortion care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph M; Ali, Joseph; Hallez, Kristina; Kass, Nancy; Michelo, Charles; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-05-02

    An increase in post abortion care (PAC) research with adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, has brought to attention several associated research ethics challenges. In order to better understand the ethics context of PAC research with adolescents, we conducted a scoping review of published literature. Following a systematic search of PubMed, HINARI, and Google Scholar, we analysed articles meeting inclusion criteria to determine common themes across both the ethical challenges related to PAC research with adolescents and any available guidance on the identified challenges. The literature search identified an initial 3321 records of which 14 were included in analysis following screening. Several ethical challenges stem from abortion being a controversial, sensitive, and stigmatized topic in many settings. Ethical dilemmas experienced by researchers conducting adolescent PAC research included: difficulties in convincing local health providers to permit PAC research; challenges in recruiting and seeking consent due to sensitivity of the subject; effectively protecting confidentiality; managing negative effects of interventions; creating a non-prejudicial atmosphere for research; managing emotional issues among adolescents; and dealing with uncertainty regarding the role of researchers when observing unethical health care practices. Suggested strategies for addressing some of these challenges include: using several sources to recruit study participants, using research to facilitate dialogue on abortion, briefing health workers on any observed unethical practices after data collection, fostering a comprehensive understanding of contextual norms and values, selecting staff with experience working with study populations, and avoiding collection of personal identifiers. Addressing ethical challenges that researchers face when conducting PAC research with adolescents requires guidance at the individual, institutional, community, and international

  8. Small Private Online Research: A Proposal for A Numerical Methods Course Based on Technology Use and Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Francisco Javier Delgado

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a proposed model in blended learning for a numerical methods course evolved from traditional teaching into a research lab in scientific visualization. The blended learning approach sets a differentiated and flexible scheme based on a mobile setup and face to face sessions centered on a net of research challenges. Model is…

  9. Proposed Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) Program: Harnessing American Entrepreneurial Talent to Solve Major U.S. Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) proposal seeks to replicate, in social spending, the great success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in technology development. The SBIR program funds technology development by entrepreneurial small companies. The program has spawned breakthrough technologies in diverse areas…

  10. Proposal for a holistic research approach to studying the implementation of IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Camilla Kølsen de

    The paper is a proposal to how we can study the work process of implementing IT in radical organizational innovation projects through the use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT).......The paper is a proposal to how we can study the work process of implementing IT in radical organizational innovation projects through the use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT)....

  11. 76 FR 53844 - National Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Invitation To Submit Comments on Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1150 [Document No. AMS-DA-11... Proposed Amendments to the Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... with the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601- 612), the Agricultural Marketing Service has...

  12. The AIR's policy on research involving the irradiation of human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of the Australian Institute of Radiography with regards to the human subject irradiation is outlined. It is stated that members will not irradiate another individual, nor themselves, solely for the purposes of experimentation or research without gaining the prior approval of an institutional ethics committee. Where possible, researchers should consider the use of patient equivalent or human tissue equivalent phantoms. A short list of references has been compiled to assist members in designing research protocols which comply with the stated policy

  13. The required interactions among institutions involved with Research and Development in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X; Medeiros, J C; Szechtman, M [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the form which CEPEL (Brazilian Federal Research Center in Electric Energy) works for the Brazilian electric system, the interaction with associates, especially with ELETROBRAS (the Federal holding company in Brazil), the modern way of CEPEL operation and interactions with clients, the partnership in Research and Development, the CEPEL philosophy of transferring technology to its clients, and the cost-benefit analysis of Research and Development activities. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Parental E-nvolvement: A Phenomenological Research on Electronic Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat; Konca, Ahmet Sami; Özer, Niyazi; Acar, Feride

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored parental e-nvolvement (or electronic parental involvement), defined as "parental efforts to plan, engage in, support, monitor and/or assess the learning experiences of their children either at home or at school predominantly using technological devices and media." Data were gathered from 23…

  15. Working Memory Involvement in Stuttering: Exploring the Evidence and Research Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Several studies of utterance planning and attention processes in stuttering have raised the prospect of working memory involvement in the disorder. In this paper, potential connections between stuttering and two elements of Baddeley's [Baddeley, A. D. (2003). "Working memory: Looking back and looking forward." "Neuroscience," 4, 829-839] working…

  16. Missed opportunities for impact in patient and carer involvement: a mixed methods case study of research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R; Crocker, J C; Crowe, S

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers want to listen more to patients and their carers in all sorts of areas of healthcare. This can include choosing topics for medical research. We looked at how patients and carers have helped to choose topics for research about type I diabetes. We aimed to find out if, and why, researchers often rejected their choices. We looked at a project which brought together patients, carers and healthcare workers to choose topics for research about type 1 diabetes. The group first asked patients, carers and healthcare workers to suggest ideas for research questions. But the group had to follow rules about what counted as a good research question. Some people's ideas did not count as good research questions, and they were rejected at the start. We looked at who were most likely to have their ideas rejected at the start. We found that patients and carers were most likely to have a suggestion rejected. Then we looked at the rejected questions in detail. They were mostly about curing diabetes, preventing diabetes and understanding how diabetes works. There were also some questions about access to medicines and the quality of care. Researchers should ask patients and carers for help deciding what counts as a good research question from the start of projects like these. We should also think about what might be getting in the way of patients and carers making more of a difference in research. Background Patients and carers are increasingly involved in deciding on topics for medical research. However, so far, it has been difficult to gain an accurate picture of the impact of such involvement because of poor reporting and evaluation in published studies to date. This study aimed to explore how a partnership of patients, carers, healthcare professionals and organisations identified questions for future research and why patients and carers had a limited impact on this process. Methods In the first stage of the partnership process, relevant service users and providers

  17. Proposing a Center on Aging and Well-Being: Research, Education, and Practice Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, Jeannette M.; Jessup-Falcioni, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This environmental scan aimed to discover research interests and educational needs of faculty, graduate, and undergraduate students to inspire research, education, and practice in the development of a center on aging and well-being for older adults. The scan consisted of a search of university faculty and researchers regarding research on aging; a…

  18. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Mark

    2011-09-29

    Abstract Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission\\'s research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as \\'nutrio-genomics\\

  19. Fathers' Perceived Reasons for Their Underrepresentation in Child Health Research and Strategies to Increase Their Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Charles, Jo N; Khandpur, Neha; Nelson, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Examine fathers' perceived reasons for their lack of inclusion in pediatric research and strategies to increase their participation. Description We conducted expert interviews with researchers and practitioners (N = 13) working with fathers to inform the development of an online survey. The survey-which measured fathers' perceived reasons for their underrepresentation in pediatric research, recommended recruitment venues, and research personnel and study characteristics valued by fathers-was distributed online and in-person to fathers. Assessment Respondents included 303 fathers. Over 80 % of respondents reported that fathers are underrepresented in pediatric research because they have not been asked to participate. Frequently recommended recruitment venues included community sports events (52 %), social service programs (48 %) and the internet (60 %). Compared with white fathers, more non-white fathers recommended public transit (19 % vs. 10 %, p = .02), playgrounds (16 % vs. 6 %, p = .007) and barber shops (34 % vs. 14 %, p research may increase if researchers explicitly invite father to participate, target father-focused recruitment venues, clearly communicate the benefits of the research for fathers and their families and adopt streamlined study procedures.

  20. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  1. Leashes and Lies: Navigating the Colonial Tensions of Institutional Ethics of Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Stiegman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical standards of conduct in research undertaken at Canadian universities involving humans has been guided by the three federal research funding agencies through the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (or TCPS for short since 1998. The statement was revised for the first time in 2010 and is now commonly referred to as the TCPS2, which includes an entire chapter (Chapter 9 devoted to the subject of research involving First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples of Canada. While the establishment of TCPS2 is an important initial step on the long road towards decolonizing Indigenous research within the academy, our frustrations—which echo those of many colleagues struggling to do research “in a good way” (see, for example, Ball & Janyst 2008; Bull, 2008; Guta et al., 2010 within this framework—highlight the urgent work that remains to be done if university-based researchers are to be enabled by establishment channels to do “ethical” research with Aboriginal peoples. In our (and others’ experience to date, we seem to have been able to do research in a good way, despite, not because of the TCPS2 (see Castleden et al., 2012. The disconnect between the stated goals of TCPS2, and the challenges researchers face when attempting to navigate how individual, rotating members of REBs interpret the TPCS2 and operate within this framework, begs the question: Wherein lies the disconnect? A number of scholars are currently researching this divide (see for example see Guta et al. 2010; Flicker & Worthington, 2011; and Guta et al., 2013. In this editorial, we offer an anecdote to illustrate our experience regarding some of these tensions and then offer reflections about what might need to change for the next iteration of the TCPS.

  2. Involving students in real-world research: a pilot study for teaching public health and research skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that medical students consider population health issues less important than other domains in the health sciences and attitudes to this field may become more negative as training progresses. A need to improve research skills among medical students has also been suggested. Therefore we piloted an integrative teaching exercise that combined teaching of research skills and public health, with real-world research. Methods Third year medical students at the University of Otago (Dunedin, New Zealand filled in a questionnaire on their housing conditions and health. The students were given the results of the survey to discuss in a subsequent class. Student response to this teaching exercise was assessed using a Course Evaluation Questionnaire. Results Of the 210 students in the class, 136 completed the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (65%. A majority of those who responded (77% greatly supported or supported the use of the survey and seminar discussion for future third year classes. Most (70% thought that the session had made them more aware and concerned about societal problems, and 72% felt that they now had an improved understanding of the environmental determinants of health. Students liked the relevance and interaction of the session, but thought it could be improved by the inclusion of small group discussion. The findings of the students' housing and health were considered by the tutors to be of sufficient value to submit to a scientific journal and are now contributing to community action to improve student housing in the city. Conclusion In this pilot study it was feasible to integrate medical student teaching with real-world research. A large majority of the students responded favourably to the teaching exercise and this was generally successful in raising the profile of public health and research. This approach to integrated teaching/research should be considered further in health sciences training and

  3. Reflections on the United States National Institutes of Health draft guidelines for research involving human pluripotent stem cells--theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotis, J J

    2000-01-01

    Since the human embryonic stem cell research involves destruction of human embryos and, therefore, hinges on the fundamental question of the status of the embryo, it is essential to examine this status carefully in order to establish fitting guidelines for research. The US National Institutes of Health has proposed its own guidelines on the matter recently (1999). The document, rooted in current pluralistic perspectives in moral philosophy (or bioethics), is criticised in this paper as morally inadequate. The argumentation of the criticism stems from the theological perspective on human personhood, which focuses on a continuity of personal identity from embryos to adult human beings. An additional concern for the author is the moral complicity in which the research dependent upon the destruction of human embryonic life is sanctioned.

  4. Emergency planning and preparedness for accidents involving radioactive materials used in medicine, industry, research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Safety Series book should be considered as a technical guide aimed at the users of radioactive materials and the appropriate local and national authorities. It does not represent a single solution to the problems involved but rather draws the outlines of the plans and procedures that have to be developed in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident, should one occur. The preparation of local and national plans should follow the technical recommendations provided in this publication, with due consideration given to local factors which might vary from country to country (e.g. governmental systems, local legislation, quantities of radioactive materials involved). Several types of accidents are described, together with their possible radiological consequences. The basic principles of the protective measures that should be applied are discussed, and the principles of emergency planning and the measures needed to maintain preparedness for an operational response to an accident are outlined

  5. 78 FR 13325 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Research on Evacuating Persons With Mobility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce... how building occupants with mobility impairments currently evacuate multi-story buildings in the...

  6. A Comparison of National Policies on Research Involving Human Subjects to Facilitate Review and Approval of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    torture Prohibition on slavery and forced labour Right to liberty and security Right to a fair trial No punishment without law Right to respect...NOT BE TOLERATED. IT IS BOTH A BREACH OF REGULATIONS AND UNETHICAL . UNAUTHORIZED RESEARCH MAY THEREFORE BE SUBJECT TO INVESTIGATION AND

  7. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: I. Involving funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the World Health Organization's Department for Child and Adolescent Health and Development commissioned five large research priority setting exercises using the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. The aim was to define research priorities related to the five major causes of child deaths for the period up to the year 2015. The selected causes were childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and preterm birth/low birth weight. The criteria used for prioritization in all five exercises were the “standard” CHNRI criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, potential for mortality burden reduction and the effect on equity. Having completed the exercises, the WHO officers were left with another question: how “fundable” were the identified priorities, i.e. how attractive were they to research funders?

  8. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-01-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take app...

  9. Online social networks for patient involvement and recruitment in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma Sinead

    2013-01-01

    To review current literature and discuss the potential of online social networking to engage patients and the public and recruit and retain participants in clinical research. Online social networking is becoming a large influence on people's daily lives. Clinical research faces several challenges, with an increasing need to engage with patients and the public and for studies to recruit and retain increasing numbers of participants, particularly in under-served, under-represented and hard to reach groups and communities. Searches were conducted using EMBASE, BNI, ERIC, CINAHL, PSYCHinfo online databases and Google Scholar to identify any grey or unpublished literature that may be available. Review methods This is a methodology paper. Online social networking is a successful, cost-effective and efficient method by which to target and recruit a wide range of communities, adolescents, young people and underserved populations into quantitative and qualitative research. Retention of participants in longitudinal studies could be improved using social networks such as Facebook. Evidence indicates that a mixed approach to recruitment using social networking and traditional methods is most effective. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence available, especially in dissemination of research through online social networks. Researchers should consider using online social networking as a method of engaging the public, and also for the recruitment and follow up of participants.

  10. Informed Consent and Clinical Research Involving Children and Adolescents: Implications of the Revised APA Ethics Code and HIPAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, 2 new sets of rules and regulations affecting the conduct of clinical research involving children and adolescents went into effect: the revised American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2002; effective June 1, 2003) and the Privacy Rule (45 CFR Part 160 and A and E of Part…

  11. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or a child. 26.1203 Section 26.1203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL...

  12. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of research conducted or... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203...

  13. 76 FR 40379 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... Collection Title: Study Logistics Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... national longitudinal study of environmental influences (including physical, chemical, biological, and...

  14. 76 FR 23603 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's... an OMB generic clearance to conduct formative research featuring biospecimen and physical measures... health and disease. Findings from the Study will be made available as the research progresses, making...

  15. 34 CFR 97.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.123 Early termination of research support: Evaluation of... the protection of the rights and welfare of human subjects (whether or not the research was subject to...

  16. 78 FR 60885 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Notice Request: Application Process for Clinical Research Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Notice Request: Application Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical... Research Training and Medical Education, NIH Clinical Center, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1158, Bethesda, MD 20892... Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center and its Impact on...

  17. 77 FR 9896 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under... allows permits authorizing the taking of endangered species for research/enhancement purposes. The... sets of information collections: (1) Applications for research/enhancement permits, and (2) reporting...

  18. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  19. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Brian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions

  20. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bánáti, Diána; Frewer, Lynn; Hirani, Vasant; Lobstein, Tim; McKenna, Brian; Mulla, Zenab; Rabozzi, Giulia; Sfetcu, Raluca; Newton, Rachel

    2011-09-29

    Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary patterns: for example policies to reduce

  1. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary

  2. Strategies to enhance participant recruitment and retention in research involving a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Involving High School Students in Computational Physics University Research: Theory Calculations of Toluene Adsorbed on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Jonas; Husmark, Teodor; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research.

  4. Techniques involving extreme environment, nondestructive techniques, computer methods in metals research, and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of different techniques which range over several different aspects of materials research are covered in this volume. They are concerned with property evaluation of 4 0 K and below, surface characterization, coating techniques, techniques for the fabrication of composite materials, computer methods, data evaluation and analysis, statistical design of experiments and non-destructive test techniques. Topics covered in this part include internal friction measurements; nondestructive testing techniques; statistical design of experiments and regression analysis in metallurgical research; and measurement of surfaces of engineering materials

  5. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  6. Updating AP Potential™ Expectancy Tables Involving PSAT/NMSQT® Writing. Research Notes. RN-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Camara, Wayne J.; Millsap, Roger E.; Milewski, Glenn B.

    2007-01-01

    AP Potential™ is a data-driven tool offered by the College Board that uses scores from the PSAT/NMSQT® to identify students who have the potential to succeed in Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) courses (College Board, 2007). Research showing a moderate-to-strong correlation between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores serves as the basis for this…

  7. Insiders' Perspectives: A Children's Rights Approach to Involving Children in Advising on Adult-Initiated Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Consulting with children is widely recognised as an essential element in building understanding about children's lives. From a children's rights perspective, it is also a legal requirement on professionals working with children. However, translating the rhetoric into research and practice is still evolving. Previous studies report on working with…

  8. Human Securitability: A Participatory Action Research Study Involving Novice Teachers and Youngsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravale-Paulina, Marite; Olehnovica, Eridiana

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, initiative and interest in current events can bridge the alienation felt towards national and municipal institutions, thereby enabling individuals to improve their quality of life and contribute to all-round sustainable development of their resident state. This paper reports on a participatory action research study into civic…

  9. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  10. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  11. Description and Evaluation of the Research Ethics Review Process in Japan: Proposed Measures for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mika; Sato, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are designed to protect human subjects in research. It is essential to recognize whether the RECs are achieving this goal. Several studies have reported on RECs; however, detailed data regarding the quality of research protocols and the review process of RECs have not been reported in Japan. We examine research protocols reviewed by RECs and the review processes at three institutions using a novel checklist we developed. The data show that approximately half of all examined protocols lacked a clearly written "Background" section that defines the study rationale and design. These results reiterate suggestions made in previous research regarding educational programs and support departments that could enhance responsible conduct in clinical research to protect human subjects in Japan. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Astrophysical research at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, proposal for a formal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokke, W.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1979-12-01

    Basic research is often characterized as self-directed, moving on its own timescale, spurred by the unexpected. An effective, organized basic astrophysics research program does not have to be a contradiction in terms. A broadly chartered, long-range LLL Astrophysics Research Program, created and recognized by LLL management, can benefit the general scientific community, stimulate the staff, maintain important capability, and enrich the Laboratory.

  13. Astrophysical research at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, proposal for a formal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokke, W.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1979-12-01

    Basic research is often characterized as self-directed, moving on its own timescale, spurred by the unexpected. An effective, organized basic astrophysics research program does not have to be a contradiction in terms. A broadly chartered, long-range LLL Astrophysics Research Program, created and recognized by LLL management, can benefit the general scientific community, stimulate the staff, maintain important capability, and enrich the Laboratory

  14. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  15. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  16. A proposal for ethical research conduct in Madagascar | Wilmé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical conducts are gaining importance in times of increased globalization and research efforts. This paper presents a code of ethical conduct for researchers who plan to publish their studies with the journal Madagascar Conservation & Development. This paper will be subject to continuous adaptations and discussions.

  17. 76 FR 61707 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... will provide the grantees with technical assistance regarding research design, data collection, data... instruments are designed to capture a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. No claim is made that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency...

  18. 76 FR 32971 - Proposed Priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... advances in KT practices. These practices include, for example, methods for systematic reviews of social... standards, guidelines, and methods to systematically assess and describe the rigor of the research, and the... appropriate standards, guidelines, or methods, taking into account the types of research and stages of...

  19. 77 FR 64952 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; State Government Research and Development (R&D...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ..., DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... obtain information on such things as expenditures according to source of funding, by performer of the..., transportation, etc), by character of work (i.e., basic research, applied research, or development), and by R&D...

  20. Undergraduate research involving human subjects should not be granted ethical approval unless it is likely to be of publishable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Cathal T; McDonald, Lisa J; McCormack, Niamh P

    2014-06-01

    Small-scale research projects involving human subjects have been identified as being effective in developing critical appraisal skills in undergraduate students. In deciding whether to grant ethical approval to such projects, university research ethics committees must weigh the benefits of the research against the risk of harm or discomfort to the participants. As the learning objectives associated with student research can be met without the need for human subjects, the benefit associated with training new healthcare professionals cannot, in itself, justify such risks. The outputs of research must be shared with the wider scientific community if it is to influence future practice. Our survey of 19 UK universities indicates that undergraduate dissertations associated with the disciplines of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy are not routinely retained in their library catalogues, thus closing a major avenue to the dissemination of their findings. If such research is unlikely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at a conference, or otherwise made available to other researchers, then the risks of harm, discomfort or inconvenience to participants are unlikely to be offset by societal benefits. Ethics committees should be satisfied that undergraduate research will be funnelled into further research that is likely to inform clinical practice before granting ethical approval.

  1. A proposed new mechanism for research and development co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Scientists in developing countries sometimes lack knowledge of recent developments, co-operation with advanced countries, and government appreciation of the importance and quality of their work. The present IAEA mechanisms like CRPs and TC projects are very helpful but do not fully meet R and D co-operation needs of these scientists. A new complementary mechanism of co-operation among the Member States is proposed that would utilize IAEA services through a suitable agreement. The IAEA could help to evaluate joint R and D proposals, to provide an example legal agreement, to monitor progress, to disseminate the results, and, in some cases, to administer joint funds. This new mechanism would be similar to ITER, but on a smaller scale, and applicable to all fields of nuclear R and D. (author)

  2. Detecting the simulation profile in MMPI-2: A proposal based on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Sánchez Crespo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to offer a profile detector of the falsifications that could be done to the MMPI-2. We propose minimal changes in the reversed order of the direct punctuations of L y K and the addition of four new specific scales: Odecp, Ds-r, S, F-K. Two groups were used: a control group, composed by normal and clinical subgroups who answered to the MMPI-2 according to standard procedure, and an experimental group, composed by three subgroups with different answer instructions: to give a good image, a bad image or an inconsistent answer. The result is a profile with the proposed scales of validity that initially allow the detection of different falsifications by the subjects when answering the MMPI-2 test.

  3. Proposal for a Wellness Clinician/Research Specialization for the Existing Degree Program, Master of Education in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; And Others

    Consistent with the Year 2000 National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, this paper presents a proposal for a Wellness Clinician/Research specialization within the existing Master of Education in Physical Education degree program offered by the Division of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation at Wayne State University…

  4. Implementation plan of the environmental impact statement on a proposed policy for acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of selected portions of the United States Department of Energy's ''Implementation Plan for the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'', DOE/EIS-0218, October 1994

  5. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  6. Proposing a Research Methodology to Evaluate the Relation Between Training Needs Assessment and Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    FRAMEWORK The theoretical framework of the proposed study is rooted in employee motivation , perception on training effectiveness and the cause of positive...which can be explained as the motivating factors that do not encourage development or growth. For instance, many factors can motivate the employee ...of them offer any opportunities or chances for progress or development. The employee looking for development and growth will look for motivational

  7. Research Proposal for an Experiment to Search for the Decay {\\mu} -> eee

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A.; Pohl, M.; Bachmann, S.; Berger, N.; Kiehn, M.; Schoning, A.; Wiedner, D.; Windelband, B.; Eckert, P.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Shen, W.; Fischer, P.; Peric, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Papa, A.; Ritt, S.; Stoykov, A.; Dissertori, G.; Grab, C.; Wallny, R.; Gredig, R.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an experiment (Mu3e) to search for the lepton flavour violating decay mu+ -> e+e-e+. We aim for an ultimate sensitivity of one in 10^16 mu-decays, four orders of magnitude better than previous searches. This sensitivity is made possible by exploiting modern silicon pixel detectors providing high spatial resolution and hodoscopes using scintillating fibres and tiles providing precise timing information at high particle rates.

  8. The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Steven; McLachlan, Sarah; Jowett, Sue; Kinghorn, Philip; Gill, Paramjit; Higginbottom, Adele; Rhodes, Carol; Stevenson, Fiona; Jinks, Clare

    2018-01-01

    In the UK, more patients go to primary care than other parts of the health service. Therefore it is important for research into primary care to include the insights and views of people who receive these services. To explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research, we examined documents of 200 projects and surveyed 191 researchers.We found that about half of studies included PPI to develop research ideas and during the study itself. Common activities included designing study materials, advising on methods, and managing the research. Some studies did not undertake the PPI activities initially planned and funded for. PPI varied by study design, health condition and study population. We found pockets of good practice: having a PPI budget, supporting PPI contributors, and PPI informing recruitment issues. However, good practice was lacking in other areas. Few projects offered PPI contributors training, used PPI to develop information for participants about study progress and included PPI to advise on publishing findings.Researchers reported beneficial impacts of PPI. Most impact was reported when the approach to PPI included more indicators of good practice. The main cost of PPI for researchers was their time. Many reported difficulties providing information about PPI.In partnership with PPI contributors, we have used these findings to develop:a new Cost and Consequences Framework for PPI highlighting financial and non-financial costs, benefits and harms of PPIFifteen co-produced recommendations to improve the practice and delivery of PPI. Background: To improve the lives of patients in primary care requires the involvement of service users in primary care research. We aimed to explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research. Methods: We extracted information about PPI from grant applications, reports and an electronic survey of researchers of studies funded

  9. Research involving hot atoms of nucleogenic origin and its practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, a large body of information has amassed which has helped to clarify the authors understanding of the complex chemistry occurring within chemical systems immediately following a nuclear reaction. With the increased knowledge of how reactive nuclides generated by such processes react chemically, it became increasingly apparent that the translational or recoil energy imparted to such species was not always the driving force behind some of the unusual chemistry seen in these systems. In many instances, the state of electronic excitation was found to strongly affect their chemistry. In others, the concomitant radiation chemistry often altered initial chemical states. Even so, with just a general understanding of how these effects work in unison, it has been possible in many instances to predict radiolabel distributions and yields in molecules. This ability has had an enormous impact in other fields utilizing radiotracers in research. This presentation will highlight specific examples in basic hot atom research which have focused on these problems, and describe general applications to other disciplines using radiotracers

  10. Publishing descriptions of non-public clinical datasets: proposed guidance for researchers, repositories, editors and funding organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Khodiyar, Varsha; Hufton, Andrew L; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Sharing of experimental clinical research data usually happens between individuals or research groups rather than via public repositories, in part due to the need to protect research participant privacy. This approach to data sharing makes it difficult to connect journal articles with their underlying datasets and is often insufficient for ensuring access to data in the long term. Voluntary data sharing services such as the Yale Open Data Access (YODA) and Clinical Study Data Request (CSDR) projects have increased accessibility to clinical datasets for secondary uses while protecting patient privacy and the legitimacy of secondary analyses but these resources are generally disconnected from journal articles-where researchers typically search for reliable information to inform future research. New scholarly journal and article types dedicated to increasing accessibility of research data have emerged in recent years and, in general, journals are developing stronger links with data repositories. There is a need for increased collaboration between journals, data repositories, researchers, funders, and voluntary data sharing services to increase the visibility and reliability of clinical research. Using the journal Scientific Data as a case study, we propose and show examples of changes to the format and peer-review process for journal articles to more robustly link them to data that are only available on request. We also propose additional features for data repositories to better accommodate non-public clinical datasets, including Data Use Agreements (DUAs).

  11. 40 CFR 26.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... the protection of the rights and welfare of human subjects (whether or not the research was subject to...

  12. 76 FR 23605 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... maximize the efficiency (measured by scientific robustness, participant and infrastructure burden, and cost... assess the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of the recruitment strategy, study procedures, and...

  13. Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... ... cellular and molecular basis of cognition; modeling brain function; imaging ... a range of activities supporting the research and training objectives of the ... Innovation Fund—managed by the Department of Health and Social ...

  14. Conceptual Nuclear Design Of Two Models Of Research Reactor Proposed For Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien; Huynh Ton Nghiem; Le Vinh Vinh; Vo Doan Hai Dang

    2007-01-01

    The joint study on the development of a new research reactor model for Vietnam was done. The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) experts and DNRI (Dalat Nuclear Research Institute) researchers developed an advanced HANARO reactor (AHR), a 20-MW open-tank-in-pool type reactor, upward cooled and moderated by light water, reflected by heavy water and rod type fuel assemblies used. Based on the AHR model, a MTR reactor with plate fuel assemblies was developed. Computer codes named MCNP and MVP/BURN were used. Major analyses have been done for the relevant nuclear design parameters such as the neutron flux and power distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worth, etc. in both with clean, unperturbed core and equilibrium core condition. In case of AHR model, calculation results using MVP/BURN and MCNP codes were compared with the results using HELIOS and MCNP codes by KAERI experts and they are in a good agreement. (author)

  15. 77 FR 38840 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) Summer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... inquires about career activities, including research, clinical, teaching and educational activities, since... the data collection plans and instruments, contact Dr. Amanda Greene, Science Evaluation Officer, Office of Science Policy and Public Liaison, NINR, Democracy One, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 700...

  16. 76 FR 20673 - Announcement of Notice; Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Research and Development Center (FFRDC) to facilitate the modernization of business processes and... modernization of business processes and supporting systems and their operations. Some of the broad task areas... Engineering, including Technical Architecture Direction. Procurement Assistance, Review/Recommendations for...

  17. 76 FR 34713 - Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development Center-Third Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... (FFRDC) to facilitate the modernization of business processes and supporting systems and their operations... Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) to facilitate the modernization of business... including technical architecture direction. [[Page 34714

  18. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory: Involving High School Students in Astronomical Research -- A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel; Heatherly, S.; McLauglin, M.; Lorimer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Foundation funded "Pulsar Search Collaboratory” project is a collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV and West Virginia University aimed at provoking interest in Science-Technology-Engineering-Math (STEM) careers and increasing scientific and information technology literacy among high-school students within the state and region. Over the initial three-year phase of this program, 60 high-school teachers at schools throughout region and over 300 students will be involved in the search for new pulsars and transient objects by analyzing over 30 TB of data collected by the Green Bank Telescope in 2007. Although training is provided to teachers and student leaders via a summer workshop, additional students may join the program, learning from their peers how to conduct the data analysis. We are now in the second year of the PSC and we present a progress report from the first year of the PSC. We will summarize our approaches to implementing this challenging project, including the use of online tools to communicate with and sustain interest among the student teams, and the development of a unique graphical database through which students access and analyze pulsar plots. We will present the student results including one astronomical discovery as well as statistics on the plots that students have analyzed, including distribution among schools, number of known pulsars found, and RFI detection. Finally we will present evaluation results and lessons learned from the first year of the PSC. These include results from pre/post testing of teachers and students that show changes in student interest in STEM careers resulting from the PSC, and statistics on student participation.

  19. Criticality safety studies involved in actions to improve conditions for storing 'RA' research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    A project has recently been initiated by the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences to improve conditions in the spent fuel storage pool at the 6.5 MW research reactor RA, as well as to consider transferring this spent fuel into a new dry storage facility built for the purpose. Since quantity and contents of fissile material in the spent fuel storage at the RA reactor are such that possibility of criticality accident can not be a priori excluded, according to standards and regulations for handling fissile material outside a reactor, before any action is undertaken subcriticality should be proven under normal, as well as under credible abnormal conditions. To perform this task, comprehensive nuclear criticality safety studies had to be performed. (author)

  20. Promoting the inclusion of Afghan women and men in research: reflections from research and community partners involved in implementing a 'proof of concept' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Elisha; Yelland, Jane; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Chesters, Donna; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-01-31

    With mounting evidence that poor maternal and child health outcomes are related to the social determinants of health, researchers need to engage with vulnerable and isolated communities to gather the evidence that is essential to determine appropriate solutions. Conventional research methods may not ensure the degree and quality of participation that is necessary for meaningful study findings. Participatory methods provide reciprocal opportunities for often excluded communities to both take part in, and guide the conduct of research. The Having a baby in a new country research project was undertaken to provide evidence about how women and men of refugee background experience health services at the time of having a baby. This two year, multifaceted proof of concept study comprised: 1) an organisational partnership to oversee the project; 2) a community engagement framework including: female and male Afghan community researchers, community and sector stakeholder advisory groups and community consultation and engagement. Inclusive research strategies that address power imbalances in research, and diversity of and within communities, are necessary to obtain the evidence required to address health inequalities in vulnerable populations. Such an approach involves mindfully adapting research processes to ensure that studies have regard for the advice of community members about the issues that affect them. Researchers have much to gain by committing time and resources to engaging communities in reciprocal ways in research processes.

  1. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  2. A research perspective on stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaston Meskens; Erik Laes; Gilbert Eggermont

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Our modern society is increasingly faced with challenges and problems that cannot be solved by a purely technical, political or social approach. Radioactive waste disposal site selection and management can be characterised as one of these challenges that require a trans-disciplinary approach, integrating social, philosophical and ethical aspects in a 'technical' practice. Along the spirit of this trans-disciplinary approach, and in order to ensure the necessary public support for a policy decision regarding this practice, stakeholder involvement is more and more seen as a necessary policy element in the decision making process. The aim is to achieve the broad involvement of individuals from civil society, with significant representation from local communities, elected representatives and NGO's, as well as scientists from outside radioactive waste management organisations, together with established players in the field, such as the implementers of radioactive waste management, public authorities, experts and waste producers. Several initiatives regarding stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management have been taken already in Europe, as well in the research era as in 'the real world'. The presentation will give a state of the art by examining some representative examples on both national and European level. The focus will be on the main social, philosophical and ethical aspects of the problem at stake, seen through a trans-disciplinary research lens. The presentation will conclude with some ideas that could inspire as well theoretical researchers as stakeholders-in-the-field. (authors)

  3. Development and testing of a medline search filter for identifying patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Morwenna; Bethel, Alison; Boddy, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Research involving the public as partners often proves difficult to locate due to the variations in terms used to describe public involvement, and inability of medical databases to index this concept effectively. To design a search filter to identify literature where patient and public involvement (PPI) was used in health research. A reference standard of 172 PPI papers was formed. The references were divided into a development set and a test set. Search terms were identified from common words, phrases and synonyms in the development set. These terms were combined as a search strategy for medline via OvidSP, which was then tested for sensitivity against the test set. The resultant search filter was then assessed for sensitivity, specificity and precision using a previously published systematic review. The search filter was found to be highly sensitive 98.5% in initial testing. When tested against results generated by a 'real-life' systematic review, the filter had a specificity of 81%. However, sensitivity dropped to 58%. Adjustments to the population group of terms increased the sensitivity to 73%. The PPI filter designed for medline via OvidSP could aid information specialists and researchers trying to find literature specific to PPI. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. A Research Perspective on Stakeholder Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management - State of the Art and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, Gaston; Laes, Erik; Eggermont, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Our modern society is increasingly faced with challenges and problems that cannot be solved by a purely technical, political or social approach. Radioactive waste disposal site selection and management can be characterised as one of these challenges that require a transdisciplinary approach, integrating social, philosophical and ethical aspects in a 'technical' practice. Along the spirit of this transdisciplinary approach, and in order to ensure the necessary public support for a policy decision regarding this practice, stakeholder involvement is more and more seen as a necessary policy element in the decision making process. The aim is to achieve the broad involvement of individuals from civil society, with significant representation from local communities, elected representatives and NGO's, as well as scientists from outside radioactive waste management organisations, together with established players in the field, such as the implementers of radioactive waste management, public authorities, experts and waste producers. Several initiatives regarding stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management have been taken already in Europe, as well in the research era as in 'the real world'. The presentation will give a state of the art by examining some representative examples on both national and European level. The focus will be on the main social, philosophical and ethical aspects of the problem at stake, seen through a transdisciplinary research lens. The presentation will conclude with some ideas that could inspire as well theoretical researchers as stakeholders-in-the-field (Full text of contribution)

  5. From the best results of medical research to therapy involving the context of an individual patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation is the process of identifying specific factors of a patient’s life situation, which is focused on individualised care. In the light of reference books, contextualisation is an integral part of therapy with an active participation of the patient and/or his/her carers. Among many factors that constitute the functioning of a person, family and socio-material situation, access to professional health care, and the ability to exercise self-care are major contextual factors of the patient’s health situation. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the fact that the limiting oneself exclusively to algorithms as procedures based on the best evidence (best evidence medical research – BEMR may raise the specific danger of underestimating the variability of individual responses of the human body under the influence of factors forming a personal context. The phenomenon of contextualisation in the treatment of an individual patient is still not adequately disseminated, although it is an important element in the decision-making process, with proven impact on the efficiency and quality of care and satisfaction of a patient.

  6. Research and proposal on selective catalytic reduction reactor optimization for industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiming; Li, Jian; He, Hong

    2017-08-24

    The advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate a denitrification (De-NOx) project for a boiler in this paper, and the simulation result was verified based on a physical model. Two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors were developed: reactor 1 was optimized and reactor 2 was developed based on reactor 1. Various indicators, including gas flow field, ammonia concentration distribution, temperature distribution, gas incident angle, and system pressure drop were analyzed. The analysis indicated that reactor 2 was of outstanding performance and could simplify developing greatly. Ammonia injection grid (AIG), the core component of the reactor, was studied; three AIGs were developed and their performances were compared and analyzed. The result indicated that AIG 3 was of the best performance. The technical indicators were proposed for SCR reactor based on the study. Flow filed distribution, gas incident angle, and temperature distribution are subjected to SCR reactor shape to a great extent, and reactor 2 proposed in this paper was of outstanding performance; ammonia concentration distribution is subjected to ammonia injection grid (AIG) shape, and AIG 3 could meet the technical indicator of ammonia concentration without mounting ammonia mixer. The developments above on the reactor and the AIG are both of great application value and social efficiency.

  7. Making patient and public involvement in cancer and palliative research a reality: academic support is vital for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen; Boote, Jonathan; Ardron, David; Gath, Jacqui; Green, Tracy; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2015-06-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) has become an established theme within the UK health research policy and is recognised as an essential force in the drive to improve the quality of services and research. These developments have been particularly rapid in the cancer field. This paper outlines a model of PPI in research (known as the North Trent Cancer Research Network Consumer Research Panel, NTCRN CRP; comprising 38 cancer and palliative care patients/carers) and the key benefits and challenges to effective PPI in cancer research. The PPI model has become a sustainable, inclusive and effective way of implementing PPI within the cancer context. Challenges include (1) a lack of time and funding available to support the PPI model; (2) tensions between different stakeholder groups when developing and conducting health research; (3) panel members finding it difficult to effectively integrate into research meetings when their role and contribution is not made clear at the outset or when unfamiliar language and jargon are used and not explained; (4) some professionals remain unclear about the role and practical implications of PPI in research. However, notwithstanding its financial and organisational challenges, the way that the NTCRN CRP is supported has provided a solid base for it to flourish. PPI provides considerable opportunities for patients and the public to work collaboratively with professionals to influence the cancer research agenda, with the contribution of PPI to the research process being integral to the entire process from the outset, rather than appended to it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. 76 FR 3609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census in Schools and Partnership Program Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... in Schools and Partnership Program Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... Schools (CIS) Program and the Partnership Program (PP) with three primary objectives: (1) To increase the.... The CIS Program educated primary and secondary school students about the 2010 Census; the students, in...

  9. Proposal of a research and development program for cerebral tumor treatment by neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da

    1992-01-01

    The researches related to the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, that were developed at Nuclear Energetic Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) and the Coordination for Special Projects (COPESP) are described. A coordinate development program is presented for constructing of an installation, with the purpose of routine utilization of this technique. (C.G.C.)

  10. NanoSTAIR: A new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipiña, J.M.L. de; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the

  11. Proposal for multivariary indicators for the evaluation of researchers in social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Restrepo-Arango

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the academic performance of researchers in the social sciences based on the units of analysis of scientific production, teaching, professional participation and academic recognition. This model was applied to a stratified random sample of 240 (12% social science researchers belonging to the National System of Researchers (SNI of Mexico. Data were collected from the academic curricula, analyzed using multivariate techniques using correspondence analysis and chi-square test (X2 at a significance level of 0.05 and 1 degree of freedom. SPSS version 20 for Windows was used to process the data. The results show that scientific production is significantly associated with chapters of books, books and articles published in national journals. Teaching is significantly associated with participation in doctoral thesis committees, doctoral exams and doctoral thesis reader. Professional participation is significantly associated with participations in book presentations, in round tables, as a commentator, guest speaker in national institutions and opinion of articles. Academic recognition is significantly associated with academic awards, honoris causa and recognitions as distinctions.

  12. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... impose an administrative burden without enhancing the safe conduct of this research. In response to this... public health or the environment (Section III-F-6). These exemptions are delineated in Appendix C of the... rationale is that three decades of experience working with and breeding transgenic rodents has demonstrated...

  13. 78 FR 14483 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... and Discovery means the stage of research that generates hypotheses or theories by conducting new and... or planned by another agency; (3) Materially alter the budgetary impacts of entitlement grants, user..., rather than the behavior or manner of compliance a regulated entity must adopt; and (5) Identify and...

  14. Design-based research and doctoral students: Guidelines for preparing a dissertation proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrington, Jan; Montgomerie, C.; McKenney, Susan; Seale, J.; Reeves, Thomas C.; Oliver, Ron

    2007-01-01

    At first glance, design-based research may appear to be such a long-term and intensive approach to educational inquiry that doctoral students, most of whom expect to complete their Ph.D. degree in 4-5 years, should not attempt to adopt this approach for their doctoral dissertations. In this paper,

  15. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  16. 76 FR 28042 - Announcement of Notice; Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Research and Development Center (FFRDC) to facilitate the modernization of business processes and... modernization of business processes and supporting systems and their operations. Some of the broad task areas... architecture direction. Procurement assistance, review/recommendations for current contract processes to...

  17. Benchmark of physics design of a proposed 30 MW Multi Purpose Research Reactor using a Monte Carlo code MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tej; Kumar, Jainendra; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Kanchhi; Raina, V.K.; Srinivasan, P.

    2009-01-01

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide majority of research reactor based experimental/irradiation facilities to cater to various needs of the vast pool of researchers in the field of sciences research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radioisotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 30 MWt Multi Purpose Research Reactor is proposed to be constructed. This paper describes some of the physics design features of this reactor using MCNP code to validate the deterministic methods. The criticality calculations for 100 material testing reactor (JHR) of France and 610 MW SAVANNAH thermal reactor were performed using MCNP computer codes to boost the confidence level in designing the physics design of reactor core. (author)

  18. Research priority setting for health policy and health systems strengthening in Nigeria: the policymakers and stakeholders perspective and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Onwe, Friday; Aulakh, Bhupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be allocated to the health sector. Priority setting becomes imperative because it guides investments in health care, health research and respects resource constraints. The objective of this study was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of policymakers on research priority setting and to conduct a research priority setting exercise. A one-day evidence-to-policy research priority setting meeting was held. The meeting participants included senior and middle level policymakers and key decision makers/stakeholders in the health sector in Ebonyi State southeastern Nigeria. The priorities setting meeting involved a training session on priority setting process and conduction of priority setting exercise using the essential national health research (ENHR) approach. The focus was on the health systems building blocks (health workforce; health finance; leadership/governance; medical products/technology; service delivery; and health information/evidence). Of the total of 92 policymakers invited 90(97.8%) attended the meeting. It was the consensus of the policymakers that research should focus on the challenges of optimal access to health products and technology; effective health service delivery and disease control under a national emergency situation; the shortfalls in the supply of professional personnel; and the issues of governance in the health sector management. Research priority setting exercise involving policymakers is an example of demand driven strategy in the health policymaking process capable of reversing inequities and strengthening the health systems in LMICs.

  19. The role of the referee and his involvement in the promotion of fair play. Analysis and proposals of intervention in the context of University sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Prat Grau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The figure of referees and their role in sports competitions have been the object of numerous studies, but few have analysed the role of referees from a more training based perspective. This article analyses the function of the referee in the area of university sports, based on the idea that the intervention of referees can help with the development of sportsmanship and fair play. The study examines the internal 7-a-side football league played by the Physical Activity Service (SAF at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB, and the research objectives are focused on analyzing the current reality of this group, detecting possible problems, and generating proposals for improvement aimed at seeking more educational refereeing. The instruments used are interviews, observation and document analysis. The results obtained reveal the need for referees to be trained pedagogically in the university environment; the establishment of ethical commitments that enable compliance with possible decalogues and codes of conduct; and the introduction of women to the refereeing collective.

  20. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  1. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  2. High Temperature Reactors for a proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Energy Neutral Mineral Development Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneklaus, Nils; Reitsma, Frederik; Tulsidas, Harikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is promoting a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to elaborate on the applicability and potential of using High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) to provide process heat and/or electricity to power energy intensive mineral development processes. The CRP aims to provide a platform for cooperation between HTR-developers and mineral development processing experts. Energy intensive mineral development processes with (e.g. phosphate-, gold-, copper-, rare earth ores) or without (e.g. titanium-, aluminum ore) the possibility to recover accompanying uranium and/or thorium that could be developed and used to run the HTR for “energy neutral” processing of the primary ore shall be discussed according to the participants needs. This paper specifically focuses on the aspects that need to be addressed by HTR-designers and developers. First requirements that should be fulfilled by the HTR-designs are highlighted together with the desired outcomes of the research project. (author)

  3. A description of the Canadian irradiation-research facility proposed to replace the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A G; Lidstone, R F; Bishop, W E; Talbot, E F; McIlwain, H [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-31

    To replace the aging NRU reactor, AECL has developed the concept for a dual-purpose national Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that tests fuel and materials for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors and performs materials research using extracted neutron beams. The IRF includes a MAPLE reactor in a containment building, experimental facilities, and support facilities. At a nominal reactor power of 40 MW{sub t}, the IRF will generate powers up to 1 MW in natural-uranium CANDU bundles, fast-neutron fluxes up to 1.4 x 10{sup 18} n{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} in Zr-alloy specimens, and thermal-neutron fluxes matching those available to the NRU beam tubes. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  5. Expanding the Reach of Physics-Engaging Students in Interdisciplinary Research Involving complex, real-world situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bililign, Solomon

    2014-03-01

    Physics plays a very important role in most interdisciplinary efforts and can provide a solid foundation for students. Retention of students in STEM areas can be facilitated by enhanced interdisciplinary education and research since students are strongly attracted to research with societal relevance and show increasing enthusiasm about problems that have practical consequences. One such area of research is a collaborative Earth System Science. The Earth System is dynamic and complex. It is comprised of diverse components that interact. By providing students the opportunities to work in interdisciplinary groups on a problem that reflects a complex, real-world situation they can see the linkages between components of the Earth system that encompass climate and all its components (weather precipitation, temperature, etc.) and technology development and deployment of sensors and sensor networks and social impacts. By involving students in the creation of their own personalized professional development plan, students are more focused and engaged and are more likely to remain in the program.

  6. Improving selection of markers in nutrition research: evaluation of the criteria proposed by the ILSI Europe Marker Validation Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C; Boobis, Alan; Braun, Deborah; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise; Einöther, Suzanne; Greyling, Arno; Matthys, Christophe; Putz, Peter; Wopereis, Suzan; Woodside, Jayne V; Antoine, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    The conduct of high-quality nutrition research requires the selection of appropriate markers as outcomes, for example as indicators of food or nutrient intake, nutritional status, health status or disease risk. Such selection requires detailed knowledge of the markers, and consideration of the factors that may influence their measurement, other than the effects of nutritional change. A framework to guide selection of markers within nutrition research studies would be a valuable tool for researchers. A multidisciplinary Expert Group set out to test criteria designed to aid the evaluation of candidate markers for their usefulness in nutrition research and subsequently to develop a scoring system for markers. The proposed criteria were tested using thirteen markers selected from a broad range of nutrition research fields. The result of this testing was a modified list of criteria and a template for evaluating a potential marker against the criteria. Subsequently, a semi-quantitative system for scoring a marker and an associated template were developed. This system will enable the evaluation and comparison of different candidate markers within the same field of nutrition research in order to identify their relative usefulness. The ranking criteria of proven, strong, medium or low are likely to vary according to research setting, research field and the type of tool used to assess the marker and therefore the considerations for scoring need to be determined in a setting-, field- and tool-specific manner. A database of such markers, their interpretation and range of possible values would be valuable to nutrition researchers.

  7. Geologic setting of the proposed Fallon FORGE Site, Nevada: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, James E.; Blankenship, Douglas; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Sabin, Andrew; Nordquist, Josh; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kennedy, Mack; Siler, Drew; Robinson-Tait, Ann; Williams, Colin F.; Drakos, Peter; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Fallon FORGE site lies within and adjacent to the Naval Air Station Fallon (NASF) directly southeast of the town of Fallon, Nevada, within the large basin of the Carson Sink in west-central Nevada. The site is located on two parcels that include land owned by the NASF and leased and owned by Ormat Nevada, Inc. The Carson Sink in the vicinity of the Fallon site is covered by Quaternary deposits, including alluvial fan, eolian, and lacustrine sediments. Four wells penetrate the entire Neogene section and bottom in Mesozoic basement. Late Miocene to Quaternary basin-fill sediments are 0.5 to >1 km thick and overlie Oligocene-Miocene volcanic and lesser sedimentary rocks. The volcanic section is 0.5 to 1.0 km thick and dominated by Miocene mafic lavas. The Neogene section rests nonconformably on heterogeneous Mesozoic basement, which consists of Triassic-Jurassic metamorphic rocks intruded by Cretaceous granitic plutons. The structural framework is dominated by a gently west-tilted half graben cut by moderately to steeply dipping N- to NNEstriking normal faults that dip both east and west. Quaternary faults have not been observed within the proposed FORGE site. Fallon was selected for a potential FORGE site due to its extensional tectonic setting, abundance of available data, existing infrastructure, and documented temperatures, permeability, and lithologic composition of potential reservoirs that fall within the ranges specified by DOE for FORGE. Since the early 1970s, more than 45 wells have been drilled for geothermal exploration within the area. Four exploration wells within the FORGE site are available for use in the project. Several additional wells are available for monitoring outside the central FORGE site within the NASF and Ormat lease area, including numerous temperature gradient holes. There is an existing, ten-station micro-seismic earthquake (MEQ) array that has been collecting data since 2001; the MEQ array can be expanded to encompass the

  8. Strategies to enhance patient recruitment and retention in research involving patients with a first episode of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Ivana; Cheung, Amy H; Dewa, Carolyn S; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-11-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is often the most labor-intensive and difficult component of clinical trials. Poor recruitment and retention frequently pose as a major barrier in the successful completion of clinical trials. In fact, many studies are prematurely terminated, or their findings questioned due to low recruitment and retention rates. The conduct of clinical trials involving youth with a first episode of mental illness comes with additional challenges in recruitment and retention including barriers associated with engagement and family involvement. To develop effective early interventions for first episode mental illness, it is necessary to develop strategies to enhance recruitment and retention in this patient population. This article presents the recruitment and retention challenges experienced in two clinical trials: one involving participants experiencing a first episode of depression and one involving participants experiencing a first episode psychosis. Challenges with recruitment and retention are identified and reviewed at both the patient level and clinician level. Strategies that were implemented to enhance recruitment and retention in these two studies are also discussed. Finally, ethical issues to consider when implementing these strategies are also highlighted.

  9. Taking patient and public involvement online: qualitative evaluation of an online forum for palliative care and rehabilitation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Lisa Jane; Pask, Sophie; Benalia, Hamid; Bailey, Sylvia; Sumerfield, Marion; Witt, Jana; de Wolf-Linder, Susanne; Etkind, Simon Noah; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Koffman, Jonathan; Evans, Catherine J

    2018-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognised as important in research. Most PPI takes place face-to-face, but this can be difficult for people who are unwell or have caring responsibilities. As these challenges are particularly common in palliative care and rehabilitation research, we developed an online forum for PPI: www.csipublicinvolvement.co.uk. In this study, we explored how well the online forum worked, if it is a suitable method for PPI, and how PPI members and researchers reacted to using it. We used an existing theory about online interventions to help choose the 'right' questions to ask participants. We invited PPI members and researchers who had used the online forum to participate in focus groups, and identified the most important themes discussed. Within this study, PPI members have helped with the interview questions, analysis, and write up. Overall, four PPI members and five researchers participated in the focus groups. Participants felt the online forum worked well and had multiple benefits. From the discussions, we identified four key questions to consider when developing online methods for PPI: how does the forum work, how does it engage people, how does it empower people, and what is the impact? Participants suggested the forum could be improved by being more PPI and less researcher focused. We conclude that when developing online methods of PPI, a functioning forum is not enough: it also needs to be engaging and empowering to have an impact. Future work can use these four domains when developing their own online PPI methods. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is increasingly recognised as important. Most PPI activities take place face-to-face, yet this can be difficult for people with ill health or caring responsibilities, and may exclude people from hard-to-reach populations (e.g. living in vulnerable social circumstances and/or remote geographical locations). These challenges are particularly pertinent in

  10. Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.......Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource...

  11. Research opportunities at the proposed Los Alamos XUV-FEL user facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradson, S.D.; Newman, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that within the last several years a number of meetings and conferences have addressed the unique scientific opportunities which would result from the development of an RF-linac FEL user facility accessing the XUV and mid-IR spectral regions. The capabilities of a number of linear and nonlinear spectroscopies would be enhanced by one or more features of the FEL output, e.g., its free tunability in these regions, transform-limited linewidth, high peak power and brightness, time structure, and the possibility of multi-color pump-probe experiments utilizing the coordinated output from more than one FEL oscillator. These advances would in turn benefit a variety of scientific areas. In the realm of basic science, experiments or measurements which ether require an FEL or where increased sensitivity would be advantageous can be found in quantum, atomic, cluster, molecular, and condensed matter physics, magnetic materials, surface science and catalysis, non-linear spectroscopy, and biophysics and -chemistry and physics, advanced fabrication processes, medical applications, and others. These applications form the basis for the specifications of the FEL and for the design of the laboratories for the proposed FEL user facility at Los Alamos

  12. Research proposal on: amplitude modulated reflectometry system for the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la

    1992-01-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been present in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2π The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad- band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for onospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasmas. The main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts ( ∼ 2π ). (Author) 2 refs

  13. Does Culture Affect how People Receive and Resist Persuasive Messages? Research Proposals about Resistance to Persuasion in Cultural Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Kolodziej-Smith; Daniel Patrick Friesen; Attila Yaprak

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Even though persuasion has been a widely researched topic in consumer behavior, the great majority of these studies have involved American consumers and focused on persuasion itself, with very few addressing resistance to persuasive attempts. None has addressed resistance to persuasion in a cross-cultural context. We aim to contribute to closing this gap in the literature with this paper. Specifically, we aim to expand knowledge of the persuasive process by applying the cultural dime...

  14. Geologic setting of the proposed West Flank Forge Site, California: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Andrew; Blake, Kelly; Lazaro, Mike; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; McCullough, Jess; DeOreo, S.B.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kaven, Joern; Williams, Colin F.; Phelps, Geoffrey; Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Siler, Drew; Robertson-Tait, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The proposed West Flank FORGE site is within the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), China Lake, CA. The West Flank is west of the Coso geothermal field, an area of China Lake NAWS dominated by the Quaternary Coso volcanic field largely comprised of rhyolite domes and their volcaniclastic and epiclastic horizons. The largest dome flow complex, Sugarloaf Mountain, marks the northwestern margin of the geothermal field. The West Flank is situated due west of Sugarloaf. The geologic setting of the West Flank was determined from one deep well (83-11) drilled as a potential production hole in 2009. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) of well 83-11 approaches 600 oF (315˚C), but flow tests demonstrate very low, non-commercial permeabilities. With the exception of the upper 600 feet of volcaniclastic alluvium, well 83-11 is completed in granitic basement. The West Flank possesses the primary attributes of a FORGE site: non-commercial permeability (geothermal fieldThe Coso Mountains host the Coso volcanic field and are within a right-releasing stepover between the dextral Airport Lake (ALF) and Little Lake fault zones (LLFZ) and the Wild Horse Mesa and Owens Valley faults. Two distinct fault populations have been identified at Coso: WNW-trending and antithetical, NE-trending strike-slip faults and N- to NNE-trending normal faults. These faults are both high permeability drilling targets at depth within the main (productive) geothermal field and they locally segment the field into distinct hydrothermal regimes. The West Flank may be segmented from the rest of the field by one such northerly trending fault. The overall minimum principal stress orientation in the main geothermal field varies from 103˚ to 108˚; however, the minimum horizontal principal stress in 83-11 is rotated to 081˚.

  15. A PROPOSAL FOR A SUSTAINABLE MODEL BASED UPON UNDERWATER TOURISM RESEARCH IN AYVALIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GÖKDENİZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater sports are the activities being done with the aims of witnessing the beauties, hunting, taking photos, the ecology and the archaeology of underwater analysing or finding out the human being’s boundaries by improving the physical and psychological skills of men. The initial aim of this project is to increase the underwater flora and the fauna heritage of Ayvalık and to bring them in tourism. Ayvalık is on the west coast of Turkey. It is getting more and more famous with its underwater richness. Also, to form a new underwater sports centre in order to contribute to the improvement of the region. By providing visual attractiveness, the tourists related to underwater sports will pay attention to Ayvalık and underwater tourism will contribute much to the economy of the region. The aim of this project is to improve the underwater sports which is now a hobby than a sport. In Ayvalık Underwater World study, we dealt with 247 divers and 4 underwater sports club. In this study, we analysed the expectation, satisfaction, demographic and economic level of 247 divers about the services in the region. Interview technique has been used in the study on the 4 underwater sports clubs which are hosting divers. As a conclusion, a report has been prepared in which detailed information and proposals are presented by developing a sustainable marketing model concerned with the underwater sports for those who want to possess information, shareholders of the sector and make analyse about tourism.

  16. Regenerative medicine and responsible research and innovation: proposals for a responsible acceleration to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    This paper asks how regenerative medicine can be examined through the 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) approach which has been developed over the past decade. It describes the drivers to the development of RRI, and then argues for the need to understand innovation itself through drawing on social science analysis rooted in science and technology studies. The paper then identifies a number of highly specific challenges faced by the regenerative medicine field and the implications these have for value creation. It offers a number of examples of how a combined RRI/science and technology studies perspective can identify priority areas for policy and concludes by arguing for a 'responsible acceleration', more likely to foster readiness at a time when much of the policy domain is pushing for ever-rapid access to cell therapies.

  17. The Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3): Team Grant Research Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    Severe obesity (SO) in Canadian children remains poorly understood. However, based on international data, the prevalence of SO appears to be increasing and is associated with a number of psychosocial, bio-mechanical, and cardiometabolic health risks. The purpose of our national Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3) is to develop and lead a series of inter-related studies to enhance the understanding and management of SO in Canadian children and adolescents (0-18 years). From 2015 to 2019, Team ABC3 will conduct a series of projects at the regional, provincial, and national levels using multiple methods and study designs to respond to key knowledge gaps by (i) generating evidence on the prevalence of SO and its impact on health services utilization in children using existing Canadian data sources from primary care settings, (ii) exploring contemporary definitions of SO that link with health outcomes, (iii) comparing and contrasting health risks across the continuum of SO, (iv) understanding potential barriers to and facilitators of treatment success in children with SO, and (v) examining innovative lifestyle and behavioral interventions designed to successfully manage SO in children and their families. Furthermore, to examine the impact of innovative interventions on the management SO, we will (vi) evaluate whether adding a health coach, who provides support via text, email, and/or phone, improves children's ability to adhere to a web-based weight management program and (vii) test the feasibility and impact of a community-based weight management program for pre-school children with SO and their parents that combines group-based parenting sessions with in-home visits. Our research aligns with national priorities in obesity research, brings together leading scientists, clinicians, and stakeholders from across Canada, and will inform health services delivery throughout the country to provide the best care possible for children with SO and

  18. [ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN FRANCE: A COMMENT OF THE CNRS ETHICS COMMITTEE OPINION ON THE IMPERATIVE OF FAIRNESS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burelli, Thomas; Bambridge, Tamatoa

    2015-12-01

    Historically, scientific research and colonization process have maintained very close ties. In order to frame research involving indigenous peoples and to avoid situations of abuse, some States have developed very detailed ethicalframeworks. In France, there are no ethicalframework comparable to those observed in particular in Anglo-Saxon countries like Canada. Extensive discussions were conducted by the Ethics Committee of the CNRS leading to the adoption of an opinion of a high quality but which appears largely unknown and under-exploited. This opinion deals with "the delicate question of the rights of local and indigenous populations during the research projected conducted with their support in developed and developing countries (DCs)". In this paper, we propose to analyze how this opinion can be considered remarkable because it recognizes the current challenges of research projects involving indigenous people, but also because of his recommendations. We still see that the scope of its recommendations is however limited so far although some encouraging experiences like the recent adoption of the CRIOBE centre code of ethics in French Polynesia can be observed.

  19. Waste treatment and immobilization technologies involving inorganic sorbents. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) for the application of inorganic sorbents in liquid waste treatment and immobilization was initiated by the IAEA in 1992. The results of this CRP are presented in this report. Fifteen institutions from fourteen countries were involved in this programme. The framework of this CRP was: (1) to conduct fundamental studies on sorbent structure and sorption mechanism; (2) to obtain thermodynamic and kinetic data of the treatment process; (3) to define sorption mechanism of radionuclides on different soils; (4) to identify sorbents appropriate for treatment of liquid waste streams; (5) to develop standard tests to be able to compare results of different groups of investigations. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Service user involvement in research may lead to contrary rather than collaborative accounts: findings from a qualitative palliative care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Hubbard, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what data emerge when former carergivers (co-researchers) are trained to interview current care-givers about their experiences. Despite a trend of involving service users in conducting research interviews, there have been few examinations of how and whether a common service user identity has an impact on the data generated. Four co-researchers were recruited, trained and supported to conduct qualitative interviews with 11 current carers of people receiving palliative services. Conversation analysis was used to examine the conversational characteristics of the research interviews. Data were collected in 2010-2011. Conversation analysis identified that interactional difficulties were evident across the data. When co-researchers talked about their own experiences as carers, interviewees frequently changed the topic of conversation, thereby closing-down opportunities for further disclosure or elaboration from the interviewee about the original topic. Conversation analysis identifies how caregiving identities are co-constructed and points where there is agreement and disagreement in the co-construction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reactor core conversion studies of Ghana: Research Reactor-1 and proposal for addition of safety rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odoi, H.C.

    2014-06-01

    The inclusion of an additional safety rod in conjunction with a core conversion study of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was carried out using neutronics, thermal hydraulics and burnup codes. The study is based on a recommendation by Integrated Safety Assessment for Research Reactors (INSARP) mission to incorporate a safety rod to the reactor safety system as well as the need to replace the reactor fuel with LEU. Conversion from one fuel type to another requires a complete re-evaluation of the safety analysis. Changes to the reactivity worth, shutdown margin, power density and material properties must be taken into account, and appropriate modifications made. Neutronics analysis including burnup was studied followed by thermal hydraulics analyses which comprise steady state and transients. Four computer codes were used for the analysis; MCNP, REBUS, PLTEP and PARET. The neutronics analysis revealed that the LEU core must be operated at 34 Kw in order to attain the flux of 1.0E12 n/cm 2 .s as the nominal flux of the HEU core. The auxiliary safety rod placed at a modified irradiation site gives a better worth than the cadmium capsules. For core excess reactivity of 4 mk, 348 fuel pins would be appropriate for the GHARR-1 LEU core. Results indicate that flux level of 1.0E12 n/cm 2 .s in the inner irradiation channel will not be compromised, if the power of the LEU core is increased to 34 kW. The GHARR-1 core using LEU-U0 2 -12.5% fuel can be operated for 23 shim cycles, with cycles length 2.5 years, for over 57 years at the 17 kW power level. All 23 LEU cycles meet the ∼ 4.0 mk excess reactivity required at the beginning of cycle . For comparison, the MNSR HEU reference core can also be operated for 23 shim cycles, but with a cycle length of 2.0 years for just over 46 years at 15.0kW power level. It is observed that the GHARR-1 core with LEU UO 2 fuel enriched to 12.5% and a power level of 34 kW can be operated ∼25% longer than the current HEU core operated at

  2. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among physicians in Cameroon: a research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feteh, Vitalis Fambombi; Njim, Tsi; Nji, Miriam A M; Ayeah, Chia Mark; Sama, Carlson-Babila; Tianyi, Frank Leonel

    2017-10-25

    Burnout syndrome is a common psychological state, that may affect human healthcare providers due to their prolonged exposure to job stressors. Burnout can hinder optimal healthcare delivery. Hence this study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout syndrome amongst physicians in Cameroon. Specifically: (1) to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome amongst Cameroonian doctors. (2) To identify potential determinants of burnout among Cameroonian doctors. (3) To compare the prevalence and determinants of burnout among specialist physicians and general practitioners in Cameroon. This cross-sectional study will include a minimum of 335 doctors working in five regions of Cameroon. Consenting physicians will be consecutively recruited and data on sociodemographic and work characteristics will be collected via a printed self-administered questionnaire and burnout will be assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data will be analysed using Epi Info version 7 and a p value health is largely neglected in developing countries like Cameroon. Data from this research will help inform practitioners on the magnitude of the problem and favour the development of policies that improve the mental health of care-providers.

  3. The PHARMS (Patient Held Active Record of Medication Status) feasibility study: a research proposal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Elaine

    2018-01-08

    Medication errors are a major source of preventable morbidity, mortality and cost and many occur at the times of hospital admission and discharge. Novel interventions (such as new methods of recording medication information and conducting medication reconciliation) are required to facilitate accurate transfer of medication information. With existing evidence supporting the use of information technology and the patient representing the one constant in the care process, an electronic patient held medication record may provide a solution. This study will assess the feasibility of introducing a patient held electronic medication record in primary and secondary care using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).This feasibility study is a mixed method study of community dwelling older adult patients admitted to an urban secondary care facility comprising a non-randomised intervention and qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Outcomes of interest include clinical outcomes and process evaluation.This study will yield insights pertaining to feasibility, acceptability and participation for a more definitive evaluation of the intervention. The study also has the potential to contribute to knowledge of implementation of technology in a healthcare context and to the broader area of implementation science.

  4. Environmental Sustainability and Energy-Efficient Supply Chain Management: A Review of Research Trends and Proposed Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Centobelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts a structured review on the topic of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in the supply chain management context to define research trends on the topic and identify research gaps. The review is carried out using the largest databases of peer-reviewed literature (Scopus and Web of Science. A sample of 122 papers focusing on the topic of energy-efficient and sustainable supply chain management was selected and analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. The review highlights that despite there is a growing research trend on the topic, different research gaps remain to be covered. These gaps concern the factors influencing energy efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives, the classification of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives, the impact of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability on supply chain performance, the customer perspective in sustainable and energy-efficient supply chain, and the different technologies supporting the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives. The research gaps and the research questions identified offer the opportunity to identify areas of investigation to design future research directions and propose guidelines in the field of supply chain management.

  5. Public and patient involvement in needs assessment and social innovation: a people-centred approach to care and research for congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Cláudia; Dos Reis, Vanessa; Silva, Susana; Videira, Paula A; Morava, Eva; Jaeken, Jaak

    2017-09-26

    Public and patient involvement in the design of people-centred care and research is vital for communities whose needs are underserved, as are people with rare diseases. Innovations devised collectively by patients, caregivers, professionals and other members of the public can foster transformative change toward more responsive services and research. However, attempts to involve lay and professional stakeholders in devising community-framed strategies to address the unmet needs of rare diseases are lacking. In this study, we engaged with the community of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) to assess its needs and elicit social innovations to promote people-centred care and research. Drawing on a qualitative study, we conducted three think tanks in France with a total of 48 participants, including patients/family members (n = 18), health care professionals (n = 7), researchers (n = 7) and people combining several of these roles (n = 16). Participants came from 20 countries across five continents. They were selected from the registry of the Second World Conference on CDG through heterogeneity and simple random sampling. Inductive and deductive approaches were employed to conduct interpretational analysis using open, axial and selective coding, and the constant-comparison method to facilitate the emergence of categories and core themes. The CDG community has unmet needs for information, quality health care, psychosocial support and representation in decision-making concerned with care and research. According to participants, these needs can be addressed through a range of social innovations, including peer-support communities, web-based information resources and a CDG expertise platform. This is one of the few studies to engage lay and professional experts in needs assessment and innovation for CDG at a global level. Implementing the innovations proposed by the CDG community is likely to have ethical, legal and social implications associated with the

  6. Research funding. Big names or big ideas: do peer-review panels select the best science proposals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danielle; Agha, Leila

    2015-04-24

    This paper examines the success of peer-review panels in predicting the future quality of proposed research. We construct new data to track publication, citation, and patenting outcomes associated with more than 130,000 research project (R01) grants funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health from 1980 to 2008. We find that better peer-review scores are consistently associated with better research outcomes and that this relationship persists even when we include detailed controls for an investigator's publication history, grant history, institutional affiliations, career stage, and degree types. A one-standard deviation worse peer-review score among awarded grants is associated with 15% fewer citations, 7% fewer publications, 19% fewer high-impact publications, and 14% fewer follow-on patents. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Proposal for the CEA/DRN activity on small and medium size reactors research on threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on Small and Medium Size Reactors - SMR is difficult considering the presumptions, justified or not, that affect the debate. Nevertheless, within this context, the CEA/DRN/DER generic objective is the achievement of an exhaustive identification and assessment of the problems that are specific for the SMR. The paper shows the proposals for the activities that are actually under discussion at the CEA/DRN. Among these activities, the research on threshold effects is an essential stage in the assessment of the choices in innovative concepts. This research, as well as the assessment itself, must cover, in an exploratory way, the aspects of operation, safety, economy, fuel cycle, etc. Before starting or, in some cases, continuing this research work, it seems interesting to define a general outline which, by systematising the approach, provides a helpful tool to the designer. The document is a potential starting point (among others) for the discussions. (author)

  8. [Guideline for the assessment of clinical research proposals. Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cruz-López, Miguel; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio Abdiel

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is a fundamental tool to achieve the advancement of science, through the improvement of strategies aimed to protect, promote and restore an individual's and society's health. Three characteristics are required to obtain approval of the research proposal: scientific relevance, technical quality and the accomplishment of ethical issues. The present review aimed at the determination of the specific criteria to perform a critical review of research proposals. A research was carried out in the PubMed, Medline, Ovid and Google Scholar databases, using the terms: peer review, research proposals, review and protocols, and reviewers. A total of 3546 related articles were reviewed, without finding a guide to critically assess research proposals. The guides to assess research articles consider that the quality criteria of the study should have been present since the study's conception; many of the issues described to review articles are incorporated in the review of the research proposals. The specific criteria were integrated to allow the reviewer to critically assess research proposals of different areas with scientific basis. The reviewer of research proposals should be considered as a professional that contributes to the promotion of knowledge advancement through his/her comments, which allow researchers to improve the quality of research proposals.

  9. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  10. Extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in antimicrobial drug development research: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Bird, Emma; Gibson, Andy; Grier, Sally; Chin, Teh Li; Stoddart, Margaret; MacGowan, Alasdair

    2018-02-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognized as bringing a range of benefits to clinical and health services research. Recent systematic reviews have identified and synthesized many benefits (eg higher recruitment rates) and some costs (eg extra time need). Much of the literature focuses on PPI in long-term conditions rather than more acute health care in which the majority of microbiological research is undertaken. The aim was to identify the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. Objectives were to identify any relevant reporting of PPI in antimicrobial research; appraise the quality of reporting on PPI using recognized PPI reporting and critical appraisal tools; and extract and synthesize data on the impact of PPI. A systematic review was undertaken with a search strategy based on four word groups (PPI, patients, antimicrobial drug development and outcomes). Eight online databases were searched. English language publication, publication between 1996 and 2016 and studies describing PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. No studies were found through online searching that met the search strategy and inclusion criteria. One relevant protocol paper with a brief mention of PPI was identified through expert recommendation. Commentary papers recommending PPI were identified through website searching and expert opinion. Despite strong policy guidance encouraging PPI at the international and national levels, and anecdotal accounts of PPI taking place, evidence for the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research has not yet appeared in the peer-reviewed literature. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Wijdicks, Eelco F; Muizelaar, J Paul; Mendelow, A David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G; Macdonald, R Loch; Diringer, Michael N; Broderick, Joseph P; Dreier, Jens P; Roos, Yvo B W E M

    2010-10-01

    In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of vasospasm with clinical features of cerebral ischemia, although multiple factors may contribute to DCI. The second issue is the variability and overlap of terms used to describe each phenomenon. This makes comparisons among studies difficult. An international ad hoc panel of experts involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage research developed and proposed a definition of DCI to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies. We used a consensus-building approach. It is proposed that in observational studies and clinical trials aiming to investigate strategies to prevent DCI, the 2 main outcome measures should be: (1) cerebral infarction identified on CT or MRI or proven at autopsy, after exclusion of procedure-related infarctions; and (2) functional outcome. Secondary outcome measure should be clinical deterioration caused by DCI, after exclusion of other potential causes of clinical deterioration. Vasospasm on angiography or transcranial Doppler can also be used as an outcome measure to investigate proof of concept but should be interpreted in conjunction with DCI or functional outcome. The proposed measures reflect the most relevant morphological and clinical features of DCI without regard to pathogenesis to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies.

  12. Prediction of density limits in tokamaks: Theory, comparison with experiment, and application to the proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2002-01-01

    A framework for the predictive calculation of density limits in future tokamaks is proposed. Theoretical models for different density limit phenomena are summarized, and the requirements for additional models are identified. These theoretical density limit models have been incorporated into a relatively simple, but phenomenologically comprehensive, integrated numerical calculation of the core, edge, and divertor plasmas and of the recycling neutrals, in order to obtain plasma parameters needed for the evaluation of the theoretical models. A comparison of these theoretical predictions with observed density limits in current experiments is summarized. A model for the calculation of edge pedestal parameters, which is needed in order to apply the density limit predictions to future tokamaks, is summarized. An application to predict the proximity to density limits and the edge pedestal parameters of the proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment is described

  13. Proposed research on class I components to test a general approach to accelerated aging under combined stress environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Salazar, E.A.; Frank, C.W.

    1977-04-01

    This report summarizes research on the aging of Class I components in environments representative of nuclear power plants. It discusses Class IE equipment used in nuclear power plants, typical environments encountered by Class IE components, and aging techniques used to qualify this equipment. General discussions of radiation chemistry of polymers and accelerated aging techniques are also included. Based on the inadequacies of present aging techniques for Class IE equipment, a proposal for an experimental program on electrical cables is presented. One of the main purposes of the proposed work is to obtain relevant data in two areas of particular concern--the effect of radiation dose rate on polymer degradation, and the importance of synergism for combined thermal and radiation environments. A new model that allows combined environment accelerated aging to be carried out is introduced, and it is shown how the experimental data to be generated can be used to test this model

  14. Participatory public health systems research: value of community involvement in a study series in mental health emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Semon, Natalie; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard; Perry, Charlene; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen over recent years about the absence of empirically derived evidence on which to base policy and practice in the public health system, in general, and to meet the challenge of public health emergency preparedness, in particular. Related issues include the challenge of disaster-caused, behavioral health surge, and the frequent exclusion of populations from studies that the research is meant to aid. To characterize the contributions of nonacademic collaborators to a series of projects validating a set of interventions to enhance capacity and competency of public mental health preparedness planning and response. Urban, suburban, and rural communities of the state of Maryland and rural communities of the state of Iowa. Study partners and participants (both of this project and the studies examined) were representatives of academic health centers (AHCs), local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs) and their communities. A multiple-project, case study analysis was conducted, that is, four research projects implemented by the authors from 2005 through 2011 to determine the types and impact of contributions made by nonacademic collaborators to those projects. The analysis involved reviewing research records, conceptualizing contributions (and providing examples) for government, faith, and (nonacademic) institutional collaborators. Ten areas were identified where partners made valuable contributions to the study series; these "value-areas" were as follows: 1) leadership and management of the projects; 2) formulation and refinement of research topics, aims, etc; 3) recruitment and retention of participants; 4) design and enhancement of interventions; 5) delivery of interventions; 6) collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 7) dissemination of findings; 8) ensuring sustainability of faith/government preparedness planning relationships; 9) optimizing scalability and portability of the model; and 10) facilitating

  15. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix A, environmental justice analysis. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix A to a draft Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. This appendix addresses environmental justice for the acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. Analyses of environmental justice concerns are provided in three areas: (1) potential ports of entry, (2) potential transportation routes from candidate ports of entry to interim management sites, and (3) areas surrounding potential interim management sites. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the alternatives analyzed in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would result in no disproportionate adverse effects on minority populations or low-income communities surrounding the candidate ports, transport routes, or interim management sites

  17. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  18. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  19. Peer review of health research funding proposals: A systematic map and systematic review of innovations for effectiveness and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan; Frampton, Geoff K; Pickett, Karen; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2018-01-01

    To investigate methods and processes for timely, efficient and good quality peer review of research funding proposals in health. A two-stage evidence synthesis: (1) a systematic map to describe the key characteristics of the evidence base, followed by (2) a systematic review of the studies stakeholders prioritised as relevant from the map on the effectiveness and efficiency of peer review 'innovations'. Standard processes included literature searching, duplicate inclusion criteria screening, study keyword coding, data extraction, critical appraisal and study synthesis. A total of 83 studies from 15 countries were included in the systematic map. The evidence base is diverse, investigating many aspects of the systems for, and processes of, peer review. The systematic review included eight studies from Australia, Canada, and the USA, evaluating a broad range of peer review innovations. These studies showed that simplifying the process by shortening proposal forms, using smaller reviewer panels, or expediting processes can speed up the review process and reduce costs, but this might come at the expense of peer review quality, a key aspect that has not been assessed. Virtual peer review using videoconferencing or teleconferencing appears promising for reducing costs by avoiding the need for reviewers to travel, but again any consequences for quality have not been adequately assessed. There is increasing international research activity into the peer review of health research funding. The studies reviewed had methodological limitations and variable generalisability to research funders. Given these limitations it is not currently possible to recommend immediate implementation of these innovations. However, many appear promising based on existing evidence, and could be adapted as necessary by funders and evaluated. Where feasible, experimental evaluation, including randomised controlled trials, should be conducted, evaluating impact on effectiveness, efficiency and quality.

  20. Peer review of health research funding proposals: A systematic map and systematic review of innovations for effectiveness and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Geoff K.; Pickett, Karen; Wyatt, Jeremy C.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate methods and processes for timely, efficient and good quality peer review of research funding proposals in health. Methods A two-stage evidence synthesis: (1) a systematic map to describe the key characteristics of the evidence base, followed by (2) a systematic review of the studies stakeholders prioritised as relevant from the map on the effectiveness and efficiency of peer review ‘innovations’. Standard processes included literature searching, duplicate inclusion criteria screening, study keyword coding, data extraction, critical appraisal and study synthesis. Results A total of 83 studies from 15 countries were included in the systematic map. The evidence base is diverse, investigating many aspects of the systems for, and processes of, peer review. The systematic review included eight studies from Australia, Canada, and the USA, evaluating a broad range of peer review innovations. These studies showed that simplifying the process by shortening proposal forms, using smaller reviewer panels, or expediting processes can speed up the review process and reduce costs, but this might come at the expense of peer review quality, a key aspect that has not been assessed. Virtual peer review using videoconferencing or teleconferencing appears promising for reducing costs by avoiding the need for reviewers to travel, but again any consequences for quality have not been adequately assessed. Conclusions There is increasing international research activity into the peer review of health research funding. The studies reviewed had methodological limitations and variable generalisability to research funders. Given these limitations it is not currently possible to recommend immediate implementation of these innovations. However, many appear promising based on existing evidence, and could be adapted as necessary by funders and evaluated. Where feasible, experimental evaluation, including randomised controlled trials, should be conducted, evaluating impact

  1. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics. Some Thought-provoking and Critical Proposals to Encourage Scientific Debate on the Nature of Good Research in Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Kulikowski, Casimir A; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra N; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T

    2017-01-25

    Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes.

  2. Implementation intention and action planning interventions in health contexts: state of the research and proposals for the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on two planning intervention techniques in health behaviour research, implementation intentions and action planning, and to develop evidence-based recommendations for effective future interventions and highlight priority areas for future research. We focused our review on four key areas: (1) definition and conceptualisation; (2) format and measurement; (3) mechanisms and processes; and (4) design issues. Overall, evidence supports the effectiveness of planning interventions in health behaviour with advantages including low cost and response burden. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the effects across studies and relatively few registered randomised trials that include objective behavioural measures. Optimally effective planning interventions should adopt "if-then" plans, account for salient and relevant cues, include examples of cues, be guided rather than user-defined, and include boosters. Future studies should adopt randomised controlled designs, report study protocols, include fidelity checks and relevant comparison groups, and adopt long-term behavioural follow-up measures. Priority areas for future research include the identification of the moderators and mediators of planning intervention effects. Future research also needs to adopt "best practice" components of planning interventions more consistently to elucidate the mechanisms and processes involved. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  4. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  5. Public Spending on Health Service and Policy Research in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: A Modest Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Thakkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Health services and policy research (HSPR represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publiclyfunded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending.

  6. Concepts involved in a proposed application of uncertainty analysis to the performance assessment of high-level nuclear waste isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    This report introduces the concepts of a previously developed methodology which could readily be extended to the field of performance assessment for high-level nuclear waste isolation systems. The methodology incorporates sensitivities previously obtained with the GRESS code into an uncertainty analysis, from which propagated uncertainties in calculated responses may be derived from basic data uncertainties. Following a definition of terms, examples are provided illustrating commonly used conventions for describing the concepts of covariance and sensitivity. Examples of solutions to problems previously encountered in related fields involving uncertainty analysis and use of a generalized linear least-squares adjustment procedure are also presented. 5 refs., 14 tabs

  7. 'But is it a question worth asking?' A reflective case study describing how public involvement can lead to researchers' ideas being abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Dalgleish, Mary; Freeman, Janet; Jones, Zena; Miles, Marianne; Rodgers, Helen

    2014-06-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing research ideas into grant applications. Some positive accounts of this process have been published, but little is known about when their reactions are negative and when researchers' ideas are abandoned. To present a case study account of when an academic-led idea for funding was not supported by stroke survivors and carers who were asked to contribute to its development, together with a reflection on the implications of the case from all the stakeholders involved. A reflective case study of a research idea, developed by an academic researcher, on which stakeholders were consulted. University researchers, clinicians, public involvement managers, and stroke survivors and carers from the NIHR's Stroke Research Network. Although the idea met with the approval of health professionals, who were keen to develop it into a funding bid, the stroke survivors and carers did not think the idea worth pursuing. This lack of patient and carer support led to the idea being abandoned. Reflecting on this, those involved in the consultation believed that the savings accrued from abandoning the idea, in terms of ensuring that public money is not wasted, should be seen as an important benefit of public involvement in the research process. Little is known about the role of the public in the abandonment of research ideas. We recommend that further research is undertaken into this important contribution that patients and the public can make to health research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A proposal for cooperative activities between Japan and Indonesia in the field of nuclear research and nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, Iyos

    2008-01-01

    Development and realization of cooperative activities between Japan and Indonesia in nuclear research and education is indeed very important for scientists and engineers of both countries. This bilateral cooperation can easily be expanded into a regional cooperation benefiting the scholars from Asian region which is expecting a New Nuclear Age in the 21st Century. To develop and realize this cooperative activities, in the first step, we invite the ideas of our partners in the Nuclear Institution and in Universities. They are eager to have and undertake this cooperation effort. For nuclear research activities, they have proposed several topics which include: advanced radioactive waste technology and management in a nuclear power plant, innovative fuel development for LWR's, gas cooled reactor for electricity and hydrogen production and a topic on design and construction of high energy accelerator. Institute of Technology - Bandung (ITB), University of Gajah Mada (UGM) and School of Nuclear Technology (STTN/BATAN) are interested in cooperative works which include: joint development of standard curriculum for M.Sc. level in response to increased activities in nuclear research and nuclear power development, exchange of guest lecturers, and exchange of M.Sc. level students. With this cooperation, we want to put very special emphasis on nuclear human resources development (nuclear - HRD) in anticipation of the upcoming nuclear era. (author)

  9. Community Participation in Health Systems Research: A Systematic Review Assessing the State of Research, the Nature of Interventions Involved and the Features of Engagement with Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha S; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability, accessibility and

  10. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to biodegrade or

  11. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to

  12. Proposed heat transfer model for the gas-liquid heat transfer effects observed in the Stanford Research Institute scaled tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.; Sonin, A.A.; Todreas, N.

    1976-12-01

    In 1971-72, the Stanford Research Institute conducted a series of scaled experiments which simulated a sodium-vapor expansion in a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) for the Fast Flux Test Facility. A non-condensible explosive source was used to model the pressure-volume expansion characteristics of sodium vapor as predicted by computer code calculations. Rigid piston-cylinder experiments ( 1 / 10 and 1 / 30 scale) were undertaken to determine these expansion characteristics. The results showed that the pressure-volume characteristics depend significantly on the presence of water in the cylinder reducing the work output by about 50 percent when a sufficient water depth was present. The study presented proposes that the mechanism of heat transfer between the water and high temperature gas was due to area enhancement by Taylor instabilities at the gas-liquid interface. A simple heat transfer model is proposed which describes this energy transport process and agrees well with the experimental data from both scaled experiments. The consequences of this analysis suggest that an estimate of the heat transfer to the cold slug during a full-scale HCDA due to sodium vapor expansion and the accompanying reduction in mechanical work energy warrants further investigation. The implication of this analysis is that for either sodium or fuel vapor expansion in an HCDA, there is an inherent heat transfer mechanism which significantly reduces the work output of the expanding bubble

  13. Proposal of a nuclear cycle research and development plan in Tokai works. The roadmap from LWR cycle to FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Abe, Tomoyuki; Kashimura, Takuo; Nagai, Toshihisa; Maeda, Seichiro; Yamaguchi, Toshiya; Kuroki, Ryoichiro

    2003-07-01

    The Generation-II Project Task Force Team has investigated a research and development plan of a future nuclear fuel cycle in Tokai works for about three months from December 19, 2002. First we have discussed about the present condition of Japanese nuclear fuel cycle and have recognized it as the following. The relation of the technology between the LWR-cycle and the FBR-cycle is not clear. MOX Fuel Use in Light Water Reactors is important to establish technology of the FBR fuel cycle. Radioactive waste disposal issue is urgent. Next we have proposed the three basic policies on R and D plan of nuclear fuel cycle in consideration of the F.S. on FBR-cycle. Establishment and advancement of 'the tough nuclear fuel cycle'. Early establishment of the FBR cycle technology to be able to supply energy stably for long-term. Establishment of the radioactive waste treatment and disposal technology, and optimization of nuclear fuel cycle technology from the viewpoint of radioactive waste. And we have proposed the Japanese technical holder system to integrate all LWR and FBR cycle technology. (author)

  14. From the "little brain" gastrointestinal infection to the "big brain" neuroinflammation: a proposed fast axonal transport pathway involved in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretzi, Georgia; Kountouras, Jannis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Zavos, Christos; Chatzigeorgiou, Stavros; Koutlas, Evangelos; Tsiptsios, Iakovos

    2009-11-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) is targeted by different pathogens which, apart from pathogens' intranasal inoculation or trafficking into the brain through infected blood cells, may use a distinct pathway to bypass the blood-brain barrier by using the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) retrograde axonal transport through sensory or motor fibres. The recent findings regarding the enteric nervous system (often called the "little brain") similarities with CNS and GIT axonal transport of infections resulting in CNS neuroinflammation are mainly reviewed in this article. We herein propose that the GIT is the vulnerable area through which pathogens (such as Helicobacter pylori) may influence the brain and induce multiple sclerosis pathologies, mainly via the fast axonal transport by the afferent neurones connecting the GIT to brain.

  15. The Intersection between Descriptivism and Meliorism in Reasoning Research: Further Proposals in Support of ‘Soft Normativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. N. Stupple

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rationality paradox centres on the observation that people are highly intelligent, yet show evidence of errors and biases in their thinking when measured against normative standards. Elqayam and Evans (e.g., 2011 reject normative standards in the psychological study of thinking, reasoning and deciding in favour of a ‘value-free’ descriptive approach to studying high-level cognition. In reviewing Elqayam and Evans’ position, we defend an alternative to descriptivism in the form of ‘soft normativism’, which allows for normative evaluations alongside the pursuit of descriptive research goals. We propose that normative theories have considerable value provided that researchers: (1 are alert to the philosophical quagmire of strong relativism; (2 are mindful of the biases that can arise from utilising normative benchmarks; and (3 engage in a focused analysis of the processing approach adopted by individual reasoners. We address the controversial ‘is–ought’ inference in this context and appeal to a ‘bridging solution’ to this contested inference that is based on the concept of ‘informal reflective equilibrium’. Furthermore, we draw on Elqayam and Evans’ recognition of a role for normative benchmarks in research programmes that are devised to enhance reasoning performance and we argue that such Meliorist research programmes have a valuable reciprocal relationship with descriptivist accounts of reasoning. In sum, we believe that descriptions of reasoning processes are fundamentally enriched by evaluations of reasoning quality, and argue that if such standards are discarded altogether then our explanations and descriptions of reasoning processes are severely undermined.

  16. Probabilistic safety analysis and risk-based inspection of nuclear research reactors: state-of-the-art and implementation proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Raíssa O.; Vasceoncelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington A.; Silva Júnior, Silvério F.; Raso, Amanda L.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br, E-mail: amandaraso@hotmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Industrial facilities systems deteriorate over time during operation, thus increasing the possibility of accidents. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) classifies such systems by their risk information with the purpose of prioritizing inspection efforts. RBI can reduce inspection activities, resulting in lower risk levels, and maintaining reliability and safety in acceptable levels. Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI) is a RBI approach used in nuclear industry. RI-ISI uses outcomes from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to plan In-Service Inspections (ISI). Despite nuclear research reactors are simpler and have lower risks than power reactors, the application of PSA to them may be useful for safety improvements once they are more flexible, provide easier access to its core, and allow changes in fuel configurations in case of experimental tests. Ageing management of structures, systems and components important to safety of a nuclear research reactor throughout its lifetime is also required to assure continued adequacy of safety levels, reliable operation, and compliance with operational limits and conditions. This includes periodic review of ISI programs in which monitoring of material deterioration and aging effects are considered, and that can be supported by the RBI approach. A review of state-of-the-art of PSA and RBI applications to nuclear reactors is presented in this work. Advantages to apply these methodologies are also analyzed. PSA and RBI implementation proposal applied to nuclear research reactors is also presented, as well as its application to a TRIGA research nuclear reactor using computer codes developed by ReliaSoft® Corporation. (author)

  17. The intersection between Descriptivism and Meliorism in reasoning research: further proposals in support of ‘soft normativism’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.

    2014-01-01

    The rationality paradox centers on the observation that people are highly intelligent, yet show evidence of errors and biases in their thinking when measured against normative standards. Elqayam and Evans’ (2011) reject normative standards in the psychological study of thinking, reasoning and deciding in favor of a ‘value-free’ descriptive approach to studying high-level cognition. In reviewing Elqayam and Evans’ (2011) position, we defend an alternative to descriptivism in the form of ‘soft normativism,’ which allows for normative evaluations alongside the pursuit of descriptive research goals. We propose that normative theories have considerable value provided that researchers: (1) are alert to the philosophical quagmire of strong relativism; (2) are mindful of the biases that can arise from utilizing normative benchmarks; and (3) engage in a focused analysis of the processing approach adopted by individual reasoners. We address the controversial ‘is–ought’ inference in this context and appeal to a ‘bridging solution’ to this contested inference that is based on the concept of ‘informal reflective equilibrium.’ Furthermore, we draw on Elqayam and Evans’ (2011) recognition of a role for normative benchmarks in research programs that are devised to enhance reasoning performance and we argue that such Meliorist research programs have a valuable reciprocal relationship with descriptivist accounts of reasoning. In sum, we believe that descriptions of reasoning processes are fundamentally enriched by evaluations of reasoning quality, and argue that if such standards are discarded altogether then our explanations and descriptions of reasoning processes are severely undermined. PMID:25414687

  18. Probabilistic safety analysis and risk-based inspection of nuclear research reactors: state-of-the-art and implementation proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Raíssa O.; Vasceoncelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington A.; Silva Júnior, Silvério F.; Raso, Amanda L.; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial facilities systems deteriorate over time during operation, thus increasing the possibility of accidents. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) classifies such systems by their risk information with the purpose of prioritizing inspection efforts. RBI can reduce inspection activities, resulting in lower risk levels, and maintaining reliability and safety in acceptable levels. Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI) is a RBI approach used in nuclear industry. RI-ISI uses outcomes from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to plan In-Service Inspections (ISI). Despite nuclear research reactors are simpler and have lower risks than power reactors, the application of PSA to them may be useful for safety improvements once they are more flexible, provide easier access to its core, and allow changes in fuel configurations in case of experimental tests. Ageing management of structures, systems and components important to safety of a nuclear research reactor throughout its lifetime is also required to assure continued adequacy of safety levels, reliable operation, and compliance with operational limits and conditions. This includes periodic review of ISI programs in which monitoring of material deterioration and aging effects are considered, and that can be supported by the RBI approach. A review of state-of-the-art of PSA and RBI applications to nuclear reactors is presented in this work. Advantages to apply these methodologies are also analyzed. PSA and RBI implementation proposal applied to nuclear research reactors is also presented, as well as its application to a TRIGA research nuclear reactor using computer codes developed by ReliaSoft® Corporation. (author)

  19. Research network involving retired experts as a means to keep alive relevant knowledge - The case of IPEN in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, A.C.O.; Imakuma, K.; Reis, J.S.B. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    courses within the USP grid. 3) The fact that the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq has a range of research productivity fellowships for people who achieve a certain sustained level of publications. Depending on the researcher's classification, this mechanism includes a monthly income addition plus small funds for expenditures in traveling and laboratory consumables. Items a and b have caused many IPEN employees start to work towards graduate education at USP (IPEN). As they take most of the disciplines in subjects related to nuclear, which are taught by senior researchers / professors of IPEN, they end up performing their degree research work in fields that, most of the times, are related to the current work of their advisors at IPEN. Retired researchers usually keep the professor status and activities, probably because of their strong research group links, constructed over the years, but also because to have students is possibly the most important lever to keep up the indexes to maintain the CNPq productivity fellowship. This dynamic network is a powerful natural mechanism to transfer knowledge from retiring experts and also to disseminate nuclear knowledge, since IPEN has a diversified portfolio of disciplines that is also of interest to other students of the USP community. Based on the co-authorship of publications involving people from IPEN, collected annually from 2000 up to 2005, the social network evidenced by these data bases was analyzed. For the network 'photography' of each year a set of indicators were computed: a participation index of retirees in the publications of IPEN (no. of publications involving retirees / total no. of publications); a partnership index measuring the 'social capillarity' of the average collaborating retiree (no. of current workers that co-authored / no. of retired co-authors); a publication productivity index for the retired researchers; and some SN indexes, such as, diameter of the network

  20. Semantic integration of scientific publications and research data: proposal of model of expanded publication for the area of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias

    2014-01-01

    applied to the specificity of Nuclear Sciences. This was accomplished in two ways: through a literature review, for purposes of analysis and qualitative interpretation of the general concepts; and through the domain analysis approach that allowed empirically analyze the particular application area. As a final result was obtained a proposal of guidelines for a national policy for digital curation, and a model of scientific publication to the Nuclear Sciences area, in which the research data are linked to the academic publications by means of semantic relations systematized into taxonomy built for this purpose. Graphic models are used as a tool to represent and synthesize the resulting concepts. As a conclusion it is observed: changes in the scholarly communication cycle, the possibility of building a new scientific model as relevant standard to the practice of a more open and more collaborative science, and feasibility of incorporating the principles and theories of librarianship and Information Science for the organization of technical and scientific knowledge in the world of eScience. (author)